Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) plays an important role in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion. Histology and in situ hybridization studies have revealed that IGF1R was significantly up-regulated at the protein and mRNA level in many types of cancer. Since measuring IGF1R expression with immunohistochemistry has many limitations, non-invasive imaging of IGF1R can allow for more accurate patient stratification (e.g. selecting the right patient population for IGF1R-targeted therapy) and more effective monitoring of the therapeutic responses in cancer patients. In this review, we will summarize the current status of imaging IGF1R expression in cancer, which includes single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, fluorescence, and γ-camera imaging. The four major classes of ligands that have been developed for non-invasive visualization of IGF1R will be discussed: proteins, antibodies, peptides, and affibodies. To date, molecular imaging of IGF1R expression is understudied and more research effort is needed in the future.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R); molecular imaging; peptide nucleic acid (PNA); positron emission tomography (PET); single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); cancer
In recent years, the activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in cancer has emerged as a key factor for tumour progression and resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, a variety of strategies have been developed to block the type I IGF receptor (IGF-I-R), which is thought to mediate the biological effects of both IGF-I and IGF-II. However, recent data suggest that the IGF signalling system is complex and that other receptors are involved. To unravel the complexity of the IGF system in thyroid cancer, IGF-I and IGF-II production, and the expression and function of their cognate receptors were studied. Both IGFs were found to be locally produced in thyroid cancer: IGF-I by stromal cells and IGF-II by malignant thyrocytes. Values were significantly higher in malignant tissue than in normal tissue. IGF-I-Rs were overexpressed in differentiated papillary carcinomas but not in poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumours, whereas insulin receptors (IRs) were greatly overexpressed in all tumour hystotypes, with a trend for higher values in dedifferentiated tumours. As a consequence of IR overexpression, high amounts of IR/IGF-I-R hybrids (which bind IGF-I with high affinity) were present in all thyroid cancer histotypes. Because of recent evidence that isoform A of IR (IR-A) is a physiological receptor for IGF-II in fetal life, the relative abundance of IR-A in thyroid cancer was measured. Preliminary data indicate that overexpressed IRs mainly occur as IR-A in thyroid cancer. These data indicate that both IR/IGF-I-R hybrids and IR-A play an important role in the overactivation of the IGF system in thyroid cancer and in IGF-I mitogenic signalling in these tumours. J Clin Pathol: Mol Pathol
insulin-like growth factor system; insulin receptor; insulin-like growth factor I receptor
The insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in tumour development and progression. This study was designed to analyse the expression of the IGF‐I receptor (IGF‐IR) and its ligands (IGF‐I, IGF‐II) in gallbladder cancer.
IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR immunoreactivity was investigated in 57 gallbladder carcinomas and corresponding lymph node (n = 11) and hepatic (n = 7) metastases using a tissue microarray technique and correlated with tumour stage, grade, and patient outcome.
Cancer tissue allowing a reliable evaluation of IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR was present in 55 of 57 primary tumours and 17 of 18 metastases. IGF‐I and IGF‐II immunoreactivity was seen in 25 and 14 of the 55 primary tumours, in addition to six and three of the 17 metastases, respectively. No associations with tumour stage, grade, or prognosis were detected. IGF‐IR was expressed in 52 of 55 primary tumours and all 17 metastases. IGF‐IR staining intensity decreased with tumour cell dedifferentiation. Moreover, IGF‐IR expression in less than 50% of cancer cells was an independent marker of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis (risk ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 11.2; p = 0.01).
