Postprandial hyperglycemia is believed to affect vascular endothelial function. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of acarbose and nateglinide on postprandial endothelial dysfunction.
We recruited a total of 30 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (19 men and 11 women, age 67.8 ± 7.3 years). Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving either 300 mg/day acarbose, 270 mg/day nateglinide, or no medication. A cookie test (consisting of 75 g carbohydrate, 25 g butter fat, and 7 g protein for a total of 553 kcal) was performed as dietary tolerance testing. During the cookie test, glucose and insulin levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after load. In addition, endothelial function was assessed by % flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery at 0 and 120 min after cookie load.
Postprandial glucose and insulin levels were similar in the 3 groups. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction was similar in the 3 groups before treatment. After 12 weeks of intervention, postprandial FMD was significantly improved in the acarbose group compared with the control group (6.8 ± 1.3% vs 5.2 ± 1.1%, p = 0.0022). Area under the curve (AUC) for insulin response was significantly increased in the nateglinide and control groups; however, no significant change was observed in the acarbose group.
Our results suggest that acarbose improves postprandial endothelial function by improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia, independent of postprandial hyperinsulinemia. Acarbose may thus have more beneficial effects on postprandial endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes than nateglinide.
Endothelial function deteriorates after glucose ingestion. This may be attributed to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Acute endurance exercise might improve postprandial endothelial function by enhancing glucoregulation and reducing postprandial hyperglycemia.
To determine if endurance exercise performed 17h prior to high-sugar food ingestion attenuates postprandial impairment in endothelial function.
Healthy men and women (n=13; age: 48±17y) were studied on 2 occasions: after ≥48h with no exercise (CON) and 17h after a 60-min bout of endurance exercise (EX). During each trial, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was used to assess endothelial function before and after the ingestion of a candy bar and soft drink. Glucose, insulin, and thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS), as a marker of oxidative stress, were measured in blood obtained during each FMD measurement. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated from the glucose and insulin data.
FMD decreased significantly after food ingestion in both trials. However, prior exercise shifted the entire FMD curve upward (main treatment effect: p=0.0002), resulting in a greater area under the curve for FMD (774±122 vs. 607±122 % · min, p=0.01). Prior exercise shifted the glucose and insulin curves downward (main treatment effects: p=0.05 and p=0.0007, respectively) and increased ISI (10.8±0.7 vs. 9.2±0.7, p=0.01). TBARS did not differ between trials.
Postprandial endothelial function was improved by endurance exercise performed ~17 hours earlier. This effect was accompanied by exercise-induced improvements in insulin action and reductions in glycemia but did not correspond with reductions in oxidative stress, as assessed by TBARS.
endothelial function; acute exercise; postprandial; hyperglycemia
Recent experimental studies have revealed that n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) regulate postprandial insulin secretion, and correct postprandial glucose and lipid abnormalities. However, the effects of 6-month EPA treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction remain unknown in patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods and results
We randomized 107 newly diagnosed IGM patients with CAD to receive either 1800 mg/day of EPA (EPA group, n = 53) or no EPA (n = 54). Cookie meal testing (carbohydrates: 75 g, fat: 28.5 g) and endothelial function testing using fasting-state flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were performed before and after 6 months of treatment. The primary outcome of this study was changes in postprandial glycemic and triglyceridemic control and secondary outcomes were improvement of insulin secretion and endothelial dysfunction. After 6 months, the EPA group exhibited significant improvements in EPA/arachidonic acid, fasting triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The EPA group also exhibited significant decreases in the incremental TG peak, area under the curve (AUC) for postprandial TG, incremental glucose peak, AUC for postprandial glucose, and improvements in glycometabolism categorization. No significant changes were observed for hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels. The EPA group exhibited a significant increase in AUC-immune reactive insulin/AUC-plasma glucose ratio (which indicates postprandial insulin secretory ability) and significant improvements in FMD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that decreases in the TG/HDL-C ratio and incremental TG peak were independent predictors of FMD improvement in the EPA group.
EPA corrected postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and insulin secretion ability. This amelioration of several metabolic abnormalities was accompanied by recovery of concomitant endothelial dysfunction in newly diagnosed IGM patients with CAD.
