INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE:
Kidney disorders can cause essential hypertension, which can subsequently cause renal disease. High blood pressure is also common among those with chronic kidney disease; moreover, it is a well-known risk factor for a more rapid progression to kidney failure. Because hypertension and kidney function are closely linked, the present study aimed to observe the beneficial effects of low-intensity physical activity on structural and ultrastructural renal morphology and blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Male Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly allocated into four groups: sedentary or exercised Wistar-Kyoto and sedentary or exercised spontaneously hypertensive rats. The exercise lasted 20 weeks and consisted of treadmill training for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week.
The exercised, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed a significant blood pressure reduction of 26%. The body masses of the Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive strains were significantly different. There were improvements in some of the renal structures of the animals treated with physical activity: (i) the interdigitations of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; (ii) the basal membrane of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; and (iii) in the basal membrane, slit diaphragm and pedicels of the glomerular filtration barrier. The spontaneously hypertensive rats also showed a decreased expression of connexin-43.
Physical exercise could be a therapeutic tool for improving kidney ultrastructure and, consequently, renal function in hypertensive individuals.
Hypertension; Physical activity; Kidney; SHR; Ultrastructure
Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.
There are few studies evaluating exercise in the nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This review covers the rationale for exercise among patients with CKD not requiring dialysis and the effects of exercise training on physical functioning, progression of kidney disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we address the issue of the risk of exercise and make recommendations for implementation of exercise in this population.
Evidence from uncontrolled studies and from small randomized controlled trials shows that exercise training results in improved physical performance and functioning among patients with CKD. In addition, although there are no studies examining cardiovascular outcomes, several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, inflammation, and oxidative stress, may be improved with exercise training in this population. Although the current literature does not allow for definitive conclusions about whether exercise training slows the progression of kidney disease, no study has reported worsening of kidney function as a result of exercise training. In the absence of guidelines specific to the CKD population, recent guidelines developed for older individuals and patients with chronic disease should be applied to the CKD population.
In sum, exercise appears to be safe in this patient population if begun at moderate intensity and increased gradually. Indeed, the evidence suggests that the risk of remaining inactive is higher. Patients should be advised to increase their physical activity when possible and referred to physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation programs when appropriate.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly recognised as a complication of childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) even in the absence of diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an alteration in angiopoietin-1 and -2, growth factors which regulate endothelial and vascular function could be involved. We report that the endothelial survival factor, angiopoietin-1 is low in children with pre-dialysis CKD whereas the pro-inflammatory angiopoietin-2 is elevated in children on dialysis. In dialysis patients, angiopoietin-2 positively correlated with time on dialysis, systolic blood pressure, and carotid artery intima media thickness. Elevated angiopoietin-2 levels in dialysis versus pre-dialysis CKD patients were also associated with an anti-angiogenic (high soluble VEGFR-1 and low VEGF-A) and pro-inflammatory (high urate, E-selectin, P-selectin and VCAM-1) milieu. Ang-2 was immunodetected in arterial biopsy samples whilst the expression of VEGF-A was significantly downregulated in dialysis patients. Serum urate correlated with angiopoietin-2 levels in dialysis patients and addition of uric acid was able to induce rapid release of angiopoietin-2 from cultured endothelial cells. Thus, angiopoietin-2 is a marker for cardiovascular disease in children on chronic dialysis and may act as an anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory effector in this context. The possibility that the release of angiopoietin-2 from endothelia is mediated by urate should be explored further.
