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1.  Molecular imaging of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in cancer 
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) plays an important role in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion. Histology and in situ hybridization studies have revealed that IGF1R was significantly up-regulated at the protein and mRNA level in many types of cancer. Since measuring IGF1R expression with immunohistochemistry has many limitations, non-invasive imaging of IGF1R can allow for more accurate patient stratification (e.g. selecting the right patient population for IGF1R-targeted therapy) and more effective monitoring of the therapeutic responses in cancer patients. In this review, we will summarize the current status of imaging IGF1R expression in cancer, which includes single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, fluorescence, and γ-camera imaging. The four major classes of ligands that have been developed for non-invasive visualization of IGF1R will be discussed: proteins, antibodies, peptides, and affibodies. To date, molecular imaging of IGF1R expression is understudied and more research effort is needed in the future.
PMCID: PMC3477732  PMID: 23066521
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R); molecular imaging; peptide nucleic acid (PNA); positron emission tomography (PET); single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); cancer
2.  Concomitant high gene copy number and protein overexpression of IGF1R and EGFR negatively affect disease-free survival of surgically resected non-small-cell-lung cancer patients 
Background
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) represents a novel molecular target in non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). IGF1R and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation are essential to mediate tumor cell survival, proliferation, and invasion. This study investigates the prognostic role of IGF1R and EGFR in surgically resected NSCLC.
Materials and methods
IGF1R and EGFR copy number gain (CNG) were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 125 stage I–II–IIIA NSCLC patients.
Results
Fourty-six tumors (40.3 %) were IGF1R FISH-positive (FISH+), and 76 (67.2 %) were EGFR FISH+. Tumors with concomitant IGF1R/EGFR FISH+ were observed in 34 cases (30.1 %). IGF1R and EGFR FISH+ were associated with SCC histology (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). IGF1R and EGFR protein over-expression (IHC+) were detected in 45 (36.0 %) and 69 (55.2 %) cases, respectively. Tumors with concomitant IGF1R/EGFR IHC+ were detected in 31 (24.8 %) patients. IGF1R/EGFR FISH+ and IGF1R/EGFR IHC+ were significantly associated (χ2 = 4.02, p = 0.04). Patients with IGF1R/EGFR FISH+ and IGF1R/EGFR IHC+ were associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.05 and p = 0.05, respectively). Patients with concomitant IGF1R/EGFR FISH+/IHC+ had a worse DFS and overall survival (p = 0.005 and p = 0.01, respectively). The multivariate model confirmed that IGF1R/EGFR FISH+/IHC+ (hazard ratio (HR), 4.08; p = 0.01) and tumor stage (II–III vs I) (HR, 4.77; p = 0.003) were significantly associated with worse DFS.
Conclusions
IGF1R/EGFR FISH+ correlates with IGF1R/EGFR IHC+. IGF1R/EGFR FISH+/IHC+ is an independent negative prognostic factor for DFS in early NSCLC. These features may have important implications for future anti-IGF1R therapeutic approaches.
doi:10.1007/s00280-012-2056-y
PMCID: PMC3963139  PMID: 23314677
IGF1R; EGFR; Non-small-cell-lung cancer; Prognosis
3.  Insulin-like growth factor-1 induces lymphangiogenesis and facilitates lymphatic metastasis in colorectal cancer 
AIM: To investigate the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and to analyze their correlation with lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in 40 CRC specimens. The correlation between IGF-1/IGF-1R and LVD was investigated. Effects of IGF-1 on migration and invasion of CRC cells were examined using transwell chamber assays. A LoVo cell xenograft model was established to further detect the role of IGF-1 in CRC lymphangiogenesis in vivo.
RESULTS: Elevated IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression in CRC tissues was correlated with lymph node metastasis (r = 0.715 and 0.569, respectively, P < 0.05) and tumor TNM stage (r = 0.731 and 0.609, P < 0.05). A higher LVD was also found in CRC tissues and was correlated with lymphatic metastasis (r = 0.405, P < 0.05). A positive correlation was found between LVD and IGF-1R expression (r = 0.437, P < 0.05). Transwell assays revealed that IGF-1 increased the migration and invasion of CRC cells. In vivo mouse studies showed that IGF-1 also increased LVD in LoVo cell xenografts.
CONCLUSION: IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling induces tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and contributes to lymphatic metastasis of CRC.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7788
PMCID: PMC3837280  PMID: 24282367
Colorectal cancer; Insulin-like growth factor-1; Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor; Lymphangiogenesis; Lymphatic metastasis
4.  Histamine-stimulated expression of insulin-like growth factors in human glioma cells. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;75(8):1091-1097.
