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1.  Serum ferritin levels and the development of metabolic syndrome and its components: a 6.5-year follow-up study 
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between changes in serum ferritin concentrations and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components over a 6.5 year follow-up period in Finnish adults.
Adults born in Pieksämäki, Finland, in 1942, 1947, 1952, 1957, and 1962 (n = 1294) were invited to health checkups between 1997 and 1998 and 2003 and 2004. All of the required variables for both checkups were available from 691 (53%) subjects (289 men and 402 women). MetS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria.
During the 6.5-year follow-up period, 122 (18%) subjects developed incident cases of MetS. Increases in serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in both women and men with incident MetS compared with women and men without MetS (p = 0.04, p = 0.03). Also, serum ferritin levels increased significantly less in women in whom the criteria for MetS resolved during the follow-up period (p = 0.01). Increases in serum ferritin levels were significantly lower in women in whom the glucose criterion for MetS resolved, and higher in women for whom the waist criterion developed (p = 0.01 and p <0.001, respectively). Serum ferritin levels decreased significantly more in men in whom the triglyceride criterion for MetS resolved during the follow-up period (p = 0.01). There was a clear and significant correlation between change in serum ferritin level and change in waist circumference both in men and women (p <0.001, p <0.01). In addition, correlations between change in serum ferritin level and change in plasma triglyceride as well as glucose levels were strongly positive in men (p <0.001). There was negative correlation between change in serum ferritin and plasma high density cholesterol level both in men and women.
Increases in serum ferritin over a 6,5 year period are associated with development of MetS in both men and women. Whereas, lower increases in serum ferritin over the same timeframe are associated with resolution of hypertriglyceridemia in men and hyperglycemia in women. Increases in waist circumference was positively correlated with increases in serum ferritin in both men and women.
PMCID: PMC4219011  PMID: 25371712
Metabolic syndrome; Ferritin; Obesity
2.  Supplementary use of HbA1c as hyperglycemic criterion to detect metabolic syndrome 
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension. An effective detection of MetS not only reflects the prediction risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases but also helps to plan for management strategy which could reduce the healthcare burden of the society. This study aimed to compare the use of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as the hyperglycemic component in MetS diagnosis.
Waist circumference, blood pressure, blood triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, FPG, and HbA1c were examined in 120 Hong Kong Chinese adults with MetS and 120 without MetS. After reviewing the subject basal characteristics, 11 of them were found with undiagnosed diabetes (FPG ≧7.0 mmol/L) and were excluded for further analysis.
The most prevalent MetS components among the included subjects were elevated systolic blood pressure and central obesity. Significant correlation relationships existed between FPG and HbA1c in both subject pools diagnosed with and without MetS (p < 0.001). The diagnostic rate of MetS using HbA1c was compared to FPG by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis which suggested an area under curve of 0.807 (95% CI: 0.727 to 0.887). The agreement was 90.7% in MetS-positive group with increased FPG as one of the criterion co-existed with elevated HbA1c. If including HbA1c as an additional criterion to FPG in the MetS diagnosis, 30 more participants in MetS-negative group would be MetS-positive leading to an increase in detection rate. Furthermore, 47 subjects (38 from MetS-positive group and 9 from MetS-negative group) were found having HbA1c ≧6.5%, who would have been diagnosed with diabetes based on the diagnostic criteria implemented by the Expert Group in 2009.
These findings suggest that HbA1c enhances the detection of hyperglycemia for the diagnosis of MetS.
PMCID: PMC4232661  PMID: 25400701
3.  Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Liver Histology Among Children With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults. Emerging data suggest that MetS may be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children as well. We sought to determine whether MetS or its component features are associated with specific histological features or severity of NAFLD.
Children and adolescents aged 6 – 17 years enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) with clinical data obtained within 6 months of liver biopsy were included. MetS was defined as the presence of three or more of the following features as determined by application of age-adjusted normative values: central obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and elevated blood pressure. Liver biopsies were evaluated by the Pathology Committee of the NASH CRN.
Two hundred fifty four children were included in the analysis, of whom 65 (26 %) met specified criteria for MetS. Among children with MetS, there is a higher proportion of females who were on average older in age and pubertal. The risk of MetS was greatest among those with severe steatosis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.58 for grade 3 vs. grade 1 steatosis, P = 0.001). The presence of hepatocellular ballooning was also significantly associated with MetS (OR = 2.10, P = 0.03). Those with advanced fibrosis (stage 3/4) had an OR for MetS of 3.21 (P = 0.04) vs. those without fibrosis (stage 0). Borderline zone 1 or definite NASH patterns compared with “ not NASH ” were strongly associated with MetS (OR = 4.44, P = 0.005 and OR = 4.07, P = 0.002, respectively). The mean NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) was greater among children with MetS vs. those without (4.8 ± 1.4 vs. 4.3 ± 1.4, P = 0.01). Central obesity was significantly associated with steatosis, fibrosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and NAFLD pattern. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with steatosis, fibrosis, hepatocellular ballooning, NAS, and NAFLD pattern.