Clinical Trial Registration UMIN Registry number: UMIN000011265 (https://www.upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000013200&language=E)
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12933-016-0437-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Eicosapentaenoic acid; Impaired glucose metabolism; Postprandial hyperglycemia; Postprandial insulin secretion; Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia; Endothelial dysfunction
Both postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and to be a potent risk factor for cardiovascular event. To examine effects of glycemic state on postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), a total of 112 consecutive male pati
ents with angiographically confirmed CAD were loaded with a high-fat and high-glucose test meal. CAD patients were divided into three groups as “non-diabetic”, “prediabetic”, and “diabetic” CAD groups. The serum triglyceride (TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) levels at the 6th hour in diabetic CAD group showed significantly higher than non-diabetic CAD group, and the incremental area under the curves (iAUCs) of these levels in diabetic CAD group were significantly greater than non-diabetic CAD group (TG, P = 0.0194; RLP-C, P = 0.0219). There were no significant differences in the iAUCs of TG or RLP-C between prediabetic and non-diabetic CAD group. The AUCs of plasma insulin levels or insulin resistance index (IRI): (AUCs of insulin) × (AUCs of glucose) as the insulin resistance marker were greater in diabetic CAD group than non-diabetic CAD group (insulin, P = 0.0373; IRI, P = 0.0228). The AUCs of serum TG or RLP-C levels showed a correlation with the AUCs of plasma insulin (AUC-TG, r = 0.5437, P < 0.0001; AUC-RLP-C, r = 0.6847, P < 0.0001), and they correlated well with the insulin resistance index (AUC-TG, r = 0.7724, P < 0.0001; AUC-RLP-C, r = 0.7645, P < 0.0001). We found that the insulin resistance showed a close relationship with postprandial hyperlipidemia in CAD patients. Diabetic, but not prediabetic state, may be a risk for postprandial impaired lipid metabolism in CAD patients.
Diabetes; Postprandial hyperlipidemia; Hyperinsulinemia; Coronary artery disease; Insulin resistance
Prior studies have demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in healthy subjects following a high-fat meal. Compared to uninfected individuals, HIV-infected persons have been shown to have impaired FMD. We examined the effect of two different high-fat meals on endothelial function in HIV-infected and uninfected men. We performed a randomized, parallel group crossover study comparing 47 white men [18 HIV-uninfected, 9 HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve, and 20 HIV-infected men on ART]. Fasting participants consumed one of two randomly assigned high-fat meals of either saturated or polyunsaturated fat, followed at least 24 h later by the other meal. Brachial artery ultrasound measurements to assess vascular reactivity were performed before and 3 h after each dietary challenge. There was no significant difference in mean baseline or postprandial FMD between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants (mean baseline FMD±SD, 9.0%±5 vs. 9.2%±5, p=0.9; mean postprandial FMD±SD, 9.0%±4.7 vs. 9.1%±4.7, p=0.96, respectively). No significant difference in baseline or postprandial change in FMD was found between meals or HIV treatment groups. Fasting lipids and glucose, CD4+ count, and viral load did not predict FMD in HIV-infected participants. In contrast to previous reports, this study did not demonstrate impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation after high-fat meals in either HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected men. Moreover, HIV infection itself may not be the primary explanation for the abnormal endothelial function reported in HIV-infected individuals.
Postprandial hyperlipidemia impairs endothelial function and participates in the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the postprandial effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, alogliptin, on endothelial dysfunction and the lipid profile.
A randomized cross-over trial design in 10 healthy volunteers (8 males and 2 females, 35 ± 10 years) was performed. The postprandial effects before and after a 1-week treatment of 25 mg/day alogliptin on endothelial function were assessed with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and changing levels of lipids, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB-48), glucose, glucagon, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during fasting and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after a standard meal loading test.
Alogliptin treatment significantly suppressed the postprandial elevation in serum triglyceride (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; 279 ± 31 vs. 182 ± 32 mg h/dl, p = 0.01), apoB-48 (incremental AUC; 15.4 ± 1.7 vs. 11.7 ± 1.1 μg h/ml, p = 0.04), and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) (incremental AUC: 29.3 ± 3.2 vs. 17.6 ± 3.3 mg h/dl, p = 0.01). GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased after alogliptin treatment. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction (maximum decrease in%FMD, from −4.2 ± 0.5% to −2.6 ± 0.4%, p = 0.03) was significantly associated with the maximum change in apoB-48 (r = −0.46, p = 0.03) and RLP-C (r = −0.45, p = 0.04).
Alogliptin significantly improved postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial lipemia, suggesting that alogliptin may be a promising anti-atherogenic agent.
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor; Postprandial lipid; Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein; Endothelial dysfunction; Alogliptin
Alpha glucosidase inhibitor (GI) attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) and reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors also attenuate PPH. PPH is one of the factors leading to endothelial dysfunction which is an early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, DPP-4 inhibitors protect endothelial function through a GLP-1-dependent mechanism. However, the impact of these two types of drugs on endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully elucidated. We compared the effects of sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, and voglibose, an alpha GI, on endothelial function in patients with diabetes.
We conducted a randomized prospective multicenter study in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes who did not achieve the treatment goal with sulfonylurea, metformin or pioglitazone treatment; 31 patients received sitagliptin treatment and 35 patients, voglibose treatment. The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured in the fasting state at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. The primary endpoint was a change in FMD (ΔFMD) from the baseline to the end of follow-up. The effects of sitagliptin and voglibose on FMD were assessed by ANCOVA after adjustment for the baseline FMD, age, sex, current smoking, diabetes duration and body mass index. Secondary efficacy measures included changes in HbA1c, GIP, GLP-1, C-peptide, CD34, lipid profile, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory markers and eGFR and any adverse events.