Glioma tumour growth is associated with the expression of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) and of both type I and type II IGF receptors. It has also been shown that IGFs can stimulate proliferation of cultured glioma cells. We previously reported that histamine too can stimulate the growth of glioma cells in vitro. In this report, we study whether the histamine-induced growth of G47 glioma cells is mediated by the IGFs. We found that histamine stimulates the expression of both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs, as determined by a semiquantitative in situ hybridization analysis. Furthermore, incubation of G47 cells with histamine also induced cellular immunostaining for IGF-II. It could be shown that IGF-I-stimulated proliferation is inhibited by IGFBP-3, which decreases the availability of IGFs for binding to the IGF receptors, and by beta-galactosidase, which may decrease IGF binding to the type II IGF receptor, but is not inhibited by the anti-type I IGF receptor monoclonal antibody alphaIR3. However, neither IGFBP-3 nor beta-galactosidase nor alphaIR3 inhibited the histamine-induced proliferation. These results show that the growth-stimulatory effect of histamine is accompanied by the induction of IGFs. This histamine-induced growth stimulation is not mediated by activation of cell surface IGF receptors, although intracrine activation of type II IGF receptors may be involved.
Images
PMCID: PMC2222785  PMID: 9099954
5.  Expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), their receptors and IGF binding protein-3 in normal, benign and malignant smooth muscle tissues. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;75(11):1631-1640.
To assess the role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in growth and transformation of normal (myometrium) and tumorous smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissues, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis for insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) mRNAs was combined with detection of IGF peptides, their receptors and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). mRNAs for both IGFs were detected in smooth muscle cells in normal, benign and malignant SMC tissues, together with the IGF peptides, both IGF receptors and IGFBP-3. This suggests an autocrine role for both IGFs. Leiomyomas had higher IGF-I peptide levels and higher levels of type I IGF receptors than myometrium, supporting the idea that IGFs play a role in the growth and transformation of these tumours. Low-grade leiomyosarcomas contained more IGF-II mRNAs than myometrium and leiomyoma, fewer type II IGF/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and less IGFBP-3 than myometrium and, in addition, fewer IGF-I mRNAs and type I IGF receptors than leiomyoma. Intermediate- and high-grade leiomyosarcomas had intermediate levels of IGF-II mRNAs and peptide, ranging between those in myometrium and low-grade leiomyosarcomas. Thus, growth and transformation of leiomyosarcomas may be regulated by IGF-II, although more markedly in low-grade than in high-grade leiomyosarcomas. In conclusion, the various categories of SMC tissues are associated with a distinct expression pattern of the IGF system. This suggests that each category of SMC tumours arises as a distinct entity and that there is no progression of transformation in these tissues.
Images
PMCID: PMC2223537  PMID: 9184179
6.  Expression of IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR in gallbladder carcinoma. A systematic analysis including primary and corresponding metastatic tumours 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2006;59(2):202-206.
Aims
The insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in tumour development and progression. This study was designed to analyse the expression of the IGF‐I receptor (IGF‐IR) and its ligands (IGF‐I, IGF‐II) in gallbladder cancer.
Methods
IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR immunoreactivity was investigated in 57 gallbladder carcinomas and corresponding lymph node (n  =  11) and hepatic (n  =  7) metastases using a tissue microarray technique and correlated with tumour stage, grade, and patient outcome.
Results
Cancer tissue allowing a reliable evaluation of IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR was present in 55 of 57 primary tumours and 17 of 18 metastases. IGF‐I and IGF‐II immunoreactivity was seen in 25 and 14 of the 55 primary tumours, in addition to six and three of the 17 metastases, respectively. No associations with tumour stage, grade, or prognosis were detected. IGF‐IR was expressed in 52 of 55 primary tumours and all 17 metastases. IGF‐IR staining intensity decreased with tumour cell dedifferentiation. Moreover, IGF‐IR expression in less than 50% of cancer cells was an independent marker of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis (risk ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 11.2; p  =  0.01).
Conclusions
The expression of IGF‐IR and its ligands provides evidence for the existence of an auto/paracrine loop of tumour cell stimulation in gallbladder cancer and makes this type of cancer a candidate for therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with the IGF pathway. The recognition of IGF‐IR as a new independent prognostic biomarker may help to identify patients who might benefit from adjuvant treatment.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2005.028480
PMCID: PMC1860307  PMID: 16443739
insulin‐like growth factors; insulin‐like growth factor receptor; immunohistochemistry; gallbladder cancer; prognosis
7.  Evidence for the Possible Biological Significance of the igf-1 Gene Alternative Splicing in Prostate Cancer 
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa), since it plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The IGF-I actions are mediated mainly via its binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR), however IGF-I signaling via insulin receptor (IR) and hybrid IGF-I/IR is also evident. Different IGF-I mRNA splice variants, namely IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb, and IGF-IEc, are expressed in human cells and tissues. These transcripts encode several IGF-I precursor proteins which contain the same bioactive product (mature IGF-I), however, they differ by the length of their signal peptides on the amino-terminal end and the structure of the extension peptides (E-peptides) on the carboxy-terminal end. There is an increasing interest in the possible different role of the IGF-I transcripts and their respective non-(mature)IGF-I products in the regulation of distinct biological activities. Moreover, there is strong evidence of a differential expression profile of the IGF-I splice variants in normal versus PCa tissues and PCa cells, implying that the expression pattern of the various IGF-I transcripts and their respective protein products may possess different functions in cancer biology. Herein, the evidence that the IGF-IEc transcript regulates PCa growth via Ec peptide specific and IGF-IR/IR-independent signaling is discussed.
doi:10.3389/fendo.2013.00031
PMCID: PMC3602724  PMID: 23519101
apoptosis; cancer progression; cell survival; human IGF-I isoforms; IGF-I bioactivity; IGF-I peptides; IGF-I receptors; IGF-I signaling
8.  Insulin-like growth factor family and combined antisense approach in therapy of lung carcinoma. 
Molecular Medicine  2002;8(3):149-157.