Hypertension is an important independent risk factor for renal disease. If hypertension and chronic renal disease co-exist, as is common in patients with diabetes mellitus, the risk of cardiovascular disease is heightened. The importance of rigorous blood pressure control is recognized in current guidelines, with a recommended target of office blood pressure of < 130/80 mmHg; although ambulatory blood pressure may be more appropriate in order to identify the 24-hour hypertensive burden. Even lower blood pressure may further reduce the progression of chronic kidney disease, but the incidence of cardiovascular events may increase. Albuminuria not only indicates renal damage, but is also a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality at least in patients with high cardiovascular risk and potentially pre-existing vascular damage. Management of the multiple factors for renal and cardiovascular disease is mandatory in the diabetic patient. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the progression of renal disease, as well as in hypertension and target-organ damage. The use of agents that target the RAS confer renoprotection in addition to antihypertensive activity. There is extensive evidence of the renoprotective effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and specifically telmisartan. In addition to providing 24-hour blood pressure control, clinical studies in patients with diabetes show that telmisartan improves renal endothelial function, prevents progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria, slows the decline in glomerular filtration rate and reduces proteinuria in overt nephropathy. These effects cannot be solely attributed to blood pressure control. In contrast to other members of the ARB class, the renoprotective effect of telmisartan is not confined to the management of diabetic nephropathy; slowing the progression of albuminuria has been demonstrated in the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET®), which included diabetic and non-diabetic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events.
Advances in the field of kidney transplantation have led to a significant increase in the life of renal allograft with 1 - year graft survival rates of 93% to 99%.This increase in early graft survival has made it possible to observe the long-term morbidities that accompany renal transplantation.
Studies correlating the reduction of arterial blood pressure with patient and graft survival as well as the risk of cardiovascular disease do not exist. The recommendations come from the general population and from comparative studies of hypertensive and normotensive kidney graft recipients. It is known that in the general population hypertension is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease but at the same time a risk factor for death, ischaemic heart disease, chronic heart failure and left ventricular hypertrophy. We must always have in mind that there are many similarities between a kidney graft recipient and a patient with chronic kidney disease. Renal transplant recipients represent a patient population with a very high risk for development of cardiovascular disease which has been identified as the leading cause of death in these patients1. Of 18,482 deaths among renal allograft recipients, 38% had functioning renal allografts 2, 3. Successful renal transplantation (Rt) can result in partial regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) if it is associated with hypertension (HTN) remission or if HTN is controlled by medications. Frequently post transplant HTN is associated with failure of LVH to regress. Transplant clinicians must choose antihypertensive agents that will provide their patients with maximum benefit from renal allograft and cardiovascular perspective. The target must always be long term patient and graft survival and acceptable quality of life. The antihypertensive drugs usually used after kidney transplantation are diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and β – blockers. Most emphasis is given lately to ACEIs/ARBs and β – blockers because of their cardioprotecive effect.
kidney transplantation; hypertension; anti - hypertensive agents
Objectives: Scientific literature indicates that the risk of coronary heart disease morbidity and death among peritoneal dialysis patients exceeds risk observed in non-renal patients. The aims of this study were to establish the independent predictors associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease in peritoneal dialysis patients without diabetic nephropathy.
Materials and Methods: A number of 116 end-stage renal disease patients without diabetic nephropathy undergoing peritoneal dialysis were evaluated for coronary heart disease and predictive risk factors were investigated and identified. Also intima-media thickness measurements, as an early sign of atherosclerosis, were analyzed in a subset of patients in correlation with a number of traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
Results: The study sample was found to be characterized by a high prevalence of traditional risk factors: hypertension (95.7%), dyslipidemia (93.1%) and metabolic syndrome (58.6%), but also of dialysis-related risk factors: inflammation (82.8%) and anemia (55.2%). Independent variables found to be associated in regression analysis with coronary heart disease were: age, smoking status, nephroangiosclerosis, albumin, C-reactive protein and iPTH levels. Intima-media thickness was significantly higher in patients with coronary heart disease, values greater than 0.89 mm being associated with increased risks for coronary heart disease, acute coronary syndrome and cardiovascular death.
Conclusions: The prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in these peritoneal dialysis patients is extremely high, but there are also some other factors involved, especially malnutrition and inflammation. Age higher than 55 years, smoking, albumin less than 3.5 g/dl, iPTH less than 150 pg/ml and nephroangiosclerosis were associated with highest odds ratio for coronary heart disease. An increasing CRP levels was associated with an increasing gradient for coronary heart disease risk.
end-stage renal disease; coronary heart disease; peritoneal dialysis; intima-media thickness
As a result of altered kidney physiology, the aging kidney is at increased risk for both acute and chronic kidney injury. When coupled with the higher prevalence of such comorbid conditions as hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it is not surprising that both the incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal disease (ESRD), increases with age. Although the increase in ESRD with age is observed for all races, it is disproportionately high among ethnic minority populations. The reasons for this are varied and numerous, and a complex interplay of environmental, socioeconomic, cultural, and possibly genetic factors, may be involved. It is clear, therefore, that kidney disease in the elderly ethnic minority population is a cause for specific concern and that targeted strategies are needed to improve disease management and treatment outcomes in this high-risk group of patients.
