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1.  Palm-based diacylglycerol fat dry fractionation: effect of crystallisation temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed on physical and chemical properties of fractions 
PeerJ  2013;1:e72.
Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid) and stearin (solid) fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min), end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm) to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV), fatty acid composition (FAC), acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of 26 to 44°C while SMP of stearin fractions increased to (60–62°C) compared to PDAG.
doi:10.7717/peerj.72
PMCID: PMC3654720  PMID: 23682348
Crystallisation; Dry fractionation; Palm; Diacylglycerol; Obesity
2.  Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point 
This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of −20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year.
PMCID: PMC2701170  PMID: 19609396
palm-based standard reference materials; iodine value; slip melting point; MPOB Test Methods p3.2: 2004 and p4.2:2004; consensus values; uncertainties
3.  Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans 
Background
Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations.
Methods
Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats) and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL) and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en) as palmitic acid (16:0); a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO) and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE) and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0). After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat.
Results
After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05) and 22% lower after IE (p < 0.001) compared to POL. For the postprandial study the glucose incremental area under the curve (IAUC) following the IE meal was 40% greater than after either other meal (p < 0.001), and was linked to relatively depressed insulin and C-peptide (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-3
PMCID: PMC1783656  PMID: 17224066
4.  EXPERIMENTAL LIPEMIA IN RABBITS 
In reviewing the literature, no description of a lipemia occurring in relation to simple hemorrhage was found, so that the observation of the phenomenon here recorded would seem to be new. Very high percentages of fat have been found in the blood of diabetics. Fischer's case showed 18.1 per cent total ether extract. Of this very little was free fat (0.0018 gm. potassium hydroxide per gram of fat); iodine absorption was 60.6 per cent.; cholesterin, 2.6 per cent. Chatin's case, cited by Fischer, showed 1.2 per cent. cholesterin, 66.5 per cent. olein, 32.2 per cent. margarin in the fat. Neisser and Derlin in the ether extract of blood from a patient with diabetic coma found 19.7 per cent. fat, with melting point of from 39° to 41° C.; iodine absorption was 53.6 per cent. Javal in a similar case found 25.4 per cent. of fat in ether extract of dry serum (perhaps by Soxhlet method); 21 per cent. of the fat was lecithin. Bleibtreu produced alimentary lipemia in geese by feeding barley and butter. Ether extract of serum showed 6 per cent. of fat. The serum was milky with invisible droplets. Iodine absorption was 57 to 58 per cent. The fat was quite different, chemically, from the fat in the food. Lipemia disappeared a few days after discontinuing the forced feeding. Our experiments suggest, by analogy, the possible occurrence of lipemia in human anemias. In this connection it is of interest to note that we have recently demonstrated a moderate lipemia in a case of marked secondary anemia from hemorrhoids. The emaciation in such cases, as contrasted with the well-recognized conservation of the fat in pernicious anemia, suggests in human pathology a still further analogy which we now have under investigation. The fat in our lipemic rabbits differs from fats described above in its insolubility, as well as in its "constants." The change after precipitation of calcium from the serum suggests that the fat may be present in the serum as a protein-calcium-lecithin combination which is decomposed by decalcifying. While we are not prepared to offer an explanation of the mechanism of this lipemia, it is possible that the great loss of tissue proteins may have some influence on the abnormal fat metabolism. That the fat is derived from the tissues is a fair inference when its occurrence in connection with the loss of weight and the previous disappearance of the body fat are taken into consideration. A more careful study of the lipase in the blood and tissues is desirable. It may be that lowered oxidation following great loss of red cells plays a part.
PMCID: PMC2124731  PMID: 19867266
5.  Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Olein on Blood Pressure—Regulating Enzymes Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats 
Background:
Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The process of deep-fat frying in dietary cooking oil plays a role in the generation of free radicals. In this study, palm olein heated to 180 °C was tested for its effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and lipid peroxidation.
Methods:
Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned into 6 groups.The first group was fed with normal rat chow as the control group, and the subsequent groups were fed with rat chow fortified with 15% weight/weight of the following: fresh palm olein, palm olein heated once, palm olein heated twice, palm olein heated 5 times, or palm olein heated 10 times. The duration of feeding was 6 months. Fatty acid analyses of oil were performed using gas chromatography. Peroxide values were determined using standard titration. Plasma was collected for biochemical analyses.
