In the past few years, tumour budding at the invasive margin has been reported as a new risk factor for lymph node metastasis in advanced colorectal cancers, but it is sometimes difficult to detect tumour budding in submucosal colorectal cancer by haematoxylin and eosin staining. We immunohistochemically examined tumour budding at the deepest invasive margin of 56 surgically resected submucosal colorectal carcinomas using anticytokeratin antibody CAM5.2, furthermore checked by AE1/AE3, and determined the relation between tumour budding and clinicopathological factors. Moreover, we used the monoclonal antibody D2-40 for immunohistochemistry to detect lymphatic involvement. Tumour budding was detected in 42 cases (75.0%), and the budding-positive group showed a significantly higher rate of lymph node metastasis (including isolated tumour cells) (16/42 vs 0/14; P=0.004) than the budding-negative group. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of tumour budding alone for lymph node metastasis were superior to those of lymphatic invasion alone. Furthermore, the specificity and positive predictive value of the combination of either lymphatic invasion or tumour budding were superior to those of lymphatic invasion alone. Tumour budding detected immunohistochemically by using CAM5.2 is a newly found risk factor for lymph node metastasis and may help to avoid oversurgery in the future.
tumour budding; micrometastasis; isolated tumour cells; CAM5.2; D2-40
Endoscopic submucosal dissection has recently been practiced on a differentiated type of early gastric cancer. However, there is no clear evidence for endoscopic treatments of signet ring cell carcinoma. The aim of this study is to identify the predictive clinicopathological factors for lymph node metastasis in signet ring cell carcinoma for assisting endoscopic submucosal dissection trials.
Materials and Methods
A total of 186 patients with early signet ring cell carcinoma who underwent radical curative gastrectomy between January 2001 and September 2009 were enrolled in this study. Retrospective reviews of their medical records are being conducted. Several clinicopathologic factors were being investigated in order to identify predictive factors for lymph nodes metastasis: age, gender, tumor size, type of operation, tumor location, gross type, ulceration, Lauren's classification, depth of invasion, and lymphatic invasion.
The lymph node metastasis rate for signet ring cell carcinoma was 4.3% (n=8). Of the 186 lesions with early signet ring cell carcinoma, 91 (48.9%) tumors were larger than 15 mm in size and 40 (21.5%) showed submucosal invasions in the resection specimens. In multivariate analysis, only the lymphatic invasion (P<0.0001) showed an association with lymph node metastasis. To evaluate cutoff values for tumor sizes in the presence of lymph node metastasis, early signet ring cell carcinomas with lymphatic invasions were excluded. In the absence of lymphatic invasion, mucosal cancer with tumor sizes <15 mm had no lymph node metastasis.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed on patients with early signet ring cell carcinoma limited to the mucosa and less than 15 mm.
Stomach neoplasms; Carcinoma, signet ring cell; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Lymph node metastasis; Predictive factor
It is often difficult to evaluate the grade of malignancy and choose an appropriate treatment for colorectal carcinoids in clinical settings. Although tumor size and depth of invasion are evidently not enough to stratify the risk of this rare tumor, the present guidelines or staging systems do not mention other clinicopathological variables. Recent studies, however, have shed light on the impact of lymphovascular invasion on the outcome of colorectal carcinoids. It has been revealed that the presence of lymphovascular invasion was among the strongest risk factors for metastasis along with tumor size and depth of invasion. Furthermore, tumors smaller than 1 cm, within submucosal invasion and without lymphovascular invasion, carry minimal risk for metastasis with 100% 5-year survival in the studies from Japan as well as from the USA. This would suggest that these tumors could be curatively treated by endoscopic resection or transanal local excision. On the other hand, colorectal carcinoids with either lymphovascular invasion or tumor size larger than 1 cm carry the risk for metastasis equivalent to adenocarcinomas. Therefore, it should be emphasized that histological examination of lymphovascular invasion is mandatory in the specimens obtained by endoscopic resection or transanal local excision, as this would provide useful information for determining the need for additional radical surgery with regional lymph node dissection. Although the present guidelines or TNM staging system do not mention the impact of lymphovascular invasion, this would be among the next promising targets in order to establish better guidelines and staging systems, particularly in early-stage colorectal carcinoids.
