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1.  Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 
Brain  2009;132(10):2659-2668.
Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic resonance imaging was positive in 83% of cases. In all definite cases, the amended criteria would cover the vast majority of suspected cases, being positive in 98%. Cerebral cortical signal increase and high signal in caudate nucleus and putamen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. We propose an amendment to the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease to include findings from magnetic resonance imaging scans.
doi:10.1093/brain/awp191
PMCID: PMC2759336  PMID: 19773352
CJD; MRI; FLAIR; DWI; molecular subtypes; dementia
2.  Influence of timing on CSF tests value for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis 
Journal of Neurology  2007;254(7):901-906.
Abstract
Background
The analysis of markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is useful in the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). However, the time at which the study of these markers is most sensitive remains controversal.
Objective
To assess the influence of time of sampling on the value of CSF tests in the diagnosis of sCJD.
Method
In the framework of a multinational European study, we studied the results of 14-3-3, S100b, neurone specific enolase (NSE) and tau protein in 833 CSF samples from sCJD patients at different stages of disease and in 66 sequentially repeated lumbar punctures (LP).
Results
14-3-3 and tau protein tended to increase in sensitivity from onset (88%, 81%) to the advanced stage (91%, 90%). This was significant only in the methionine-valine (MV) heterozygous group of patients at codon 129. The absolute levels of S100b (p < 0.05), NSE and tau protein increased in the last stage of disease. High levels of tau protein, NSE and S100b were associated with shorter survival times (p < 0.01). Sixty-six sCJD patients underwent repeated LP. These sCJD patients were younger, had longer disease durations and were more frequently MV at codon 129 (p < 0.001) than the whole group. 14-3-3 sensitivity increased from 64% to 82% in the second LP (p = 0.025) and 88% sCJD patients had at least one positive result.
Conclusions
Sensitivity and absolute levels of CJD markers increased with disease progression and were modulated by the codon 129 genotype. Early negative results should be inter-preted with caution, especially in young patients or those who are MV at codon 129.
doi:10.1007/s00415-006-0472-9
PMCID: PMC2779401  PMID: 17385081
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; prion; 14-3-3; tau; S100b; NSE; biological markers; repeated lumbar punctures; prognosis
3.  A prospective study of CSF markers in 250 patients with possible Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 
Objective: To investigate various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers that could assist in the clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD).
Methods: CSF samples were analysed for the presence of 14-3-3 protein, microtubule associated protein tau, and ß amyloid in 250 patients with possible CJD. Densitometric analysis was used to quantify the level of 14-3-3 in all patients.
Results: Analysis of the clinical data showed that cerebellar signs or myoclonus combined with progressive dementia were the main features leading to a clinical suspicion of CJD. While 14-3-3 detection had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 92%, tau determination using a threshold of 1300 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 97%. If the protocol for the analysis of 14-3-3 was modified (using densitometric analysis) a higher specificity (97%) could be obtained, but with a lower sensitivity (96%). Maximum sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were obtained with a combination of 14-3-3 and ß amyloid determinations. The concentrations of 14-3-3 and tau in the CSF were reduced in CJD patients with a long duration of disease (more than one year; p < 0.05). The concentrations of 14-3-3 or tau were lowest at the onset or at the end stage of the disease, while the ß amyloid concentration remained low throughout the course of the disease.
Conclusions: Both 14-3-3 and tau protein are sensitive and specific biomarkers for CJD. The combination of 14-3-3 and ß amyloid analysis resulted in the maximum sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. When these biomarkers are used in the diagnosis of CJD, the phase of the disease in which the CSF sample was obtained should be taken into account. Disease duration, dependent on the PrP genotype, also has a significant influence on the level of 14-3-3 and tau in the CSF.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.9.1210
PMCID: PMC1738637  PMID: 12933920
4.  Cerebrospinal fluid markers in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 
Background
The objective was to assess the utility of total tau protein (tTau), the ratio of (tTau)/181 phosphorylated tau protein (P-Tau) and 14-3-3 protein, as diagnostic markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
Methods
CSF samples received from Norwegian hospitals between August 2005 and August 2007 were retrospectively selected from consecutive patients with tTau values > 1200 ng/L (n = 38). The samples from patients clinically diagnosed with CJD (n = 12) were compared to those from patients with other degenerative neurological diseases: Alzheimer's/vascular dementia (AD/VaD, n = 21), other neurological diseases (OND, n = 5). Total Tau, P-Tau, and β-Amyloid (Aβ42) were measured with commercial kits. Additionally, 14-3-3 protein was measured semi-quantitatively by immunoblot.