MetS is common among children with NAFLD and is associated with severity of steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, NAS, NAFLD pattern, and the presence of advanced fibrosis. Individual MetS features, particularly central obesity and insulin resistance, were also associated with severity of NAFLD. MetS features should be considered in children with NAFLD as individually and collectively they help identify children with more advanced disease.
PMCID: PMC3070291  PMID: 20372110
4.  Adiponectin in eutrophic and obese children as a biomarker to predict metabolic syndrome and each of its components 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:88.
Obesity is associated with the rise of noncommunicable diseases worldwide. The pathophysiology behind this disease involves the increase of adipose tissue, being inversely related to adiponectin, but directly related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between adiponectin levels with each component of MetS in eutrophic and obese Mexican children.
A cross sectional study was conducted in 190 school-age children classified as obese and 196 classified as eutrophic. Adiponectin, glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides were determined from a fasting blood sample. Height, weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) were measured; MetS was evaluated with the IDF definition. The study groups were divided according to tertiles of adiponectin, using the higher concentration as a reference. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between adiponectin and components of the MetS. Finally, stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, basal HOMA-IR values and BMI was performed to determine the odds ratio of developing MetS according to adiponectin tertiles.
Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were statistically different between eutrophic and obese children with and without MetS (P <0.001). The prevalence of MetS in obese populations was 13%. Adiponectin concentrations were 15.5 ± 6.1, 12.0 ± 4.8, 12.4 ± 4.9 and 9.4 ± 2.8 μg/mL for eutrophic and obese subjects, obese without MetS, and obese with MetS, respectively (P <0.001). Obese children with low values of adiponectin exhibited a higher frequency of MetS components: abdominal obesity, 49%; high systolic BP, 3%; high diastolic BP, 2%; impaired fasting glucose, 17%; hypertriglyceridemia, 31%; and low HDL-C values, 42%. Adjusted odds ratio of presenting MetS according to adiponectin categories was 10.9 (95% CI 2.05; 48.16) when the first tertile was compared with the third.
In this sample of eutrophic and obese Mexican children we found that adiponectin concentrations and MetS components have an inversely proportional relationship, which supports the idea that this hormone could be a biomarker for identifying individuals with risk of developing MetS.
PMCID: PMC3570482  PMID: 23363707
Obesity; Adiponectin; Child; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Biomarker
5.  The metabolic syndrome and progression of carotid atherosclerosis over 13 years. The Tromsø study 
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examine if metabolic syndrome predicts progression of atherosclerosis over 13 years.
Participants were 1442 men and 1532 women in the population-based Tromsø Study who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations at baseline in the 4th (1994–5) and at follow-up in the 6th survey (2007–8). Of these, 278 men and 273 women fulfilled the criteria for the MetS, defined according to a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATPIII). Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as total plaque area (TPA) and mean intima-media thickness (IMT) at follow-up and as change in IMT and TPA from baseline to follow-up. Associations between MetS and its components and carotid atherosclerosis were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, total cholesterol and daily smoking, stratified by sex.
IMT and TPA levels at follow-up (p < 0.0001) and progression of TPA (p = 0.02) were higher in the MetS group compared to the non-MetS group. In stepwise multivariable models, MetS was associated with TPA (β = 0.372 mm2, p = 0.009) and IMT (β = 0.051 mm, p < 0.0001) in men, and with IMT (β = 0.045 mm, p = 0.001) in women after 13 years of follow-up, but not with progression of IMT or TPA. In analyses stratified by age, MetS predicted progression of IMT (β = 0.043 mm, p = 0.046) and TPA (β = 1.02 mm2, p = 0.002) in men below 50 years of age. Hypertension was predictive of follow-up TPA and IMT in both genders and of progression of TPA in women. Impaired glucose tolerance was associated with follow up levels of IMT and TPA as well as progression in IMT in men. None of the other components of MetS were associated with progression of atherosclerosis.
Subjects with MetS had higher levels of IMT and TPA at follow up than those without MetS. Mets predicted progression of IMT and TPA in those below 50 years of age, but not in other age groups, indicating that MetS may be involved in the initiation of the atherosclerotic process.
PMCID: PMC3539868  PMID: 22738646
Metabolic syndrome; Carotid artery; Atherosclerosis; Intima-media thickness; Plaque; Progression; Risk factor; Prospective; Population study
6.  Increased Rho Kinase Activity in a Taiwanese Population With Metabolic Syndrome 
We sought to determine whether Rho kinase (ROCK) activity is increased in a Taiwanese population with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Recent studies suggest that ROCK may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS, but clinical studies linking ROCK with MetS are lacking.
We studied 40 Taiwanese subjects (60% men, mean age 55.5 ± 5.6 years) who were diagnosed with MetS with National Cholesterol Educational Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and 40 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Subject demographics were recorded, and blood samples were obtained.