The expression of IGF‐IR and its ligands provides evidence for the existence of an auto/paracrine loop of tumour cell stimulation in gallbladder cancer and makes this type of cancer a candidate for therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with the IGF pathway. The recognition of IGF‐IR as a new independent prognostic biomarker may help to identify patients who might benefit from adjuvant treatment.
insulin‐like growth factors; insulin‐like growth factor receptor; immunohistochemistry; gallbladder cancer; prognosis
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa), since it plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The IGF-I actions are mediated mainly via its binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR), however IGF-I signaling via insulin receptor (IR) and hybrid IGF-I/IR is also evident. Different IGF-I mRNA splice variants, namely IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb, and IGF-IEc, are expressed in human cells and tissues. These transcripts encode several IGF-I precursor proteins which contain the same bioactive product (mature IGF-I), however, they differ by the length of their signal peptides on the amino-terminal end and the structure of the extension peptides (E-peptides) on the carboxy-terminal end. There is an increasing interest in the possible different role of the IGF-I transcripts and their respective non-(mature)IGF-I products in the regulation of distinct biological activities. Moreover, there is strong evidence of a differential expression profile of the IGF-I splice variants in normal versus PCa tissues and PCa cells, implying that the expression pattern of the various IGF-I transcripts and their respective protein products may possess different functions in cancer biology. Herein, the evidence that the IGF-IEc transcript regulates PCa growth via Ec peptide specific and IGF-IR/IR-independent signaling is discussed.
apoptosis; cancer progression; cell survival; human IGF-I isoforms; IGF-I bioactivity; IGF-I peptides; IGF-I receptors; IGF-I signaling
BACKGROUND: Perturbation in a level of any peptide from insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family (ligands, receptors, and binding proteins) seems to be implicated in lung cancer formation; IGF ligands and IGF-I receptor through their mitogenic and anti-apoptotic action, and the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6-P/IGF-IIR) possibly as a tumor suppressor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the identity, role, and mutual relationship of IGFs in lung cancer growth and maintenance, we examined IGF's gene (by RT-PCR) and protein (by immunohistochemistry) expression in 69 human lung carcinoma tissues. We also examined IGF-I receptor numbers (Scatchard analysis) and IGF-II production and release (by Western blot) in IGF-II/IGF-IR mRNA positive and negative lung carcinomas. Finally, the potential role of IGF-IR and IGF-II as growth promoting factors in lung cancer was studied using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides that specifically inhibit IGF-IR and IGF-II mRNA. RESULTS: Thirty-two tumors were positive for IGF-I, 39 for IGF-II, 48 for IGF-IR, and 35 for IGFBP-4 mRNA. Seventeen tumors were concomitantly positive for all four IGFs, whereas 34 were positive for IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGFBP-4 mRNA. An elevated amount of IGF-II peptide was secreted into the growth medium of cell cultures established from five different IGF-II/IGF-IR mRNA positive lung cancer tissues. The cells also expressed elevated numbers of IGF-IR. Nine IGF-II-negative and 19 IGF-II-positive lung cancers of different stages were selected, and M6-P/ IGF-II receptor was determined immunohistochemically. Most of the IGF-II-negative tumors were strongly positive for M6-P/IGF-IIR. IGF-II-positive tumors were mostly negative for M6-P/IGF-II receptors. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to IGF-II significantly inhibited, by 25-60%, the in vitro growth of all six lung cancer cell lines. However, the best results (growth inhibition of up to 80%) were achieved with concomitant antisense treatment (to IGF-IR and IGF-II). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that lung cancer cells produce IGF-IR and IGF-II, which in turn stimulates their proliferation by autocrine mechanism. Cancer cell proliferation can be abrogated or alleviated by blocking the mRNA activity of these genes indicating that an antisense approach may represent an effective and practical cancer gene therapy strategy.
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) is perhaps the most intricately regulated of all growth factors characterized to date. Its gene is imprinted—only one allele is active, depending on parental origin—and this pattern of expression is maintained epigenetically in almost all tissues. IGF2 activity is further controlled through differential expression of receptors and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that determine protein availability. This complex and multifaceted regulation emphasizes the importance of accurate IGF2 expression and activity. This review will examine the regulation of the IGF2 gene and what it has revealed about the phenomenon of imprinting, which is frequently disrupted in cancer. IGF2 protein function will be discussed, along with diseases that involve IGF2 overexpression. Roles for IGF2 in sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and angiogenesis will also be explored.