Results
The minimum cut-off limits for diagnosis of CJD were chosen from the test results. For tTau the lower limit was fixed at 3000 ng/L, for the tTau/P-Tau ratio it was 60, and for 14-3-3 protein it was 0.75 arbitrary units. For tTau and tTau/P-Tau ratio, all but three CJD patients had levels above the minimum, whereas almost all of the other patients were below. For the 14-3-3 protein, two CJD patients were below the minimum and five were above. Only one of the other patients was higher than the limit. The sensitivities, specificities and diagnostic efficiencies were: tTau 75%, 92%, and 87%; tTau/P-Tau 75%, 96%, and 89%; and 14-3-3 protein 80%, 96%, and 91%.
Conclusion
The results suggest that 14-3-3 protein may be the better marker for CJD, tTau/P-Tau ratio and tTau are also efficient markers, but showed slightly inferior diagnostic properties in this study, with tTau/P-Tau marginally better than tTau.
doi:10.1186/1743-8454-5-14
PMCID: PMC2531166  PMID: 18727840
5.  Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in human genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies 
Journal of Neurology  2009;256(10):1620-1628.
The 14-3-3 protein test has been shown to support the clinical diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) when associated with an adequate clinical context, and a high differential potential for the diagnosis of sporadic CJD has been attributed to other cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins such as tau protein, S100b and neuron specific enolase (NSE). So far there has been only limited information available about biochemical markers in genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (gTSE), although they represent 10–15% of human TSEs. In this study, we analyzed CSF of 174 patients with gTSEs for 14-3-3 (n = 166), tau protein (n = 78), S100b (n = 46) and NSE (n = 50). Levels of brain-derived proteins in CSF varied in different forms of gTSE. Biomarkers were found positive in the majority of gCJD (81%) and insert gTSE (69%), while they were negative in most cases of fatal familial insomnia (13%) and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (10%). Disease duration and codon 129 genotype influence the findings in a different way than in sporadic CJD.
doi:10.1007/s00415-009-5163-x
PMCID: PMC3085782  PMID: 19444528
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; CSF proteins; 14-3-3 protein; Tau
6.  Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: early signs and pre-mortem diagnosis 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr07.2009.2105.
A 71-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 3 week history of progressive ataxia followed by rapid cognitive decline. Examination on admission showed cerebellar ataxia. This was followed by multifocal dementia with cortical, subcortical and brainstem involvements during her hospital stay. Protein 14-3-3 was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as a markedly increased S100b. The patient was reviewed by the National CJD Surveillance Unit and the National Prion Unit who supported the pre-mortem diagnosis of probable Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The patient deteriorated rapidly, became cortically blind, bed bound and died in May 2009, 4 months after the onset of symptoms.
doi:10.1136/bcr.07.2009.2105
PMCID: PMC3029590  PMID: 22148077
7.  Decreased CSF Transferrin in sCJD: A Potential Pre-Mortem Diagnostic Test for Prion Disorders 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e16804.
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease (sCJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition that escapes detection until autopsy. Recently, brain iron dyshomeostasis accompanied by increased transferrin (Tf) was reported in sCJD cases. The consequence of this abnormality on cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) levels of Tf is uncertain. We evaluated the accuracy of CSF Tf, a ‘new’ biomarker, as a pre-mortem diagnostic test for sCJD when used alone or in combination with the ‘current’ biomarker total-tau (T-tau). Levels of total-Tf (T-Tf), isoforms of Tf (Tf-1 and Tf-β2), and iron saturation of Tf were quantified in CSF collected 0.3–36 months before death (duration) from 99 autopsy confirmed sCJD (CJD+) and 75 confirmed cases of dementia of non-CJD origin (CJD-). Diagnostic accuracy was estimated by non-parametric tests, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PV), and likelihood ratios (LR) of each biomarker and biomarker combination were calculated. We report that relative to CJD-, CJD+ cases had lower median CSF T-Tf (125,7093 vs. 217,7893) and higher T-tau (11530 vs. 1266) values. AUC was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85–0.94) for T-Tf, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89–0.97) for T-Tf combined with T-tau. With cut-offs defined to achieve a sensitivity of ∼85%, T-Tf identified CJD+ cases with a specificity of 71.6% (95% CI, 59.1–81.7), positive LR of 3.0 (95% CI, 2.1–4.5), negative LR of 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1–0.3), and accuracy of 80.1%. The effect of patient age and duration was insignificant. T-Tf combined with T-tau identified CJD+ with improved specificity of 87.5% (95%CI, 76.3–94.1), positive LR of 6.8 (95% CI, 3.5–13.1), negative LR of 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1–0.3), positive-PV of 91.0%, negative-PV of 80.0%, and accuracy of 86.2%. Thus, CSF T-Tf, a new biomarker, when combined with the current biomarker T-tau, is a reliable pre-mortem diagnostic test for sCJD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016804
PMCID: PMC3052312  PMID: 21408069
8.  Early Detection of Abnormal Prion Protein in Genetic Human Prion Diseases Now Possible Using Real-Time QUIC Assay 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54915.