Compared with control subjects, ROCK activity, as determined by phosphorylation of myosin binding subunit (MBS) in leukocytes, was greater in MetS subjects (mean phospho-MBS/MBS ratio 0.46 vs. 0.35, p = 0.002). A cutoff value for ROCK activity of 0.39 predicted the presence of MetS with specificity and sensitivity rates of 70%. Plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was greater (5.5 mg/l, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1 to 7.2 mg/l vs. 2.8 mg/l, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9 mg/l, p = 0.01) and adiponectin was lower (4.9 μg/ml, 95% CI 3.2 to 6.1 μg/ml vs. 5.9 μg/ml, 95% CI 4.2 to 7.5 μg/ml, p = 0.01) in MetS subjects compared with control subjects, but plasma levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not different (p > 0.05 for both). Body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and triglyceride levels were associated with increased levels of ROCK activity. The risk of increased ROCK activity increased with the number of MetS components (p for trend <0.001).
Rho kinase activity is increased in Taiwanese subjects with MetS and is associated with each component of MetS and markers of inflammation. These findings suggest that ROCK activity may be a novel serological marker of MetS.
PMCID: PMC2615567  PMID: 17433952
7.  Associations between smoking, components of metabolic syndrome and lipoprotein particle size 
BMC Medicine  2013;11:195.
The clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is known as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The risk of having MetS is strongly associated with increased adiposity and can be further modified by smoking behavior. Apolipoproteins (apo) associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be altered in MetS. This study aimed to examine the association between smoking and the following parameters: MetS and its components, levels of apolipoproteins and estimated lipoprotein particle size, separately for men and women, and in different body mass index (BMI) classes.
We included 24,389 men and 35,078 women aged between 18 and 80 years who participated in the LifeLines Cohort Study between December 2006 and January 2012; 5,685 men and 6,989 women were current smokers. Participants were categorized into three different body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI <25; BMI 25 to 30; BMI ≥30 kg/m2). MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP:ATPIII) criteria. Blood pressure, anthropometric and lipid measurements were rigorously standardized, and the large sample size enabled a powerful estimate of quantitative changes. The association between smoking and the individual MetS components, and apoA1 and apoB, was tested with linear regression. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of smoking and daily tobacco smoked on risk of having MetS. All models were age adjusted and stratified by sex and BMI class.
Prevalence of MetS increased with higher BMI levels. A total of 64% of obese men and 42% of obese women had MetS. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of MetS in both sexes and all BMI classes (odds ratio 1.7 to 2.4 for men, 1.8 to 2.3 for women, all P values <0.001). Current smokers had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and apoA1, higher levels of triglycerides and apoB, and higher waist circumference than non-smokers (all P <0.001). Smoking had no consistent association with blood pressure or fasting blood glucose. In all BMI classes, we found a dose-dependent association of daily tobacco consumption with MetS prevalence as well as with lower levels of HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and lower ratios of HDL cholesterol/apoA1 and, only in those with BMI <30, LDL cholesterol/apoB (all P <0.001).
Smoking is associated with an increased prevalence of MetS, independent of sex and BMI class. This increased risk is mainly related to lower HDL cholesterol, and higher triglycerides and waist circumference. In addition, smoking was associated with unfavorable changes in apoA1 and apoB, and in lipoprotein particle size.
Please see related commentary:
PMCID: PMC3766075  PMID: 24228807
Metabolic syndrome; Smoking; HDL; Cholesterol; Apolipoproteins; Triglycerides; Obesity; Cross-sectional; BMI classes
8.  Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in Perimenopausal Women 
The purpose of the study was to explore the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in perimenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. Perimenopausal women (n = 685) were included in the study. All participants were divided into three subgroups: Group 1, 40 years old ≤ Age < 50 years old; Group 2, 50 years old ≤ Age < 60 years old; Group 3, 60 years old ≤ Age ≤ 65 years old. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.01) in the unadjusted analyses in total subjects. After adjusting the potential confounders, the odd ratios of CKD for MetS was 2.66 (95% CI 1.56 to 4.49, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between MetS and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.001) in the unadjusted analyses in Group 2. After adjusting for potential confounders, MetS was significantly associated with CKD. The odd ratios for MetS was 6.79 (95% CI 2.30 to 20.09, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. Elevated blood pressure was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 4.52 (1.28–16.02), p = 0.02). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated blood pressure and CKD (p = 0.78). Elevated fasting glucose was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 3.69 (1.10–12.38), p = 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated fasting glucose and CKD (p = 0.15). There was no relationship between abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in Group 2. These findings suggest that in perimenopausal women aged from 50 or older to 60 MetS was associated with CKD. There is no relationship between MetS and CKD in perimenopausal women aged from 40 or older to 50 and aged from 60 or older to 65.
