The morphological and functional differences between arteries and veins may have implications on coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) survival. Although subjective differences have been observed between radial artery (RA) and long saphenous venous (LSV) grafts, these have not been quantified. This study assessed and compared the flow characteristics and in-vivo graft flow responses of RA and LSV aorto-coronary grafts.
Angiograms from 52 males taken 3.7 ± 1.0 months after CABG surgery were analyzed using adjusted Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count. Graft and target coronary artery dimensions were measured using quantitative coronary angiography. Estimated TIMI velocity (VE) and volume flow (FE) were then calculated. A further 7 patients underwent in-vivo graft flow responses assessments to adenosine, acetylcholine and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) using intravascular Doppler.
The VE for RA grafts was significantly greater than LSV grafts (P = 0.002), however there was no difference in volume FE (P = 0.20). RA grafts showed positive endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation, and LSV grafts showed no statistically significant response to adenosine and acetylcholine. There was no difference in flow velocity or volume responses. Seven RA grafts (11%) had compromised patency (4 (6%) ≥ 50% stenosis in the proximal/distal anastomoses, and 3 (5%) diffuse narrowing). Thirty-seven (95%) LSV grafts achieved perfect patency and 2 (5%) were occluded.
The flow characteristics and flow responses of the RA graft suggest that it is a more physiological conduit than the LSV graft. The clinical relevance of the balance between imperfect patency versus the more physiological vascular function in the RA graft may be revealed by the 5-year angiographic follow-up of this trial.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts.
A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT) angiography in the first week after surgery.
There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7%) of all the grafts, including 26 (10%) of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5%) of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA) grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4%) grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30%) of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX) region and 1 (50%) of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA) territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7%) of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5%) of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5%) grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4%) of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04).
The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.
We report a redo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a 55-year-old man. Angina recurred 7 years after the initial surgery. Coronary angiography showed all patent grafts except a faint visualization of the in situ right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) graft, which was anastomosed to the posterior descending coronary artery, associated with celiac axis stenosis. Redo-CABG was performed at postoperative 10 years because of aggravated angina and decreased perfusion of the inferior wall in the myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. The saphenous vein graft was interposed between the 2 in situ grafts used previously; the right internal thoracic artery and RGEA grafts. Angina was relieved and myocardial perfusion was improved.
Coronary artery bypass surgery; Reoperation; Ischemic heart disease
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS), in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT). Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized.
CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle.
CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis warranting further systematic application of the presented methodology on multiple patient datasets.
The success of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is limited by poor long-term graft patency. Saphenous vein is used in the vast majority of CABG operations, although 15% are occluded at one year with as many as 50% occluded at 10 years due to progressive graft atherosclerosis. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has greatly increased our understanding of this process. IVUS studies have shown that early wall thickening and adaptive remodeling of vein grafts occurs within the first few weeks post implantation, with these changes stabilising in angiographically normal vein grafts after six months. Early changes predispose to later atherosclerosis with occlusive plaque detectable in vein grafts within the first year. Both expansive and constrictive remodelling is present in diseased vein grafts, where the latter contributes significantly to occlusive disease. These findings correlate closely with experimental and clinicopathological studies and help define the windows for prevention, intervention or plaque stabilisation strategies. IVUS is also the natural tool for evaluating the effectiveness of pharmacological and other treatments that may prevent or slow the progression of vein graft disease in clinical trials.
Coronary artery bypass grafting; intravascular ultrasound; saphenous vein graft
Graft patency determines prognosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Numerous reports over the past 20 years have documented superior patencies and prognosis when multiple arterial grafts are used, yet less than 10% of CABG have multiple arterial grafts. Several conduits have been proposed, with varying degrees of success. Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) begin to fail with intimal hypertrophy and then atheroma after 5 years, with patency rates of 50% to 60% at 10 years, and <30% at 15 years. In contrast, left internal thoracic artery (LITA) patency is >95% at 10 years and >90% at 20 years. The radial artery is extremely versatile and can reach all territories, but is muscular and vulnerable to spasm and competitive flow. Similarly, the right gastroepiploic artery is also muscular, and is best suited to the posterior descending coronary artery, especially in reoperations and is also affected by competitive flow. In addition, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) grafts and total arterial revascularization (TACR) can be performed with identical perioperative mortality (1%) and perioperative morbidity to LITA + SVG. Importantly, survival is superior—85% to 90% at 10 years versus 75% to 80% respectively. BITA/TACR patients also suffer fewer late cardiac events and reoperations, with superior results for older patients, those requiring urgent surgery, diabetics, patients with renal dysfunction and in reoperations. Contraindications to BITA include obesity, insulin dependent diabetics, and severe chronic obstructive airways disease. As such, arterial grafts have better patencies and clinical results. BITA/TACR is often underutilized, but can be achieved in the majority of patients. Opportunities exist to enhance BITA/TACR use in CABG to the potential benefit of our patients.