Insulin-like growth factor; imprinting; angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor; sonic hedgehog
Constitutive activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-signaling axis is frequently observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Especially the overexpression of the fetal growth factor IGF-II, IGF-Ireceptor (IGF-IR), and cytoplasmic downstream effectors such as insulin-receptor substrates (IRS) contribute to proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and invasive behavior. This review focuses on the relevant alterations in this signaling pathway and independent in vivo models that support the central role IGF-II signaling during HCC development and progression. Since this pathway has become the center of interest as a target for potential anti-cancer therapy in many types of malignancies, various experimental strategies have been developed, including neutralizing antibodies and selective receptor kinase inhibitors, with respect to the specific and efficient reduction of oncogenic IGF-II/IGF-IR-signaling.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Insulin-like growth factor-II; Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor; Insulin receptor substrate; Mouse models; Therapy
Glioma tumour growth is associated with the expression of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) and of both type I and type II IGF receptors. It has also been shown that IGFs can stimulate proliferation of cultured glioma cells. We previously reported that histamine too can stimulate the growth of glioma cells in vitro. In this report, we study whether the histamine-induced growth of G47 glioma cells is mediated by the IGFs. We found that histamine stimulates the expression of both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs, as determined by a semiquantitative in situ hybridization analysis. Furthermore, incubation of G47 cells with histamine also induced cellular immunostaining for IGF-II. It could be shown that IGF-I-stimulated proliferation is inhibited by IGFBP-3, which decreases the availability of IGFs for binding to the IGF receptors, and by beta-galactosidase, which may decrease IGF binding to the type II IGF receptor, but is not inhibited by the anti-type I IGF receptor monoclonal antibody alphaIR3. However, neither IGFBP-3 nor beta-galactosidase nor alphaIR3 inhibited the histamine-induced proliferation. These results show that the growth-stimulatory effect of histamine is accompanied by the induction of IGFs. This histamine-induced growth stimulation is not mediated by activation of cell surface IGF receptors, although intracrine activation of type II IGF receptors may be involved.
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, reports on the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) based on radioimmunoassays are conflicting, and its prognostic implications in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still controversial.
Seventy-one paraffin-embedded tissue sections from stage I NSCLC patients were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody against human IGF-1R.
The intensity and frequency of IGF-1R expression on the membrane and cytoplasm of cancer cells was evaluated and scored using a semiquantitative system. IGF-1R expression was detected in nine of 71 (12.7%) cases. No significant relationship was found between clinical/histopathological parameters and IGF-1R expression. None of the patients whose tumor expressed IGF-1R had experienced distant metastasis or cancer-related death, although the difference did not reach statistical significance.
We conclude that IGF-1R expression may not be a major prognostic factor for stage I NSCLC.
IGF; IGF-1R; Immunohistochemistry; NSCLC
To assess the role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in growth and transformation of normal (myometrium) and tumorous smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissues, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis for insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) mRNAs was combined with detection of IGF peptides, their receptors and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). mRNAs for both IGFs were detected in smooth muscle cells in normal, benign and malignant SMC tissues, together with the IGF peptides, both IGF receptors and IGFBP-3. This suggests an autocrine role for both IGFs. Leiomyomas had higher IGF-I peptide levels and higher levels of type I IGF receptors than myometrium, supporting the idea that IGFs play a role in the growth and transformation of these tumours. Low-grade leiomyosarcomas contained more IGF-II mRNAs than myometrium and leiomyoma, fewer type II IGF/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and less IGFBP-3 than myometrium and, in addition, fewer IGF-I mRNAs and type I IGF receptors than leiomyoma. Intermediate- and high-grade leiomyosarcomas had intermediate levels of IGF-II mRNAs and peptide, ranging between those in myometrium and low-grade leiomyosarcomas. Thus, growth and transformation of leiomyosarcomas may be regulated by IGF-II, although more markedly in low-grade than in high-grade leiomyosarcomas. In conclusion, the various categories of SMC tissues are associated with a distinct expression pattern of the IGF system. This suggests that each category of SMC tumours arises as a distinct entity and that there is no progression of transformation in these tissues.
The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathologic role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) in patients with pancreatic cancer. The function of IGFBP3 is controversial, because both inhibition and facilitation of the action of IGF as well as IGF-independent effects have been reported. In this study, IGF1R and IGFBP3 expression was examined, and their potential roles as prognostic markers in patients with pancreatic cancer were evaluated.