PMCID: PMC3799514  PMID: 23999547
metabolic syndrome; chronic kidney disease; perimenopausal women
9.  Increased frequency of metabolic syndrome among Vietnamese women with early rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(6):R218.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, and this occurs early in the disease process. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) may contribute to the excess cardiovascular burden observed in RA; however, little information is available regarding MetS in early RA. We aimed to identify the prevalence of MetS and to determine the potential factors associated with the presence of MetS in Vietnamese women with early RA.
A total of 105 consecutive women with early RA (disease duration ≤3 years) and 105 age-matched healthy women were checked for MetS according to six MetS definitions (Joint Consensus, International Diabetes Federation, National Cholesterol Education Program 2004 and 2001, European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance, and World Health Organization). Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to determine independent predictors of MetS in women with RA.
Prevalence of MetS varied from 16.2% to 40.9% according to the definitions used in women with RA, and was higher (P < 0.001) than in healthy controls (from 10.5% to 22.9%). Among individual components of MetS, differences between women with RA and controls were observed for hypertension (P < 0.001), low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (P < 0.001), and abdominal obesity (P = 0.019). After adjusting for age and physical activity, higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (odds ratios (OR) = 1.516, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.073 to 3.195, P = 0.042), disease activity score (DAS28) (OR = 1.736, 95% CI: 1.293 to 2.786, P = 0.019), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) score (OR = 1.583, 95% CI: 1.195 to 2.367, P = 0.035), and less methotrexate use (OR = 0.736, 95% CI: 0.547 to 0.962, P = 0.024) remained significant independent predictors of the presence of MetS in women with RA.
Women with early RA already had higher prevalence of MetS compared with healthy controls. Higher systemic inflammatory marker, disease activity and disability scores, and less methotrexate use were independent predictors associated with the presence of MetS in women with early RA. These findings suggest that physicians should screen for MetS in women with early RA to control its components and therefore reduce their risk of cardiovascular diseases.
PMCID: PMC3046531  PMID: 21182767
10.  Association of Hematological Parameters with Clustered Components of Metabolic Syndrome among Professional and Office Workers in Bangkok, Thailand 
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome  2007;1(3):143-149.
Accumulating evidence documents associations between alterations in hematological parameters, indicative of prothrombotic and proinflammatory states, and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated associations of hematological parameters with MetS and individual criteria of the syndrome among Thai professional and office workers.
Study subjects were 1,314 patients (531 men and 783 women) who participated in annual health examinations during the period of August through December 2001. MetS was defined using the modified ATP III criteria. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of MetS risk according to quartiles of each hematological parameter with the lowest quartile specified as the referent group.
WBC counts increased with increasing numbers of MetS components in both men and women. Among women, platelet counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations increased with increasing numbers of MetS components (p<0.05). No similar trends were observed for men. Of the hematological parameters studied, elevated platelet and WBC were statistically significantly associated with MetS among men (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.03–3.36; OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.27–4.02), respectively. Among women, MetS risk increased across successive quartiles of hemoglobin (1.00, 2.63, 3.59 and 4.36; p for trend = 0.002), hematocrit (1.00, 2.35, 3.04 and 5.70; p-for trend <0.001), platelet (1.00, 2.37, 2.83 and 3.11; p-for trend = 0.014) and WBC counts (1.00, 2.97, 4.09 and 5.41; p-for trend < 0.001).
Our data are consistent with an emerging literature demonstrating altered hematological status in patients at high risk of MetS.
PMCID: PMC2699274  PMID: 19543435
Metabolic Syndrome; Hematological Parameters; Thailand
11.  Metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity phenotypes in the general population: the FIN-D2D Survey 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:754.
The aim of this work was to examine the prevalence of different metabolical phenotypes of obesity, and to analyze, by using different risk scores, how the metabolic syndrome (MetS) definition discriminates between unhealthy and healthy metabolic phenotypes in different obesity classes.
The Finnish type 2 diabetes (FIN-D2D) survey, a part of the larger implementation study, was carried out in 2007. The present cross-sectional analysis comprises 2,849 individuals aged 45-74 years. The MetS was defined with the new Harmonization definition. Cardiovascular risk was estimated with the Framingham and SCORE risk scores. Diabetes risk was assessed with the FINDRISK score. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was estimated with the NAFLD score. Participants with and without MetS were classified in different weight categories and analysis of regression models were used to test the linear trend between body mass index (BMI) and various characteristics in individuals with and without MetS; and interaction between BMI and MetS.
A metabolically healthy but obese phenotype was observed in 9.2% of obese men and in 16.4% of obese women. The MetS-BMI interaction was significant for fasting glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)(p < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of total diabetes (detected prior to or during survey) was 37.0% in obese individuals with MetS and 4.3% in obese individuals without MetS (p < 0.001). MetS-BMI interaction was significant (p < 0.001) also for the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score, NAFLD score and estimated liver fat %, indicating greater effect of increasing BMI in participants with MetS compared to participants without MetS. The metabolically healthy but obese individuals had lower 2-hour postload glucose levels (p = 0.0030), lower NAFLD scores (p < 0.001) and lower CVD risk scores (Framingham, p < 0.001; SCORE, p = 0.002) than normal weight individuals with MetS.