Results:
Repeatedly heated palm olein increased the levels of peroxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and lipid peroxidation as well as reduced the level of heme oxygenase. Fresh palm olein and palm olein heated once had lesser effects on lipid peroxidation and a better effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes than repeatedly heated palm olein.
Conclusion:
Repeatedly heated palm olein may negatively affect the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and increase lipid peroxidation.
PMCID: PMC3436495  PMID: 22977371
angiotensin-converting enzyme; heating; heme oxygenase; nutrition; oxidative stress; palm oil
6.  The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: A decade of progress 
The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was designed to expand the quantity and improve the quality of data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food composition databases through the collection and analysis of nationally representative samples of foods and beverages. This paper describes some of the findings from the NFNAP and its impact on the food composition databases produced by USDA. The NFNAP employs statistically valid sampling plans, comprehensive quality control, and USDA analytical oversight as part of the program to generate new and updated analytical data for food components. USDA food consumption and composition data were used to target those foods that are major contributors of nutrients of public health significance to the U.S. diet (454 Key Foods). Foods were ranked using a scoring system, divided into quartiles, and reviewed to determine the impact of changes in their composition compared to historical values. Foods were purchased from several types of locations, such as retail outlets and fast food restaurants in different geographic areas as determined by the sampling plan, then composited and sent for analysis to commercial laboratories and cooperators, along with quality control materials. Comparisons were made to assess differences between new NFNAP means generated from original analytical data and historical means. Recently generated results for nationally representative food samples show marked changes compared to database values for selected nutrients from unknown or non-representative sampling. A number of changes were observed in many high consumption foods, e.g. the vitamin A value for cooked carrots decreased from 1,225 to 860 RAE/100g; the fat value for fast food French fried potatoes increased by 13% (14.08 to 17.06 g/100g). Trans fatty acids in margarine have decreased as companies reformulate their products in response to the required addition of trans fatty acids content on the nutrition label. Values decreased from 19.7 g/100 in 2002 to 14.8 g/100 in 2006 for 80%-fat stick margarines and to 4.52 g/100 g for 80%-fat tub margarines. These changes reflect improved strategies for sampling and analysis of representative food samples, which enhance the reliability of nutrient estimates for Key Foods and subsequent assessments of nutrient intake.
doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2007.07.006
PMCID: PMC2704478  PMID: 19578546
USDA food composition database; National Nutrient Database; Food tables; Nutrient data; National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; NFNAP; Data management; Key Foods; Database update
7.  Calcium and fat metabolic balance, and gastrointestinal tolerance in term infants fed milk-based formulas with and without palm olein and palm kernel oils: a randomized blinded crossover study 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:215.
Background
Effects of palm olein (POL) on calcium and fat metabolic balance and gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance have been clinically evaluated but its use in combination with palm kernel oil (PKO), and canola oil has not been similarly assessed in infants.
Methods
Calcium and fat balance and GI tolerance were evaluated in 33 healthy term infants (age = 68-159d) in a randomized, double-blinded, 14d crossover trial at a day care center in Salvador, Brazil; followed by a 4d hospital ward metabolic balance study in 17 of the male subjects. The study compared two commercially available milk-based powdered formulas in Brazil; one containing POL (44% of total fat), PKO (21.7%) and canola oil (18.5%) as predominant fats (PALM), and the other containing none (NoPALM). Occasional human milk (HM) supplementation was allowed at home.
Results
Formula and HM intakes, and growth were not different (p > 0.05). Calcium absorption (%) for infants fed NoPALM (58.8 ± 16.7%; means ± SD) was higher (p = 0.023) than those fed PALM (42.1 ± 19.2%), but was not significant (p = 0.104) when calcium intake was used as a covariate. Calcium intake was higher (p < 0.001) in NoPALM versus PALM fed infants. However, calcium retention (%) was higher in infants fed NoPALM compared to PALM with (p = 0.024) or without (p = 0.015) calcium intake as a covariate. Fat absorption (%) for NoPALM was greater than PALM fed infants (NoPALM = 96.9 ± 1.2 > PALM = 95.1 ± 1.5; p = 0.020 in Study Period I). Mean rank stool consistency was softer in infants fed NoPALM versus PALM (p < 0.001; metabolic period). Adverse events, spit-up/vomit, fussiness and gassiness were not different (p > 0.05). Formula acceptability was high and comparable for both formula feedings, regardless of HM supplementation.