Introduction
The definitive diagnosis of genetic prion diseases (gPrD) requires pathological confirmation. To date, diagnosis has relied upon the finding of the biomarkers 14-3-3 protein and total tau (t-tau) protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but many researchers have reported that these markers are not sufficiently elevated in gPrD, especially in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS). We recently developed a new in vitro amplification technology, designated “real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC)”, to detect the abnormal form of prion protein in CSF from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of biomarkers and evaluate RT-QUIC assay in patients with gPrD, as the utility of RT-QUIC as a diagnostic tool in gPrD has yet to be determined.
Method/Principal Findings
56 CSF samples were obtained from gPrD patients, including 20 cases of GSS with P102L mutation, 12 cases of fatal familial insomnia (FFI; D178N), and 24 cases of genetic CJD (gCJD), comprising 22 cases with E200K mutation and 2 with V203I mutation. We subjected all CSF samples to RT-QUIC assay, analyzed 14-3-3 protein by Western blotting, and measured t-tau protein using an ELISA kit. The detection sensitivities of RT-QUIC were as follows: GSS (78%), FFI (100%), gCJD E200K (87%), and gCJD V203I (100%). On the other hand the detection sensitivities of biomarkers were considerably lower: GSS (11%), FFI (0%), gCJD E200K (73%), and gCJD V203I (67%). Thus, RT-QUIC had a much higher detection sensitivity compared with testing for biomarkers, especially in patients with GSS and FFI.
Conclusion/Significance
RT-QUIC assay is more sensitive than testing for biomarkers in gPrD patients. RT-QUIC method would thus be useful as a diagnostic tool when the patient or the patient's family does not agree to genetic testing, or to confirm the diagnosis in the presence of a positive result for genetic testing.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054915
PMCID: PMC3556051  PMID: 23372790
9.  Upcoming candidate cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease 
Biomarkers in medicine  2012;6(4):455-476.
Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is estimated to reach epidemic proportions by the year 2030. Given the limited accuracy of current AD clinical diagnosis, biomarkers of AD pathologies are currently being sought. Reductions in cerebrospinal fluid levels of β-amyloid 42 (a marker of amyloid plaques) and elevations in tau species (markers of neurofibrillary tangles and/or neurodegeneration) are well-established as biomarkers useful for AD diagnosis and prognosis. However, novel markers for other features of AD pathophysiology (e.g., β-amyloid processing, neuroinflammation and neuronal stress/dysfunction) and for other non-AD dementias are required to improve the accuracy of AD disease diagnosis, prognosis, staging and therapeutic monitoring (theragnosis). This article discusses the potential of several promising novel cerebrospinal fluid analytes, highlights the next steps critical for advancement in the field, and provides a prediction on how the field may evolve in 5–10 years.
doi:10.2217/bmm.12.42
PMCID: PMC3477809  PMID: 22917147
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; diagnostic accuracy; neurodegeneration; neurofibrillary tangles; neuroinflammation; prognosis; theragnosis
10.  Biological Markers and Alzheimer Disease: A Canadian Perspective 
Decreased β-amyloid1-42 and increased phospho-tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are currently the most accurate chemical neurodiagnostics of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). A report (2007) of the Third Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (2006) recommended that biological markers should not be currently requisitioned by primary care physicians in the routine investigation of subjects with memory complaints. Consideration for such testing should prompt patient referral to a specialist engaged in dementia evaluations or a Memory Clinic. The specialist should consider having CSF biomarkers (β-amyloid1-42 and phospho-tau) measured at a reputable facility in restricted cases presenting with atypical features and diagnostic confusion, but not as a routine procedure in all individuals with typical sporadic AD phenotypes. We submit that developments in the field of AD biomarker discovery since publication of the 3rd CCCDTD consensus data do not warrant revision of the 2007 recommendations.
doi:10.4061/2010/978182
PMCID: PMC2929634  PMID: 20811568
11.  CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: Current utility and potential future use 
Neurobiology of aging  2011;32(Suppl 1):S4-S9.