Coronary artery bypass graft; conduits; internal thoracic artery; patient selection
Currently, saphenous vein (SV) and radial artery (RA) are the most commonly used conduits in combination with the left internal mammary artery for conventional coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The present meta-analysis aimed to assess the existing evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the angiographic outcomes of these two conduits at mid-term follow-up.
Four relevant and updated RCTs with follow-up beyond 3 years were identified using five electronic databases. Angiographic endpoints included complete occlusion, ‘string sign’, graft failure and complete patency.
The incidence of complete occlusion was significantly lower after using RA compared to SV [6.7% vs. 17.2%; odd ratio (OR), 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23-0.58; P<0.0001]. The angiographic ‘string sign’ was significantly more likely to be identified after using RA compared to SV (3.1% vs. 0%; OR, 5.65; 95% CI, 1.21-26.39; P=0.03). Graft failure was significantly lower after RA compared to SV (9.6% vs. 18.8%; OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30-0.72; P=0.0005). Complete graft patency was found to be significantly higher after RA compared to SV (88.6% vs. 75.8%; OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.42-7.16; P=0.005).
Results of the present meta-analysis suggest that selected patients with severe, proximal stenosis may have superior angiographic outcomes at mid-term follow-up after using RA compared to SV for CABG. However, RA is associated with a significantly higher incidence of the ‘string sign’. Future studies should aim to collect additional data on symptomatic outcomes.
Meta-analysis; radial artery (RA); saphenous vein (SV); coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG); conduits
In severe coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is indicated to re-establish an adequate blood supply to the ischemic myocardium. Effectiveness of CABG surgery for symptom relief and mortality decrease should therefore depend on bypass graft patency. As bypass using a left internal mammary artery (LIMA)-to-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) anastomosis allows the best results in terms of graft patency, we designed a new surgical technique using a saphenous vein graft as a venous bridge to distribute the LIMA flow to the cardiac anterolateral territory. This novel strategy could extend the patency benefits associated to the LIMA. Other potential benefits of this technique include easier surgical technique, possibility to use saphenous vein grafts as vein patch angioplasty, shorter saphenous vein grafts requirement and reduced or eliminated manipulations of the ascendant aorta (and associated stroke risk).
Between July 2012 and 2016, 200 patients undergoing a primary isolated CABG surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass with a LAD bypass graft and at least another target on the anterolateral territory will be randomized (1:1) according to 1) the new composite strategy and 2) the conventional strategy with a LIMA-to-LAD anastomosis and revascularization of the other anterolateral target(s) with a separated aorto-coronary saphenous vein graft. The primary objective of the trial is to assess whether the composite strategy allows non-inferior anterolateral graft patency index (proportion of non-occluded CABGs out of the total number of CABGs) compared to the conventional technique. The primary outcome is the anterolateral graft patency index, evaluated at one year by 256-slice computed tomography angiography. Ten years of clinical follow-up is planned to assess clinical outcomes including death, myocardial infarction and need for revascularization.
This non-inferiority trial has the potential to advance the adult cardiac surgery field, given the potential benefits associated with the composite grafting strategy.
Cardiopulmonary bypass; Composite graft; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Doppler velocimetry; Ischemic heart disease; Left internal mammary artery; Long-term follow-up; Multislice computed tomography angiography; Randomized clinical non-inferiority trial; Saphenous vein graft
Aneurysms of saphenous vein grafts to coronary arteries are unusual complications of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Three patients (men aged 47, 62, and 68 years) are presented with spontaneous chest pains 10, 21, and 17 years after CABG surgery. In one case, the saphenous vein graft had eroded into the right atrium and had established a fistula between the graft and the right atrium. Diagnosis of saphenous vein graft aneurysms was confirmed by echocardiography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and by arteriography. Two patients were treated surgically, the third by percutaneous coil embolisation followed by balloon angioplasty of the right coronary artery.