Undetected Type 2 diabetes was more prevalent among those with MetS irrespective of the BMI class and increasing BMI had a significantly greater effect on estimates of liver fat and future CVD risk among those with MetS compared with participants without MetS. A healthy obese phenotype was associated with a better metabolic profile than observed in normal weight individuals with MetS.
PMCID: PMC3198943  PMID: 21962038
12.  Central obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk for colorectal adenoma in a Chinese population 
BMC Gastroenterology  2010;10:51.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is composed of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Most of the components of MetS have been linked to the development of neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual components of MetS and colorectal adenoma.
The study subjects were recruited from a pool of 4872 individuals who underwent a health check-up examination during the period January 2006 to May 2008. Each participant fulfilled a structured questionnaire. MetS was defined based on the America Heart Association and National Heart Lung Blood Institute criteria. Subjects with history of colon cancer, colon polyps, colitis, or prior colonic surgery were excluded.
A total of 4122 subjects were included for final analysis (2367 men and 1755 women; mean age, 49.6 ± 11.7 years). Of them, MetS was diagnosed in 708 men (29.9%) and in 367 women (20.9%). Among the patients with MetS, 34.6% had adenoma, 31.7% had hyperplastic polyps and 23.3% were polyp-free (p < 0.0001, Chi-square test). The adjusted OR for colorectal adenoma was significantly higher in the subjects with MetS (OR, 1.31, CI: 1.09-1.57). A stronger association between MetS and colorectal adenoma was found in men (OR:1.44, CI:1.16-1.80) than in women (OR:1.04, CI:0.74-1.46). The adjusted OR for adenoma increased as the number of MetS components increased (p for trend = 0.0001 ). When the individual components of MetS were analyzed separately, only central obesity (OR:1.36, CI:1.14-1.63), low HDL cholesterol levels (OR:1.30, CI:1.10-1.54) and high triglyceride levels (OR:1.26, CI:1.04-1.53) were independently associated with colorectal adenoma.
Of the components of MetS analyzed in this study, central obesity and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for colorectal adenoma. With regard to the prevention of colorectal neoplasm, life-style modification such as weight reduction is worthwhile.
PMCID: PMC2894746  PMID: 20507579
13.  Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the.
In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women.
The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions.
PMCID: PMC3818614  PMID: 24250693
C-reactive protein level; metabolic syndrome; white blood cell count
14.  Circulating microRNAs have a sex-specific association with metabolic syndrome 
The microRNAs let-7 g and miR-221 have been demonstrated to be related to the glucose metabolism. This study assessed the serum levels of these two microRNAs in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS).
The serum microRNA levels were detected in 102 subjects aged 40 to 80 years who were recruited from the general population. The status of MetS was defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for Asians. Subjects with histories of cardiovascular diseases or who were receiving treatment with hypoglycemic or lipid-lowering agents were excluded. The levels of both circulating microRNAs (let-7 g and miR-221) were higher in subjects with MetS (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01, respectively). The sex-specific analysis showed that the difference was more prominent in women (for both miRNAs, p < 0.05 in women and p > 0.1 in men). In the female subjects, increased expression of both microRNAs was associated with an increased number of MetS risk components (p = 0.002 for let-7 g and p = 0.022 for miR-221). Moreover, the elevation of serum let-7 g was significantly associated with a low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.022) and high blood pressure (p = 0.023). In contrast, the miR-221 level was not associated with any individual MetS risk component.
The circulating levels of let-7 g and miR-221 displayed a female-specific elevation in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3851553  PMID: 24093444
Obesity; Gender disparity; let-7 g; miR-221
15.  Longitudinal Paths to the Metabolic Syndrome: Can the Incidence of the Metabolic Syndrome Be Predicted? The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging 
To determine the predictors of incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) and to determine if longitudinal changes in specific MetS components differ by age or gender in participants who developed versus those who did not develop MetS.
A total of 506 men and 461 women (baseline age 52.4 ± 17.5 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (BLSA) were followed longitudinally (at least two study visits), and censored when they developed the MetS or reported use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medications.
After a follow-up period of 6 years, the incidence of the MetS was 25.5% in men and 14.8% in women. As many as 66% of men and 73% of women with one or two altered MetS components at baseline did not develop the MetS. Predictors of developing MetS were higher baseline abdominal obesity or triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (area under receiver-operated curve [AUC] = 0.84 in men, 0.88 in women). Addition of the rate of changes in MetS components over time slightly improved predictive accuracy (AUC = 0.94 in men, 0.92 in women). Men were more likely than women to have the MetS without obesity, whereas women were more likely than men to have the MetS without an altered glucose metabolism.