ΔFMD was significantly improved after 12 weeks of treatment in both groups, and there was no significant difference in ΔFMD between the two groups. There were no significant differences in changes in HbA1c, GIP, GLP-1, C-peptide, lipid profile, oxidative stress marker, inflammatory marker and eGFR between the two groups. Compared with voglibose, sitagliptin significantly increased the circulating CD34, a marker of endothelial progenitor cells. Adverse events were observed in 5 patients in only the voglibose group (diarrhea 1, nausea 1, edema 2 and abdominal fullness 1).
Sitagliptin improved endothelial dysfunction just as well as voglibose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sitagliptin had protective effects on endothelial function without adverse events.
registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctrj/ under UMIN000003951
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors; Alpha glucosidase inhibitor; Endothelial function; Flow-mediated dilatation; CD34
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking post-challenge hyperglycemia to accelerated atherosclerosis, however remain to be elucidated.
A prospective, open, randomised, cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of 2 mg repaglinide on hyperglycemia and endothelial function during an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose) in 12 subjects with diagnosed IGT. Blood samples for determination of plasma glucose were drawn fasting, 1 and 2 hours after glucose ingestion. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery with high-resolution ultrasound.
Administration of repaglinide resulted in a significant reduction of plasma glucose at 2 hours (172.8+/-48.4 vs. 138.3+/-41.2 mg/dl; p < 0.001). The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) 2 hours after the glucose-load was significantly reduced in comparison to fasting in the control group (6.21+/-2.69 vs. 7.98+/-2.24 %; p = 0.028), whereas after theadministration of repaglinide the FMD was not significantly different to fasting values (7.24+/-2.57 vs. 8.18+/-2.93 %; p = n.s.). Linear and logistic regression analysis revealed that only the change of glucose was significantly correlated to the change of FMD observed (p < 0.001). Regression analysis after grouping for treatment and time confirmed the strong negative association of the changes of plasma glucose and FMD and indicate that the effect of repaglinide observed is based on the reduction glycemia.
In subjects with IGT, the endothelial dysfunction observed after a glucose challenge is related to the extent of hyperglycemia. Reduction of hyperglycemia by repaglinide reduces endothelial dysfunction in a glucose dependent manner.
Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia impairs endothelial function and plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the postprandial effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin and the α-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose on endothelial dysfunction and lipid profiles following a single administration. A randomized cross-over trial using 11 normoglycemic individuals was performed. The postprandial effects of a single administration of vildagliptin (50 mg) or voglibose (0.3 mg) on endothelial function were analyzed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and lipid profiles during fasting and 1.5 and 3 h after an oral cookie-loading test. Compared with voglibose, vildagliptin significantly suppressed postprandial endothelial dysfunction, (%FMD, −1.6±0.9 vildagliptin vs. −4.0±0.7 voglibose; P=0.01) and the postprandial incremental increase in the triglyceride level (28±18 vildagliptin vs. 51±26 mg/dl voglibose; P=0.01) 3 h after a cookie-loading test. In addition, vildagliptin significantly increased the levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 compared with voglibose 3 h after a loading cookie test (4.4±0.6 vs. 2.9±0.7 pmol/l, respectively; P=0.04). No significant differences in the levels of glucose, apolipoprotein B-48, glucagon or insulin were observed between vildagliptin and voglibose treatments. In conclusion, a single administration of vildagliptin attenuated postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, suggesting that vildagliptin may be a promising antiatherogenic agent.
endothelial function; postprandial lipemia; dipeptidyl peptidase 4
The association of prediabetic states with endothelial dysfunction measured by flow‐mediated dilation (FMD) or endothelial biomarker levels remains controversial. We examined data from 5 ethnic groups to determine the association between glucose categories and FMD or endothelial biomarkers. We determined whether these associations vary by ethnic group or body mass index.
Methods and Results
We used data from 3516 participants from 5 race/ethnic groups with brachial FMD, endothelial biomarkers, and glucose category (normal, impaired fasting glucose [IFG], and diabetes) measures. There were significant ethnic differences in FMD, biomarker levels, and the prevalence of IFG and diabetes. However, all 5 ethnic groups showed similar patterns of higher FMD for the IFG group compared with the normal glucose and diabetes groups, which was most significant among whites and Asian Indians. Associations between glucose categories and endothelial biomarkers were more uniform, with the IFG and diabetes groups having higher biomarker levels than the normal glucose group. These associations did not change with further adjustment for fasting insulin levels. Whites with normal BMI had higher FMD values with higher glucose levels, but those with BMI in the overweight or obese categories had the inverse association (P for interaction=0.01).
The discordance of IFG being associated with higher FMD but more abnormal endothelial biomarker levels is a novel finding. This higher FMD for the IFG group was most notable in whites of normal BMI. The higher FMD among those with impaired fasting glucose may reflect differences in insulin signaling pathways between the endothelium and skeletal muscle.
biomarkers; diabetes; endothelium; ethnicity; insulin resistance
AIM: To assess the synergistic action of famotidine (FMD) and chlorpheniramine (CPA) on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats.