Conclusions
Term infants fed PALM based formula (containing palm olein, palm kernel and canola oils) demonstrated lower calcium retention and fat absorption, and less softer stool consistency versus infants fed NoPALM based formula. Study suggested formula fat differences may affect GI function in infants.
Clinical trial registration
Clinical Trial.Gov # ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov): NCT00941564.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-215
PMCID: PMC3877982  PMID: 24367946
Palm olein; Calcium balance; Fat balance; Gastrointestinal tolerance; Brazilian infants
8.  Comparison of effects of soft margarine, blended, ghee, and unhydrogenated oil with hydrogenated oil on serum lipids: A randomized clinical trail 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(6):363-371.
BACKGROUND
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are known as the most harmful type of dietary fats. Therefore, this study was done to compare the effects of some different oils including unhydrogenated, blended, ghee, and soft magazine with hydrogenated oil on serum lipid profile of healthy adults.
METHODS
This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 206 healthy participants of 20 to 60 years of age. Subjects were randomly divided into 5 groups and each of them was treated with a diet containing unhydrogenated oil, ghee, blended oil, soft margarine, or hydrogenated oil for 40 days. Fasting serum lipids were measured before and after the study.
RESULTS
Compared to hydrogenated oil, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) had a significant reduction in all groups, LDL-C declined in unhydrogenated oil and soft margarine groups, and apolipoprotein (Apo) B only in unhydrogenated oil group (all P < 0.05). However, there was a significant enhancement in ApoA of ghee oil (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION
Consuming unhydrogenated oil, ghee, soft margarine, and blended oil had some beneficial effects on serum lipids.
PMCID: PMC3933054  PMID: 24575140
Clinical Trial; Dietary Fat; Commercial Oil; Lipid
9.  Use of pilot plant scale continuous fryer to simulate industrial production of potato chips: thermal properties of palm olein blends under continuous frying conditions 
Food Science & Nutrition  2013;2(1):28-38.
Binary blends of palm olein (PO) with sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CNO), and cottonseed oil (CSO) were formulated to assess their stability under continuous frying conditions. The results were then compared with those obtained in PO. The oil blends studied were: (1) 60:40 for PO + SFO; (2) 70:30 for PO + CNO; and (3) 50:50 for PO + CSO. The PO and its blends were used to fry potato chips at 180°C for a total of 56 h of operation. The evolution of analytical parameters such as tocols, induction period, color, p-anisidine value, free fatty acid, smoke point, polar compounds, and polymer compounds were evaluated over the frying time. Blending PO with unsaturated oils was generally proved to keep most qualitative parameters comparable to those demonstrated in PO. Indeed, none of the oils surpassed the legislative limits for used frying. Overall, it was noted that oil containing PO and SFO showed higher resistance toward oxidative and hydrolytic behaviors as compared to the other oil blends.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.76
PMCID: PMC3951548  PMID: 24804062
Binary blends; continuous frying conditions; potato chips; qualitative parameters; stability
10.  Integrated lipase production and in situ biodiesel synthesis in a recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast: an efficient dual biocatalytic system composed of cell free enzymes and whole cell catalysts 
Background
Lipase-catalyzed biotransformation of acylglycerides or fatty acids into biodiesel via immobilized enzymes or whole cell catalysts has been considered as one of the most promising methods to produce renewable and environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuels, thus being extensively studied so far. In all previously pursued approaches, however, lipase enzymes are prepared in an independent process separated from enzymatic biodiesel production, which would unavoidably increase the cost and energy consumption during industrial manufacture of this cost-sensitive energy product. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel cost-effective biocatalysts and biocatalytic processes with genuine industrial feasibility.