Lymphovascular invasion; Neuroendocrine tumor; Carcinoid; Colorectal cancer
Colorectal carcinoma invading the submucosa but not the muscular layer (pT1, early invasive cancer) represents the earliest form of clinically relevant colorectal cancer in most patients. Neoplastic invasion of the submucosa, in fact, opens the way to metastasis via the lymphatic and blood vessels, and the choice between surveillance and major surgery will turn on its metastatic potential. The following histological features predict the risk of metastasis and the different clinical outcomes: grade of differentiation of carcinoma, lymphovascular invasion, state of the resection margin. Microstaging of invasive cancer, namely the width and the depth of submucosal invasion, together with tumor budding at the advancing edge allow the metastatic risk to be further stratified in minimal, low, and high. Different, although morphologically undistinguishable, tumorigenic pathways are supposed to lead to the malignant transformation of colonic mucosa and subsequently to drive the progression from early to advanced cancer: new biomarkers are needed to identify progressive and non-progressive pT1 neoplasia.
colon; early cancer; cancerised adenoma
To evaluate the histopathological risk factors for lymph node metastasis in cases of pedunculated or semipedunculated submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma (SICC).
A total of 48 patients with non‐sessile SICC who underwent systematic lymph node dissection were included. Tumour size, histological grade, angiolymphatic invasion, tumour budding, dedifferentiation, objective submucosal invasion depth from the identified muscularis mucosa, relative invasion depth of the submucosal layer, and depth of stalk invasion were investigated histopathologically.
Lymph node metastasis was observed in seven cases (14.6%). Univariate analysis showed angiolymphatic invasion and tumour budding to be significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that tumour budding was the only independent factor associated with lymph node metastasis in cases of non‐sessile SICC.
Results indicate that tumour budding is a useful risk factor for predicting lymph node metastasis in cases of pedunculated or semipedunculated SICC.
colorectal carcinoma; pedunculated; lymph node metastasis; risk factors; tumour budding
We investigated the relationship between histological factors and lymph node metastasis in
77 lesions with submucosally invasive colorectal carcinomas to establish useful criteria for
lesions in which endoscopic treatment alone results in cure of malignancy. There were positive
correlations between histological factors, including the level of invasion, the histologic grade,
presence or absence of lymphatic invasion, presence or absence of budding, and lymph node
metastasis (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.005, p < 0.01). The presence or absence of venous
invasion did not influence lymph node metastasis. Laparoscopic surgery involving lymph node
dissection should be indicated for sm1 carcinoma lesions with unfavorable histological factors.
In lesions diagnosed as sm2 or sm3 prior to resection, intestinal resection involving lymph node
dissection by laparoscopic surgery should be directly performed without endoscopic resection.
In treating submucosally invasive colorectal carcinomas, the level of invasion can be
clinically diagnosed, consequently endoscopic resection should be initially performed when
lesions are evaluated as sm1 prior to resection. When histological investigation reveals sm1
carcinoma with histologic grade I (well-differentiated) or II (moderately-differentiated), and
the absence of lymphatic invasion and budding, endoscopic treatment alone is sufficient.
AIM: To analyze the predictive factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in early gastric cancer (EGC).
METHODS: Data from patients surgically treated for gastric cancers between January 1994 and December 2007 were retrospectively collected. Clinicopathological factors were analyzed to identify predictive factors for LNM.
RESULTS: Of the 2936 patients who underwent gastrectomy and lymph node dissection, 556 were diagnosed with EGC and included in this study. Among these, 4.1% of patients had mucosal tumors (T1a) with LNM while 24.3% of patients had submucosal tumors with LNM. Univariate analysis found that female gender, tumors ≥ 2 cm, tumor invasion to the submucosa, vascular and lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with a higher rate of LNM. On multivariate analysis, tumor size, lymphatic involvement, and tumor with submucosal invasion were associated with LNM.
CONCLUSION: Tumor with submucosal invasion, size ≥ 2 cm, and presence of lymphatic involvement are predictive factors for LNM in EGC.