BACKGROUND: Perturbation in a level of any peptide from insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family (ligands, receptors, and binding proteins) seems to be implicated in lung cancer formation; IGF ligands and IGF-I receptor through their mitogenic and anti-apoptotic action, and the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6-P/IGF-IIR) possibly as a tumor suppressor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the identity, role, and mutual relationship of IGFs in lung cancer growth and maintenance, we examined IGF's gene (by RT-PCR) and protein (by immunohistochemistry) expression in 69 human lung carcinoma tissues. We also examined IGF-I receptor numbers (Scatchard analysis) and IGF-II production and release (by Western blot) in IGF-II/IGF-IR mRNA positive and negative lung carcinomas. Finally, the potential role of IGF-IR and IGF-II as growth promoting factors in lung cancer was studied using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides that specifically inhibit IGF-IR and IGF-II mRNA. RESULTS: Thirty-two tumors were positive for IGF-I, 39 for IGF-II, 48 for IGF-IR, and 35 for IGFBP-4 mRNA. Seventeen tumors were concomitantly positive for all four IGFs, whereas 34 were positive for IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGFBP-4 mRNA. An elevated amount of IGF-II peptide was secreted into the growth medium of cell cultures established from five different IGF-II/IGF-IR mRNA positive lung cancer tissues. The cells also expressed elevated numbers of IGF-IR. Nine IGF-II-negative and 19 IGF-II-positive lung cancers of different stages were selected, and M6-P/ IGF-II receptor was determined immunohistochemically. Most of the IGF-II-negative tumors were strongly positive for M6-P/IGF-IIR. IGF-II-positive tumors were mostly negative for M6-P/IGF-II receptors. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to IGF-II significantly inhibited, by 25-60%, the in vitro growth of all six lung cancer cell lines. However, the best results (growth inhibition of up to 80%) were achieved with concomitant antisense treatment (to IGF-IR and IGF-II). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that lung cancer cells produce IGF-IR and IGF-II, which in turn stimulates their proliferation by autocrine mechanism. Cancer cell proliferation can be abrogated or alleviated by blocking the mRNA activity of these genes indicating that an antisense approach may represent an effective and practical cancer gene therapy strategy.
PMCID: PMC2039980  PMID: 12142546
9.  IGF2: Epigenetic regulation and role in development and disease 
Cytokine & growth factor reviews  2008;19(2):111-120.
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) is perhaps the most intricately regulated of all growth factors characterized to date. Its gene is imprinted—only one allele is active, depending on parental origin—and this pattern of expression is maintained epigenetically in almost all tissues. IGF2 activity is further controlled through differential expression of receptors and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that determine protein availability. This complex and multifaceted regulation emphasizes the importance of accurate IGF2 expression and activity. This review will examine the regulation of the IGF2 gene and what it has revealed about the phenomenon of imprinting, which is frequently disrupted in cancer. IGF2 protein function will be discussed, along with diseases that involve IGF2 overexpression. Roles for IGF2 in sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and angiogenesis will also be explored.
doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2008.01.005
PMCID: PMC2314671  PMID: 18308616
Insulin-like growth factor; imprinting; angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor; sonic hedgehog
10.  Cixutumumab and temsirolimus for patients with bone and soft-tissue sarcoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial 
The lancet oncology  2013;14(4):371-382.
Summary
Background
Preclinical studies have shown synergistic antitumour activity by inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mTOR. The expression of IGF-1R seems to be crucial for this effect. We investigated the safety and efficacy of the combination of the IGF-1R antibody cixutumumab and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in patients with chemotherapy-refractory bone and soft-tissue sarcomas according to IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry.
Methods
We undertook a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study in 19 cancer centres in the USA. Patients aged at least 16 years with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of bone or soft-tissue sarcoma were allocated on the basis of IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry to one of three treatment groups: IGF-1R-positive soft-tissue sarcoma (group A), IGF-1R-positive bone sarcomas (group B), or IGF-1R-negative bone and soft-tissue sarcoma (group C). Patients received weekly treatment with cixutumumab (6 mg/kg, intravenous) and temsirolimus (25 mg, intravenous flat dose) in 6-week cycles. A Simon optimal two-stage design was used for every arm. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 12 weeks by intention-to-treat analysis in the first 54 patients assigned to every treatment arm. Although patients still remain on treatment, this trial has completed enrolment and this represents the final analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01016015.
