Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem.The prevalence of viral hepatitis is higher in dialysis patients than in the general population because of the opportunity for exposure during the dialysis procedure. Immunization is the most effective way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hence the development of acute or chronic hepatitis B. It is well established that patients with end-stage renal disease including dialysis-dependent patients, have an impaired immune response to hepatitis B vaccine. End stage renal diseases (ESRD) patients have lower seroconversion rates compared with the subjects with intact renal function. Moreover, even after the completion of vaccination schedule anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) titers of responder dialysis, patients are low and decline logarithmically with time. The impaired efficacy of HBV vaccine in patients with ESRD has been attributed to numerous factors such as immune compromise because of uremia and some other factors. One approach to improve the immunogenicity of existing HBV vaccines is adjuvantation, and it's very important to find more effective adjutants for improving HBV vaccine efficacy. In this paper we have a brief review on recently known new ways for improving HBV vaccine efficacy.
Renal replacement therapy (RRT)--encompassing hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation--provides life-sustaining treatment for the expanding end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. There is an excess burden of ESRD in African-American, Hispanic, Native Americans, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Moreover, there is mounting evidence to suggest that significant racial and ethnic disparities exist in RRT--including referral and initiation of dialysis, adequacy of dialysis, and anemia management--with non-white patients usually at a disadvantage. In addition, there are cultural and sociodemographic differences that lead to racial variation in the choice of ESRD modality. Lastly, in certain ethnic ESRD populations, there are a series of complex issues, from biologic to socioeconomic, which limit kidney transplantation--the treatment of choice. Despite these inequalities, which are often associated with negative outcomes, these non-white groups have better hemodialysis survival rates than white patients. It is essential to develop strategies to address the disparities in ESRD treatment among minority groups in order to minimize the differences in RRT provision and identify the factors that confer improved dialysis survival-thus improving care for all Americans with kidney disease.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is known to be an increased mortality risk in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to compare patient survival between patients with subclinical PAD undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). Subclinical peripheral artery was defined as an ankle-brachial index of less than 0.9. This study was conducted from April 2005, and the observation period ended on 30 June 2011. At the end of the follow-up, the status of all patients was assessed and data on mortality were obtained for the entire cohort. A total of 91 patients (61 HD and 30 PD) were included for analyses in this study. Mortality rate was 60.0% (18/30) for PD and 52.5% (32/61) for HD. Kaplan-Meier estimate demonstrate that PD patients had a higher mortality rate than those underwent HD (log-rank p = 0.0039). Cox regression model demonstrated that PD was an independent predictor for further mortality in ESRD patients with subclinical peripheral artery disease.(p = 0.012, HR: 1.776, 95% CI: 1.136-2.775). In multivariate analysis, the HD group still had a greater survival than PD group (p = 0.005, HR:1.916, 95% CI: 1.218-3.015). In patients with subclinical peripheral artery disease, the patient survival is better in HD patients as compared with PD patients.
Survival; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; peripheral artery disease.
Purpose of review
The elderly constitute a substantial and growing fraction of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We review recent studies on ESRD incidence, management, and outcomes in the elderly.
Rates of treated ESRD among the elderly (>80 years) have risen by more than 50% in the last decade. In studies with a large number of elderly patients, median survival after dialysis initiation is modest, and although a majority have reasonable life expectancy, a substantial minority of elderly patients experience very high early mortality rates after dialysis initiation. Quality of life results are mixed – compared with younger ESRD patients or non-ESRD elderly, mental well being is similar and physical well being is reduced in elderly patients with ESRD. In several studies, elderly patients with ESRD initiating peritoneal dialysis had higher mortality rates than elderly patients with ESRD initiating hemodialysis. Strategies such as nondialytic management of ESRD or dietary protein restriction and delayed dialysis initiation may be alternatives for elderly patients wishing to avoid dialysis initiation, but further studies are needed to determine the patients best suited for these approaches. Quality improvement initiatives in geriatric ESRD care have been successfully implemented in some centers and may ultimately improve care for elderly patients with ESRD.