Clinicopathological features of 122 patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer were retrospectively reviewed, and expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was immunohistochemically analyzed.
Expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was observed in 50 (41.0%) and 37 (30.3%) patients, respectively. IGF1R expression was significantly associated with histological grade (p = 0.037). IGFBP3 expression had a significant association with tumor location (p = 0.023), and a significant inverse association with venous invasion (p = 0.037). Tumors with IGF1R-positive and IGFBP3-negative expression (n = 32) were significantly frequently Stage II and III (p = 0.011). The prognosis for IGF1R positive patients was significantly poorer than that for IGF1R negative patients (p = 0.0181). IGFBP3 protein expression did not correlate significantly with patient survival. The subset of patients with both positive IGF1R and negative IGFBP3 had worse overall survival (8.8 months versus 12.6 months, respectively, p < 0.001).
IGF1R signaling might be associated with tumor aggressiveness, and IGFBP3 might show antiproliferative effects in pancreatic cancer. Both high IGF1R expression and low IGFBP3 expression represent useful prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer; IGF1R; IGFBP3; Prognosis
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is the predominant IGF in adults and regulates cell growth. In contrast to normal tissues, where IGF2 is imprinted and only expressed from the paternal allele, loss of imprinting (LOI) and biallelic IGF2 expression are observed in many cancers including prostate cancer (PCa). We here studied whether LOI of IGF2 in normal circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can predict increased PCa risk.
Samples and methods
We analyzed IGF2 protein levels, IGF2 820G/A genotype and imprinting status, as well as methylation status of the IGF2 imprinting control region (ICR) in 113 blood samples of patients with a history of radical prostatectomy (RPE) for PCa by ELISA, restriction-fragment length polymorphism, and bisulfite-DNA sequencing. Results were compared to 249 male blood donors with unknown prostate specific antigen (PSA) status.
The 820G/A genotype was enriched in the RPE group and was associated with younger age at cancer diagnosis. LOI in patients was only slightly more frequent than in controls, but IGF2 levels were significantly higher and uncoupled from the imprinting status. Analysis of the IGF2/H19 ICR revealed marked hypermethylation.
The IGF 820G/A genotype is associated with PCa diagnosis at younger age. Increased IGF2 in patients with PCa appears to be the result of impaired imprinting in non-neoplastic cells rather than a paracrine tumor product. Uncoupling of IGF2 protein levels from imprinting status (not LOI alone) and hypermethylation of the ICR characterized PCa patients and could have the potential to indicate persons at risk in screening programs.
cancer; insulin-like growth factor 2; imprinting; prostate; screening
AIMS—To study changes
in the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their
receptors, as well as production of the IGF-I and IGF-II polypeptides,
in adenocarcinoma of the colon.
tissue obtained at operation was used. Total RNA was extracted and
specific IGF-I and IGF-II and their receptor mRNAs were measured by a
solution hybridisation RNase protection assay. IGF-I and IGF-II
polypeptides were measured by specific immunoassays.
tissues expressed IGF-II, IGF-I receptor, and
IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor. IGF-I mRNA could not be
detected but the polypeptide was present in small but equal amounts in
normal and malignant tissue. IGF-II was expressed 40 times more
abundantly in colonic tumours than in adjacent normal tissue and the
concentration of the corresponding polypeptide was twice as high in the
malignant tissue. IGF-I receptor expression was increased by a factor
of 2.5 and IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor by a factor of 4.
confirms that in adenocarcinoma of the human colon there is increased
expression of IGF-I receptor and IGF-II. Furthermore, IGF-II/Man-6-P
receptor message is increased and the increase in IGF-II message is
accompanied by a doubling of the IGF-II protein in the tumour tissue
compared with the adjacent normal tissue. These findings suggest that
the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor may also be involved in development of
adenocarcinoma of the colon. There is rapidly accumulating evidence
implicating the IGF system in the development of malignancy of the
insulin-like growth factors; adenocarcinoma; colon
The purpose of this study was to characterize insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) protein expression, mRNA expression, and gene copy number in surgically resected non–small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) in relation to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression, patient characteristics, and prognosis.