Findings
Between Nov 18, 2009, and April 11, 2012, 388 patients were screened for IGF-1R expression and 54 were assigned to each arm. 17 of 54 patients in the IGF-1R-positive soft-tissue sarcoma group (31%; one-sided 95% CI lower bound 21%; two-sided 90% CI 21–43), 19 of 54 in IGF-1R-positive bone sarcoma group (35%; one-sided 95% CI lower bound 24%; two-sided 90% CI 24–47), and 21 of 54 in the IGF-1R-negative group (39%, one-sided 95% CI lower bound 28%; two-sided 90% CI 28–51) were progression free at 12 weeks. On April 6, 2011, the protocol was amended to include three additional patients in the IGF-1R-positive soft-tissue sarcoma group (total of 57 patients) and nine more in the IGF-1R-negative group (total of 63 patients). There were 2546 adverse events reported during the study, 214 (8%) of which were grade 3–4. The most common grade 3–4 toxicities in the 174 treated patients were anaemia in 16 (9%) patients, hyperglycaemia in 18 (10%), hypophosphataemia in 16 (9%), lymphopenia in 25 (14%), oral mucositis in 19 (11%), and thrombocytopenia in 19 (11%).
Interpretation
The combination of cixutumumab and temsirolimus shows clinical activity in patients with sarcoma and forms a basis for future trials. However, IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry is not predictive of clinical outcome after treatment with this combination.
Funding
National Cancer Institute and Cycle for Survival Fund, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70049-4
PMCID: PMC3766955  PMID: 23477833
11.  An in situ hybridization study of the insulin-like growth factor system in developing condylar cartilage of the fetal mouse mandible 
The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the developing mandibular condylar cartilage and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fetal mice at embryonic day (E) 13.0–18.5 were used for in situ hybridization studies using [35S]-labeled RNA probes for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-I receptor (-IR), and IGF binding proteins (-BPs). At E13.0, IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were expressed in the mesenchyme around the mandibular bone, but IGF-IR mRNA was not expressed within the bone. At E14.0, IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA were expressed in the outer layer of the condylar anlage, and IGF-IR mRNA was first detected within the condylar anlage, suggesting that the presence of IGF-IR mRNA in an IGF-rich environment triggers the initial formation of the condylar cartilage. IGFBP-4 mRNA was expressed in the anlagen of the articular disc and lower joint cavity from E15.0 to 18.5. When the upper joint cavity was formed at E18.5, IGFBP-4 mRNA expression was reduced in the fibrous mesenchymal tissue facing the upper joint cavity. Enhanced IGFBP-2 mRNA expression was first recognized in the anlagen of both the articular disc and lower joint cavity at E16.0 and continued expression in these tissues as well as in the fibrous mesenchymal tissue facing the upper joint cavity was observed at E18.5. IGFBP-5 mRNA was continuously expressed in the outer layer of the perichondrium/fibrous cell layer in the developing mandibular condyle. These findings suggest that the IGF system is involved in the formation of the condylar cartilage as well as in the TMJ.
doi:10.4081/ejh.2012.e23
PMCID: PMC3428972  PMID: 22688304
IGF; IGF binding protein; mandibular condylar cartilage; temporomandibular joint.
12.  Antisense oligonucleotide suppression of human IGF-1R inhibits the growth and survival of in vitro cultured epithelial ovarian cancer cells 
Background
Preclinical evaluation of the anti-neoplastic activity of antisense oligonucleotide (AS) suppression of human insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
Methods
Ovarian cancer cells from 36 patients with EOC were investigated under serum-free tissue culture conditions. IGF-I production was evaluated by standard ELISA. IGF-IR and phosphorylated IRS-1, AKT, and MAP kinase expression and protein levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Cancer cell growth and proliferation assays were performed in triplicates using MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNNEL assay.
Results
All ovarian cancer tissue samples tested produced IGF-I and expressed IGF-IR, supporting the existence of an autocrine loop. Treatment of primary ovarian cancer cell lines with an IGF-1R AS inhibited growth and proliferation and decreased clonogenicity in soft agar assay. AS treatment was demonstrated to inhibit the expression of IGF-1R and decrease the concentration of phosphorylated IRS-1, AKT, and MAP kinase signaling protein downstream of the IGF-IR. We also observed that the IGF-1R AS sensitized cancer cell lines to cisplatin in vitro through the PI3K pathway.
Conclusions
IGF-IR enhances the proliferation and tumorigenicity of human ovarian cancer cells and inhibition of IGF-IR by AS oligonucleotide treatment potentiates the activity of cisplatin in vitro. Therefore, IGF-1R is a potential molecular target in ovarian cancer.
doi:10.1186/1757-2215-6-71
PMCID: PMC3851551  PMID: 24103397
Antisense; IGF-1R; Epithelial ovarian cancer
13.  Immunohistochemical pattern of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF II and IGF binding proteins 1 to 6 in carcinoma in situ of the testis. 