Result
Inspired by the consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulose to generate bioethanol, an integrated process with coupled lipase production and in situ biodiesel synthesis in a recombinant P. pastoris yeast was developed in this study. The novel and efficient dual biocatalytic system based on Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase took advantage of both cell free enzymes and whole cell catalysts. The extracellular and intracellular lipases of growing yeast cells were simultaneously utilized to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oils in situ and in one pot. This integrated system effectively achieved 58% and 72% biodiesel yield via concurrent esterified-transesterified methanolysis and stepwise hydrolysis-esterification at 3:1 molar ratio between methanol and waste cooking oils, respectively. Further increasing the molar ratio of methanol to waste cooking oils to 6:1 led to an 87% biodiesel yield using the stepwise strategy. Both water tolerance and methanol tolerance of this novel system were found to be significantly improved compared to previous non-integrated biodiesel production processes using separately prepared immobilized enzymes or whole cell catalysts.
Conclusion
We have proposed a new concept of integrated biodiesel production. This integrated system couples lipase production to lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis in one pot. The proof-of-concept was established through construction of a recombinant P. pastoris yeast strain that was able to grow, overexpress T. lanuginosus lipase, and efficiently catalyze biodiesel production from fed waste cooking oils and methanol simultaneously. This simplified single-step process represents a significant advance toward achieving economical production of biodiesel at industrial scale via a ‘green’ biocatalytic route.
doi:10.1186/1754-6834-7-55
PMCID: PMC4022340  PMID: 24713071
Integrated biodiesel production; Lipase; Pichia pastoris; Thermomyces lanuginosus; Waste cooking oils
11.  Effect on lipoprotein profile of replacing butter with margarine in a low fat diet: randomised crossover study with hypercholesterolaemic subjects. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1996;312(7036):931-934.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations when butter or an unsaturated margarine is used for cooking or spreading in a reduced fat diet. DESIGN--Randomised crossover study with two intervention periods of six weeks' duration separated by a five week washout. SETTING--Community setting in New Zealand. SUBJECTS--49 volunteers with polygenic hypercholesterolaemia and baseline total cholesterol concentration in the range 5.5-7.9 mmol/l. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Concentrations of total and low density lipoprotein, Lp(a) lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B 100, and apolipoprotein A I. RESULTS--Concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were about 10% lower with margarine than with butter. Lp(a) lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were similar with the two diets. CONCLUSION--Despite concerns about adverse effects on lipoproteins of trans fatty acids in margarines, the use of unsaturated margarine rather than butter by hypercholesterolaemic people is associated with a lipoprotein profile that would be expected to reduce cardiovascular risk.
PMCID: PMC2350773  PMID: 8616303
12.  Studies on chemical and sensory parameters of coconut oil and its olein blends with sesame oil and palmolein during wheat flour-based product frying 
Blends of coconut oil—coconut oil with sesame oil (blend 1); coconut olein with sesame oil (blend 2); coconut olein with palmolein (blend 3) in 1:1 (v/v) ratio—were used in this study for frying Poori, a traditional Indian fast food prepared from wheat flour. Changes in oil quality were determined by chemical and sensory methods. Free fatty acid content did not change whereas peroxide value increased. Anisidine value increased from 5.5, 0.9 and 4.2 to 34.3, 42.8 and 23.6 for blends 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Iodine value showed marginal decrease in blends 1 and 2. Diene value showed no change in all three blends. Sesamol content in blends 1 and 2, total tocopherols in all the three blends, and β-carotene content in blend 3 decreased after frying. The blends showed a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the characteristic coconut oil odour after frying. Blend 3 showed comparatively better frying stability and also overall sensory quality of poori fried in this blend was the highest.
doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0145-7
PMCID: PMC3551068  PMID: 23572732
Deep-fat frying; Coconut olein; Sesamol; β-Carotene; Tocols
13.  Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart 
BMC Pharmacology  2004;4:29.
Background
Palm olein oil (PO), obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) which is a common sequel of ischemic heart disease. Antioxidants have potent therapeutic effects on both ischemic heart disease and ischemic-reperfusion injury. Information on the effect of PO on ischemic-reperfusion injury is, however, lacking. In the present study, the effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with IRI was investigated in an isolated rat heart model. Wistar rats (150–200 gm) of either sex were divided into three different groups (n = 16). Rats were fed with palm olein oil supplemented commercial rat diet, in two different doses [5% v / w (PO 5) and 10% v / w (PO 10) of diet] for 30 days. Control rats (C) were fed with normal diet. After 30 days, half the rats from each group were subjected to in vitro myocardial IRI (20 min of global ischemia, followed by 40 min of reperfusion). Hearts from all the groups were then processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test was applied to test for significance and values are expressed as mean ± SE (p < 0.05).