These findings should help to clarify some of the risks and benefits of dialysis in the elderly and may be useful in dialysis decision-making and management.
dialysis; elderly; end-stage renal disease
The results of treatment in 213 patients with end-stage renal disease who underwent hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or transplantation, or a combination, between 1962 and 1975 were analysed. Comparison by censored survival analysis showed significantly better (P less than 0.01) patient survival with the integrated therapy of dialysis and transplantation than with either form of dialysis alone. There was no significant difference in survival of males and females but survival at the extremes of age was poorer. Analysis of survival by major cause of renal failure indicated best survival in patients with congenital renal disease. Graft and patient survival rates at 1 year after the first transplantation were 42% and 69%. The major cause of death in this series was vascular disease but infection was responsible for 50% of deaths after transplantation. While integration of dialysis with transplantation produces best patient survival, this course is possible only when sufficient cadaver kidneys are available.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a small and economically packaged double-stranded DNA virus, represents an enormous global health care burden. In spite of an effective vaccine, HBV is endemic in many countries. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) results in the development of significant clinical outcomes such as liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which are associated with high mortality rates. HBV is a non-cytopathic virus, with the host's immune response responsible for the associated liver damage. Indeed, HBV appears to be a master of manipulating and modulating the immune response to achieve persistent and chronic infection. The HBV precore protein or hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is a key viral protein involved in these processes, for instance though the down-regulation of the innate immune response. The development of new therapies that target viral proteins, such as HBeAg, which regulates of the immune system, may offer a new wave of potential therapeutics to circumvent progression to CHB and liver disease.
Hepatitis B e antigen; precore protein; chronic hepatitis B; intrabody
OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to assess the cost effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccine in predialysis patients. DATA SOURCES. Costs were calculated from estimated rates of health services use and unit costs of resource use. Efficacy data were based on probability estimates from the medical literature and included vaccination response rates, anticipated hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection rates, and outcomes from HBV. STUDY DESIGN. Costs and effectiveness of HBV vaccination was modeled with a decision tree constructed to analyze three vaccination strategies for patients with renal insufficiency: vaccine given prior to dialysis, vaccine given at time of dialysis, and no vaccine. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of varying important clinical and cost variables. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. All analyses were based on efficacy and cost estimates derived from the medical literature. Analyses were conducted with the aid of SMLTREE software. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The number of patients requiring vaccination per case of HBV prevented was higher for dialysis patients (625 vaccinees/case prevented) than for predialysis patients (434 vaccinees/case prevented). The cost-effectiveness ratios were $25,313/case of HBV prevented for vaccination at the time of dialysis and $31,111 for the predialysis vaccine. When a higher HBV infection rate (based on clinical trial data) was substituted in the analysis, the cost effectiveness of a predialysis vaccination strategy improved to $856 per case prevented. Results were sensitive to the cost of the vaccine and the incidence of HBV infection in dialysis patients. For the predialysis strategy to become cost saving, the price of the vaccine would have to decrease from $114 to $1.50, or the incidence of infection would have to increase from 0.6 percent to 38 percent, holding all other variables constant. CONCLUSIONS. Additional HBV infection can be prevented by immunizing predialysis patients, but the cost is high. Decisions concerning vaccination policy should be influenced by local prevalence of HBV infection.
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a higher risk for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis (LC) and mortality than the general population. Optimal modalities of renal replacement therapy for ESRD patients with concomitant end-stage liver disease remain controversial. We investigated the long-term outcome for chronic liver disease among dialysis patients in an endemic area.
Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claim data (NHRI-NHIRD-99182), We performed a longitudinal cohort study to investigate the impact of comorbidities on mortality in dialysis patients. We followed up 11293 incident hemodialysis (HD) and 761 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from the start of dialysis until the date of death or the end of database period (December 31, 2008). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors for all-cause mortality.
Patients receiving PD tended to be younger and less likely to have comorbidities than those receiving HD. At the beginning of dialysis, a high prevalence rate (6.16 %) of LC was found. Other than well-known risk factors, LC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.473, 95 % CI: 1.329-1.634) and dementia (HR 1.376, 95 % CI: 1.083-1.750) were also independent predictors of mortality. Hypertension and mortality were inversely associated. Dialysis modality and three individual comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and dementia) interacted significantly on mortality risk.