Patients and Methods
One hundred eighty-nine patients with NSCLC who underwent curative pulmonary resection were studied (median follow-up, 5.3 years). IGF1R protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with two anti-IGF1R antibodies (n = 179). EGFR protein expression was assessed with PharmDx kit. IGF1R gene expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 114 corresponding fresh-frozen samples. IGF1R gene copy number was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization using customized probes (n = 181).
IGF1R IHC score was higher in squamous cell carcinomas versus other histologies (P < .001) and associated with stage (P = .03) but not survival (P = .46). IGF1R and EGFR protein expression showed significant correlation (r = 0.30; P < .001). IGF1R gene expression by qRT-PCR was higher in squamous cell versus other histologies (P = .006) and did not associate with other clinical features nor survival (P = .73). Employing criteria previously established for EGFR copy number, patients with IGF1R amplification/high polysomy (n = 48; 27%) had 3-year survival of 58%, patients with low polysomy (n = 87; 48%) had 3-year survival of 47% and patients with trisomy/disomy (n = 46; 25%) had 3-year survival of 35%, respectively (P = .024). Prognostic value of high IGF1R gene copy number was confirmed in multivariate analysis.
IGF1R protein expression is higher in squamous cell versus other histologies and correlates with EGFR expression. IGF1R protein and gene expression does not associate with survival, whereas high IGF1R gene copy number harbors positive prognostic value.
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and II) are important endocrine, paracrine and autocrine mediators of physiological growth. They promote cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation. Their effects are mediated mainly through the IGF-I receptor, but IGFs also bind to the IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate and insulin receptors. IGF activity is modulated by a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs); in most situations, IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions but they may also enhance them. Assays are now available for IGF-I, IGF-II and individual IGFBPs. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 assays have some utility in the diagnosis and management of acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency. There is a large body of in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a pathogenic role for alterations in the IGF system in many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and neuromuscular disease. More recently, epidemiological studies have linked high IGF-I levels with some cancers and low IGF-I levels with ischaemic heart disease. Preliminary studies of recombinant IGF-I as a treatment for diabetes, osteoporosis and neuromuscular disease have been performed in humans. In contrast, there is considerable interest in developing IGF inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. This apparent paradox highlights the need to develop therapeutics beyond the natural ligands and inhibitors, with characteristics such as ligand and tissue specificity. This will only become possible as we increase our understanding of this complex system. Additionally, as IGF and IGFBP assays are becoming more readily available, their role in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases should be more clearly defined in the near future.
Background and aims: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor (IGF-Ir) signalling is required for carcinogenicity and proliferation of many tumours but this pathway has not been studied in detail in gastric cancer. We have previously shown successful therapy for colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancer using recombinant adenoviruses expressing dominant negative (dn) IGF-Ir. In this study, we sought to better dissect the role of IGF-Ir on progression of gastric cancer and determine whether IGF-Ir targeted adenoviruses represent potentially effective therapeutics for human gastric cancer.
Methods: We assessed the effect of IGF-Ir ligands on proliferation and survival in gastric cancer cells in culture. Then, recombinant adenoviruses expressing truncated IGF-Ir (482 and 950 amino acids long, IGF-Ir/dn) that function as dn inhibitors were studied in the treatment of human gastric cancer xenografts. We characterised the effects of IGF-Ir/dn on signalling blockade, growth, apoptosis induction, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy.
Results: IGF-Ir signalling promoted tumour growth and survival in gastric cancer. IGF-Ir/dn expression suppressed tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo and upregulated stressor induced apoptosis. IGF-Ir/dn blocked Akt-1 activation induced by IGF-I, IGF-II, and des(1-3)IGF-I, but not by insulin. IGF-Ir/dn expression increased radiation and chemotherapy induced apoptosis and the combination of IGF-Ir/dn and chemotherapy was very effective against tumours in mice. In an intraperitoneal model, IGF-Ir/dn therapy also suppressed peritoneal dissemination.