METHODS: Chronic gastric lesions were induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by serosal application of the acetic acid. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n = 8), control group (n = 8), FMD group (n = 8), CPA group (n = 8), and FMD+CPA group (n = 8). Each group was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) 0.5 mL/100 g distilled water, 9 g/L NaCl saline, 4 mg/kg FMD, 10 mg/kg CPA, 4 mg/kg FMD+10 mg/kg CPA, respectively, daily for 10 d. On d 10, ulcer area was determined by planimetry. The level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the liver homogenation was determined by biochemical methods and the plasma levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1a) and IL-8 were determined by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS: The synergistic effects of FMD+CPA group on the lesion, IL-8, 6-keto-PGF1a and MPO were confirmed. The effect of FMD+CPA group was significantly different as compared to the control and FMD groups. The lesion (mm2) was reduced from 40.18±2.6 in control group to 6.83±2.97 in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 32.9±3.27 in FMD group to 6.83±2.97 in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01. The plasma levels of IL-8 decreased from 0.69±0.11 ng/L in control group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 0.51±0.08 ng/L in FMD group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The level of 6-keto-PGF1a increased from 7.55±1.65 ng/L in control group to 16.62±0.97 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 13.15±1.48 ng/L in FMD group to 16.62±0.97 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The levels of MPO in the liver homogenate decreased from 9.12±2.05 u/L in control group to 4.33±0.95 u/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 8.3±1.29 u/L in FMD group to 4.33±0.95 u/L, P<0.01.
CONCLUSION: The synergistic action of FMD and CPA on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats decreases the incidence of ulcer and also enhances the healing of ulcer.
Gastric ulcer; Acetic acid; Famotidine; Chlorpheniramine; Interleukin-8; 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha; Myeloperoxidase
To study the effect of exercise and a high fat meal (HFM) on endothelial function.
Postprandial lipemia and exercise oppose each other in terms of cardiovascular risk, however the mechanism of their interaction is not well understood.
Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), in eight healthy men before and after a HFM preceded (16–18 hrs) by rest, a single bout of continuous moderate intensity exercise (CME), and high intensity interval exercise (HIIE).
Before the HFM, initial brachial artery diameters were similar in all trials (0.43±0.04 cm), but after the HFM basal diameter decreased only in the control (0.39±0.03) and CME (0.38±0.04) trials. Prior to the HFM, FMD/shear was improved by a single bout of CME (+20%, p<0.01) and HIIE (+45%, p<0.01, group differences, p<0.01), with no effect in the control trial. After the HFM (30, 120, and 240 mins), FMD decayed to a lesser extent with CME, but in a similar fashion to the control trial. In contrast FMD in the HIIE trial remained elevated following the exercise despite a clear meal-induced lipemia. Although, there were no correlations between vascular function and food-induced markers of cardiovascular risk, antioxidant status was strongly correlated with FMD (r=0.9, p<0.001).
These findings reveal a clinically relevant protective effect of acute exercise upon the vasculature that is clearly exercise intensity dependent and tightly related to exercise-induced antioxidant capacity.
Interval training; endothelial function; high-fat meal
Arterial and venous thrombosis have always been regarded as different pathologies and epidemiological studies have examined the association between venous thrombosis and indicators of atherosclerosis and/or arterial thromboembolic events. We measured the flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a well-known marker of arterial endothelial dysfunction, in young–middle-aged and old-aged patients with and without unprovoked deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether DVT was a significant predictor for impaired FMD, considering all the patients and young–middle-aged (age < 65 years) and old-aged (age ≥ 65 years) patients separately. FMD was measured in the brachial artery on a population of 120 subjects with the same atherosclerosis risk factors, 68 male and 52 female, 70 young–middle-aged subjects (mean age ± SD 49.5 ± 10.5 years) and 50 old-aged subjects (76.2 ± 7.7 years). Patients with DVT showed a significant decrease of FMD compared to patients without DVT (6.8 ± 5.5% vs. 10.9 ± 3.5%, p < 0.001). Moreover, old-aged patients showed a significant decrease of FMD compared to the young–middle-aged subjects (7.4 ± 4.1% vs. 9.8 ± 5.3%, p = 0.005). In the whole study population, DVT was strongly associated with FMD (risk factors adjusted β = −4.14, p < 0.001). A significant interaction between age and the presence of DVT on predicting FMD was found (p = 0.003) suggesting a differential behavior of DVT as predictor of FMD. In young–middle-aged group, multivariate model confirmed that DVT was the most significant predictor of continuous FMD (β = −6.06, p < 0.001). On the contrary, DVT was no more a predictor of FMD in the old age group (β = −0.73, p=0.556). Furthermore, old-aged patients without DVT showed a statistically significant decrease of FMD compared to the young–middle-aged subjects without DVT (8.2±2.1% vs. 12.6±2.7%, p<0.001) and old-aged patients with DVT showed a not statistically significant decrease of the FMD compared to the young–middle-aged patients with DVT (6.7±5.3% vs. 6.8±5.7%, p = 0.932). In conclusion, young–middle-aged patients with spontaneous DVT show an impaired FMD, whereas this impairment in old-aged subjects is evident independently from the presence or absence of DVT. Aging per se may be associated with physiologic abnormalities in the systemic arteries and with endothelial dysfunction.