LC is an important predictor of mortality; however, the effect on mortality was not different between HD and PD patients.
Hemodialysis; Peritoneal dialysis; Mortality; Liver cirrhosis
Little is known on the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in ESRD patients. This study compared the incidence of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) between cohorts with and without influenza vaccination.
We used the insurance claims data from 1998 to 2009 in Taiwan to determine the incidence of these events within one year after influenza vaccination in the vaccine (N = 831) and the non-vaccine (N = 3187) cohorts. The vaccine cohort to the non-vaccine cohort incidence rate ratio and hazard ratio (HR) of morbidities and mortality were measured.
The age-specific analysis showed that the elderly in the vaccine cohort had lower hospitalization rate (100.8 vs. 133.9 per 100 person-years), contributing to an overall HR of 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–0.90). The vaccine cohort also had an adjusted HR of 0.85 [95% CI 0.75–0.96] for heart disease. The corresponding incidence of pneumonia and influenza was 22.4 versus 17.2 per 100 person-years, but with an adjusted HR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.64–1.02). The vaccine cohort had lowered risks than the non-vaccine cohort for intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.12–0.33) and mortality (adjusted HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.41–0.60). The time-dependent Cox model revealed an overall adjusted HR for mortality of 0.30 (95% CI 0.26–0.35) after counting vaccination for multi-years.
ESRD patients with HD receiving the influenza vaccination could have reduced risks of pneumonia/influenza and other morbidities, ICU stay, hospitalization and death, particularly for the elderly.
Data on the factors that contribute to the antibody response to hepatitis B virus vaccination in peritoneal dialysis patients are scarce. The current study was conducted on a group of peritoneal dialysis patients to learn how the response to hepatitis B virus vaccination varies according to the patient's clearance of urea normalized to total body water (Kt/V).
A convenience sample of 33 peritoneal dialysis patients (13 women and 20 men, with a mean age of 49±12 years) was administered double doses (20 µg IM in each deltoid muscle) of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months. Response to immunization was measured at one to three months after the final dose of vaccine. The subjects were divided into groups according to the level of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), including non-responders (<10 IU/L), weak responders (10-100 IU/L), and good responders (>100 IU/L).
Among non-responders, weak responders, and good responders, significant differences were found in age (54±12 vs. 56±9 vs. 45±12 years, respectively; p = 0.049) and recombinant human erythropoietin use (20 vs. 29 vs. 76%, respectively; p = 0.016). No significant differences in weekly total Kt/V (p = 0.704), weekly peritoneal Kt/V (p = 0.064) and residual glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.355) were found across the three groups.
Delivered clearance measured by weekly peritoneal Kt/V and total clearance measured by weekly total Kt/V did not predict the response to hepatitis B virus vaccination in patients on peritoneal dialysis.
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; Hepatitis B virus; Vaccination; Dialysis adequacy; Kt/V
Hepatitis B vaccination of hemodialysis patients is performed all over the world. There are also recommendations from world health organizations to vaccinate patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior dialysis commencement, but the implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program is less common and not well organized.
This review article summarizes data indicating why, when and how to vaccinate CKD patients before they start renal replacement therapy. Publication for this review was bringing into being from PubMed.
There is an agreement in the nephrological societies and among clinicians and scientists that CKD patients should be vaccinated in early stages of their disease, because a higher glomerular filtration rate is more likely to be associated with the responsiveness to vaccination. Schedules of vaccination and optimal vaccine doses are still being investigated. Differences in data with respect to these problems may result from comparisons of various vaccine doses and vaccination schedules without reference to one gold standard, variations in patients` clinical status and glomerular filtration rate, and also the small groups of the affected patients make statistical analysis non-conclusive. A titer of antibodies to surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs) > 10 IU/L or ≥ 10 IU/L is commonly considered as a marker of seroconversion to anti-HBs positivity after vaccination in both non-dialyzed and dialyzed patients. In advanced CKD, vaccine–induced serconversion rate is seldom observed in more than 90% of vaccinees. Various strategies have been utilized in order to increase vaccine-induced seroconversion rate in patients with advanced CKD. Changing the injection mode, the use of adjuvants and immunostimulants to improve the immunogenicity of existing recombinant hepatitis B vaccines, introduction of mammalian-cell derived pre-S/S HBV vaccines (third-generation vaccines) were tried in order to improve the immunization rate.