Conclusions: IGF-Ir is involved in the regulation of survival and cell growth in human gastric cancer and may be a good molecular therapeutic target. Adenovirus-IGF-Ir/dn may thus have therapeutic use in gastric cancer.
adenovirus; akt-1; dominant negative; insulin-like growth factor; gastric cancer; xenografts
African-American (AA) women with breast cancer are more likely to have advanced disease at diagnosis, higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis than Caucasian (CA) women. We have recently shown higher insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) expression in paired breast tissue samples from AA women as compared to CA women. IGF-II is a potent mitogen that induces cell proliferation and survival signals through activation of the IGF-I and Insulin receptors (IGF-IR, IR) while IGF-II circulating levels are regulated by cellular uptake through the IGF2 receptor. We hypothesize that differential expression of the IGFIR and IGF2R among AA and CA women potentiates IGF-II mitogenic effects, thus contributing to the health disparity observed between these ethnic groups.
We examined IGF-IR and IGF2R mRNA, protein expression and IGF1R phosphorylation in paired breast tissue samples from AA and CA women by Real Time-PCR, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and ELISA techniques.
Our results showed significantly increased expression of IGF1R in AA normal tissues as compared to CA normal tissues. IGF1R expression was similar between AA normal and malignant tissues, while IGF1R, IRS-1 and Shc phosphorylation was significantly higher in AA tumor samples. Significantly higher levels of IGF2R were found in CA tumor samples as compared to AA tumor samples.
We conclude that IGFIR and IGF2R differential expression may contribute to the increased risk of malignant transformation in young AA women and to the more aggressive breast cancer phenotype observed among AA breast cancer patients and represent, along with IGF-II, potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer.
IGF-II; IGF2R; IGF-IR; breast cancer; health disparities
Muscle is an important target tissue for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action. The presence of specific, high affinity IGF receptors, as well as the expression of IGF peptides and binding proteins by muscle suggest that a significant component of IGF action in this tissue is mediated through autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms. To explore autocrine/paracrine action of IGFs in muscle, we studied the regulation of the IGF-I receptor and the expression of IGF peptides during differentiation of the mouse BC3H-1 muscle cell line. Differentiation from myoblasts to myocytes was associated with a 60% decrease in IGF-I receptor sites determined by Scatchard analysis. Analysis of mRNA abundance and protein labeling studies indicated that the decrease in IGF-I receptor sites was associated with similar reductions in IGF-I receptor gene expression and receptor biosynthesis. IGF-II peptide gene expression was detected in myoblasts and increased 15-fold with differentiation; the increase in IGF-II gene expression preceded the decrease in IGF-I receptor gene expression. In contrast, IGF-I peptide gene expression was low in myoblasts and decreased slightly with differentiation. To explore the potential role of endogenous IGF-II in the differentiation-associated decrease in IGF-I receptor expression, we investigated the effects of IGF-II treatment in myoblasts. The addition of IGF-II to undifferentiated myoblasts resulted in downregulation of the IGF-I receptor which was associated with decreased IGF-I receptor biosynthesis and decreased IGF-I receptor mRNA abundance. These studies suggest, therefore, that IGF-I receptor expression during muscle cell differentiation may be regulated, at least in part, through autocrine production of IGF-II.
The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the developing mandibular condylar cartilage and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fetal mice at embryonic day (E) 13.0–18.5 were used for in situ hybridization studies using [35S]-labeled RNA probes for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-I receptor (-IR), and IGF binding proteins (-BPs). At E13.0, IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were expressed in the mesenchyme around the mandibular bone, but IGF-IR mRNA was not expressed within the bone. At E14.0, IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA were expressed in the outer layer of the condylar anlage, and IGF-IR mRNA was first detected within the condylar anlage, suggesting that the presence of IGF-IR mRNA in an IGF-rich environment triggers the initial formation of the condylar cartilage. IGFBP-4 mRNA was expressed in the anlagen of the articular disc and lower joint cavity from E15.0 to 18.5. When the upper joint cavity was formed at E18.5, IGFBP-4 mRNA expression was reduced in the fibrous mesenchymal tissue facing the upper joint cavity. Enhanced IGFBP-2 mRNA expression was first recognized in the anlagen of both the articular disc and lower joint cavity at E16.0 and continued expression in these tissues as well as in the fibrous mesenchymal tissue facing the upper joint cavity was observed at E18.5. IGFBP-5 mRNA was continuously expressed in the outer layer of the perichondrium/fibrous cell layer in the developing mandibular condyle. These findings suggest that the IGF system is involved in the formation of the condylar cartilage as well as in the TMJ.