Early gastric cancer; Lymph node metastasis; Endoscopic treatment; Endoscopic submucosa dissection; Depth of tumor invasion
The efficacy, safety and clinical outcomes of a combination of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) with subsequent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (superficial ESCC) remain unclear. We assessed the outcome of the combination of ESD plus CRT for superficial ESCC. Fourteen patients with superficial ESCC invading into the muscularis mucosa or submucosa were treated with ESD plus CRT from 2004 to 2010. En bloc resection of the lesion was successfully performed in all patients. The mean diameter of the lesions was 25 mm (range 10–55). The distribution of the depth of tumor invasion was to the muscularis mucosa in 8 patients, to the upper submucosal third (sm1) in 4 patients and to the middle submucosal third (sm2) in 2 patients. The laterally resected margins and vascular invasion were cancer-negative in all patients, but lymph node involvement was detected in 2 patients. The mean follow-up period after CRT was 45 months (range 19–70). No patients died of esophageal cancer. Recurrence or metastasis of the esophageal cancer was not observed in any of the patients. The combination of ESD plus CRT is effective for superficial ESCC.
esophageal cancer; endoscopic submucosal dissection; chemoradiation therapy
AIM: To clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of small and large early invasive colorectal cancers (EI-CRCs), and to determine whether malignancy grade depends on size.
METHODS: A total of 583 consecutive EI-CRCs treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or surgery at the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1980 and 2004 were enrolled in this study. Lesions were classified into two groups based on size: small (≤ 10 mm) and large (> 10 mm). Clinicopathological features, incidence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and risk factors for LNM, such as depth of invasion, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDA) were analyzed in all resected specimens.
RESULTS: There were 120 (21%) small and 463 (79%) large lesions. Histopathological analysis of the small lesion group revealed submucosal deep cancer (sm: ≥ 1000 μm) in 90 (75%) cases, LVI in 26 (22%) cases, and PDA in 12 (10%) cases. Similarly, the large lesion group exhibited submucosal deep cancer in 380 (82%) cases, LVI in 125 (27%) cases, and PDA in 79 (17%) cases. The rate of LNM was 11.2% and 12.1% in the small and large lesion groups, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Small EI-CRC demonstrated the same aggressiveness and malignant potential as large cancer.
Colorectal cancer; Submucosal invasion; Lymph node metastasis; Endoscopic mucosal resection
Early colorectal cancer (ECC) is defined as invasive tumor limited to the colonic and rectal mucosa or submucosa, regardless of the presence or absence of lymph node metastasis. The incidence of lymph node metastasis in ECC ranges from 0 to 15.4%, and risk factors include depth of submucosal invasion, growth patterns (polypoid or non-polypoid), histologic subclassification, and lymphatic invasion. Of non-polypoid growth patterns, the depressed types of colorectal cancer have higher malignant potential than polypoid types, even for small sizes. Unfortunately, this type is also difficult to detect on colonoscopic examination. In this report, we describe a case of depressed type ECC with extensive lymph node metastasis without regional lymph node involvement.
Early colorectal cancer; depressed type; lymph node metastasis
The diagnostic criteria for colonic intraepithelial tumors vary from country to country. While intramucosal adenocarcinoma is recognized in Japan, in Western countries adenocarcinoma is diagnosed only if the tumor invades to the submucosa and accesses the muscularis mucosae. However, endoscopic therapy, including endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), is used worldwide to treat adenoma and early colorectal cancer. Precise histopathological evaluation is important for the curativeness of these therapies as inappropriate endoscopic therapy causes local recurrence of the tumor that may develop into fatal metastasis. Therefore, colorectal ESD and EMR are not indicated for cancers with massive submucosal invasion. However, diagnosis of cancer with massive submucosal invasion by endoscopy is limited, even when magnifying endoscopy for pit pattern and narrow band imaging and flexible spectral imaging color of enhancement are performed. Therefore, occasional cancers with massive submucosal invasion will be treated by ESD and EMR. Precise histopathological evaluation of these lesions should be performed in order to determine the necessity of additional therapy, including surgical resection.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Early colorectal cancer; Histopathology
Primary adenocarcinomas resembling submucosal tumors are rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Almost all the submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinomas previously reported invaded the submucosa or deeper. Therefore, submucosal tumor-like lesions are usually treated by surgical resection, and those that arise in the duodenum have been treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy.