There are a substantial number of non-responders to the hepatitis B vaccine among CKD patients. Therefore, successful prevention of hepatitis B virus transmission and spread will only be attained when hepatitis B vaccination is applied together with full implementation of appropriate infection control procedures.
Vaccination; Hepatitis B Virus; Kidney Disease
This study was to investigate clinical characteristics and any differential trends in survival among renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis [HD], peritoneal dialysis [PD], and kidney transplantation [KT]) in Korean end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We tried to analyze retrospectively the survival rate adjusted by risk factors and the relative risk stratified by key risk factors among 447 ESRD patients who began dialysis or had a kidney transplant at Ajou University Hospital from 1994 to 2004. In adjusted Cox survival curves, the KT patients had the best survival rate, and the HD patients had better survival than PD patients. The consistent trends in different subgroups stratified by age and diabetes were as following: 1) The risk of death for PD and HD was not proportional over time, 2) The relative risk of PD was similar or lower than that of HD for the first 12 months, but it became higher at later period. The significant predictors for mortality were age (over 55 yr), presence of diabetes, cerebrovascular accident at ESRD onset, and more than one time of hospitalization caused by malnutrition. Further large-scaled, multicenter-based comparative study is needed in Korean ESRD patients and more meticulous attention is required in high-risk patients.
Renal Replacement Therapy; Kidney Transplantation; Renal Dialysis; Peritoneal Dialysis; Survival Analysis; Risk
Long term longitudinal data are scarce on epidemiological characteristics and patient outcomes in patients on maintenance dialysis, especially in Switzerland. We examined changes in epidemiology of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy by either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis over four decades.
Single center retrospective study including all patients which initiated dialysis treatment for ESRD between 1970 and 2008. Analyses were performed for subgroups according to dialysis vintage, based on stratification into quartiles of date of first treatment. A multivariate model predicting death and survival time, using time-dependent Cox regression, was developed.
964 patients were investigated. Incident mean age progressively increased from 48 ± 14 to 64 ± 15 years from 1st to 4th quartile (p < 0.001), with a concomitant decrease in 3- and 5-year survival from 72.2 to 67.7%, and 64.1 to 54.8%, respectively. Nevertheless, live span continuously increased from 57 ± 13 to 74 ± 11 years (p < 0.001). Patients transplanted at least once were significantly younger at dialysis initiation, with significantly better survival, however, shortened live span vs. individuals remaining on dialysis. Among age at time of initiating dialysis therapy, sex, dialysis modality and transplant status, only transplant status is a significant independent covariate predicting death (HR: 0.10 for transplanted vs. non-transplanted patients, p = 0.001). Dialysis vintage was associated with better survival during the second vs. the first quartile (p = 0.026).
We document an increase of a predominantly elderly incident and prevalent dialysis population, with progressively shortened survival after initiation of renal replacement over four decades, and, nevertheless, a prolonged lifespan. Analysis of the data is limited by lack of information on comorbidity in the study population.
Survival in patients on renal replacement therapy seems to be affected not only by medical and technical advances in dialysis therapy, but may mostly reflect progressively lower mortality of individuals with cardiovascular and metabolic complications, as well as a policy of accepting older and polymorbid patients for dialysis in more recent times. This is relevant to make demographic predictions in face of the ESRD epidemic nephrologists and policy makers are facing in industrialized countries.
Dialysis; Epidemiology; Outcome; Time trends
To assess factors influencing the long-term survival of elderly dialysis patients.
The study group consisted of 51 prevalent dialysis patients aged over 70 years (32 F and 19 M, all caucasians), who had been on a chronic hemodialysis (27) or peritoneal dialysis program (24) for at least 2 months; median age was 77 years, median time on dialysis before inclusion was 16 months, and median residual diuresis was 600 ml. The patients were prospectively followed up to 4 years, and an analysis of factors affecting survival was performed.