Over the last 15 years, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been shown to be useful for both the diagnosis as well as the prognosis in Alzheimer’s disease. It has been shown the CSF levels of Aβ42 are a very good marker for the presence of amyloid deposition in the brain regardless of clinical status and that total tau and phosphorylated forms of tau are useful in detection of neurodegeneration. When combined together, these CSF markers are useful not only in differential diagnosis but also in predicting conversion and rate of progression from mild cognitive impairment/very mild dementia to more severe impairment. The markers are also useful in predicting conversion from cognitive normalcy to very mild dementia. This field is briefly reviewed and recommendations for future studies in this area is provided.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.09.003
PMCID: PMC3233690  PMID: 22078172
12.  High sensitivity of an ELISA kit for detection of the gamma-isoform of 14-3-3 proteins: usefulness in laboratory diagnosis of human prion disease 
BMC Neurology  2011;11:120.
Background
The gamma-isoform of the 14-3-3 protein (14-3-3 gamma) is expressed in neurons, and could be a specific marker for neuronal damage. This protein has been reported as a detectable biomarker, especially in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients by Western blotting (WB) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Western blotting for 14-3-3 gamma is not sensitive, and the reported data are conflicting among publications. An ELISA specific for 14-3-3 gamma is not available.
Methods
CJD patients (n = 114 sporadic CJD patients, 7 genetic CJD, and 3 iatrogenic CJD) and 99 patients with other neurodegenerative diseases were examined in this study. The CSF samples obtained were analyzed by Western blotting for 14-3-3 gamma, and by ELISA for total tau protein. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA for 14-3-3 gamma.
Results
The cut-off value of the 14-3-3 gamma ELISA was > 1, 683 AU/ml; and sensitivity was 95.2%, with 72.7% specificity. This specificity was the same for the total tau protein ELISA. Seven CJD cases were negative by WB but positive using the 14-3-3 gamma ELISA, indicating that the ELISA is more sensitive. All 21 cases of early stage CJD could be diagnosed using a combination of the 14-3-3γ ELISA and diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI-MRI).
Conclusion
The 14-3-3 gamma ELISA was more sensitive than conventional WB, and was useful for laboratory diagnosis of CJD, similar to the ELISA for the tau protein. Using DWI-MRI and these ELISA tests on CSF, diagnosis of CJD will be possible even at early stages of the disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-11-120
PMCID: PMC3204235  PMID: 21970675
CJD; CSF; ELISA; prion disease; 14-3-3 protein; tau protein
13.  Cerebrospinal fluid β‐amyloid 1–42 concentration may predict cognitive decline in older women 
Background
Low levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β‐amyloid 1–42 (Aβ42) and high total tau (T‐tau) are diagnostic for manifest Alzheimer's disease. It is not known, however, whether these biomarkers may be risk indicators for cognitive decline in otherwise healthy older people.
Methods
The longitudinal relationship between CSF markers, Aβ42 and T‐tau, measured in 1992, and change in Mini‐Mental State Examination (ΔMMSE) score between 1992 and 2002 were investigated in 55 women (aged 70–84 years, mean (SD) MMSE score = 28.3 (1.5)), who were participants in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden. These women did not have dementia when they experienced lumbar puncture in 1992–3.
Results
Over the 8‐year follow‐up period, ΔMMSE (range =  +3 to −21 points) was correlated with Aβ42 (Spearman's r = 0.40, p = 0.002), such that lower levels of Aβ42 were related to greater decline. This was also observed after excluding 4 women who developed dementia between 1992 and 2002 (Spearman's r = 0.34, p = 0.019). A multivariate logistic regression model predicting a decline of ⩾5 points on the MMSE (observed in six women), or a risk of developing dementia over the 8‐year follow‐up period (observed in four women), including age, education, Aβ42 and T‐tau as covariates, showed that Aβ42 was the sole predictor of significant cognitive decline or dementia (OR per 100 pg/ml Aβ42 = 2.24, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.22, p = 0.013).
Conclusions
Low levels of CSF Aβ42 may predict cognitive decline among older women without dementia.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.100529
PMCID: PMC2117838  PMID: 17098843
14.  MRI of hippocampal volume loss in early Alzheimer's disease in relation to ApoE genotype and biomarkers 
Brain  2009;132(4):1067-1077.