Keywords: aneurysm; pseudoaneurysm; saphenous vein grafts; coronary artery bypass graft
The relationship between luminal stenosis measured by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and severity of stress-induced ischemia seen on single photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) is not clearly defined. We sought to evaluate the relationship between stenosis severity assessed by CCTA and ischemia on SPECT-MPI.
Methods and Results
ECG-gated CCTA (64 slice dual source CT) and SPECT-MPI were performed within 6 months in 292 patients (ages 26-91, 73% male) with no prior history of coronary artery disease. Maximal coronary luminal narrowing, graded as 0, ≥25%, 50%, 70%, or 90% visual diameter reduction, was consensually assessed by two expert readers. Perfusion defect on SPECT-MPI was assessed by computer-assisted visual interpretation by an expert reader using the standard 17 segment, 5 point-scoring model (stress perfusion defect of ≥5% = abnormal). By SPECT-MPI, abnormal perfusion was seen in 46/292 patients. With increasing stenosis severity, positive predictive value (PPV) increased (42%, 51%, and 74%, P = .01) and negative predictive value was relatively unchanged (97%, 95%, and 91%) in detecting perfusion abnormalities on SPECT-MPI. In a receiver operator curve analysis, stenosis of 50% and 70% were equally effective in differentiating between the presence and absence of ischemia. In a multivariate analysis that included stenosis severity, multivessel disease, plaque composition, and presence of serial stenoses in a coronary artery, the strongest predictors of ischemia were stenosis of 50-89%, odds ratio (OR) 7.31, P = .001, stenosis ≥90%, OR 34.05, P = .0001, and serial stenosis ≥50% OR of 3.55, P = .006.
The PPV of CCTA for ischemia by SPECT-MPI rises as stenosis severity increases. Luminal stenosis ≥90% on CCTA strongly predicts ischemia, while <50% stenosis strongly predicts the absence of ischemia. Serial stenosis of ≥50% in a vessel may offer incremental value in addition to stenosis severity in predicting ischemia.
Myocardial perfusion imaging; SPECT; computed tomography (CT); ischemia; myocardial; SPECT; coronary artery disease
The radial artery (RA), as an alternative to the saphenous vein or the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) for coronary artery bypass grafting, has gained considerable interest over the years. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to assess the suitability of the radial artery as a conduit.
The Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes (RAPCO) trial is a double-armed randomized controlled trial comparing the RA with the free RITA in a younger cohort of patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery, and the RA with the saphenous vein in an older group. The trial conduit was grafted to the most important coronary target after the left anterior descending artery, which received the gold standard left internal thoracic artery. Clinical outcomes and angiographic patency up to 10 years was recorded during careful follow up, with annual clinical review and a program of randomly assigned, staggered angiography. The final trial results will be available in 2014.
Mid-trial results have shown equivalent survival and event-free survival and graft patency in both arms at median follow up of approximately 6 years. The demographic and clinical data, pre- and postoperative angiographic findings of the trial database have led to a number of substudies focusing on the role of lipid exposure in patency and disease progression, the fate of moderate lesions when grafted or left alone, patterns of disease regression, and patient satisfaction with graft harvest sites.
While the final analysis of the primary trial end points is eagerly awaited, the additional insight into the natural history of grafted coronary artery disease with modern secondary prevention will be of considerable interest.
Randomized controlled trial; radial artery (RA); internal thoracic artery (ITA); saphenous vein (SV)
OBJECTIVE—To investigate transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in the identification of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) flow for assessing graft patency.
DESIGN—The initial study group comprised 45 consecutive patients with previous CABG undergoing elective cardiac catheterisation for recurrent ischaemia. The Doppler variables best correlated with angiographic graft patency were then tested prospectively in a further 84 patients (test group).
SETTING—Three tertiary referral centres.
INTERVENTIONS—Flow velocities in grafts were recorded at rest and during hyperaemia induced by dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg/4 min), under the guidance of transthoracic colour Doppler flow mapping. Findings on transthoracic Doppler were compared with angiography.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Feasibility of identifying open grafts by Doppler and diagnostic accuracy for Doppler detection of significant (⩾ 70%) graft stenosis.
RESULTS—In the test group the identification rate for mammary artery grafts was 100%, for saphenous vein grafts to left anterior descending coronary artery 91%, for vein grafts to right coronary artery 96%, and for vein grafts to circumflex artery 90%. Coronary flow reserve (the ratio between peak diastolic velocity under hyperaemia and at baseline) of < 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.83 to 2.08) had 100% sensitivity, 98% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value for mammary artery graft stenosis. Coronary flow reserve of < 1.6 (95% CI 1.51 to 1.73) had 91% sensitivity, 87% specificity, 85.4% positive predictive value, and 92.3% negative predictive value for significant vein graft stenosis.