Thirteen patients from the initial cohort of 51 (25.5 %) survived the whole 48-month observation period: 10 HD patients (37 %) and 3 PD patients (12.5 %). Annual mortality rate was 28.2 %: 37.4 % on PD vs. 20.9 % on HD. The dialysis modality had a significant impact on patients’ survival (p = 0.049; Cox F-test). The independent mortality risk factors in the Cox proportional hazard regression model were higher plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) (p = 0.006), lower residual diuresis (p = 0.048), and lower systolic blood pressure (BP) value (p = 0.039).
Paramount for the survival of the elderly on dialysis is adequate extracellular volume control. Residual renal function is a protective factor for the survival of elderly HD patients. This observation is novel, not previously reported in an elderly dialysis population.
Elderly; Hemodialysis; Peritoneal dialysis; Survival; Extracellular volume control
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is a new and increasingly popular method of routine dialysis, but its effect on renal transplantation is uncertain. A non-randomised comparison was made of the outcome of grafting in patients who had been treated before transplantation with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with that in patients treated with haemodialysis. During the five years, 1979-84, after continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was introduced to Newcastle upon Tyne 220 patients have received transplants after either continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (61 patients) or haemodialysis (159 patients). During follow up no significant differences occurred in survival of patients or grafts between the two treatment groups. One year after transplantation the percentages of survivors who had received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis were 88% and 91% respectively, and overall graft survival was 66% and 72%, respectively. A multiple regression model was used to allow for differences among patients--for example, duration of dialysis and number of preoperative transfusions--on the survival of grafts. When only first cadaver grafts were considered (in 152 patients) graft survival (non-immunological failures excluded) was not significantly different between the patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not a risk factor in renal transplantation, and its continued use in treatment of potential renal graft recipients is recommended.
In maintenance dialysis patients, low blood pressure (BP) values are associated with higher death rates when compared to normal to moderately high values. This “hypertension paradox” may be related to comorbid conditions. Dialysis patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) usually have a lower comorbidity burden and greater survival. We hypothesized that in PKD dialysis patients, a representative of a healthier dialysis patient population, high BP is associated with higher mortality.
Time-dependent survival models including after multivariate adjustment were examined to assess the association between pre- and post-hemodialysis BP and all-cause mortality in a 5-year cohort of 67,085 non-PKD and 1,579 PKD hemodialysis patients.
In PKD patients low pre- and post-hemodialysis systolic BPs were associated with increased mortality, whereas high pre-hemodialysis diastolic BP was associated with greater survival. Fully adjusted death hazard ratios (and 95% confidence levels) for pre- and post-hemodialysis BP of <120 (reference: 140-<160 mmHg) were 1.30 (1.06-1.92) and 1.45 (1.04-2.02), respectively, and for pre-hemodialysis diastolic BP of >=80 (reference: 70-<80 mmHg) was 0.68 (0.49-0.93, all p-values <0.05). Similar associations were observed in non-PKD patients. In pooled analyses, within each commensurate BP stratum, PKD patients exhibited superior survival to non-PKD patients.
Among hemodialysis patients, those with PKD display a similar BP paradox as without PKD, even though within each BP category PKD patients maintain superior survival. Randomized clinical trials are needed to define optimal blood pressure targets in the haemodialysis population.
hypertension; mortality; polycystic kidney disease; hemodialysis; reverse epidemiology
In persons with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, superinfection by hepatitis A virus (HAV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause serious complications, including fulminating hepatitis or increased severity of hepatitis. Therefore, it is important to adequately protect persons with chronic HCV infections by immunization. Suboptimal response to vaccines has been reported in patients with chronic liver disease. The present article reviews HAV and HBV vaccine responses reported in the literature when administered to individuals with chronic HCV infection, and reviews current national and international recommendations.
Persons with chronic HCV respond well to HAV vaccine, but studies exploring HBV vaccine efficacy in this population have equivocal results. Vaccine schedules and participant characteristics differ among studies, and most do not adjust for confounders. Some studies found no difference in HBV vaccine response between patients with chronic HCV and controls. However, HBV vaccine response was generally reduced in those with cirrhosis and HCV genotype 1. Organizations recommend HAV and HBV vaccines for persons with chronic HCV, but do not suggest alterations in schedule or dose.