Hippocampal volume change over time, measured with MRI, has huge potential as a marker for Alzheimer's disease. The objectives of this study were: (i) to test if constant and accelerated hippocampal loss can be detected in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and normal ageing over short periods, e.g. 6–12 months, with MRI in the large multicentre setting of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI); (ii) to determine the extent to which the polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene modulates hippocampal change; and (iii) to determine if rates of hippocampal loss correlate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, such as the β-amyloid (Aβ1–42) and tau proteins (tau). The MRI multicentre study included 112 cognitive normal elderly individuals, 226 mild cognitive impairment and 96 Alzheimer's disease patients who all had at least three successive MRI scans, involving 47 different imaging centres. The mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease groups showed hippocampal volume loss over 6 months and accelerated loss over 1 year. Moreover, increased rates of hippocampal loss were associated with presence of the ApoE allele ɛ4 gene in Alzheimer's disease and lower CSF Aβ1–42 in mild cognitive impairment, irrespective of ApoE genotype, whereas relations with tau were only trends. The power to measure hippocampal change was improved by exploiting correlations statistically between successive MRI observations. The demonstration of considerable hippocampal loss in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients over only 6 months and accelerated loss over 12 months illustrates the power of MRI to track morphological brain changes over time in a large multisite setting. Furthermore, the relations between faster hippocampal loss in the presence of ApoE allele ɛ4 and decreased CSF Aβ1–42 supports the concept that increased hippocampal loss is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease pathology and a potential marker for the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in Alzheimer's disease.
doi:10.1093/brain/awp007
PMCID: PMC2668943  PMID: 19251758
MRI; mild cognitive impairment; ageing; human brain mapping; hippocampus
15.  Stereotypic Movements in Case of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Possible Role of Anti-NMDA Receptor Antibodies 
Case Reports in Neurology  2012;4(3):244-247.
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis (NMDAE) can both produce a rapidly progressive dementia with resulting state of catatonia or akinetic mutism. Both are associated with movement disorders. In published case series, myoclonus appears to be the most frequent movement disorder in sCJD, while stereotypic, synchronized, one-cycle-per-second movements such as arm or leg elevation, jaw opening, grimacing, head turning, and eye deviation are seen in NMDAE. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman with rapidly worsening cognitive disturbance leading to a nearly catatonic state interrupted by stereotypic movements. sCJD was diagnosed via periodic sharp wave complexes on EEG as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 and tau protein elevation. Characteristic movement disorder of NMDAE was present in absence of ovarian mass or CSF pleiocytosis. Given prior case reports of presence of anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in sCJD, we propose that the movement disorder in this case was caused by anti-NMDA receptor antibodies whose formation was secondary to neuronal damage from prion disease. It is important to consider sCJD even in cases that have some clinical features suggestive of NMDAE.
doi:10.1159/000346298
PMCID: PMC3551421  PMID: 23341815
NMDA; Anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis; Akinetic mutism; Catatonia; Orofacial dyskinesia; Stereotypies; Tics; Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
16.  Brain-derived proteins in the CSF, do they correlate with brain pathology in CJD? 
BMC Neurology  2006;6:35.
Background
Brain derived proteins such as 14-3-3, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S 100b, tau, phosphorylated tau and Aβ1–42 were found to be altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to these abnormalities are not known, but a relation to rapid neuronal damage is assumed. No systematic analysis on brain-derived proteins in the CSF and neuropathological lesion profiles has been performed.
Methods
CSF protein levels of brain-derived proteins and the degree of spongiform changes, neuronal loss and gliosis in various brain areas were analyzed in 57 CJD patients.
Results
We observed three different patterns of CSF alteration associated with the degree of cortical and subcortical changes. NSE levels increased with lesion severity of subcortical areas. Tau and 14-3-3 levels increased with minor pathological changes, a negative correlation was observed with severity of cortical lesions. Levels of the physiological form of the prion protein (PrPc) and Aβ1–42 levels correlated negatively with cortical pathology, most clearly with temporal and occipital lesions.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that the alteration of levels of brain-derived proteins in the CSF does not only reflect the degree of neuronal damage, but it is also modified by the localization on the brain pathology. Brain specific lesion patterns have to be considered when analyzing CSF neuronal proteins.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-6-35
PMCID: PMC1592107  PMID: 16989662
17.  Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease 
World Journal of Psychiatry  2011;1(1):8-18.