CONCLUSIONS—Transthoracic Doppler can provide non-invasive assessment of CABG patency.
Keywords: blood flow; coronary artery disease; coronary artery bypass graft; echocardiography
During and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), oxidative stress occurs. Finding an effective way to improve antioxidant response is important in CABG surgery. It has been shown that patients with coronary heart disease have a low Melatonin production rate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Melatoninon nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2) activity in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Thirty volunteers undergoing CABG were randomized to receive 10 mg oral Melatonin (Melatonin group, n = 15) or placebo (placebo group, n = 15) before sleeping for 1 month before surgery. The activated Nrf2 was measured twice by DNA-based ELISA method in the nuclear extract of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients before aortic clumps and 45 minutes after CABG operation. Melatonin administration was associated with a significant increase in both plasma levels of Melatonin and Nrf2 concentration in Melatonin group compared to placebo group, respectively (15.2 ± 4.6 pmol/L, 0.28 ± 0.01 versus 1.1 ± 0.59 pmol/L, 0.20 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). The findings of the present study provide preliminary data suggesting that Melatonin may play a significant role in the potentiation of the antioxidant defense and attenuate cellular damages resulting from CABG surgery via theNrf2 pathway.
Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in developed countries. Major recent studies such as SYNTAX and FREEDOM have confirmed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the gold standard treatment in terms of survival and freedom from myocardial infarction and the need for repeat revascularization. The current review explores the use of new technologies and future directions in coronary artery surgery, through 1) stressing the importance of multiple arterial conduits and especially the use of bilateral mammary artery; 2) discussing the advantages and disadvantages of off-pump coronary artery bypass; 3) presenting additional techniques, e.g. minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting, hybrid, and robotic-assisted CABG; and, finally, 4) debating a novel external stenting technique for saphenous vein grafts.
Coronary artery disease; external stent; minimally invasive grafting; multiple arterial conduits; off-pump coronary artery bypass
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a validated method for detecting coronary artery disease. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) of flow at rest and during adenosine provocation has previously been evaluated in selected patient groups. We therefore wanted to compare the diagnostic ability of TTDE in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to that of MPI in an unselected population of patients with chest pain referred for MPI. Our hypothesis was that TTDE with high accuracy would identify healthy individuals and exclude them from the need for further studies, enabling invasive investigations to be reserved for patients with a high probability of disease.
Sixty-nine patients, 44 men and 25 women, age 61 ± 10 years (range 35–82), with a clinical suspicion of stress induced myocardial ischemia, were investigated. TTDE was performed at rest and during adenosine stress for myocardial scintigraphy.
We found that coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) determined from diastolic measurements separated normal from abnormal MPI findings with statistical significance. TTDE identified coronary artery disease, defined from MPI, as reversible ischemia and/or permanent defect, with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 79%. The positive predictive value was 43% and the negative predictive value was 88%. There was an overlap between groups which could be due to abnormal endothelial function in patients with normal myocardial perfusion having either hypertension or diabetes.
TTDE is an attractive non-invasive method to evaluate chest pain without the use of isotopes, but the diagnostic power is strongly dependent on the population investigated. Even in our heterogeneous clinical cardiac population, we found that CFVR>2 in the LAD excluded significant coronary artery disease detected by MPI.
Coronary artery calcifications (CAC) are markers of coronary atherosclerosis, but do not correlate well with stenosis severity. This study intended to evaluate clinical situations where a combined approach of coronary calcium scoring (CS) and nuclear stress test (SPECT-MPI) is useful for the detection of relevant CAD.
Patients with clinical indication for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) were included into our study during 08/2005-09/2008. At first all patients underwent CS procedure as part of the study protocol performed by either using a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanner or a dual-source CT imager. CAC were automatically defined by dedicated software and the Agatston score was semi-automatically calculated. A stress-rest SPECT-MPI study was performed afterwards and scintigraphic images were evaluated quantitatively. Then all patients underwent ICA. Thereby significant CAD was defined as luminal stenosis ≥75% in quantitative coronary analysis (QCA) in ≥1 epicardial vessel. To compare data lacking Gaussian distribution an unpaired Wilcoxon-Test (Mann–Whitney) was used. Otherwise a Students t-test for unpaired samples was applied. Calculations were considered to be significant at a p-value of <0.05.