Because HAV vaccine response is good and routine laboratory testing may not detect lower levels of vaccine-induced anti-HAV, the standard HAV vaccine schedule is recommended without postimmunization testing. HBV vaccine should be administered early in the course of chronic HCV infection because response may be lower in patients with cirrhosis. Reflex testing of anti-HCV reactive sera for anti-HAV and hepatitis B surface antibody can facilitate appropriate follow-up and timely immunization. Determination of postimmunization hepatitis B surface antibody, especially in patients with cirrhosis or genotype 1, will allow HBV vaccine boosters to be offered.
Hepatitis A virus; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; Immunization; Vaccine efficacy
Hypertension in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may involve lack of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), as suggested by reduced total NO synthase (NOS) in dialysis patients. One reason might be due to substrate deficiency. To test the hypothesis that uremia is a state of intracellular l-arginine deficiency, uremic plasma was obtained from dialysis patients, and its effect was tested on arginine transport in cultured vascular endothelial cells. l-arginine transport (P < 0.01) was reduced in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) incubated for 6 h with 20% uremic plasma from peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients obtained immediately predialysis. Similar transport inhibition was seen with ESRD plasma in human glomerular capillary and bovine aortic endothelial cells. Hemodialysis partially reversed inhibition of l-arginine transport. HDMECs incubated for 6 h with synthetic media containing high (uremic) urea concentrations showed inhibition of l-arginine transport, but this was not competitive because acute exposure to urea had no impact on l-arginine transport. Over a 6-h period, urea-induced inhibition of l-arginine transport was not sufficient to inhibit NOS activity, but after 7 days NOS activity was reduced. These cellular findings suggest that substrate delivery may be lowered, thus reducing endothelial NOS activity and contributing to hypertension in ESRD patients.
nitric oxide; uremia; urea; endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors; dialysis
To describe the epidemiology of end stage renal disease (ESRD).
Mixed-methods systematic review.
The countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) which consist of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman.
Defined to have ESRD or patients on regular dialysis for a minimum dialysis period of at least three months. Since many outcomes were reviewed, studies that estimated the incidence and prevalence of ESRD as outcomes should not have defined the study population as ESRD population or patients on regular dialysis. Studies where the study population mainly comprised children or pregnant woman were excluded.
Main outcome measures
The trends of the incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of ESRD; also, causes of mortality, primary causes and co-morbid conditions associated with ESRD.
44 studies included in this review show that the incidence of ESRD has increased while the prevalence and mortality rate of ESRD in the GCC has not been reported sufficiently. The leading primary causes of ESRD recorded in the countries of the GCC is diabetes with the most prevalent co-morbid conditions being Hypertension and Hepatitis C Virus infection; the most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease and sepsis.
This review highlights that the lack of national renal registries data is a critical issue in the countries of the GCC. The available data also do not provide an accurate and updated estimate for relevant outcomes. Additionally, considering the increasing burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), these results stressed the needs and the importance of preventative strategies for leading causes of ESRD. Furthermore, more studies are needed to describe the epidemiology of ESRD and for assessing the overall quality of renal care.
Several studies have shown an association between erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) responsiveness and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. In our present study, we examined the association between prescribed ESA dose and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. We hypothesized that PD patients received lower ESA dose for the same achieved hemoglobin compared to HD patients and that ESA dose-mortality associations were different between PD and HD patients.
We compared the prescribed doses of ESA between 139,103 HD and 10,527 PD patients treated in DaVita dialysis clinics from 7/2001 through 6/2006 using adjusted Poisson regression and examined mortality-predictability of prescribed ESA dose and ESA responsiveness index (ESA/hemoglobin) in PD and HD with follow-up through 6/2007 using Cox regression models.
Poisson adjusted ratio of ESA dose of HD to PD was 3.6 (95% CI 3.5–3.7). In PD patients, adjusted all-cause death hazard ratios (HR) for ESA doses of 3,000–5,999, 6,000–8,999 and ≥9,000 U/week (reference <3,000 U/week) were 0.97 (0.87–1.07), 0.85 (0.76–0.95) and 1.08 (0.98–1.18), respectively; whereas in HD patients across commensurate ESA dose increments of 10,000–19,999, 20,000–29,999 and ≥30,000 U/week (reference <10,000 U/week) were 1.14 (1.11–1.17), 1.54 (1.50–1.58) and 2.15 (2.10–2.21), respectively. In PD and HD patients, the adjusted death HR of the 4th to 1st quartile of ESA responsiveness index were 1.14 (1.04–1.26) and 2.37 (2.31–2.43), respectively.