Results
There was a significant increase in myocardial catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities with no significant change in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) only in group PO 5 as compared to group C. There was no light microscopic evidence of tissue injury. A significant rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of myocardial endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx) along with significant myocyte injury was observed in control rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (C IR). Hearts from palm olein oil fed rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (PO 5 IR and PO 10 IR) were protected from increase in TBARS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants as compared to C IR group. No significant myocyte injury was present in the treated groups.
Conclusions
The present study demonstrated for the first time that dietary palm olein oil protected rat heart from oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury.
doi:10.1186/1471-2210-4-29
PMCID: PMC535348  PMID: 15535879
14.  Preparation and characterization of minoxidil loaded nanostructured lipid carrier gel for effective treatment of alopecia☆ 
In the present work attempts have been made to prepare the nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) gel, by using minoxidil, which is preferably used in case of Alopecia, i.e. baldness pattern as a effective drug. The nine different formulations of Minoxidil-NLC (NLC1–NLC9) were prepared using solid and liquid lipids with Cholesterol and Soya lecithin in different concentrations by the melt dispersion ultrasonication method. Properties of NLC1–NLC9 such as the particle size and its distribution, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the drug entrapment efficiency (EE), and the drug release behavior were investigated. The nanoparticulate dispersion was suitably gelled and characterized with respect to drug content, pH, spreadability, rheology, and in vitro release. Safety of the NLC-based gel was assessed using primary skin irritation studies. The formulated NLC3 was spherical in shape, with average particle size of 280 nm, zeta potential of −42.40 mV and entrapment efficiency of 86.09%. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) measurements revealed that imperfect crystallization occurred in the inner core of the NLC particles. The drug release behavior from the NLC displayed a biphasic drug release pattern with burst release at the initial stage followed by sustained release. These results indicated that the NLC3 is a suitable carrier of minoxidil with improved drug loading capacity and controlled drug release properties. It has been observed that NLC gel produces the gel with good consistency, homogeneity, spreadability and rheological behavior. The developed NLC-based gel showed faster onset and elicited prolonged activity up to 16 h. The present study concluded that the NLC-based gel containing minoxidil dissolved in a mixture of solid lipid and liquid lipid in the nanoparticulate form helped us to attain the objective of faster onset yet prolonged action as evident from in vitro release.
doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2012.11.005
PMCID: PMC3824938  PMID: 24227958
Minoxidil; Nanostructured lipid carrier; DSC; SEM
15.  The daily 10 kcal expenditure deficit: a before-and-after study on low-cost interventions in the work environment 
BMJ Open  2013;3(1):e002125.
Objectives
To evaluate whether four types of low-cost interventions in the working environment can promote the small everyday lifestyle adaptations that can halt the epidemics of obesity and hypertension when maintained long term.
Design
A single-blind uninterrupted time-series intervention study consisting of four study periods: run-in (2 weeks), baseline (2 weeks), intervention (2 weeks), and after intervention 2 weeks).
Setting
University Medical Centre with over 11 000 employees, over 1000 hospital beds and over 2000 customers visiting the hospital restaurant each day.
Participants
Hospital staff and visitors.
Interventions
(1) Point-of-decision prompts on hospital elevator doors promoting stair use. (2) Point-of-purchase prompts in the hospital restaurant promoting reduced-salt soup. (3) Point-of-purchase prompts in the hospital restaurant promoting lean croissants. (4) Reversal of the accessibility and availability of diet margarine and butter in the hospital restaurant.
Main outcome measures
(1) Number of passages through 15 different parts of the hospital staircases. (2) Number and ratio of normal-salt and reduced-salt soup purchased. (3) Number and ratio of butter croissants and lean croissants purchased. (4) Number and ratio of diet margarine and butter purchased.
Results
Elevator signs increased the mean 24-h number of stair passages per measurement site (baseline: 992 ± 479 on week days and 208 ± 116 on weekend days) by 11.2% (95% CI 8.7% to 13.7%). This effect was maintained at least 2 weeks after the point-of-decision prompts were removed. Point-of-purchase prompts promoting low-salt soup and lean croissants did not result in altered purchase behaviour. The ratio between the purchase of margarine and butter was changed sevenfold (p<0.01) by reversing the positions of these products in the hospital restaurant.