Molecular Pathology  1997;50(6):298-303.
AIM: To study the immunohistochemical localisation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF II, and IGF binding proteins 1-6 in intratubular germ cell neoplasia in the vicinity of solid germ cell tumours of the testis. METHODS: Testes were obtained from 13 patients (20-35 years old) who had undergone orchidectomy for treatment of a solid germ cell tumour. Tumour cells were verified histologically by their distinctive morphology and by visualisation of placental alkaline phosphatase immunoreactivity. RESULTS: The majority of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells were immunopositive for IGF I, whereas no CIS cells stained for IGF II. Of all the IGF binding proteins investigated, CIS cells showed intense immunoreactivity for IGF binding protein 5 and lower expression of all other IGF binding proteins. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the action of IGF binding protein 5 in CIS cells may modulate the activity of IGF I. This may be related to a proliferative advantage that could facilitate tumour development.
Images
PMCID: PMC379663  PMID: 9536279
14.  The IGF system in thyroid cancer: new concepts 
Molecular Pathology  2001;54(3):121-124.
In recent years, the activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in cancer has emerged as a key factor for tumour progression and resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, a variety of strategies have been developed to block the type I IGF receptor (IGF-I-R), which is thought to mediate the biological effects of both IGF-I and IGF-II. However, recent data suggest that the IGF signalling system is complex and that other receptors are involved. To unravel the complexity of the IGF system in thyroid cancer, IGF-I and IGF-II production, and the expression and function of their cognate receptors were studied. Both IGFs were found to be locally produced in thyroid cancer: IGF-I by stromal cells and IGF-II by malignant thyrocytes. Values were significantly higher in malignant tissue than in normal tissue. IGF-I-Rs were overexpressed in differentiated papillary carcinomas but not in poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumours, whereas insulin receptors (IRs) were greatly overexpressed in all tumour hystotypes, with a trend for higher values in dedifferentiated tumours. As a consequence of IR overexpression, high amounts of IR/IGF-I-R hybrids (which bind IGF-I with high affinity) were present in all thyroid cancer histotypes. Because of recent evidence that isoform A of IR (IR-A) is a physiological receptor for IGF-II in fetal life, the relative abundance of IR-A in thyroid cancer was measured. Preliminary data indicate that overexpressed IRs mainly occur as IR-A in thyroid cancer. These data indicate that both IR/IGF-I-R hybrids and IR-A play an important role in the overactivation of the IGF system in thyroid cancer and in IGF-I mitogenic signalling in these tumours. J Clin Pathol: Mol Pathol
PMCID: PMC1187048  PMID: 11376121
insulin-like growth factor system; insulin receptor; insulin-like growth factor I receptor
15.  Clinical significance of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: immunohistochemical analysis 
Background/Aims
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, reports on the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) based on radioimmunoassays are conflicting, and its prognostic implications in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still controversial.
Methods
Seventy-one paraffin-embedded tissue sections from stage I NSCLC patients were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody against human IGF-1R.
Results
The intensity and frequency of IGF-1R expression on the membrane and cytoplasm of cancer cells was evaluated and scored using a semiquantitative system. IGF-1R expression was detected in nine of 71 (12.7%) cases. No significant relationship was found between clinical/histopathological parameters and IGF-1R expression. None of the patients whose tumor expressed IGF-1R had experienced distant metastasis or cancer-related death, although the difference did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
We conclude that IGF-1R expression may not be a major prognostic factor for stage I NSCLC.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2008.23.3.116
PMCID: PMC2686961  PMID: 18787363
IGF; IGF-1R; Immunohistochemistry; NSCLC
16.  IGF-1 receptor and IGF binding protein-3 might predict prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:392.
Background
The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathologic role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) in patients with pancreatic cancer. The function of IGFBP3 is controversial, because both inhibition and facilitation of the action of IGF as well as IGF-independent effects have been reported. In this study, IGF1R and IGFBP3 expression was examined, and their potential roles as prognostic markers in patients with pancreatic cancer were evaluated.
Methods
Clinicopathological features of 122 patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer were retrospectively reviewed, and expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was immunohistochemically analyzed.
Results
Expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was observed in 50 (41.0%) and 37 (30.3%) patients, respectively. IGF1R expression was significantly associated with histological grade (p = 0.037). IGFBP3 expression had a significant association with tumor location (p = 0.023), and a significant inverse association with venous invasion (p = 0.037). Tumors with IGF1R-positive and IGFBP3-negative expression (n = 32) were significantly frequently Stage II and III (p = 0.011). The prognosis for IGF1R positive patients was significantly poorer than that for IGF1R negative patients (p = 0.0181). IGFBP3 protein expression did not correlate significantly with patient survival. The subset of patients with both positive IGF1R and negative IGFBP3 had worse overall survival (8.8 months versus 12.6 months, respectively, p < 0.001).