Numerous studies have documented the presence of racial disparities among Americans in health outcomes with respect to cardiovascular disease, infant mortality, cancer, and kidney disease. With regard to kidney diseases, these disparities are more dramatic. African, Hispanic, and Native Americans have the highest risks of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The incidence of ESRD is four times higher in African Americans than in whites. Diseases causing chronic kidney failure, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy, are particularly prevalent among African-American patients. In addition to the higher prevalence, the morbidity associated with kidney complications of these diseases appears worse in African-American patients. African Americans also have worse outcomes and a relatively reduced access to kidney transplantation--the best therapy for ESRD. It is highly likely that social and environmental factors play a very significant role in the persistence of these disparities. A detailed understanding of these socioeconomic and environmental factors will be critical in formulating rational public health strategies to redress these disparities. This paper reviews the social, economic and environmental factors that impact on the incidence of ESRD in minority groups.
Chronic kidney disease has serious implications with a high risk for progressive loss of renal function, increased cardiovascular events as well as a substantial financial burden. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is activated in chronic kidney disease, especially in diabetes and hypertension, which are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) decrease the rate of progression of diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy and are recommended therapy for chronic kidney disease.
Key clinical trials supporting the use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs in chronic kidney disease are discussed. Recent developments in our understanding of RAAS biology and the use of direct renin inhibition are reviewed in the context of their potential impact on the prevention and management of chronic kidney disease.
Despite the clinical success of ACE inhibitors and ARBs the rates of mortality and progression to renal failure remain high in these patient populations. ACE inhibitor or ARB monotherapy, in doses commonly used in clinical practice does not result in complete suppression of the RAAS. Aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, offers a novel approach to inhibit the RAAS in chronic kidney disease.
High dose ARB therapy or combination therapies with ACE inhibitors and ARBs have shown beneficial effects on surrogate markers of chronic kidney disease. Early data based on urinary protein excretion rates as a surrogate marker for renal function suggest a possibly novel role for aliskiren alone or in combination with ARBs in chronic kidney disease.
Aliskiren; Renin; Angiotensin; Kidney disease
Patients with chronic kidney disease progress to end stage renal disease and about 86% are diagnosed hypertensives. Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the dialysis population. Pre and post–dialysis blood pressure values of < 140/90 mmHg are recommended as the optimal blood pressure. The extra-cellular volume (ECV) expansion is the main pathophysiological determinant of hypertension in dialysis patients. The efforts should be made to correctly estimate and achieve the patients dry body weigh and to limit dietary sodium intake. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta blockers and calcium channel blockers are recommended as first choice drugs. Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers have been associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality and give their protective effects in patients at high risk. Antihypertensive drug therapies can effectively reduce blood pressure and are needed by the vast majority of hemodialysis patients.
hypertension; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; cardiovascular disease
Chronic kidney disease is becoming a major health problem globally and in India an alarming number of about 8 million people are suffering from this disease. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and inflammation. As these two conditions often occur concomitantly in hemodialysis patients, they have been referred together as ‘malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome’ to emphasize the important association with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The three factors related to the pathophysiology in these patients are dialysis related nutrient loss, increased protein catabolism and hypoalbuminemia. Inflammation in Chronic Kidney disease is the most important factor in the genesis of several complications in renal disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1 and TNF-alpha play a major role in the onset of metabolic alterations in Chronic Kidney disease patients. Atherosclerosis is a very frequent complication in uremia due to the coexistence of hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia, inflammation, malnutrition and increased oxidative stress, generation of advanced glycation end products, advanced oxidation protein products, hyperlipidemia and altered structural and functional ability of HDL. LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (A), apolipoprotein (B), and Lp(a) are also associated with atherosclerosis. Studies have now provided enormous data to enable the evaluation of the severity of malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome as well as effective monitoring of these patients.