Conclusions
Healthy lifestyle adaptations in the working environment can be effectively promoted by making healthy choices easier than unhealthy ones. Educational prompts at points-of-decision moderately increase stair climbing, but do not affect healthy food choices.
Protocol registration
Clinicaltrials.gov identifier number: NCT01574040.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002125
PMCID: PMC3563119  PMID: 23355669
Health Promotion; Occupational & Industrial Medicine; Physical Activity And Exercise Methodology; Preventive Medicine
16.  Trans fats—sources, health risks and alternative approach - A review 
Trans fatty acids have the presence of one or more double bonds in the trans configuration instead of the usual cis configuration. They are desired by Vanaspati industry as they impart firmness to margarines and plasticity as well as emulsion stability to shortenings. Research has proved the direct connection of trans fatty acids with cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, shortening of pregnancy period, risks of preeclampsia, disorders of nervous system and vision in infants, colon cancer, diabetes, obesity and allergy. In light of these new findings trans fatty intake should be zero and new technology of hydrogenation of oils is to be developed which produce zero trans fatty acids at the same time preserve the desirable properties contributed by trans fatty acids to the hydrogenated oils. Presently in India there is no system to monitor and regulate the amount of trans fats in processed foods and hence a stringent food law is immediately required.
doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0225-8
PMCID: PMC3551118  PMID: 23572785
Trans fatty acids; Hydrogenation; Interesterification; Trait-enhanced oils; Low density lipoproteins
17.  Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(1):e16268.
Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship.
Objective
To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population.
Material and Methods
Prospective cohort study (1999–2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment. At baseline, a 136-item validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of fatty acids (saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and culinary fats (olive oil, seed oils, butter and margarine) During follow-up participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression models were used to calculate Hazard Ratios (HR) of incident depression and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for successive quintiles of fats.
Results
During follow-up (median: 6.1 years), 657 new cases of depression were identified. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for depression incidence across successive quintiles of TFA intake were: 1 (ref), 1.08 (0.82–1.43), 1.17 (0.88–1.53), 1.28 (0.97–1.68), 1.42 (1.09–1.84) with a significant dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.003). Results did not substantially change after adjusting for potential lifestyle or dietary confounders, including adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern. On the other hand, an inverse and significant dose-response relationship was obtained for MUFA (p for trend = 0.05) and PUFA (p for trend = 0.03) intake.
Conclusions
A detrimental relationship was found between TFA intake and depression risk, whereas weak inverse associations were found for MUFA, PUFA and olive oil. These findings suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression may share some common nutritional determinants related to subtypes of fat intake.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016268
PMCID: PMC3027671  PMID: 21298116
18.  Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids: health aspects 
Food & Nutrition Research  2008;52:10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1651.
Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources – industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60% of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has remained stable.
In spite of this decrease we have found that in many countries consumption >20 g of IP-TFA in a one-meal menu consisting of some popular foods is possible, even though the average intake of IP-TFA in these countries is low. Subgroups of the populations may therefore, on average, consume >5 g IP-TFA per day. This level of consumption is generally not possible for RP-TFA. A daily intake of 5 g TFA (primarily IP-TFA) is associated with a 29% increased risk of coronary heart disease. Such an association is not found for RP-TFA up to a daily intake of 4 g.
The high amount of IP-TFA in popular foods, the evidence of a more harmful effect on health by IP-TFA than by RP-TFA, and the feasibility of eliminating IP-TFA from foods without side effects for the population, suggest that a selective elimination of IP-TFA from our food is a ‘low hanging fruit’ in the quest for a more healthy diet for subgroups of the population.
doi:10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1651
PMCID: PMC2596737  PMID: 19109659
trans fatty acids; ruminant; industrial; hydrogenated fats; health aspects; cardio-vascular disorders; obesity
19.  Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:606.
Background
Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs).
Results
A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes.