Endothelial dysfunction; Venous thrombosis; Atherosclerosis; Flow-mediated dilation; Aging; Life Sciences; Molecular Medicine; Geriatrics/Gerontology; Cell Biology
Presence of Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study was aimed to determine the influence of hypertension (HTN) on surrogate markers of atherosclerosis in a population of patients with early type 2 diabetes.
125 diabetic subjects drawn from Dr. Shariati outpatient’s clinic list and 153 non- diabetic subjects who were the relatives in law of diabetic participants were recruited. Participants with type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and renal involvement. Two groups of diabetic and control were further divided into two subgroups of hypertensive (known case of HTN or blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) and normotensive, and anthropometric characteristics, metabolic biomarkers as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis including Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), flow mediated dilation (FMD) and Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) were measured.
Diabetic group with a mean age of 49.9 ± 7.5 years had significantly higher CIMT (0.64 ± 0.14 vs 0.76 ± 0.19, p = 0.001) and lower FMD (16.5 ± 8.1 vs 13.3 ± 7.1, p = 0.003) and ABI (1.2 ± 0.1 vs 1.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.01) than control with mean age of 52.9 ± 10.1 years. 34% of control and 59.2% of diabetic were hypertensive. Fasting blood sugar, insulin levels and calculated insulin resistance index of HOMA IR. of hypertensive subjects were higher than normotensive subjects in both groups of diabetic and non-diabetic. Similar pattern was presented for measured inflammatory mediators of hs-CRP and IL-6. Among subclinical atherosclerosis markers, only CIMT was significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive subjects in both groups. In adjusted linear regression analysis, a constant significant association existed between age and CIMT, ABI and FMD in non-diabetic, while in diabetic, age only correlated with CIMT and not the other two markers. In multiple regression model, HTN was recognized as a risk factor for increasing CIMT (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.03-8.33, p = 0.04) but not attenuating FMD or ABI.
Since FMD and CIMT may measure a different stage of subclinical atherosclerosis in diabetic patients, influence of HTN on these markers might be different.
Diabetes melitus; Subclinical atherosclerosis; CIMT; FMD; ABI; Hypertension
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nateglinide and acarbose on glycemic excursions and postprandial glucose profiles with different types of meals (standardized carbohydrate and mixed meals) in drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, parallel-group prospective design clinical trial was conducted and a total of 39 drug-naïve patients (16 males and 23 females, aged 56.7±10.2 years) were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into group A [nateglinide 120 mg three times daily (t.i.d.), n=19] and group B (acarbose 50 mg t.i.d., n=20). The standardized carbohydrate and mixed-meal tests were performed at baseline and at the end of study. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) data were recorded. Various parameters that measure glucose variability were derived from the CGMS data. In the standardized carbohydrate meal tests, the postprandial glucose excursions (PPGEs) were significantly decreased in the two groups after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.05), whereas the decrease was more prominent in the acarbose compared to the nateglinide group (P=0.138). In the mixed-meal tests, the mean sensor glucose values [24-h mean blood glucose (MBG)] were significantly decreased in the two groups after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.05) and the parameters of glucose excursions, including standardized deviation (SD), largest amplitude of glycemic excursion (LAGE), mean of daily differences (MODD) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE), were reduced in the two groups. However, the decreases in SD and LAGE in the nateglinide group were statistically significant, whereas in the acarbose group only the decreases in LAGE were statistically significant. The efficiency of nateglinide or acarbose in lowering postprandial 120-min hyperglycemia were similar in the standardized carbohydrate meal test. However, acarbose was more efficient in lowering postprandial 30- and 60-min hyperglycemia (P<0.05) compared to nateglinide. The fasting and postprandial total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) had a tendency to decrease from the baseline after 12 weeks of treatment with nateglinide, whereas fasting and postprandial high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) had a tendency to increase. Acarbose did not affect the fasting or postprandial lipid profiles after 12 weeks of treatment (P>0.05). In conclusion, nateglinide and acarbose effectively improved postprandial glycemic control, although acarbose was shown to be more efficient in controlling early (30 and 60 min) postprandial glucose excursions in the carbohydrate meal test, whereas nateglinide was shown to be superior to acarbose in controlling postprandial glucose excursions in the mixed-meal test.
type 2 diabetes mellitus; glycose excursion; postprandial glucose; acarbose; nateglinide
High-carbohydrate diets have been associated with β-cell strain, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. We examined how β-cell and endothelial function adapt to carbohydrate overloading and the influence of insulin resistance. On sequential days in randomized order, nondiabetic subjects (classified as insulin-sensitive [IS] [n = 64] or insulin-resistant [IR] [n = 79] by euglycemic clamp) received four mixed meals over 14 h with either standard (300 kcal) or double carbohydrate content. β-Cell function was reconstructed by mathematical modeling; brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after each meal. Compared with IS, IR subjects showed higher glycemia and insulin hypersecretion due to greater β-cell glucose and rate sensitivity; potentiation of insulin secretion, however, was impaired. Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) were less suppressed in IR than IS subjects. Baseline FMD was reduced in IR, and postprandial FMD attenuation occurred after each meal, particularly with high carbohydrate, similarly in IR and IS. Throughout the two study days, higher FFA levels were significantly associated with lower (incretin-induced) potentiation and impaired FMD. In nondiabetic individuals, enhanced glucose sensitivity and potentiation upregulate the insulin secretory response to carbohydrate overloading. With insulin resistance, this adaptation is impaired. Defective suppression of endogenous FFA is one common link between impaired potentiation and vascular endothelial dysfunction.