We consecutively included 351 symptomatic patients (mean age: 61.2±12.3 years; range: 18–94 years; male: n=240) with a mean Agatston score of 258.5±512.2 (range: 0–4214). ICA verified exclusion of significant CAD in 66/67 (98.5%) patients without CAC. CAC was detected in remaining 284 patients. In 132/284 patients (46.5%) with CS>0 significant CAD was confirmed by ICA, and excluded in 152/284 (53.5%) patients. Sensitivity for CAD detection by CS alone was calculated as 99.2%, specificity was 30.3%, and negative predictive value was 98.5%. An additional SPECT in patients with CS>0 increased specificity to 80.9% while reducing sensitivity to 87.9%. Diagnostic accuracy was 84.2%.
In patients without CS=0 significant CAD can be excluded with a high negative predictive value by CS alone. An additional SPECT-MPI in those patients with CS>0 leads to a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of CAD while reducing the number of patients needing invasive diagnostic procedure.
Computed tomography coronary calcium scoring; Single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging; Invasive coronary angiography; Coronary artery disease
Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three patients who received a combination of internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts were compared with 1,156 patients who received internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts. All patients underwent primary coronary artery bypass surgery between 1995 and 1998. The early mortality and morbidity and the probability of survival at 2 years were similar in both groups of patients. Early graft patency studies of 35 radial artery grafts showed 33 (94%) were patent at a mean of 12 months. Complete arterial grafting using internal thoracic and radial arteries is safe and may provide a long-term benefit.
Cardiovascular disease has been linked to endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) depletion and functional impairment in atherosclerosis and aortic stenosis. EPCs may play a pivotal role in vascular grafting. However, the EPC depletion in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients has not been compared to coronary artery disease-free valvular replacement patients with aortic stenosis.
We aimed to assess the basal number of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/CD144+ cells in CABG patients, compared to aortic stenosis valvular replacement patients. 100 patients (51 CABG and 49 valvular surgery ones) were included in the present study. All CABG or valvular patients had angiographic demonstration of the presence or the absence of coronary artery disease, respectively. Numbers of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/CD144+ were assessed by flow cytometry of pre-surgical blood samples.
We found a lower number of CD34+/CD144+ cells in CABG patients compared to valvular patients (0.21 ± 0.03% vs. 0.47 ± 0.08%), and this difference remained statistically significant after the P was adjusted for multiple comparisons (P = 0.01428). Both groups had more EPCs than healthy controls.
Pre-surgical CD34+/CD144+ numbers are decreased in CABG patients, compared to valvular patients with absence of coronary disease.
cardiac surgery; endothelial progenitor cells; coronary artery disease
To evaluate the accuracy of 64-slice CT angiography (CTA) compared with single photon emission CT (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), which served as the reference standard, for the detection of functionally significant coronary artery disease (CAD).
141 consecutive patients (60±10 years, 101 men) were investigated with 64-slice CTA and SPECT MPI; a subset of 35 patients had additional invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The data from CTA and ICA were compared with those from MPI for both cut-offs of ≥50% and ≥70% stenosis, respectively.
The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of CTA, using a cut-off of ≥50% for significant stenosis, in detecting inducible perfusion defects on MPI were 96% [95% confidence interval (CI) 88–100%], 61% (95% CI 52–70%), 37% (95% CI 23–49%), 99% (95% CI 97–100%) and 68%, respectively, in patient-based analysis and 97% (95% CI 91–100%), 86% (95% CI 83–89%), 33% (95% CI 24–42%), 100% (95% CI 99–100%) and 87%, respectively, in vessel-based analysis. Applying a cut-off of ≥70% for significant stenosis, CTA yielded the following sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the detection of inducible MPI defects: by patient, 65% (95% CI 46–84%), 95% (95% CI 91–99%), 74% (95% CI 50–92%), 92% (95% CI 87–97%) and 89%, respectively; by vessel, 58% (95% CI 42–74%), 97% (95% CI 95–99%), 62% (95% CI 45–79%), 97% (95% CI 95–99%) and 95%, respectively.
64-slice CTA is a reliable tool to exclude functionally significant CAD when using a cut-off of ≥50% diameter stenosis. By contrast, a cut-off of ≥70% diameter narrowing is a strong predictor of ischaemia.