Between 2001 and 2006, most PD patients received substantially lower ESA dose for same achieved hemoglobin levels, and low ESA responsiveness was associated with higher mortality in both HD and PD patients.
Anemia; Hemoglobin; Erythropoietin-stimulating agent therapy; Peritoneal dialysis; Hemodialysis; Mortality; Cardiovascular mortality
OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in the demand for and supply of dialysis in the Toronto region and to determine whether planned dialysis expansion will be sufficient to provide for the projected growth of the dialysis population. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of data reported to the Toronto Region Dialysis Registry between 1981 and 1992, compared with provincial and national equivalents. SETTING: All secondary and tertiary care dialysis programs in the Toronto region participating in the registry. PATIENTS: All 504 existing patients enrolled in dialysis programs in 1981 and all 3794 new patients entering programs from 1982 to 1992. Patients with acute renal failure were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demand for dialysis: dialysis population at year end, age distribution, crude mortality rate and transplant rate. Supply of resources: distribution of modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), number of patients treated per hemodialysis station, number of hemodialysis stations per million population and hemodialysis utilization index (actual/budgeted treatments). RESULTS: During the study period the number of dialysis patients in the Toronto region went from 504 to 1422, for an increase of 182.1%. The average rate of growth was 9.8% per year. Of the total increment of 918 patients from 1981 to 1992, 390 (42.5%) were 65 years of age or more; none the less, the average annual crude mortality rate remained relatively constant, at 13.8% to 17.3%. The transplantation rate declined from a peak of 20.2% in 1982 to 7.8% in 1992. During the study period the Toronto region had much higher numbers of dialysis patients, and hemodialysis patients, per hemodialysis station than the rest of Ontario or Canada. The region's hemodialysis utilization index was 101% in 1991 and 102% in 1992; the index in individual hospitals varied from 98% to 124% (85% was considered optimal). CONCLUSIONS: The growth of the dialysis population in the Toronto region has caused a critical shortage of resources. This trend can be attributed mainly to a decrease in the transplantation rate and an increase in the number of elderly patients entering dialysis programs, combined with insufficient funding for expansion of facilities. Continuation of this trend would be expected to limit universal access to this expensive, but life-sustaining therapy.
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are common in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. There is scarce data on carotid and bulb intima-media thickness (IMT-C and IMT-B) as an early marker of atherosclerosis and related factors in children on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since we did not have enough information about our patients, this study was carried on all ESRD children (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) in a referral center. Data was collected from 16 ESRD children under 18 years with seven patients on PD and nine on HD. Lab tests and biochemical parameters including serum von Willebrand factor (vWF), homocystein, apo lipoprotein A, apo lipoprotein B and quantitative CRP were measured in fasting patients just before initiating dialysis. IMT-C and IMT-B were measured by gray scale ultrasound using 7.5 MHZ probe. The mean of age was 12.76±4.5 years. The mean duration of dialysis in HD and PD patients were not significantly different; 11.88±3.25 months and 10.14±2.4 months respectively. Mean of systolic blood pressure in HD group was significantly higher than PD group, 135.55±25.54 mmHg versus 121.42±12.14 mmHg, P<0.05. Significant differences among all following parameters in ESRD patients, with normal laboratory values, were clarified: cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A, apo B, quantitative CRP, VWF, homocystein and IMT-C. However, we could not demonstrate any difference between IMT-B in case and control group. After adjusting for age, partial correlation showed significant correlation between IMT-C and following factors: N-PTH and serum alkaline phosphatase. Longitudinal studies with large size samples are needed to clarify the contributing factors with intima-media thickness in ESRD children.