Conclusions
The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding for diverse biological functions including oil biosynthesis were identified. These genes will serve as invaluable genetic resource for crop improvement in jatropha to make it an ideal and profitable crop for biodiesel production.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-606
PMCID: PMC3091748  PMID: 20979643
20.  Ischaemic heart disease and consumption of hydrogenated marine oils in England and Wales. 
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine the hypothesis that hydrogenated fats, particularly those obtained from marine oils, may present a health hazard. DESIGN--Storage fat specimens obtained at necropsy were collected from several areas in England and Wales during 1975-1978. Cases (n = 136 samples) consisted of males dying of ischaemic heart disease, male deaths from unrelated causes acting as controls (n = 95 samples). The fatty acid compositions of the specimens were determined, and analysis included those acids--16:1 trans and "higher" C-20 plus C-22 (H)--highly characteristic of partially hydrogenated marine oils. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The case samples, which had been shown to be the richer in 16:1 trans (p less than 0.005), were now found to have a significantly higher value of the ratio 16:1 trans to H (p less than 0.002), arising from consumption of differing hydrogenated marine oil types. CONCLUSIONS--It is concluded that the cases had consumed a greater amount (p less than 0.001) of hydrogenated marine oils of a certain type, ie, that manufactured from certain highly unsaturated raw oils. The process of partial hydrogenation results in conversion to a product containing large amounts of polyunsaturated acids (PUFA) which are no longer in the natural all-cis methylene interrupted configuration. Such isomeric PUFA may obstruct or compete with utilisation of natural PUFA. It is further concluded that the case excess did not rise from medical advice favouring margarine or from any difference in social class status, but rather from fortuitous selection of margarine brand.
PMCID: PMC1059499  PMID: 1573366
21.  Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease 
Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items.
Literature sources: Google and US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health were the sources of papers cited in this review article.
doi:10.12669/pjms.301.4525
PMCID: PMC3955571  PMID: 24639860
Cardiovascular disease; Coronary heart disease; Dietary fats; Trans fatty acid; South Asia
22.  Letter to the editor: healthy alternatives to trans fats 
Consumption of trans fats is associated with an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To comply with regulatory policies and public health authorities recommendations, trans fats should be replaced in food products. The study by Sundram et al. (Nutrition & Metabolism 2007, 4:3) reporting the effect on CVD risk factors of interesterified fat (IE) and partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO) compared to palm olein (POL) has been critically analyzed. The study design and in particular the composition of the tested fats was not suitable to properly answer the question raised regarding the effect of alternative ingredients to trans fats on plasma lipids. The observed effects are divergent with predicted data derived from the literature model consolidated using the individual results of 60 randomized clinical trials. The results of the study published by Sundram and co-workers have to be considered with awareness.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-10
PMCID: PMC1867814  PMID: 17462099
23.  Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Shells of Mussel, Cockle, and Scallop as the Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:460923.
The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO) in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester). The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700–1,000°C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol.
doi:10.1155/2013/460923
PMCID: PMC3881677  PMID: 24453854
24.  Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation 
The AAPS Journal  2004;6(3):81-87.
This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 23 factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activity, and stability. Commercially available CHL topical powder was used for comparison. All the prepared emulgels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. They also exhibited higher drug release and antifungal activity than the CHL powder. It was found that the emulsifying agent concentration had the most pronounced effect on the drug release from the emulgels followed by the oil phase concentration and finally the type of the gelling agent. The drug release from all the emulgels was found to follow diffusion-controlled mechanism. Rheological studies revealed that the CHL emulgels exhibited a shear-thinning behavior with thixotropy. Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological properties, drug release, and antifungal activity in all the prepared emulgels remained unchanged upon storage for 3 months. As a general conclusion, it was suggested that the CHL emulgel formulation prepared with HPMC with the oil phase concentration in its low level and emulsifying agent concentration in its high level was the formula of choice since it showed the highest drug release and antifungal activity.
doi:10.1208/aapsj060326
PMCID: PMC2751251  PMID: 15760111
chlorphenesin; emulgel; factorial design
25.  The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh) 
Food Science & Nutrition  2014;2(2):164-173.
Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P < 0.001) all chemical attributes except moisture and nitrogen-free extract, and fat level significantly impacted moisture, fat, protein, ash, acidity, and magnesium contents of Labneh. Type of milk significantly affected apparent modulus, hardness, hardness work done, and adhesive force, whereas fat level significantly affected hardness. Type of milk significantly affected the sensory attributes of syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.89
PMCID: PMC3959963  PMID: 24804075
Caprine; concentrated yogurt; Labneh; low-fat; ovine; sensory

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