A 65-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with a submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinoma in his duodenum. We considered it possible that the tumor invasion was limited to the mucosal or submucosal layers and could be removed by endoscopic resection. Tumor histopathology revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma confined to the muscularis mucosae with no lymphovascular invasion. Complete resection of the carcinoma was achieved and there has been no recurrence three years after endoscopic resection.
We suggest that submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinomas arising in nonampullary duodenal sites should be diagnosed carefully with a view to possible endoscopic resection.
The objective of this study is to assess the clinical significance and prognostic impact of extramural metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and establish an optimal categorization in the staging system.
To determine the frequency and prognostic significance of extramural metastasis, from 2000 to 2005, a total of 1,215 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection were recruited into this study. Individual demographic and clinicopathologic data were collected including tumor stage, nodal stage, tumor histology, degree of tumor differentiation, and presence of lymphovascular invasion. After surgery, all patients received standard treatments and follow-up, which were closed in April 2010.
EM was detected in 167 (13.7%) patients and in 230 (1.8%) of the 12,534 nodules retrieved as 'lymph nodes'. The incidence of extramural metastasis was significantly higher in patients with large tumors, deeper invasive depth and more lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). After curative operation, overall survival was significantly worse for patients with extramural metastasis than those without (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified extramural metastasis as an independent prognostic factor (RR = 2.1, 95%CI:1.5-3.0). By using the Akaike information criterion (AIC), N staging was capable of predicting survival outcome with the highest accuracy when both nodal involvement and extramural metastasis were treated together as N factors(AIC = 1025.3).
Extramural metastasis might be diagnosed as replaced lymph nodes in the process of classification, thus forming a new categorization.
extramural metastasis; staging; colorectal cancer
Complete resection of submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SICC) showing favorable histology is regarded as curative. We report on two cases of SICC showing recurrence within 5 years despite complete resection. The first patient was a 68-year-old woman with well differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma invading the superficial submucosa, which recurred after 4.7 years. The second patient was a 53-year-old man with pT1N0 moderately differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma. He developed widespread tumor recurrence after 3.9 years. Retrospective pathologic review of the original tumors showed multiple foci of tumor budding at the invasive front. Immunohistochemical staining for D2-40 of deeper levels of the paraffin blocks showed rare foci of small lymphatic invasion. Tumor budding at the invasive front may be an important indicator for SICC aggressiveness or may reflect early lymphatic invasion. More aggressive pathologic examination and follow-up is required for patients with SICC showing tumor budding, even in the absence of unfavorable histologic findings.
Early colorectal neoplasms; Tumor budding; Recurrence
We previously demonstrated that extracapsular invasion (ECI) at a metastatic sentinel node was significantly associated with the presence of positive non-sentinel nodes in patients with breast cancer. However, the mechanism of metastatic spreading of tumor cells to distant lymph nodes in patients with colorectal carcinoma is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the factors that may determine the likelihood of additional regional lymph node metastasis when metastasis is found in nodes at the N1 site in colorectal cancer, especially focusing on the presence of ECI.
Two hundred and twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent colorectal resection were identified for inclusion in this study, of which 37 (16.2%) had positive lymph nodes at the N1 site. Six of these 37 cases had additional metastasis in N2 site lymph nodes. We reviewed the clinicopathological features of these cases and performed statistical analysis of the data.
In the univariate analysis ECI at the N1 site was the only factor significantly associated with the presence of cancer cells in the N2 site. Other factors, including number of positive lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion of the primary tumor, tumor size and tumor depth of invasion, were not associated with metastatic involvement at the N2 site.
Our results suggest that the presence of ECI at metastatic lymph nodes at the N1 site is correlated with further metastasis at the N2 site. These findings imply the possibility that ECI might indicate the ability of colorectal tumor cells to disseminate to distant lymph nodes.