Due to an ever aging society and growing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the challenge to meet social and health care system needs will become increasingly difficult. Unfortunately, a definite ante mortem diagnosis is not possible. Thus, an early diagnosis and identification of AD patients is critical for promising, early pharmacological interventions as well as addressing health care needs. The most advanced and most reliable markers are β-amyloid, total tau and phosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In blood, no single biomarker has been identified despite an intense search over the last decade. The most promising approaches consist of a combination of several blood-based markers increasing the reliability, sensitivity and specificity of the AD diagnosis. However, contradictory data make standardized testing methods in longitudinal and multi-center studies extremely difficult. In this review, we summarize a range of the most promising CSF and blood biomarkers for diagnosing AD.
doi:10.5498/wjp.v1.i1.8
PMCID: PMC3782169  PMID: 24175162
Alzheimer’s disease; Biomarker; Blood; Cerebrospinal fluid; Dementia; Plasma
18.  Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by measurement of S100 protein in serum: prospective case-control study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1998;316(7131):577-582.
Objective: To analyse serum concentrations of brain specific S100 protein in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in controls.
Design: Prospective case-control study.
Setting: National Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance unit.
Subjects: 224 patients referred to the surveillance unit with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and 35 control patients without dementia.
Main outcome measure: Serum concentration of S100 protein in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, in patients with other diseases causing dementia, and in the control group.
Results: Of the 224 patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 65 were classed as definitely having the disease after neuropathological verification, an additional 6 were classed as definitely having the disease as a result of a genetic mutation, 43 as probably having the disease, 36 as possibly having the disease, and 74 patients were classed as having other disease. In the 108 patients classed as definitely or probably having Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease the median serum concentration of S100 was 395 pg/ml (SD 387 pg/ml). This was significantly higher than concentrations found in the 74 patients classed as having other diseases (median 109 pg/ml; SD 177 pg/ml; P=0.0001). At a cut off point of 213 pg/ml sensitivity for the diagnosis of the disease was 77.8% (95% confidence interval 68.8% to 85.2%) and specificity was 81.1% (70.3% to 89.3%). There was a significant difference in survival at different concentrations of S100 in Kaplan-Meier curves (P=0.023).
Conclusion: Measurement of serum concentrations of S100 is a valuable tool which can be used more easily than tests on cerebrospinal fluid in the differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. More studies are needed to determine whether serial testing of serum S100 improves diagnostic accuracy.
Key messages Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disease. Diagnosis is made clinically and neuropathologically There is no serum test which allows the diagnosis to be made while the patient is alive In this study raised serum concentrations of S100 protein were found in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Serum concentrations of S100 could be used with a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 81.1% to confirm Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the differential diagnosis of diseases that cause dementia Serial measurement of S100 concentrations will enhance diagnostic accuracy
PMCID: PMC28459  PMID: 9518907
19.  Comparison of Brief Cognitive Tests and CSF Biomarkers in Predicting Alzheimer’s Disease in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Six-Year Follow-Up Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38639.
Introduction
Early identification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is needed both for clinical trials and in clinical practice. In this study, we compared brief cognitive tests and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD.
Methods
At a memory clinic, 133 patients with MCI were followed until development of dementia or until they had been stable over a mean period of 5.9 years (range 3.2–8.8 years). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the clock drawing test, total tau, tau phosphorylated at Thr181 (P-tau) and amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ42) were assessed at baseline.
Results
During clinical follow-up, 47% remained cognitively stable and 53% developed dementia, with an incidence of 13.8%/year. In the group that developed dementia the prevalence of AD was 73.2%, vascular dementia 14.1%, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) 5.6%, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) 4.2%, semantic dementia 1.4% and dementia due to brain tumour 1.4%. When predicting subsequent development of AD among patients with MCI, the cognitive tests classified 81% of the cases correctly (AUC, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77–0.90) and CSF biomarkers 83% (AUC, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82–0.94). The combination of cognitive tests and CSF (AUC, 0.93; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.96) was significantly better than the cognitive tests (p = 0.01) and the CSF biomarkers (p = 0.04) alone when predicting AD.
Conclusions
The MMSE and the clock drawing test were as accurate as CSF biomarkers in predicting future development of AD in patients with MCI. Combining both instruments provided significantly greater accuracy than cognitive tests or CSF biomarkers alone in predicting AD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038639
PMCID: PMC3382225  PMID: 22761691
20.  The value of magnetic resonance imaging in the early diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – own experience 
Polish Journal of Radiology  2012;77(1):63-67.