The patterns of MetS components and the longitudinal changes that lead to the MetS are different in men and women. Interestingly, components with the highest prevalence prior to MetS development, such as elevated blood pressure, are not necessarily the stronger risk factors.
PMCID: PMC4017826  PMID: 19270183
Metabolic syndrome; Incidence; Longitudinal studies; Abdominal obesity
16.  The Association of Homocysteine with Metabolic Syndrome in a Community-Dwelling Population: Homocysteine Might Be Concomitant with Metabolic Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113148.
Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both associated with cardiovascular disease, but the association between tHcy and MetS is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between tHcy and MetS.
To further estimate the time-dependent association of tHcy and MetS, we analyzed the tHcy level and MetS in 1499 subjects from a 4.8-year longitudinal study in Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
In multiple linear regression analysis, baseline tHcy levels associated with age, BMI, SBP, DBP, LDL-C and Cr independently over 4.8-years follow-up; age, BMI, SBP, DBP and Cr were found to be associated with tHcy levels independently at the end of follow-up. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was no association between the baseline tHcy level and MetS over the 4.8-year follow-up (odds ratio (OR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79–2.19; P = 0.282); rather, there was an association only with hypertension as a MetS component (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06–2.21; P = 0.024). tHcy levels were associated with MetS at both cross-sectional baseline (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02–1.88; P = 0.038) and cross-sectional follow-up (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.02–2.50; P = 0.041). The tHcy levels of MetS subjects were higher than those of non-MetS subjects at both cross-sectional baseline (19.35±7.92 µmol/L vs. 17.45±6.70 µmol/L, respectively; P = 0.001) and cross-sectional follow-up (18.95±7.15 µmol/L vs. 17.11±5.98 µmol/L, respectively; P = 0.02).
The tHcy level was not predictive of the incidence of MetS; however, it may be a risk factor for hypertension as a MetS component. Furthermore, tHcy levels were associated with MetS at cross-sectional baseline and follow-up, which suggests that a higher level of tHcy might be concomitant with MetS.
PMCID: PMC4234666  PMID: 25401978
17.  Adipocytokines and the metabolic syndrome among older persons with and without obesity - the InCHIANTI Study 
Clinical endocrinology  2010;73(1):55-65.
Adipose tissue-derived inflammation may contribute to metabolic alterations and eventually to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine the role of adipocytokines in the association between obesity and the MetS; and 2) to determine whether the association is different in obese and non-obese persons.
Cross-sectional population-based InCHIANTI study.
944 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older living in Tuscany, Italy.
Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 and MetS as ≥ 3 of the ATP-III criteria. Circulating levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-1ra, IL-18, TNF-α R1, adiponectin, resistin, and leptin were measured. Additionally, insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR).
The prevalence of the MetS was 32%. Both overall and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with the MetS after adjusting for inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and lifestyle factors. After adjusting for multiple confounders and HOMA-IR, IL-1ra, TNF-α R1 and adiponectin (p < 0.05) remained significantly associated with the MetS. Having multiple cytokines in the highest tertile increased the likelihood of having the MetS in both obese (p for trend 0.002) and non-obese persons (p for trend 0.001) independent of insulin resistance.
Non-obese and obese individuals who develop an intense pro-inflammatory state may be more prone to develop the MetS than those with lower levels of inflammation.
PMCID: PMC2888845  PMID: 19878507
adipocytokines; adiponectin; cytokines; inflammation; metabolic syndrome; obesity
18.  Cross-Sectional Assessment of Nut Consumption and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The PREDIMED Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e57367.
Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors.
To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.
Materials and Methods
Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y) recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia) by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as <1, 1–3, and >3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression.
Compared to participants consuming <1 serving/wk of nuts, those consuming >3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001), MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001), and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043). Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001). No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose.
Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.
PMCID: PMC3583833  PMID: 23460844
19.  Elevated circulating levels of an incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, are associated with metabolic components in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease 
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that has a wide range of effects on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular function (e.g., improving insulin sensitivity, reduction in appetite, modulation of heart rate, blood pressure and myocardial contractility). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Novel glycemic control drugs, the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, work by inhibiting the inactivation of incretin hormones, GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). In spite of good effects of these drugs in diabetic patients, circulating levels of incretins and their role in MetS are largely unknown.
To examine relationships between incretin hormones and MetS risk factors, we measured circulating levels of incretins in obese high-risk patients for cardiovascular disease. Fasting serum GLP-1 and GIP levels were measured by ELISA. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of metabolic variables in the fasting state in two subject groups: with MetS (n = 60) and pre-MetS (n = 37).
Fasting levels of Serum GLP -1 in the peripheral circulation were significantly increased correlated with the accumulation of MetS risk factors components (r = 0. 470, P < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between circulating GLP-1 and GIP, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and serum uric acid concentrations but not waist circumference, fasting glucose, HbA1c, or presence of diabetes.