Micropapillary carcinoma was originally reported to be an aggressive variant of breast carcinoma, and it is associated with frequent lymphovascular invasion and a dismal clinical outcome. It has subsequently been found in other organs; however, at present, only a limited number of cases of colorectal micropapillary carcinoma have been reported. We present a case of early colon cancer with extensive nodal metastases in a Japanese patient. An 82-year-old man was found by colonoscopy to have a 20-mm pedunculated polyp in his sigmoid colon. Endoscopic resection of the sigmoid colon tumor was performed, and pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma component and a micropapillary component. Despite the tumor being confined within the submucosa, massive lymphatic invasion was noted. Thereafter, the patient underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with lymph node dissection, and multiple lymph node metastases were observed. Our case suggests that when a micropapillary component is identified in a pre-operative biopsy specimen, even for early colorectal cancer, surgical resection with adequate lymph node dissection would be required because of the high potential for nodal metastases.
Lymph node metastases; Micropapillary carcinoma; Submucosal colonic cancer
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was developed to overcome the limitations of conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and ESD has been also applied for large colorectal neoplasms. Since colorectal ESD is still associated with higher perforation rate, a longer procedure time, and increased technical difficulty, the indications should be strictly considered. Generally, colorectal tumors without deep submucosal invasion or minimal possibility of lymph node metastasis, for which en bloc resection using conventional EMR is difficult, are good candidates for colorectal ESD. The ideal knife for colorectal ESD should avoid making perforations but can make a clean cut of optimal depth at one time. The ideal current for ESD differs depending on the procedure used, the surgical devices used, the tissue to be dissected, and the operator's preference. Application of the optimal indications and improvements in the technical skill and surgical devices are required for easier and safer colorectal ESD.
Colonoscopy; Colorectal neoplasms; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
We performed a clinical pathological study of conventionally resected superficial esophageal carcinomas since this type of lesion has been increasing, in order to develop criteria of determination for therapeutic strategies. Pathological studies were performed on specimens obtained by radical surgical resection in 133 cases of superficial esophageal cancer. Evaluation was performed in terms of the gross classification of the lesion type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion, size of the lesion, outcome, etc. In 0-I, 0-IIc+0-IIa, and 0-III type submucosal cancer lesions the rate of metastasis to lymph nodes was more than 40%, but in 0-IIa and 0-IIb mucosal cancer cases no lymph node metastasis was observed. 0-IIc type lesions showed a wide range of invasiveness, ranging from m1 to sm3. In cases with m1 or m2 invasion, no lymph node or lymph-vessel invasion was recognized, but in m3, sm1, sm2, and sm3 cases lymph node metastasis was recognized in 12.5%, 22.2%, 44.0% and 47.4%, respectively. In 47% of lesions with a greatest dimension of less than 30 mm invasion was limited to the mucosa. Seventy-two percent of m1 and m2 cases were 30 mm in size or less. Lymph node metastasis was recognized in only 16.7% of cases less than 30 mm in size, but in cases of lesions 30 mm or more the rate of lymph node metastasis was 35.8%. 0-IIb and 0-IIa type lesions are indications for endoscopic esophageal mucosal resection (EEMR), while 0-I, 0-IIc+0-IIa, and 0-III lesions should be candidates for radical surgical resection. In the 0-IIc category, lesions in which the depression is relatively flat and with a finely granular surface are indications for EEMR, but those cases in which the surface of depression shows granules of varying sizes should be treated with radical surgical resection. Cases of 0-IIa type 30 mm or larger in greatest dimension which have a gently sloping protruding margin shoulder or reddening should be treated with caution, but EEMR can be performed first and subsequent therapeutic strategy decided on, based on the pathological findings of the specimen.
The standard surgical treatment of invasive bladder cancer is the radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Up to one-third of patients with invasive bladder cancer have lymph node metastasis. Thus, PLND has important therapeutic and prognostic benefits. The number of lymph nodes that should be removed and the extent of the PLND are still a controversial issue. Recently, the trend of PLND increased toward more
extended PLND. Several prognostic factors related to PLND were reported in the literature. In this paper, we will discuss the different PLND templates, number of lymph nodes that should be resected, lymph node density, lymphovascular invasion, tumor burden, extracapsular extension, and the aggregate lymph node metastasis diameter.