Summary
Background:
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by the deposition of the pathological isoform of prion protein PrPsc in the central nervous system. The classic triad of symptoms consists of: rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus and typical electroencephalographic findings (intermittent rhythmic delta activity and periodic sharp wave complexes). Detection of 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid plays an important diagnostic role as well. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain have been recently incorporated into the diagnostic criteria of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Case Report:
MR examinations were performed in a 65-year-old man and a 54-year-old woman with delusional disorder and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. Diffusion restriction (hyperintense signal in DWI) was shown in the cortex of the left parietal and occipital lobe in the first patient and symmetrically in the cortex of both cerebral hemispheres except for precentral gyri in the second one. In both cases, the first examinations were misread, with the suspicion of ischemic infarcts as the first differential diagnosis. Consultations and subsequent MR examinations in which lesions in subcortical nuclei appeared allowed for a diagnosis of probable CJD. In the first case it was confirmed by clinical picture, EEG and finally – autopsy. In the second case, EEG was not typical for CJD but the clinical course of the disease confirmed that diagnosis.
Conclusions:
The authors present the cases of two patients with characteristic MR images that allowed early diagnosis of probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease before the characteristic clinical picture appeared. Early diagnosis is nowadays important for the prevention of disease transmission and in the future – hopefully – for early treatment.
PMCID: PMC3389956  PMID: 22802869
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
21.  Case series of probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from Eastern India 
Background:
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive, fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein. It is still considered rare in countries like India. This is probably due to nonavailability of autopsy studies in majority of the center. The recent European diagnostic criterion for sporadic CJD (sCJD) is useful for making an early diagnosis.
Objective:
To report a series of patients of probable sCJD from a neurology institute of eastern India.
Materials and Methods:
Patients of rapidly developing dementia fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for sCJD were included. All were investigated in detail to find out any possible treatable cause including electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
Results:
A total 10 patients of probable sCJD diagnosed using the European diagnostic criterion between December 2011 and January 2013. The clinical features are consistent with other reported series. While 60% of patients had the classical EEG findings, 100% had typical MRI features. Eight patients died within a mean duration of 4.56 months from the disease onset.
Conclusions:
The clinical features are similar to other reported series. Our observation raises question about the prevalence of this disease in India which needs more elaborate studies.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.120486
PMCID: PMC3841621  PMID: 24339600
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; electroencephalography; magnetic resonance imaging
22.  Dura Mater Graft-Associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: The First Case in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(11):1515-1517.
Since 1987, dura mater graft-associated iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (dCJD) has been reported in many countries. We report the first case of dCJD in Korea. A 54-yr-old woman, who underwent resection of the meningioma in the left frontal region and received a dura mater graft 23 yr ago presented with dysesthesia followed by psychiatric symptoms and ataxia. Her neurological symptoms rapidly progressed to such an extent that she exhibited myoclonus, dementia, and pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs within 8 weeks. The 14-3-3 protein was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid; however, an electroencephalogram did not reveal characteristic positive sharp wave complexes. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, obtained serially over 64 days, revealed the rapid progression of areas of high signal intensity in the caudate nucleus and cingulate gyrus to widespread areas of high signal intensity in the cortex and basal ganglia. Pathological examination of brain biopsy specimens confirmed the presence of spongiform changes and deposition of prion protein in the neurons and neuropils.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.11.1515
PMCID: PMC3207058  PMID: 22065911
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome; Dura Mater Graft; Iatrogenic Disease
23.  RT-QuIC analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 
Annals of neurology  2012;72(2):278-285.
Objective
Current cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are based on the detection of surrogate markers of neuronal damage such as CSF 14-3-3 which are not specific for sCJD. A number of prion protein conversion assays have been developed, including real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). The objective of this study is to investigate whether CSF RT-QuIC analysis could be used as a diagnostic test in sCJD.
Methods
An exploratory study was undertaken which analysed 108 CSF samples from patients with neuropathologically confirmed sCJD or from control patients. Of the 108 CSF samples 56 were from sCJD patients (30 female, 26 male, aged 31–84 years; 62.3 ± 13.5 years) and 52 were from control patients (26 female, 26 male, aged 43–84 years; 67.8 ± 10.4 years). A confirmatory group of 118 patients were subsequently examined which consisted of 67 cases of neuropathologically confirmed sCJD (33 female, 34 male, aged 39–82 years; 67.5 ± 9.0 years) and 51 control cases (26 female, 25 male, aged 36–87 years; 63.5 ± 11.6 years).
Results
The exploratory study showed that RT-QuIC analysis had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 98% for the diagnosis of sCJD. These results were confirmed in the confirmatory study which showed that CSF RT-QuIC analysis had a sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 100% respectively.