Circulating levels of GLP-1 in relation to the accumulation in MetS factors suggested that MetS patients with elevated levels of GLP-1 are high-risk patients for cardiovascular disease, independent with the presence of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2891690  PMID: 20470376
20.  Prevalence of neck pain in subjects with metabolic syndrome - a cross-sectional population-based study 
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly common. Obesity has been suggested to associate with neck pain but prevalence of neck pain in subjects with MetS has not been studied. Aim of this study was to analyse the association between MetS and neck pain.
The study population consisted of 1294 middle-aged subjects in Pieksämäki, Finland. A total of 399 males and 500 females participated (69%). The mean age of both males and females was 46 years. Clinical and biochemical measurements were taken. The participants filled out a standard questionnaire. Psychological distress was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Neck pain was defined as neck pain perceived daily. MetS was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Statistical comparisons between the groups were performed using a bootstrap-type t-test or Chi-Square test. Risk ratios of having neck pain were calculated using generalised linear models with age, smoking, alcohol use, exercise and GHQ-12 score as covariates.
The prevalence of MetS was 33% in males and 29% in females. Neck pain was present in 11% (N = 42) of males and 19% (N = 93) of females (P < 0.001). The prevalence of neck pain was 7.9% (95% CI, 4.9% to 12%) among male subjects without MetS and 16% (95% CI, 10% to 23%) among those with MetS. The respective proportions among females were 16% (95% CI, 12% to 20%) and 25% (95% CI, 18% to 33%). The multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of neck pain in males with MetS (RR 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.7, P = 0.010) and in females with MetS (RR 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.1, P = 0.040).
MetS was associated with neck pain. This association was stronger in males, but the prevalence of neck pain was higher in females. Prospective studies should explore the potential causal association between neck pain and MetS and the potential common background factors of neck pain and MetS.
PMCID: PMC2918543  PMID: 20670458
21.  Relationship between Serum Levels of Body Iron Parameters and Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Children 
An increase in serum ferritin and levels of the cleaved soluble form of transferrin receptor (sTfR) are related to several metabolic conditions. We evaluated the relationship between body iron status indicators, including ferritin and sTfR, and insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean children.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1350 children in Korea. Anthropometrical parameters; lipid profiles; levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin; and iron status indicators, including sTfR, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation (TS), were analyzed.
Although serum sTfR levels were significantly higher in boys than in girls (2.20 vs. 2.06 mg/L, p < 0.0001), serum iron and TS were higher in girls than in boys (101.38 vs. 95.77 mg/L, p = 0.027 and 30.15 vs. 28.91%, p = 0.04, respectively). Waist circumference (WC) and leptin were most significantly associated with body iron indicators when adjusted for age and sex. After adjusting for age, sex, and WC, sTfR levels showed the strongest positive association with leptin levels (p = 0.0001). Children in the highest tertile for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had higher TIBC (p = 0.0005) and lower serum iron (p = 0.0341), and the lowest TS (p < 0.0001) after adjustment for confounders. Children with higher sTfR were most significantly associated with risk of MetS compared with those lower sTfR (p = 0.0077).
The associations of serum levels of iron metabolism markers with leptin levels, HOMA-IR, and MetS suggest that iron-related factors may involve insulin resistance and MetS.
PMCID: PMC4214999  PMID: 25379371
body iron store; HOMA-IR; metabolic syndrome; sTfR; TS
22.  Impaired fasting glucose: Pro-diabetic, “atheroprotective” and modified by metabolic syndrome 
World Journal of Diabetes  2013;4(5):210-218.
AIM: To investigate whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) confers cardiovascular risk.
METHODS: A non-diabetic population-based sample representative of middle-aged and elderly Turks was studied at 8.5 years’ follow-up for incident diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined by ATP-III criteria modified for male abdominal obesity, and IFG and type 2 diabetes were identified by criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Stratification by presence of MetS was used. Outcomes were predicted providing estimates for hazard ratio (HR) obtained by use of Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in models that controlled for potential confounders.
RESULTS: In 3181 adults (aged 52 ± 11.5 years at baseline), analysis stratified by MetS, gender and IFG status distinguished normoglycemic subjects by a “hypertriglyceridemic waist” phenotype consisting of significantly higher waist circumference, fasting triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, regardless of gender and MetS. Additionally, lipoprotein (Lp) (a) tended to be lower in (especially female) participants with MetS. Multivariable linear regression in a subset of the sample demonstrated decreased Lp (a) levels to be associated with increased fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, again particularly in women. In Cox regression analysis, compared with normoglycemia, baseline IFG adjusted for major confounders significantly predicted incident diabetes at a 3-fold HR in men and only women with MetS. Cox models for developing CHD in 339 individuals, adjusted for conventional risk factors, revealed that IFG status protected against CHD risk [HR = 0.37 (95%CI: 0.14-0.998)] in subjects free of MetS, a protection that attenuated partly in male and fully in female participants with MetS.
CONCLUSION: IFG status in non-diabetic people without MetS displays reduced future CHD risk, yet is modulated by MetS, likely due to autoimmune activation linked to serum Lp (a).