Conclusion
IGF1R signaling might be associated with tumor aggressiveness, and IGFBP3 might show antiproliferative effects in pancreatic cancer. Both high IGF1R expression and low IGFBP3 expression represent useful prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-392
PMCID: PMC3765100  PMID: 23962053
Pancreatic cancer; IGF1R; IGFBP3; Prognosis
17.  Relaxed imprinting of IGF2 in peripheral blood cells of patients with a history of prostate cancer 
Endocrine Connections  2012;1(2):87-94.
Background
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is the predominant IGF in adults and regulates cell growth. In contrast to normal tissues, where IGF2 is imprinted and only expressed from the paternal allele, loss of imprinting (LOI) and biallelic IGF2 expression are observed in many cancers including prostate cancer (PCa). We here studied whether LOI of IGF2 in normal circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can predict increased PCa risk.
Samples and methods
We analyzed IGF2 protein levels, IGF2 820G/A genotype and imprinting status, as well as methylation status of the IGF2 imprinting control region (ICR) in 113 blood samples of patients with a history of radical prostatectomy (RPE) for PCa by ELISA, restriction-fragment length polymorphism, and bisulfite-DNA sequencing. Results were compared to 249 male blood donors with unknown prostate specific antigen (PSA) status.
Results
The 820G/A genotype was enriched in the RPE group and was associated with younger age at cancer diagnosis. LOI in patients was only slightly more frequent than in controls, but IGF2 levels were significantly higher and uncoupled from the imprinting status. Analysis of the IGF2/H19 ICR revealed marked hypermethylation.
Conclusions
The IGF 820G/A genotype is associated with PCa diagnosis at younger age. Increased IGF2 in patients with PCa appears to be the result of impaired imprinting in non-neoplastic cells rather than a paracrine tumor product. Uncoupling of IGF2 protein levels from imprinting status (not LOI alone) and hypermethylation of the ICR characterized PCa patients and could have the potential to indicate persons at risk in screening programs.
doi:10.1530/EC-12-0054
PMCID: PMC3681323  PMID: 23781309
cancer; insulin-like growth factor 2; imprinting; prostate; screening
18.  Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor 1 (IGF1R) Gene Copy Number Is Associated With Survival in Operable Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Comparison Between IGF1R Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, Protein Expression, and mRNA Expression 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(13):2174-2180.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to characterize insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) protein expression, mRNA expression, and gene copy number in surgically resected non–small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) in relation to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression, patient characteristics, and prognosis.
Patients and Methods
One hundred eighty-nine patients with NSCLC who underwent curative pulmonary resection were studied (median follow-up, 5.3 years). IGF1R protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with two anti-IGF1R antibodies (n = 179). EGFR protein expression was assessed with PharmDx kit. IGF1R gene expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 114 corresponding fresh-frozen samples. IGF1R gene copy number was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization using customized probes (n = 181).
Results
IGF1R IHC score was higher in squamous cell carcinomas versus other histologies (P < .001) and associated with stage (P = .03) but not survival (P = .46). IGF1R and EGFR protein expression showed significant correlation (r = 0.30; P < .001). IGF1R gene expression by qRT-PCR was higher in squamous cell versus other histologies (P = .006) and did not associate with other clinical features nor survival (P = .73). Employing criteria previously established for EGFR copy number, patients with IGF1R amplification/high polysomy (n = 48; 27%) had 3-year survival of 58%, patients with low polysomy (n = 87; 48%) had 3-year survival of 47% and patients with trisomy/disomy (n = 46; 25%) had 3-year survival of 35%, respectively (P = .024). Prognostic value of high IGF1R gene copy number was confirmed in multivariate analysis.
Conclusion
IGF1R protein expression is higher in squamous cell versus other histologies and correlates with EGFR expression. IGF1R protein and gene expression does not associate with survival, whereas high IGF1R gene copy number harbors positive prognostic value.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.24.6611
PMCID: PMC2860435  PMID: 20351332
19.  Expression of the insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in adenocarcinoma of the colon 
Gut  1999;44(5):704-708.
AIMS—To study changes in the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their receptors, as well as production of the IGF-I and IGF-II polypeptides, in adenocarcinoma of the colon. 
METHODS—Malignant tissue obtained at operation was used. Total RNA was extracted and specific IGF-I and IGF-II and their receptor mRNAs were measured by a solution hybridisation RNase protection assay. IGF-I and IGF-II polypeptides were measured by specific immunoassays. 
RESULTS—All normal tissues expressed IGF-II, IGF-I receptor, and IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor. IGF-I mRNA could not be detected but the polypeptide was present in small but equal amounts in normal and malignant tissue. IGF-II was expressed 40 times more abundantly in colonic tumours than in adjacent normal tissue and the concentration of the corresponding polypeptide was twice as high in the malignant tissue. IGF-I receptor expression was increased by a factor of 2.5 and IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor by a factor of 4. 