Interpretation
This study shows that CSF RT-QuIC analysis has the potential to be a more specific diagnostic test for sCJD than current CSF tests.
doi:10.1002/ana.23589
PMCID: PMC3458796  PMID: 22926858
24.  Relationships between Clinicopathological Features and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Japanese Patients with Genetic Prion Diseases 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e60003.
A national system for surveillance of prion diseases (PrDs) was established in Japan in April 1999. Here, we analyzed the relationships among prion protein gene (PRNP) mutations and the clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers, and pathological characteristics of the major genotypes of genetic PrDs (gPrDs). We retrospectively analyzed age at onset and disease duration; the concentrations and incidences of 14-3-3 protein, tau protein, and abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in the CSF of 309 gPrD patients with P102L, P105L, E200K, V180I, or M232R mutations; and brain pathology in 32 autopsied patients. Three clinical phenotypes were seen: rapidly progressive Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which included 100% of E200K cases, 70% of M232R, and 21% of P102L; slowly progressive CJD, which included 100% of V180I and 30% of M232R; and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, which included 100% of P105L and 79% of P102L. PrPSc was detected in the CSF of more than 80% of patients with E200K, M232R, or P102L mutations but in only 39% of patients with V180I. V180I was accompanied by weak PrP immunoreactivity in the brain. Patients negative for PrPSc in the CSF were older at disease onset than positive patients. Patients with mutations associated with high 14-3-3 protein levels in the CSF typically had synaptic deposition of PrP in the brain and a rapid course of disease. The presence of small PrP protein fragments in brain homogenates was not correlated with other clinicopathological features. Positivity for PrPSc in the CSF may reflect the pathological process before or at disease onset, or abnormality in the secretion or metabolism of PrPSc. The amount of 14-3-3 protein in the CSF likely indicates the severity of the pathological process and accompanying neuronal damage. These characteristic features of the CSF in cases of gPrD will likely facilitate accurate diagnosis and clinicopathological study of the various disease subtypes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060003
PMCID: PMC3610658  PMID: 23555862
25.  Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid protein markers for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Canada: a 6-year prospective study 
BMC Neurology  2011;11:133.
Background
To better characterize the value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins as diagnostic markers in a clinical population of subacute encephalopathy patients with relatively low prevalence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), we studied the diagnostic accuracies of several such markers (14-3-3, tau and S100B) in 1000 prospectively and sequentially recruited Canadian patients with clinically suspected sCJD.
Methods
The study included 127 patients with autopsy-confirmed sCJD (prevalence = 12.7%) and 873 with probable non-CJD diagnoses. Standard statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy were employed, including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values (PVs), likelihood ratios (LRs), and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis.
Results
At optimal cutoff thresholds (empirically selected for 14-3-3, assayed by immunoblot; 976 pg/mL for tau and 2.5 ng/mL for S100B, both assayed by ELISA), Se and Sp respectively were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81-0.93) and 0.72 (0.69-0.75) for 14-3-3; 0.91 (0.84-0.95) and 0.88 (0.85-0.90) for tau; and 0.87 (0.80-0.92) and 0.87 (0.84-0.89) for S100B. The observed differences in Sp between 14-3-3 and either of the other 2 markers were statistically significant. Positive LRs were 3.1 (2.8-3.6) for 14-3-3; 7.4 (6.9-7.8) for tau; and 6.6 (6.1-7.1) for S100B. Negative LRs were 0.16 (0.10-0.26) for 14-3-3; 0.10 (0.06-0.20) for tau; and 0.15 (0.09-0.20) for S100B. Estimates of areas under ROC curves were 0.947 (0.931-0.961) for tau and 0.908 (0.888-0.926) for S100B. Use of interval LRs (iLRs) significantly enhanced accuracy for patient subsets [e.g., 41/120 (34.2%) of tested sCJD patients displayed tau levels > 10,000 pg/mL, with an iLR of 56.4 (22.8-140.0)], as did combining tau and S100B [e.g., for tau > 976 pg/mL and S100B > 2.5 ng/mL, positive LR = 18.0 (12.9-25.0) and negative LR = 0.02 (0.01-0.09)].
Conclusions
CSF 14-3-3, tau and S100B proteins are useful diagnostic markers of sCJD even in a low-prevalence clinical population. CSF tau showed better overall diagnostic accuracy than 14-3-3 or S100B. Reporting of quantitative assay results and combining tau with S100B could enhance case definitions used in diagnosis and surveillance of sCJD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-11-133
PMCID: PMC3216246  PMID: 22032272

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