Endothelial dysfunction is an independent predictor of future cardiac events.
We evaluated the relationship between flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in brachial artery and coronary risk factors in 93 patients (70 males, mean age: 62±8 years) with ACS treated with primary angioplasty (PCI). The patients were divided into 2 subgroups: 43 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) and 50 non-diabetics (non-DM). Patients were examined on the 3rd day after ACS and after 6 months. FMD on the 3rd day were significantly lower in DM than in non-DM (5.8±2.2% vs. 8.8±4.9%, p=0.0007) and after 6 months (6.2±2.6% vs. 9.4±4.4%, p<0.0001). It was also observed that the improvement of FMD in both groups after a 6-month follow-up inversely correlated with the increase of left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (r=−0.41, p<0.001).
There was an inverse relationship between FMD and age (r=−0.26, p<0.01), BMI (r=−0.26, p<0,005), total cholesterol (r=−0.56, p<0.001) and LDL cholesterol (r=−0.53, p<0.001). There was no relationship between triglycerides, hypertension and history of smoking. In the DM group, FMD negatively correlated with HbA1c (r=−0.68, p<0.001). Restenosis rate was significantly higher in the DM group (19% vs. 6%, p<0.001) but there was no relationship between FMD and restenosis.
Impaired FMD is more significant in diabetics than in non-diabetic patients with ACS. Lack of improvement of FMD after acute coronary syndrome can be a predictor of detrimental left ventricular remodeling in patients with ACS.
flow-mediated dilatation; endothelium; diabetes mellitus; acute coronary syndrome; left ventricular remodeling
A new device for automatic measurement of flow‐mediated vasodilation (FMD) using an oscillometric method has been developed to solve technical problems of conventional FMD measurement. This device measures enclosed zone FMD (ezFMD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of endothelial function assessed by ezFMD for future cardiovascular events.
Methods and Results
We measured ezFMD in 272 participants who underwent health‐screening examinations. First, we investigated cross‐sectional associations between ezFMD and cardiovascular risk factors, and then we assessed the associations between ezFMD and first major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, stroke, and coronary revascularization). Univariate regression analysis revealed that ezFMD was significantly correlated with age, triglycerides, glucose, smoking pack‐years, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein, and Framingham risk score. During a median follow‐up period of 36.1 months (interquartile range 18.8–40.1 months), 12 participants died (6 from cardiovascular causes), 3 had stroke, 8 had coronary revascularization, and 10 were hospitalized for heart failure. There was no episode of acute coronary syndrome during the study period. Participants were divided into tertiles (low, intermediate, and high) based on ezFMD. Kaplan–Meier curves for first major cardiovascular events among the 3 groups were significantly different (P=0.004). After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, the low group was significantly associated with an increased risk of first major cardiovascular events compared with the high group (hazard ratio 6.47; 95% CI 1.09–125.55; P=0.038).
These findings suggest that endothelial function assessed by ezFMD may be useful as a surrogate marker of future cardiovascular events.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: https://upload.umin.ac.jp. Unique identifier: UMIN000004902.
atherosclerosis; biomarker; cardiovascular events; endothelial function; Prognosis; Imaging; Diagnostic Testing
Glycemic variability (GV) creates challenges to glycemic control and may be an independent marker for unfavorable outcome in management of patients with diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the effect of excessive visit-to-visit GV on the progression of endothelial and renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Two hundred and thirty nine patients with T2DM, who were recruited from outpatient, completed 48-month follow-up visit. Visit-to-visit GV was calculated by the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) of serially measured HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Endothelial and renal function was assessed at baseline and end of follow-up.
At end of follow-up, brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitric oxide (NO), creatinine-based estimated glomeruar filtration rate (eGFR-Cr), and cystatin C-based estimated glomeruar filtration rate (eGFR-Cys C) increased, and endothelin-1 and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) declined as compared with baseline in overall (P < 0.05). The increment of FMD, NO, eGFR-Cr, and eGFR-Cys C and the decrement of endothelin-1 and ACR in first tertile group were significantly greater than those in third tertile group classified by tertile of either SD of HbA1c or SD of FPG. Change percentage of FMD, NO, eGFR-Cr, and eGFR-Cys C were positively, and change percentage of endothelin-1 and ACR were negatively correlated with SDs of HbA1c and FPG, and CVs of HbA1c FPG (P < 0.01, respectively). After adjusted for mean HbA1c, mean FPG, baseline demographic, and clinical characteristics, SD of HbA1c and SD of FPG were always statistically correlated with change percentage of FMD, NO, endothelin-1, ACR, eGFR-Cr, and eGFR-Cys C.