CONCLUSIONS—This study confirms that in adenocarcinoma of the human colon there is increased expression of IGF-I receptor and IGF-II. Furthermore, IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor message is increased and the increase in IGF-II message is accompanied by a doubling of the IGF-II protein in the tumour tissue compared with the adjacent normal tissue. These findings suggest that the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor may also be involved in development of adenocarcinoma of the colon. There is rapidly accumulating evidence implicating the IGF system in the development of malignancy of the large bowel. 


Keywords: insulin-like growth factors; adenocarcinoma; colon
PMCID: PMC1727486  PMID: 10205209
20.  The Insulin-like Growth Factor System: Towards Clinical Applications 
The Clinical Biochemist Reviews  2004;25(3):155-164.
Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and II) are important endocrine, paracrine and autocrine mediators of physiological growth. They promote cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation. Their effects are mediated mainly through the IGF-I receptor, but IGFs also bind to the IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate and insulin receptors. IGF activity is modulated by a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs); in most situations, IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions but they may also enhance them. Assays are now available for IGF-I, IGF-II and individual IGFBPs. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 assays have some utility in the diagnosis and management of acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency. There is a large body of in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a pathogenic role for alterations in the IGF system in many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and neuromuscular disease. More recently, epidemiological studies have linked high IGF-I levels with some cancers and low IGF-I levels with ischaemic heart disease. Preliminary studies of recombinant IGF-I as a treatment for diabetes, osteoporosis and neuromuscular disease have been performed in humans. In contrast, there is considerable interest in developing IGF inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. This apparent paradox highlights the need to develop therapeutics beyond the natural ligands and inhibitors, with characteristics such as ligand and tissue specificity. This will only become possible as we increase our understanding of this complex system. Additionally, as IGF and IGFBP assays are becoming more readily available, their role in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases should be more clearly defined in the near future.
PMCID: PMC1880833  PMID: 18458708
21.  Insulin-like growth factor I receptor blockade enhances chemotherapy and radiation responses and inhibits tumour growth in human gastric cancer xenografts 
Gut  2005;54(5):591-600.
Background and aims: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor (IGF-Ir) signalling is required for carcinogenicity and proliferation of many tumours but this pathway has not been studied in detail in gastric cancer. We have previously shown successful therapy for colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancer using recombinant adenoviruses expressing dominant negative (dn) IGF-Ir. In this study, we sought to better dissect the role of IGF-Ir on progression of gastric cancer and determine whether IGF-Ir targeted adenoviruses represent potentially effective therapeutics for human gastric cancer.
Methods: We assessed the effect of IGF-Ir ligands on proliferation and survival in gastric cancer cells in culture. Then, recombinant adenoviruses expressing truncated IGF-Ir (482 and 950 amino acids long, IGF-Ir/dn) that function as dn inhibitors were studied in the treatment of human gastric cancer xenografts. We characterised the effects of IGF-Ir/dn on signalling blockade, growth, apoptosis induction, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy.
Results: IGF-Ir signalling promoted tumour growth and survival in gastric cancer. IGF-Ir/dn expression suppressed tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo and upregulated stressor induced apoptosis. IGF-Ir/dn blocked Akt-1 activation induced by IGF-I, IGF-II, and des(1-3)IGF-I, but not by insulin. IGF-Ir/dn expression increased radiation and chemotherapy induced apoptosis and the combination of IGF-Ir/dn and chemotherapy was very effective against tumours in mice. In an intraperitoneal model, IGF-Ir/dn therapy also suppressed peritoneal dissemination.
Conclusions: IGF-Ir is involved in the regulation of survival and cell growth in human gastric cancer and may be a good molecular therapeutic target. Adenovirus-IGF-Ir/dn may thus have therapeutic use in gastric cancer.
doi:10.1136/gut.2004.048926
PMCID: PMC1774471  PMID: 15831900
adenovirus; akt-1; dominant negative; insulin-like growth factor; gastric cancer; xenografts
22.  Targeting the Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor: Developing Biomarkers from Gene Expression Profiling 
Critical reviews in oncogenesis  2012;17(2):161-173.
Overwhelming evidence implicates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in the growth and survival of many types of human cancer cells. Numerous inhibitors of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) have been developed, and they displayed remarkable antineoplastic activity in preclinical models and promising success in early phase clinical trials. However, while responses have been observed in numerous cancer types, they have occurred in a minority of patients, and serious toxicities have been observed. Identifying patients likely to benefit from anti-IGF1R therapy requires further characterizing the role of IGF1 signaling in various stages of tumorigenesis in order to identify critical downstream factors that may be used as predictors of response, or to serve as novel therapeutic targets. Recent microarray analyses have begun to unravel expression “signatures” specific for IGF1 that correlate with poor breast cancer prognosis and with response to anti-IGF1R inhibitors. In this review we briefly discuss the history of the IGF1 family in neoplasia, how it is targeted, results from clinical trials, and the quest for biomarkers that will predict response to IGF1R-targeted therapy.