AIM: To describe patterns of lymph node metastasis in invasive colon and rectal carcinomas.
METHODS: Clinical data of 2340 patients with colorectal carcinoma (stage I to III) who received radical resection, was retrospectively reviewed. Of the 2340 patients, 1314 patients suffered from rectal carcinoma and 1026 from colon carcinoma. Patients with rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney, χ2 and Cochran’s and Mantel-Haenszel tests (SPSS 15.0). A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Lymph node retrieval in the rectal carcinoma group was significantly lower than that in the colon carcinoma group (P < 0.001), while positive lymph node retrieval in the rectal carcinoma group was significantly higher than that in the colon carcinoma group (P < 0.001). The proportion of lymph node positive (N+) cases was higher (patients with one or more positive lymph nodes) in the rectal carcinoma group (P = 0.004). The number of N+ cases was compared at different T stages (T1-T4) to eliminate background bias and the results were confirmed (P < 0.001). In addition, the lymph node ratio (the ratio of number of positive lymph nodes over the number of lymph nodes examined) of stage III cases in the rectal carcinoma group was significantly higher than that in the colon carcinoma group (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Rectal carcinomas seem more prone to metastasize to the lymph nodes than colon carcinomas, which may be of potential clinical significance.
Lymph node; Metastasis; Colon; Rectum; Neoplasms
Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) gains acceptance as one of the standard treatments for esophageal and stomach neoplasms in Japan, it is still in the developing stage for colorectal neoplasms. In terms of indications, little likelihood of nodal metastasis and technical resectability are principally considered. Some of intramucosal neoplasms, carcinomas with minute submucosal invasion, and carcinoid tumors, which are technically unresectable by conventional endoscopic treatments, may become good candidates for ESD, considering substantial risks and obtained benefits. ESD as a staging measure to obtain histological information of the invasion depth and lymphovascular infiltration is acceptable because preoperative prediction is difficult in some cases. In terms of techniques, advantages of ESD in comparison with other endoscopic treatments are to be controllable in size and shape, and to be resectable even in large and fibrotic neoplasms. The disadvantages may be longer procedure time, heavier bleeding, and higher possibility of perforation. However, owing to refinement of the techniques, invention of devices, and the learning curve, acceptable technical safety has been achieved. Colorectal ESD is very promising and become one of the standard treatments for colorectal neoplasms in the near future.
Colorectal neoplasm; Early colorectal cancer; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Endoluminal surgery
Endoscopic resection is widely accepted as standard treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC) without lymph node metastasis. The procedure is minimally invasive, safe, and convenient. However, surgery is sometimes needed after endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)/endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) due to perforation, bleeding, or incomplete resection. We evaluated the role of surgery after incomplete resection.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively studied 29 patients with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy after incomplete EMR/ESD from 2006 to 2010 at Korea University Hospital.
There were 13 incomplete resection cases, seven bleeding cases, three metachronous lesion cases, three recurrence cases, two perforation cases, and one lymphatic invasion case. Among the incomplete resection cases, a positive vertical margin was found in 10, a positive lateral margin in two, and a positive vertical and lateral margin in one case. Most cases (9/13) were diagnosed as mucosal tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography, but only three cases were confirmed as mucosal tumors on final pathology. The positive residual tumor rate was two of 13. The lymph node metastasis rate was three of 13. All lymph node metastasis cases were submucosal tumors with positive lymphatic invasion and no residual tumor in the gastrectomy specimen. No cases of recurrence were observed after curative resection.
A gastrectomy is required for patients with incomplete resection following EMR/ESD due to the risk of residual tumor and lymph node metastasis.