Excessive visit-to-visit GV independently deteriorates the progression of endothelial and renal dysfunction in patients with T2DM.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Glycemic variability; Endothelial dysfunction; Renal dysfunction
To investigate the relationship between blood rheology and endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors, brachial arterial flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), an index of endothelial function and blood passage time (BPT), an index of blood rheology, and fasting blood cell count, glucose metabolism, and plasma fibrinogen, lipid, C-reactive protein, and whole blood viscosity levels were measured in 95 patients with coronary risk factors and 37 healthy controls. Brachial arterial FMD after reactive hyperemia was assessed by ultrasonography. BPT was assessed using the microchannel method. In healthy controls, BPT significantly correlated with FMD (r = – 0.325, p < 0.05), HDL cholesterol (r = – 0.393, p < 0.05), body mass index (BMI; r = 0.530, p < 0.01), and plasma fibrinogen concentration (r = 0.335, p < 0.05). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for all clinical variables, BPT remained significantly associated with BMI and fibrinogen, but not with FMD, in healthy controls. In patients with coronary risk factors, BPT significantly correlated with FMD (r = – 0.331, p < 0.01), HDL cholesterol (r = – 0.241, p < 0.05), BMI (r = 0.290, p < 0.01), hematocrit (r = 0.422, p < 0.001), white blood cell count (r = 0.295, p < 0.01), platelet count (r = 0.204, p < 0.05), and insulin (r = 0.210, p < 0.05). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for all clinical variables, BPT remained strongly associated with FMD and hematocrit in patients with coronary risk factors. These data indicate that BPT is closely associated with FMD in patients with coronary risk factors and suggest that the measurement of blood rheology using the microchannel method may be useful in evaluating brachial arterial endothelial function as a marker of atherosclerosis in these patients.
Blood rheology; coronary risk factors; endothelial dysfunction; patients
Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads follow acute exercise. We hypothesized the involvement of dietary carbohydrate load, especially when timed after exercise, and mediation by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in this phenomenon, as this incretin promotes insulin secretion after carbohydrate intake in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant states.
Four groups of eight metabolically healthy weight-matched postmenopausal women were provided with three isocaloric meals (a pre-trial meal and two meals during the trial day) containing either 30% or 60% carbohydrate, with and without two-hours of moderate-intensity exercise before the last two meals. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GIP, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFAs), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured during 4-h postprandial periods and 3-h exercise periods, and their areas under the curve (AUCs) were analyzed by mixed-model ANOVA, and insulin resistance during fasting and meal tolerance tests within each diet was estimated using homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR).
The third low-carbohydrate meal, but not the high-carbohydrate meal, reduced: (1) evening insulin AUC by 39% without exercise and by 31% after exercise; (2) GIP AUC by 48% without exercise and by 45% after exercise, and (3) evening insulin resistance by 37% without exercise and by 24% after exercise. Pre-meal exercise did not alter insulin-, GIP- and HOMA-IR- lowering effects of low-carbohydrate diet, but exacerbated evening hyperglycemia.
Evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and insulin resistance declined by over 30% after three meals that limited daily carbohydrate intake to 30% compared to no such changes after three 60%-carbohydrate meals, an effect that was independent of pre-meal exercise. The parallel timing and magnitude of postprandial insulin and GIP changes suggest their dependence on a delayed intestinal adaptation to a low-carbohydrate diet. Pre-meal exercise exacerbated glucose intolerance with both diets most likely due to impairment of insulin signaling by pre-meal elevation of FFAs.
To investigate the effect of an exercise intervention on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating endothelial biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)
Sedentary adults (n=140), aged 40–65, with T2DM and untreated pre- or Stage I hypertension or treated hypertension were randomized to a 6-month, supervised, exercise program (3×week) or a sedentary control. Assessments included BMI, body and visceral fat, blood pressure, lipids, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity (QUICKI), fitness, FMD, E-selectin, P-selectin, intracellular and vascular cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM, VCAM), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Intervention effects were compared by t-tests. Pearson’s correlations were calculated between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial outcomes.
Exercisers significantly improved BMI (−0.6 kg/m2), body fat % (−1.4%), HbA1c (−0.5%), and fitness (2.9 mL/kg·min) vs. controls (p<0.05). However, there were no differences between groups in changes in FMD, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, or tPA. Among exercisers, changes in cardiovascular risk factors correlated with several biomarkers. Decreased P-selectin correlated with decreased BMI (r=0.29, p=0.04) and increased HDL cholesterol (r=−0.36, p=0.01). Decreased ICAM correlated with decreased triglycerides and HbA1c (r=0.30, p=0.04; r=0.31, p=0.03) and increased QUICKI (r=−0.28, p=0.05). Decreased tPA correlated with decreased total body and visceral fat (r=0.28, p=0.05; r=0.38, p=0.008) and increased QUICKI (r=−0.38, p=0.007).