PMCID: PMC3926653  PMID: 22471706
iomarkers; IGF1; targeted therapy; neoplasia; cancer; insulin; signaling; signatures
23.  Insulin-like growth factors I and II receptors in the Breast Cancer Survival Disparity among African-American Women 
Objective
African-American (AA) women with breast cancer are more likely to have advanced disease at diagnosis, higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis than Caucasian (CA) women. We have recently shown higher insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) expression in paired breast tissue samples from AA women as compared to CA women. IGF-II is a potent mitogen that induces cell proliferation and survival signals through activation of the IGF-I and Insulin receptors (IGF-IR, IR) while IGF-II circulating levels are regulated by cellular uptake through the IGF2 receptor. We hypothesize that differential expression of the IGFIR and IGF2R among AA and CA women potentiates IGF-II mitogenic effects, thus contributing to the health disparity observed between these ethnic groups.
Design
We examined IGF-IR and IGF2R mRNA, protein expression and IGF1R phosphorylation in paired breast tissue samples from AA and CA women by Real Time-PCR, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and ELISA techniques.
Results
Our results showed significantly increased expression of IGF1R in AA normal tissues as compared to CA normal tissues. IGF1R expression was similar between AA normal and malignant tissues, while IGF1R, IRS-1 and Shc phosphorylation was significantly higher in AA tumor samples. Significantly higher levels of IGF2R were found in CA tumor samples as compared to AA tumor samples.
Conclusions
We conclude that IGFIR and IGF2R differential expression may contribute to the increased risk of malignant transformation in young AA women and to the more aggressive breast cancer phenotype observed among AA breast cancer patients and represent, along with IGF-II, potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2010.03.001
PMCID: PMC2875325  PMID: 20347606
IGF-II; IGF2R; IGF-IR; breast cancer; health disparities
24.  Insulin is a potent myeloma cell growth factor through insulin/IGF-1 hybrid receptor activation 
Leukemia  2010;24(11):1940-1950.
Insulin and insulin growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) and their receptors are closely related molecules but both factors bind to the receptor of the other one with a weak affinity. No study has presently documented a role of insulin as a myeloma growth factor (MGF) for human multiple myeloma cells (MMC) whereas many studies have concluded that IGF-1 is a major MGF. IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is aberrantly expressed by MMC in association with a poor prognosis. We show here that insulin receptor (INSR) is increased throughout normal plasma cell differentiation. INSR gene is also expressed by MMC of 203/206 newly-diagnosed patients. Insulin is a MGF as potent as IGF-1 at physiological concentrations and requires the presence of insulin/IGF-1 hybrid receptors, stimulating INSR+IGF-1R+ MMC, unlike INSR+IGF- 1R− or INSR-IGF-1R− MMC. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that INSR is linked with IGF-1R in MMC and that insulin induces both IGF-1R and INSR phosphorylations and vice versa. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that insulin is a MGF as potent as IGF-1 at physiological concentrations and its activity necessitates insulin/IGF-1 hybrid receptor activation. Further therapeutic strategies targeting the IGF-IGF-1R pathway have to take into account neutralizing the IGF-1R-mediated insulin MGF activity.
doi:10.1038/leu.2010.192
PMCID: PMC3141222  PMID: 20844560
Antibodies, Monoclonal; pharmacology; Cell Division; drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Survival; drug effects; Flow Cytometry; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; Growth Substances; pharmacology; Humans; Insulin; genetics; pharmacology; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; pharmacology; physiology; Kinetics; Multiple Myeloma; genetics; pathology; Nucleic Acid Hybridization; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Receptor, IGF Type 1; immunology; isolation & purification; physiology; Receptor, Insulin; genetics; isolation & purification; physiology; Recombinant Proteins; pharmacology; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Transcription, Genetic; multiple myeloma; insulin; IGF-1; IGF-1R; INSR; insulin/IGF-1 hybrid receptor
25.  Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I and its receptor in rat aorta after balloon denudation. Evidence for local bioactivity. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(5):1926-1931.
Local production of growth factors may play a major role in vascular repair after injury. We examined the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its specific membrane receptor in balloon-denuded rat aorta. Aortic IGF-I mRNA and radioimmunoassayable IGF-I content increased severalfold after balloon denudation with a peak at 7 d after injury. This coincided with a reciprocal 25% decrease in IGF-I receptor mRNA content and a 40% decrease in total 125I-IGF-I binding. Scatchard analysis indicated a single class of binding sites, with a decrease in receptor number at 7 d compared to control and no change in affinity. By in situ hybridization the predominant site of IGF-I expression in the normal and the denuded vessel wall was the medial smooth muscle cell. After denudation there was a relative decrease in IGF-I receptor mRNA in the medial cells as compared to the neointima, suggesting that the site of IGF-I action was predominantly in the medial layer. These data suggest that local expression and action of IGF-I are significant in the promotion of smooth muscle cell proliferation after arterial injury.
Images
PMCID: PMC443254  PMID: 1430215

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