Stomach neoplasms; EMR/ESD; Gastrectomy
Early gastric cancer (EGC) is a "curable" disease with a high cure rate made possible through proper surgical treatment; nonetheless, some patients sustain a disease recurrence after curative resection. The aim of this study was to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of recurrent EGC and determine predictable immunohistochemical markers for recurrence. We investigated the clinicopathological features of 1,786 EGC cases, and using tissue microarray, the expression of c-erbB-2, EGFR, MLH1, MSH2, p53, and AQP1 was examined in group with recurrence and control group without recerrence. In the clinical analysis, 32 of 1,786 (1.79%) patients showed recurrence, with a 2.04% five-year cumulative recurrence rate. Age, submucosal invasion, and lymph node metastasis significantly correlated with tumor recurrence (P=0.044, 0.019, and <0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed lymph node status and old age (≥57 yr) as independent risk factors of recurrence. In a case-control study, immunopositivity for c-erbB-2 was significantly associated with disease recurrence (P=0.024). There is the probability that EGC patients with old age (≥57 yr), lymph node metastasis, submucosal invasion, and c-erbB-2 immunopositivity will experience recurrence; therefore, it is critical that patients with these risk factors be followed-up closely and considered candidates for adjuvant treatment.
Early Gastric Cancer; Recurrence; Lymph Node Metastasis; Immunohistochemistry; Genes, erbB-2
The TNM classification (sixth edition) requires at least 15 lymph nodes to be examined to allow an accurate staging. However, in our environment, only 20% of patients have the recommended minimum of 15 nodes removed.
To evaluate clinicopathological predictors of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer undergoing radical resection with an inadequate number of lymph nodes examined.
101 patients were included in this retrospective cohort. We evaluated age, gender, tumoral location, Borrmann type, Lauren histotype, type of gastrectomy, grade, invasion depth of tumor, lymph node involvement, ratio between metastatic and total number of excised lymph nodes keeping 20% as the cutoff value (LNR) and adjuvant treatment. The association between these variables and recurrence was investigated by using univariate methods and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Median (range) age was 63 years (44-85). 63% males, 37% females. Median follow-up time for the whole patients population was 36 months (10-104). Median number of lymph nodes retrieved was 6 (0-14). Recurrence: 50 of 101 cases (49,6%); 41 hematogeneus dissemination, 9 locoregional recurrences. The following factors were found to be correlated with the recurrence risk: tumoral location, invasion depth of tumor, lymph node involvement and LNR. A multivariate analysis revealed that depth of invasion [odds ratio (OR) 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-7.58, P = 0.04] and LNR (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05-5.21, P = 0.03) were independent risk factors for recurrences of gastric cancer. Median time to recurrence: 16 months (2-50). 82% of recurrences occurred within the first two years after surgical treatment. The estimated cumulative risk of recurrence at five years: 61% in the whole patients population, with serosal invasion and LNR > and < 20% was 82% and 44%, without serosal invasion 73% and 39% respectively.
Invasion depth of tumor and LNR were independent predictors of recurrence in gastric cancer after potentially curative resection with an inadequate number of lymph nodes examined.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCE) is a rare malignancy among esophageal cancers. We reported a case of 63-year-old woman with metachronous pulmonary metastasis of BSCE, successfully treated by metastasectomy of the left lung.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Biopsy specimens of upper gastrointestinal fiberscopy led to diagnosis of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Computed tomography revealed metastatic lymph nodes surrounding the bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and no evidence of metastasis to distant organs. Curative esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection was performed through thoracoscopic approach. Pathological examination of the resected specimens led to diagnosis of BSCE with invasion into the submucosal layer of the esophageal wall. Two years later, a solitary oval-shaped pulmonary lesion of approximately 10 mm was detected in the left lung. Wedge resection of the left upper lobe was performed via thoracoscopic approach. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histologically, the pulmonary lesion was diagnosed as metastatic BSCE. Follow-up indicated no recurrence 9 years after the initial surgery.
Surgical intervention was acceptable on this case of solitary pulmonary metastasis. However, data are lacking about the efficacy of pulmonary resection for metachronous pulmonary metastasis of BSCE because the postoperative outcome is usually poor. The efficacy of surgical intervention for metastatic lesions of BSCE is debatable and requires further examination.
Although the usefulness of surgical intervention for metastatic lesions from BSCE is controversial, the patients with metachronous solitary metastasis to the lung and without extrapulmonary metastasis would be good candidate for pulmonary resection.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma; Thoracoscopic esophagectomy; Pulmonary metastasis; Pulmonary metastasectomy