Chronic Kidney Disease; Hemodialysis; Malnutrition; Inflammation; Atherosclerosis; Syndrome
Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension are at high risk of vascular complications, particularly, renal deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of reduced renal function corresponding to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 – 5 among diabetic hypertensive patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of diabetic hypertensive patients attending A-Watani governmental medical center from August 2006 until August 2007. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was estimated using the Cockcroft–Gault equation. Those with CrCl< 60 ml/ min, corresponding to CDK stages 3 – 5, were considered to have reduced renal function. The prevalence of reduced renal function was calculated, and the risk factors associated with it were evaluated using multiple logistic regression. The following were the results found in this study: (a) the prevalence of reduced renal function among the study patients was 35.5% distributed as follows: (63.5%) had stage 3 CKD, 21.7% had stage 4 and 13% had stage 5 CKD. (b) Patients with reduced renal function were elderly, had a higher number of chronic diseases and had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension than those with CrCl≥ 60ml/ min. (c) Men had a higher prevalence of reduced renal function than women. (d) Significant predictors of reduced renal function were older age, duration of diabetes and the number of chronic diseases based on logistic regression analysis. Early and continuous screening of renal function among diabetic hypertensive patients is required to implement preventable strategies of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Better control of blood pressure and diabetes mellitus are important.
Prevalence; reduced renal function; diabetic hypertension; diabetes mellitus
The elderly are the most rapidly growing population group in the world. Data collected over a 30-year period have demonstrated the increasing prevalence of hypertension with age. The risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart disease, chronic kidney insufficiency and dementia is also increased in this subgroup of hypertensives. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to cardiovascular specialists and other practioners. During the last years and before the findings of the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial were published, the general medical opinion considered not to decrease blood pressure values similarly to other younger patients, in order to avoid possible ischemic events and poor oxygenation of the organs (brain, heart, kidney). The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of treating hypertension in aged population in order to improve their quality of life and lower the incidence of the cardiovascular complications.
Hypertension; Elderly; Pathophysiology; Treatment
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD and end-stage renal disease. There is accumulating evidence that the increase in CVD burden is present in CKD patients prior to dialysis, due both to conventional risk factors and kidney-specific disease. Detection and initiation of treatment for CVD risk factors at early stages of CKD should be effective in reducing CVD events before as well as after the onset of kidney failure.
Materials and Methods:
The study sample consisted of a total of 112 subjects aged ≤12 years: 60 CKD patients and 52 healthy control individuals. All subjects were investigated for a group of CVD risk factors such as: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, body mass index (BMI), family history of CVD, hypoalbuminemia, albuminuria, anemia, Ca x P product, and inflammation in terms of C-reactive protein (CRP).
Patients (40 males and 20 females) were categorized into four CKD stages (2, 3, 4, and 5) where, Stage 4 had the highest frequency, followed by Stages 3, 5 and 2. Evaluation of the patients indicated that they were shorter, had lower weight and had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared with control subjects. Frequency of physical inactivity among patients was two-fold higher than controls (50% vs. 25%). The patients showed significantly higher levels of cholesterol (163.6±39.8 vs. 141.8±24.2 mg/dL, P<0.0001), triglycerides (145.5±67.1 vs. 82.9±39.8 mg/dL, P<0.0001), low-density lipoprotein (92.6±31.9 vs. 72.5±19 mg/dL, P<0.0001) and albumin/creatinine ratio (1792±3183 vs. 11.1±6.6 mg/g, P<0.0001). Moreover, the patients had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (41.9±11.0 vs. 52.7±11.7 mg/dL, P<0.0001), hemoglobin (9.8±1.4 vs. 11.9±0.8 g/dL, P<0.0001) and albumin (4.6±0.6 vs. 4.8±0.2 g/dL, P=0.012). The CRP showed higher occurrence among patients (40% were positive for CRP). Calcium and phosphorus evaluation showed significantly lower calcium and higher phosphorus among patients. However, the difference in Ca X P product was not statistically significant.
The study indicates that many of the CVD risk factors are associated with the different stages of CKD in children patients prior to dialysis, and that some of these factors are exacerbated as CKD progresses.
Cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk factors; children; chronic kidney disease
Aortic PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and has proved useful in predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several populations of patients, including the healthy elderly, hypertensives and those with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Little data exist characterizing aortic stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease who are not receiving dialysis, and in particular the effect of reduced kidney function on aortic PWV.
We performed measurements of aortic PWV in a cross-sectional cohort of participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study to determine factors which predict increased aortic PWV in chronic kidney disease.
PWV measurements were obtained in 2564 participants. The tertiles of aortic PWV (adjusted for waist circumference) were < 7.7 m/sec, 7.7–10.2 m/sec and > 10.2 m/sec with an overall mean (± S.D.) value of 9.48 ± 3.03 m/sec [95% CI = 9.35–9.61 m/sec]. Multivariable regression identified significant independent positive associations of age, blood glucose concentrations, race, waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, gender, and presence of diabetes with aortic PWV and a significant negative association with the level of kidney function.
The large size of this unique cohort, and the targeted enrollment of chronic kidney disease participants provides an ideal situation to study the role of reduced kidney function as a determinant of arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness may be a significant component of the enhanced cardiovascular risk associated with kidney failure.
Chronic kidney disease affects one in nine Americans. Diabetes and hypertension account for nearly three quarters of all kidney failure cases. Disproportionate rates of chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension have been observed among African Americans. More than 70% of all kidney failure cases caused by diabetes and hypertension could have been prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyles and medications.
Approximately 14% of the population living in Michigan is African American. Despite this small proportion, 47% of patients on dialysis and 45% of those on the kidney transplant waiting list are African American. Risk of end-stage kidney failure is 4 times greater among African Americans than among whites.
The National Kidney Foundation of Michigan developed the Healthy Hair Starts with a Healthy Body (Healthy Hair) campaign to educate African American men and women about their disease risks and to motivate prevention behaviors. The campaign trains African American hair stylists to promote healthy behaviors with their clients through a "health chat" and by providing diabetes and hypertension risk assessment information and incentives.
Since 1999, Healthy Hair has trained nearly 700 stylists and reached more than 14,000 clients in eight Michigan cities. Information collected through a client "Chat Form" suggests a number of positive behavioral results.
With nearly 60% of clients indicating that they have taken steps to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease or to seek a physician's advice, the Healthy Hair program appears to be effective in the short term in prompting attention to healthy behaviors and increasing risk awareness.
With the increasing prevalence of hypertension, there has been a growing interest in understanding the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with hypertension. Although hypertension is often perceived as asymptomatic, it is associated with impaired HRQOL due to complications or co-morbidities, awareness of the diagnosis and adverse effects from anti-hypertensive medications. This article focuses on the literature published since 2000, on HRQOL in elderly hypertensive individuals as well as hypertensives with co-existent diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Most of the studies found that hypertensive individuals with co-existent co-morbidities tend to have lower HRQOL than those with hypertension alone, and identified the number of co-morbid illnesses as an independent determinant of HRQOL. The most pronounced effect was noted in the physical function domains of HRQOL. Studies have also examined the effects on HRQOL of specific classes of antihypertensive drugs without specific demonstration of superiority of 1 drug class over another in terms of HRQOL measures. While there is evidence in favor of ACE-inhibition for improving renal and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients, its role in ameliorating HRQOL outcomes remains to be established.
Hypertension; quality of life; chronic kidney disease; aging; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes mellitus
Our study was aimed to assess the clinical correlates of different degrees of renal dysfunction in a wide group of non-diabetic hypertensive patients, free from cardiovascular (CV) complications and known renal diseases, participating to the REDHY (REnal Dysfunction in HYpertension) study. A total of 1856 hypertensive subjects (mean age: 47±14 years), attending our hypertension centre, were evaluated. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study prediction equation. A 24-h urine sample was collected to determine albumin excretion rate (AER). Albuminuria was defined as an AER greater than 20 μg min−1. We used the classification proposed by the US National Kidney Foundation's guidelines for chronic kidney disease (CKD) to define the stages of renal function impairment. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the probability of having stage 1 and stage 2 CKD was significantly higher in subjects with greater values of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and with larger waist circumference. SBP was also positively related to stage 3 CKD. Stage 3 and stages 4–5 CKD were inversely associated with waist circumference and directly associated with serum uric acid. Age was inversely related to stage 1 CKD and directly related to stage 3 CKD. The factors associated with milder forms of kidney dysfunction are, in part, different from those associated with more advanced stages of renal function impairment.
arterial hypertension; renal dysfunction; albuminuria; estimated glomerular filtration rate
Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012) and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient's choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.