IGF; IGF binding protein; mandibular condylar cartilage; temporomandibular joint.
The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) and its ligands (IGF1 and IGF2) have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes and in diseases such as cancer. In addition to IGF1R, IGF2 also activates the insulin receptor (IR) isoform A and therefore antibodies against IGF2 can inhibit cell proliferation mediated by the signaling through both IGF1R and IR triggered by IGF2. We identified a new human monoclonal antibody (mAb), m708.2, which bound to IGF1 and IGF2 but not to insulin. m708.2 potently inhibited signal transduction mediated by the interaction of IGF1 or IGF2 with the IGF1R and IGF2 with the IR. It also inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. An affinity-matured derivative of m708.2, m708.5, bound to IGF1 with equilibrium dissociation constant, KD = 200 pM and to IGF2 with KD = 60 pM. m708.5 inhibited signal transduction mediated by IGF1 and IGF2 and cancer cell growth more potently than m708.2. These results suggest that m708.5 could have potential as a candidate therapeutic for cancers driven by the IGF1,2 interactions with IGF1R and IR.
mAb; IGF1; IGF2; picomolar affinity; phage display; yeast display
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling has been implicated in several human neoplasms. However, the role of serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in lung cancer risk is controversial. We assessed the role of tissue-derived IGFs in lung carcinogenesis. We found that IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels in bronchial tissue specimens containing high-grade dysplasia were significantly higher than in those containing normal epithelium, hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. Derivatives of human bronchial epithelial cell lines with activation mutation in KRAS (V12) or loss of p53 overexpressed IGF-1 and IGF-2. Transformed characteristics of these cells were significantly suppressed by inactivation of IGF-1R or inhibition of IGF-1 or IGF-2 expression but enhanced by ovrexpresion of insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) or exposure to the tobacco carcinogens (TC) 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). We further determined the role of IGF-1R signaling in lung tumorigenesis by determining antitumor activities of the selective IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor cis-3-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-l-yl)-cyclobutyl] -1-(2-phenyl-quinolin-7-yl) –imidazo [1,5-a]pyrazin-8-ylamine (PQIP) using an in vitro progressive cell system and an in vivo mouse model with a lung-specific IGF-1 transgene after exposure to TCs, including NNK plus BaP. Our results demonstrate that airway epithelial cells produce IGFs in an autocrine or paracrine manner, and these IGFs act jointly with TCs to enhance lung carcinogenesis. Further, the use of selective IGF-1R inhibitors may be a rational approach to controlling lung cancer.
IGF; IGF-1R; lung cancer; cigarette smoking; carcinogenesis
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) have mitogenic and antiapoptotic functions, and may be involved in tumor growth. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of IGF components in seminoma compared to normal testis. Normal testicular tissues from autopsy cases and seminoma from surgery cases were obtained for microarray and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF receptor type 1 (IGF-R1), IGF-R2, insulin receptor isoforms A (IR-A) and B (IR-B), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) 1–6. IGF-2 was localized by immunohistochemistry. IGFBP-5 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. mRNA expression in microarray and real-time RT-PCR showed similar tendencies: IGF-1, IGF-R1, IGF-R2, IR-A, and IGFBP-2 were not different in both groups. IGF-2, IR-B, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4, and IGFBP-6 mRNA were downregulated in seminoma. IGFBP-3 tended to be upregulated in pT1 seminoma, but downregulated in pT2 stages. IGFBP-5 and IGF-2 protein expression correlated with mRNA expression. In conclusion, downregulation of mainly inhibiting IGFBPs may allow a stimulated tumor growth. The downregulated IGF-2 does not seem to be involved in the growth regulation of seminoma. Constantly expressed genes (e.g., IGF-1, IGF-R1, IR-A, and IGFBP-2) may reflect an involvement in spermatogenesis, but may also play a major role in tumor growth as their expression is not downregulated despite the lack of spermatogenesis in tumor tissue.