Adenosine first pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) yields excellent results for the detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). In patients with coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) the kinetics of a contrast bolus may by altered only due to different distances through the bypass grafts compared to native vessels, thereby possibly imitating a perfusion defect. The aim of the study was to evaluate semiquantitative perfusion parameters in order to assess possible differences in epicardial contrast kinetics in areas supplied by native coronaries and CABG, both without significant stenosis.
Twenty patients with invasive exclusion of significant CAD (control group) and 38 patients with CABG without angiographically significant (≥50%) stenosis in unbypassed coronaries or grafts were retrospectively included in the study. They underwent adenosine first pass (0.05 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA) perfusion (3 short axis views/heart beat) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging 1 day before invasive coronary angiography. Areas perfused by native coronaries and/or the different bypasses were identified in X-ray angiography using the 16 segment model. In each of these areas upslope and maximal signal intensity (SImax) relative to the left ventricular parameters, time to 50% maximal signal intensity (TSI50%max) and time to maximal signal intensity (TSImax) were calculated.
In areas perfused by coronary arteries with bypasses compared to native coronaries relative upslope and relative SImax did not show a significant difference. TSI50%max and TSImax in native coronaries and bypasses were 7.2s ± 1.9s vs. 7.5s ± 1.9s (p < 0.05) and 12.6s ± 3.0s vs. 13.1s ± 3.0s (p < 0.05), respectively. The delay in Tmax resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) delay of 0.5 ± 1.1 heart beats (=images) when adjusted to the heart rate. Differences in time were most pronounced in areas perfused by left internal mammary artery grafts rather than by venous CABG, but were also present between native vessel territories in patients without CAD, albeit with smaller variability.
Adenosine perfusion CMR in patients post CABG may be associated with a short delay in contrast arrival. However, once the contrast is in the myocardium there is similar wash-in kinetics and peak enhancement. Therefore, since the delay is only short, the possibly differing contrast kinetics through grafts and native vessels does not seem to be a limiting factor for the accuracy of first pass adenosine perfusion in patients post CABG.
The number of patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes will increase dramatically over the next decade. Diabetes has been related to accelerated atherosclerosis and many patients with diabetes will require coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery utilizing saphenous vein grafts. After CABG, accelerated atherosclerosis in saphenous vein grafts leads to graft failure in approximately 50% of cases over a 10-year period. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, has been shown to improve multiple metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its role in the prevention of atherosclerosis progression is uncertain.
VeIn-Coronary aTherOsclerosis and Rosiglitazone after bypass surgerY (VICTORY) is a cardiometabolic trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes, one to 10 years after CABG, will be randomly assigned to receive rosiglitazone (up to 8 mg/day) or a placebo after qualifying angiography and intravascular ultrasound of a segment of one vein graft with or without a native anastomosed coronary artery. A comprehensive set of athero-thrombo-inflammatory markers will be serially assessed during the 12-month follow-up period. Body fat distribution and body composition will be assessed by computed tomography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively, at baseline, six months and 12 months follow-up. For atherosclerosis progression evaluation, repeat angiography and intravascular ultrasound will be performed after 12 months follow-up. The primary end point of the study will be the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in a 40 mm or longer segment of one vein graft.
The VICTORY trial is the first cardiometabolic study to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic and metabolic effects of rosiglitazone in post-CABG patients with type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular risk factors; Catheterization; Coronary artery disease; Diabetes mellitus; Graft patency; Intravascular ultrasound; Metabolic syndrome
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of claustrophobia in patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
After IRB approval, we conducted a substudy of a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of 311 patients evaluating administration of tranexamic acid and early saphenous vein graft patency with MRI after conventional CABG surgery. Chest tube drainage was measured at 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. The rate of transfusion and the amount of red blood cells (RBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets transfused were recorded.
A total of 237(76%) patients underwent MRI after surgery. 39 (14%, [95% CI, 10.2 to 18.0]) patients experienced severe anxiety caused by a fear of enclosed space in the MRI coil necessitating termination of the procedure. Patients with claustrophobia were on average 5 years younger. They were more likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients with claustrophobia had increased chest tube drainage during the postoperative period. The rate of blood product transfusion was similar between the two groups but patients with claustrophobia who were transfused received significantly more RBC and FFP than patients without claustrophobia.
Postoperative claustrophobia and anxiety, leading to inability to undergo MRI, may be more common than previously described.