The prevalence of diabetes is on the rise in Canada, and there has been a corresponding increase in the rate of micro- and macrovascular complications. Among the worst of these is chronic kidney disease (CKD). It may be diagnosed either through the detection of persistent albuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate that is persistently less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients with diabetes and CKD have a lower quality of life and higher health care costs, and face the prospect of end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. More importantly, this group has an extremely elevated cardiovascular risk and correspondingly reduced survival. Research over several decades has led to two important conclusions. First, progressive worsening of kidney disease is not inevitable in people with diabetes; it can be slowed or even stopped. Second, the elevated cardiovascular risk in this population can be significantly reduced through an aggressive approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction. These conclusions have prompted Canadian guideline groups, such as the Canadian Diabetes Association and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, to release clinical practice guidelines that address the management of people with diabetes and CKD. In the present article, the studies that have influenced these Canadian guidelines are examined, and areas in which further research is still required are identified.
Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Clinical practice guidelines; Diabetes
The world’s population is aging, with the number of older adults projected to increase dramatically over the next two decades. This trend poses major challenges to health care systems, reflecting the greater healthcare utilization by and more comorbid conditions among elderly adults. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a substantial concern in the elderly, with both an increasing incidence of treated kidney failure with dialysis as well as a high prevalence of earlier stages of CKD. Given the high burden of risk factors for CKD, the high prevalence of CKD in the elderly is not surprising, with the rise in obesity, diabetes and hypertension in middle-aged adults likely foreshadowing further increases in CKD prevalence among the elderly. It is now commonly agreed that the presence of CKD identifies a higher risk state in the elderly, with increased risk for multiple adverse outcomes, including kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and death. Accordingly, CKD in older adults is worthy of attention by both health care providers and patients, with the presence of a reduced GFR or albuminuria in the elderly potentially informing therapeutic and diagnostic decisions for these individuals.
Chronic kidney disease; elderly; glomerular filtration rate; albuminuria; cardiovascular disease
Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.
Kidney disease is one of the most striking examples of health disparities in American public health. Disparities in the prevalence and progression of kidney disease are generally thought to be a function of group differences in the prevalence of kidney disease risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. However, the presence of these comorbidities does not completely explain the elevated rate of progression from chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease among high-risk populations such as African Americans. We believe that the social environment is an important element in the pathway from CKD risk factors to CKD and end-stage renal disease. This review of the literature draws heavily from social science and social epidemiology to present a conceptual frame specifying how social, economic, and psychosocial factors interact to affect the risks for and the progression of kidney disease.
psychosocial factors; socioeconomic factors; environmental factors; end-stage renal disease; chronic kidney disease
In 2005, the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) established the Global Outreach Program (GO) aimed at building a capacity for detecting and managing chronic kidney disease and its complications in low- and middle-income countries. Here we report data from the 2006-2007 screening program (1025 subjects from the general population) in the Republic of Moldova aimed to determine the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and their coexistence with microalbuminuria. The likelihood of a serious cardiovascular (CV) event was also estimated. Hypertension and diabetes were very common among screened subjects. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 16.9% and that of estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (decreased renal function) was 9.4%. Male gender was associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension and microalbuminuria. Hypertension and diabetes clustered in subjects with microalbuminuria and renal dysfunction. Risk factors such as preobesity/obesity, physical inactivity and smoking were relatively common, even in younger participants. The prevalence of subjects with predicted 10-year CV risk ≥10% was 10.0%. In conclusion, in the Republic of Moldova patients with hypertension and diabetes should be screened for the coexistence of renal abnormalities, with the intention of developing disease-specific health-care interventions with the primary goal to reduce CV morbidity and mortality and prevent renal disease progression to end stage renal disease.