IGF; insulin receptor; germ cell tumor; seminoma; testis
Obesity is an independent risk factor for breast cancer, and obese breast cancer patients exhibit a higher risk for larger tumor burden and increased metastasis. Obesity, as associated with metabolic syndrome, results in an increase in circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF), which acts as a mitogen. In addition, higher plasma level of adipocytokine leptin is associated with obesity. In the present study, we show that cotreatment with leptin and IGF-I significantly increases proliferation as well as invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. We found a novel bidirectional crosstalk between leptin and IGF-I signaling; IGF-I induced phosphorylation of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and leptin induced phosphorylation of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), whereas cotreatment induced synergistic phosphorylation and association of Ob-Rb and IGF-IR along with activation of downstream effectors, Akt and extracellular signal–regulated kinase. Leptin increased phosphorylation of IGF signaling molecules insulin-receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2. Interestingly, we found that leptin and IGF-I cotreatment synergistically transactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), depending on the proteolytic release of EGFR ligands, as the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 could inhibit this effect. Using clinically relevant EGFR inhibitors, erlotinib and lapatinib, we found that inhibition of EGFR activation effectively inhibited leptin- and IGF-I–induced invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest a novel bidirectional crosstalk between leptin and IGF-I signaling that transactivates EGFR and promotes the metastatic properties as well as invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings indicate the possibility of using EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and lapatinib to counter the procancerous effects of leptin and IGF-I in breast cancers.
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system plays a crucial role in human cancer and the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is an attractive drug target against which a variety of novel anti-tumor agents are being developed. Deregulation of the IGF signaling pathway frequently occurs in human cancer and involves the establishment of autocrine loops comprising IGF-1 or IGF-2 and/or IGF-1R over-expression. Epidemiologic studies have documented a link between elevated IGF levels and the development of solid tumors, such as breast, colon, and prostate cancer. Anti-cancer strategies targeting the IGF signaling system involve two main approaches, namely neutralizing antibodies and small molecule inhibitors of the IGF-1R kinase activity. There are numerous reports describing anti-tumor activity of these agents in pre-clinical models of major human cancers. In addition, multiple clinical trials have started to evaluate the safety and efficacy of selected IGF-1R inhibitors, in combination with standard chemotherapeutic regimens or other targeted agents in cancer patients. In this mini review, I will discuss the role of the IGF signaling system in human cancer and the main strategies which have been so far evaluated to target the IGF-1R.
cancer; clinical trials; insulin-like growth factor; IGF-1 receptor; monoclonal antibody; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Deregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-IR signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Agents that can suppress the mitogenic activity of the IGF/IGF-IR growth axis may be of preventive or therapeutic value. We have previously demonstrated that apigenin, a plant flavone, modulates IGF signaling through upregulation of IGFBP-3. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of apigenin action on the IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway. Exposure of human prostate cancer DU145 cells to apigenin markedly reduced IGF-I-stimulated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Apigenin inhibited IGF-I-induced activation of IGF-IR and Akt in DU145 cells. Similar growth inhibitory and apoptotic responses were observed in PC-3 cells, which constitutively over-express this pathway. This effect of apigenin appears to be due partially to reduced autophosphorylation of IGF-IR. Inhibition of p-Akt by apigenin resulted in decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β along with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of p27/kip1. In vivo administration of apigenin to PC-3 tumor xenografts inhibited tumor growth, resulted in IGF-IR inactivation and dephosphorylation of Akt and its downstream signaling. These results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by apigenin are mediated, at least in part, by its ability to inhibit IGF/IGF-IR signaling and the PI3K/Akt pathway.
prostate cancer; apigenin; IGF-I; IGF-IR; PI3K-Akt; glycogen synthase kinase-3