Claustrophobia; magnetic resonance imaging; cardiac surgery; bleeding
Antibodies to complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) are capable of causing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Recent evidence suggests that anti-PF4/heparin antibodies may be prothrombogenic even in the absence of thrombocytopenia and clinically-recognized HIT.
To determine if induction of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies is an independent risk factor for early saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion or adverse clinical outcome after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Anti-PF4/heparin antibody titers were measured in 368 patients prior to and then 4 days, 6 weeks and 6 months after CABG surgery. Serotonin release assay (SRA) and antibody isotype analysis were also performed on 6-week samples. SVG patency was determined in 297 patients 6 months after surgery by multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography.
Six weeks after surgery, 52% of patients were anti-PF4/heparin seropositive and 9% were SRA positive. Six months after surgery, neither the percentage of occluded SVG (19% vs. 20%, P = NS), the percentage of patients with an occluded SVG (33% vs. 33%, P = NS) nor the incidence of adverse clinical events (21% vs. 24%, P = NS) differed between seropositive and seronegative groups. Neither IgG isotype nor SRA positivity was additionally predictive of SVG occlusion or adverse clinical outcome.
Induction of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, even those capable of heparin-dependent platelet activation, is not independently associated with early SVG occlusion or adverse clinical outcomes after CABG surgery.
anti-PF4/heparin antibodies; saphenous vein graft; thrombosis
Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting has been accused of possibly compromising graft patency. Sixteen slice computed tomography has shown good diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of coronary bypass graft patency when compared with conventional coronary artery angiography and is less invasive. The study hypothesis is that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (Off-Pump) has equivalent early graft patency as if performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (On-Pump) and may have reduced complication rate.
The Prospective Randomized Comparison of Off-Pump and On-Pump MultI-vessel Coronary Artery BypasS Surgery (PROMISS) is a controlled, single blinded, single centre clinical trial, comparing early graft patency using 16-slice computed tomography in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease operated either without or with extracorporeal circulation. Inclusion criteria are multivessel disease with an indication for first time, isolated, non emergent coronary artery bypass grafting with a minimum of three distal anastomoses. Secondary end points are peri-operative mortality, combined morbidity, length of stay, neuro-cognitive testing at 6 weeks and adverse events, stress test and quality of life at 6 months and one year. The sample size of one hundred and fifty patients was calculated in order to enable the detection of a 5% difference in graft patency, with 80% power, considering a minimum of 3 distal anastomoses per patient. Enrolment started in April 2005 and ended July 2007 with study closure in July 2008.
The PROMISS trial aims to shed new light on the effect of Off-Pump as compared to On-Pump coronary artery bypass surgery on graft patency, assessed by multidetector computed tomography, in unselected patients with multivessel coronary artery disease.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58800729
To determine if an incomplete response to and/or inadequate antiplatelet effect of aspirin contribute to saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Thrombosis is the predominant cause of early SVG occlusion. Aspirin, which inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 activity and thromboxane generation in platelets, reduces early SVG occlusion by half.
Aspirin-responsiveness and platelet reactivity were characterized 3 days and 6 months after CABG in 229 subjects on aspirin monotherapy by; platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen and epinephrine; PFA-100 closure time (CT) using collagen/epinephrine (CEPI) and collagen/ADP (CADP) agonist cartridges; VerifyNow Aspirin assay, and; urine levels of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (UTXB2). SVG patency was determined 6 months after surgery by computed tomography coronary angiography.
Inhibited arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, indicative of aspirin-mediated cyclooxygenase-1 suppression, occurred in 95% and >99% of subjects 3 days and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Despite this, 73% and 31% of subjects at these times had elevated UTXB2. Among tested parameters, only UTXB2 and PFA-100 CADP CT measured 6 months after surgery correlated with outcome. By multivariate analysis, CADP CT ≤88 seconds (OR 2.85, P=0.006), target vessel diameter ≤1.5 mm (OR 2.38, P=0.01) and UTXB2 ≥450 pg/mg creatinine (OR 2.59, P=0.015) correlated with SVG occlusion. CADP CT and UTXB2 in combination further identified subjects at particularly high- and low-risk for SVG occlusion.
Aspirin-insensitive thromboxane generation measured by UTXB2 and shear-dependent platelet hyper-reactivity measured by PFA-100 CADP CT are novel independent risk factors for early SVG thrombosis after CABG surgery.
vein graft; thrombosis; aspirin; thromboxane; platelet