Carotid intima-media thickness; children; end stage renal disease
Increasing evidence indicates that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with the morbidity of cancer. However, whether different dialysis modality and sex effect modify the cancer risks in ESRD patients remains unclear. A total of 3,570 newly diagnosed ESRD patients and 14,280 controls matched for age, sex, index month, and index year were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The ESRD status was ascertained from the registry of catastrophic illness patients. The incidence of cancer was identified through cross-referencing with the National Cancer Registry System. The Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan–Meier method were used for analyses. A similar twofold increase in cancer risk was observed among ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) after adjusting for other potential risk factors. Patients with the highest cancer risk, approximately fourfold increased risk, were those received renal transplants. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) had the highest incidence in HD and PD patients. However, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had the highest incidence in the renal transplantation (RT) group. In addition, female patients undergoing RT or PD had a higher incidence of RCC and UC, respectively. Male patients under HD had both higher incidence of RCC and UC. In conclusion, different dialysis modality could modify the cancer risks in ESRD patients. We also found sex effect on genitourinary malignancy when they are under different dialysis modality.
The timing of referral to a nephrologist may influence the outcome of chronic kidney disease patients, but its impact has not been evaluated thoroughly. The results of a recent study showing an association between early referral and patient survival are still being debated. A total of 1028 patients newly diagnosed as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from July 2008 to October 2011 were enrolled. Early referral (ER) was defined as patients meeting with a nephrologist more than a year before dialysis and dialysis education were provided, and all others were considered late referral (LR). The relationship of referral pattern with mortality in ESRD patients was explored using a Cox proportional hazards regression models. Time from referral to dialysis was significantly longer in 599 ER patients than in 429 LR patients (62.3±58.9 versus 2.9±3.4 months, P<0.001). Emergency HD using a temporary vascular catheter was required in 485 (47.2%) out of all patients and in 262 (43.7%) of ER compared with 223 (52.0%) of LR (P = 0.009). After 2 years of follow-up, the survival rate in ER was better than that in LR (hazard ratio [HR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–4.45, P = 0.007). In patients with diabetes nephropathy, patient survival was also significantly higher in ER than in LR (HR 4.74, 95% CI 1.73–13.00, P = 0.002). With increasing age, HR also increased. Timely referral to a nephrologist in the predialytic stage is associated with reduced mortality.
Despite improvement in hepatitis B infection prevention through national vaccination programs, implementation of compulsory and thorough blood donor screening, and reduction of transfusion numbers due to erythropoietin administration,hepatitis B remains a major concern in hemodialysis (HD) centers . Compared to aresponse rate of over 90% in the normal population, only 50 to 60% of those with endstage renal disease (ESRD) achieve protective antibody levels following immunization against hepatitis B . Various strategies have been developed to overcome the low seroconversion rate in ESRD patients, including co-administering zinc, gamma-interferon,thymopentin, interleukin-2, and levamisole as immunostimulants or adjuvants ,changing the injection mode (intradermal versus intramuscular), or doubling the vaccine dose .
Previous studies demonstrated that renal failure patients benefit from HBV vaccination; however, not all studies have demonstrated this. Therefore, we compared the rates of seroconversion (hepatitis B surface antibody [HBsAb] titer > 10 IU/mL) in patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) who received HBV vaccination.
Patients and Methods
A total of 167 patients in 3 different stages of CKD were vaccinated against HBV. Each patient received the vaccine according to a standardized vaccination schedule consisting of 40 μg of the recombinant vaccine “Engerix” at 0, 1, and 6 months.Eight to 12 weeks after the last dose of vaccination, anti-HBsAb levels were measured.
Mean age and eGFR were 57.4 ± 16.5 years and 26.7 ± 14.7 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively.The overall seroconversion rate was 78%. Although a significant correlation between HBsAb titer and eGFR (r = 0.265, P = 0.001) was observed, in the multivariate analysis using age, CKD stage, diabetes mellitus, and gender as independent variables,the degree of renal function did not significantly contribute to seroconversion. In contrast,higher age (> 60 years) showed a significant negative correlation to seroconversion (odds ratio = 0.22; P = 0.004).
CKD patients of advanced age should be vaccinated against HBV. Although higher eGFR was not associated with improved seroconversion, the persistence of seroconversion was not evaluated; future studies should be conducted to develop recommendations for earlier or later vaccination.