PMCID: PMC3797886  PMID: 24147205
Autoimmune activation; Coronary disease risk; Diabetes, type 2; Impaired fasting glucose; Lipoprotein (a); Metabolic syndrome
23.  Association of Vaspin with Metabolic Syndrome: The Pivotal Role of Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(2):143-149.
Previous studies evaluating the relationship between serum vaspin concentrations and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded contrasting results. Additionally, contribution of general and abdominal obesity, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance to this relationship remains unknown.
In a cross-sectional setting, we investigated the association between vaspin and MetS in 145 subjects ranging from normoglycemia to type 2 diabetes. Vaspin concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Women had 29% higher vaspin concentrations compared with men. Subjects with MetS (51% of all participants) had higher vaspin concentrations (P=0.019 in women and P<0.001 in men). In logistic regression, vaspin significantly predicted raised fasting plasma glucose (P<0.001), and raised triglycerides (P<0.001) after controlling for age in both sexes. Moreover, vaspin was the significant predictor for reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and raised waist circumference in women and men, respectively. Considering MetS as a whole, vaspin predicted MetS even after adjustment for age, medications, diabetes, total cholesterol, and waist circumference in both sexes (odds ratio [OR], 3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 11.05; P=0.011 for women; OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.28 to 7.78; P=0.012 for men). However, this relationship rendered nonsignificant after introducing homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in women (P=0.089) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P=0.073) or HOMA-IR in men (P=0.095).
Vaspin is associated with some but not all components of MetS. Vaspin is a predictor of MetS as a single entity, independent of obesity. This relationship is largely ascribed to the effects of insulin resistance and chronic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC4021301  PMID: 24851208
Abdominal obesity; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Vaspin
24.  Association between Childhood Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from a Large Sample of Chinese Children and Adolescents 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47380.
Data about metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children is limited in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence of MetS related components, and their association with obesity. Data were collected as part of a representative study on MetS among 19593 children, aged 6–18 years old in Beijing. General obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and central obesity by waist circumference. Finger capillary blood tests were used to assess triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Vein blood samples were collected from a subsample of 3814 children aged 10–18 years to classify MetS. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation 2007 definition. The associations between MetS related components and the degree and type of obesity were tested using logistic regression models. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated TG, TC and IFG were13.6%, 5.8%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 1.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Compared with normal weight children, overweight and obese children were more likely to have other MetS related components. In the subsample of 3814 children aged 10–18 years, the prevalence of MetS was much higher in obese subjects than in their normal weight counterparts (27.6% vs. 0.2%). Children with both general and central obesity had the highest prevalence of MetS. Compared with normal weight children, overweight and obese children were more likely to have MetS (overweight: OR = 67.33, 95%CI = 21.32–212.61; obesity: OR = 249.99, 95% CI = 79.51–785.98). Prevalence of MetS related components has reached high level among Beijing children who were overweight or obese. The association between metabolic disorders and obesity was strong.
PMCID: PMC3474816  PMID: 23082159
25.  Prevalence, components and associated demographic and lifestyle factors of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Adults with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are twice as likely to die from and three times as likely to have a heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. About 70-80% of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) patients are diagnosed with the MetS. Investigating the occurrence of the MetS in type 2 DM patients is critical for cardiovascular disease prevention. We evaluated the prevalence and components of the MetS and its associated clinical and demographic factors in a Ghanaian adult population with DM 2.
This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 previously diagnosed type 2 DM patients receiving care from an outpatient clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Anthropometric measurements of waist circumference (cm), weight (Kg) and height (m) were measured appropriately. Clinical data were obtained from the personal health record files of the participants. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria.
The prevalence of MetS was 24.0% (n=48). The prevalence was higher in women (27.3%, n= 42) compared to men (13.0%, n=6). The commonest occurring components of the MetS included abdominal obesity (77.0%) and elevated FPG (77.0%) denoting uncontrolled diabetes. The prevalence of elevated BP was found to be 44.0%(n=88) and was higher in men (56.5%) than in women (40.3%). Factors that were found to be associated to the MetS were being overweight/obese (Crude OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.43 – 5.90, p=0.004), ever tried to lose weight (Crude OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.24 – 4.94, p=0.015) and having diabetes for over 5 years (Crude OR = 11.3, 95% CI = 5.26 – 24.08, p<0.001). Other factors that were associated to the MetS were current smokers (Crude OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.21- 38.49, p=0.030) and alcohol drinkers (Crude OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.23 – 7.65, p=0.018).
A comparatively low prevalence of the MetS was found. More females than males had the MetS. Uncontrolled diabetes and abdominal obesity were prevalent. The factors identified by our univariate logistic regression model were not significant predictors of the MetS in our multivariate model.
PMCID: PMC4106220  PMID: 25054102
Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Clinical factors; Demographic factors; Tamale; Ghana

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