While exercise resulted in improved fitness, body composition, and glycemic control, there were no changes in FMD or circulating endothelial biomarkers. The associations of changes in cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial biomarkers suggest that improvement in risk factors could mediate the exercise-induced improvements in endothelial function seen in prior studies.
Endothelial function; adhesion molecules; exercise; type 2 diabetes; vasodilation
Postprandial elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impairs endothelial function, which can initiate atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of bezafibrate on postprandial endothelial dysfunction and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Ten patients with metabolic syndrome were treated with 400 mg/day bezafibrate or untreated for 4 weeks in a randomized crossover study. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and lipid profiles were assessed during fasting and after consumption of a standardized snack. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol contents of lipoprotein fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Postprandial FMD decreased significantly and reached its lowest value 4 h after the cookie test in both the bezafibrate and control groups, but the relative change in FMD from baseline to minimum in the bezafibrate group was significantly smaller than that in the control group (-29.0 ± 5.9 vs. -42.9 ± 6.2 %, p = 0.04). Bezafibrate significantly suppressed postprandial elevation of triglyceride (incremental area under the curve (AUC): 544 ± 65 vs. 1158 ± 283 mg h/dl, p = 0.02) and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (incremental AUC: 27.9 ± 3.5 vs. 72.3 ± 14.1 mg h/dl, p < 0.01). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that postprandial triglyceride content of the chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein fractions was significantly lower in the bezafibrate group than in the control group (p < 0.05).
Bezafibrate significantly decreased postprandial endothelial dysfunction, and elevations of both exogenous and endogenous triglycerides in patients with metabolic syndrome, suggesting that bezafibrate may have vascular protective effects in these patients.
Clinical trial registration
Unique Identifiers: UMIN000012557
Atherosclerosis; Bezafibrate; Triglyceride; Endothelium; Vasodilation
A low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) achieves good glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared with a high-carbohydrate diet. With respect to energy metabolism, acute metabolic responses to high-carbohydrate meals (HCMs) have not been determined in LCD patients with T2DM.
Subjects and methods
We enrolled 31 subjects with T2DM (mean age: 62 yrs, mean hemoglobin A1c level: 6.9%), of whom 13 were on a strict LCD (26% carbohydrate diet), and 18 a moderate one (44% carbohydrate diet). Two isocaloric meals were administered to all subjects in a randomized crossover design. The carbohydrate:protein:fat ratios of HCMs and low-carbohydrate meals (LCMs) were 59:20:21 and 7:20:73, respectively. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, free fatty acids (FFAs), triglyceride and insulin, and plasma glucose concentrations were measured for 120 minutes after the intake of each meal.
HCMs rapidly decreased postprandial β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and FFA concentrations within 2 hours in all patients in combination with rapid increases in serum insulin and plasma glucose, while LCMs increased or did not change β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and FFAs (P < 0.001 for all). HCMs did not change postprandial triglyceride concentrations over 2 hours, while LCMs gradually increased them (P < 0.001).
HCMs sharply and rapidly decreased postprandial β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate concentrations in strict LCD subjects over 2 hours, but only slightly decreased them in moderate LCD subjects (P < 0.001, difference between strict and moderate LCD subjects). The parameter Δketone bodies (level at 120 minutes - level at baseline) was significantly correlated with the insulinogenic index (Spearman's r = 0.503 for β-hydroxybutyrate and 0.509 for acetoacetate), but not with total insulin secretory capacity. Moreover, HCMs slightly decreased postprandial triglyceride levels in strict LCD subjects but somewhat increased them in the moderate LCD subjects (P = 0.002). The parameter Δtriglyceride was significantly correlated with background dietary %carbohydrate (Spearman's r = 0.484).
HCMs rapidly decreased postprandial ketone body concentrations in T2DM patients treated with a LCD. The decreases were more remarkable in strict than in moderate LCD subjects. HCMs slightly decreased postprandial triglyceride levels in strict LCD subjects. The parameter Δketone bodies was significantly correlated with the insulinogenic index, as was Δtriglyceride with background dietary %carbohydrate.
The measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) via ultrasound has been established as a reliable non-invasive measurement of endothelial function. However, the guidelines mention nothing regarding diurnal variation of FMD. Thus, we investigated the FMD in healthy people and diurnal variation of FMD.
Twenty-five apparently healthy persons participated in this study. All participants had no history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, or diabetes and used any medication. For each volunteer, the measurements were repeated in the morning and afternoon on two different days. We checked capillary blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol.
The average of FMD measurements was 8.45% ± 2.39%. The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, lipid profiles, and glucose levels were similar between the morning and afternoon measurements after 9-h fasting. There was no significant difference of FMD measurements between the morning and afternoon (8.32% ± 2.27% and 8.58% ± 2.56%, p = 0.329). Moreover, there was significant correlation between FMD in the morning and afternoon (r = 0.856, p < 0.001).
Our study shows measurement of FMD was 8.45% in healthy Koreans. Also, there was no significant difference of FMD measurements between the morning and afternoon.
Flow-mediated dilatation; Diurnal variation; Circadian variation