Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyoxoesters that are produced by many bacteria and that accumulate as intracellular granules. Phasins (PhaP) are proteins that accumulate during PHA synthesis, bind PHA granules, and promote further PHA synthesis. Interestingly, PhaP accumulation seems to be strictly dependent on PHA synthesis, which is catalyzed by the PhaC PHA synthase. Here we have tested the effect of the Ralstonia eutropha PhaR protein on the regulation of PhaP accumulation. R. eutropha strains with phaR, phaC, and/or phaP deletions were constructed, and PhaP accumulation was measured by immunoblotting. The wild-type strain accumulated PhaP in a manner dependent on PHA production, and the phaC deletion strain accumulated no PhaP, as expected. In contrast, both the phaR and the phaR phaC deletion strains accumulated PhaP to higher levels than did the wild type. This result implies that PhaR is a negative regulator of PhaP accumulation and that PhaR specifically prevents PhaP from accumulating in cells that are not producing PHA. Transfer of the R. eutropha phaR, phaP, and PHA biosynthesis (phaCAB) genes into a heterologous system, Escherichia coli, was sufficient to reconstitute the PhaR/PhaP regulatory system, implying that PhaR both regulates PhaP accumulation and responds to PHA directly. Deletion of phaR caused a decrease in PHA yields, and a phaR phaP deletion strain exhibited a more severe PHA defect than a phaP deletion strain, implying that PhaR promotes PHA production and does this at least partially through a PhaP-independent pathway. Models for regulatory roles of PhaR in regulating PhaP and promoting PHA production are presented.
Phasins (PhaP) are predominantly polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins that positively affect PHA synthesis. Recently, we reported that the phaR gene, which is located downstream of phaP in Paracoccus denitrificans, codes for a negative regulator involved in PhaP expression. In this study, DNase I footprinting revealed that PhaR specifically binds to two regions located upstream of phaP and phaR, suggesting that PhaR plays a role in the regulation of phaP expression as well as autoregulation. Many TGC-rich sequences were found in upstream elements recognized by PhaR. PhaR in the crude lysate of recombinant Escherichia coli was able to rebind specifically to poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] granules. Furthermore, artificial P(3HB) granules and 3HB oligomers caused the dissociation of PhaR from PhaR-DNA complexes, but native PHA granules, which were covered with PhaP or other nonspecific proteins, did not cause the dissociation. These results suggest that PhaR is able to sense both the onset of PHA synthesis and the enlargement of the granules through direct binding to PHA. However, free PhaR is probably unable to sense the mature PHA granules which are already covered sufficiently with PhaP and/or other proteins. An in vitro expression experiment revealed that phaP expression was repressed by the addition of PhaR and was derepressed by the addition of P(3HB). Based on these findings, we present here a possible model accounting for the PhaR-mediated mechanism of PHA synthesis. Widespread distribution of PhaR homologs in short-chain-length PHA-producing bacteria suggests a common and important role of PhaR-mediated regulation of PHA synthesis.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are covered by a surface layer consisting of mainly phasins and other PHB granule-associated proteins (PGAPs). Phasins are small amphiphilic proteins that determine the number and size of accumulated PHB granules. Five phasin proteins (PhaP1 to PhaP5) are known for Ralstonia eutropha. In this study, we identified three additional potential phasin genes (H16_B1988, H16_B2296, and H16_B2326) by inspection of the R. eutropha genome for sequences with “phasin 2 motifs.” To determine whether the corresponding proteins represent true PGAPs, fusions with eYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) were constructed. Similar fusions of eYFP with PhaP1 to PhaP5 as well as fusions with PHB synthase (PhaC1), an inactive PhaC1 variant (PhaC1-C319A), and PhaC2 were also made. All fusions were investigated in wild-type and PHB-negative backgrounds. Colocalization with PHB granules was found for all PhaC variants and for PhaP1 to PhaP5. Additionally, eYFP fusions with H16_B1988 and H16_B2326 colocalized with PHB. Fusions of H16_B2296 with eYFP, however, did not colocalize with PHB granules but did colocalize with the nucleoid region. Notably, all fusions (except H16_B2296) were soluble in a ΔphaC1 strain. These data confirm that H16_B1988 and H16_B2326 but not H16_B2296 encode true PGAPs, for which we propose the designation PhaP6 (H16_B1988) and PhaP7 (H16_B2326). When localization of phasins was investigated at different stages of PHB accumulation, fusions of PhaP6 and PhaP7 were soluble in the first 3 h under PHB-permissive conditions, although PHB granules appeared after 10 min. At later time points, the fusions colocalized with PHB. Remarkably, PHB granules of strains expressing eYFP fusions with PhaP5, PhaP6, or PhaP7 localized predominantly near the cell poles or in the area of future septum formation. This phenomenon was not observed for the other PGAPs (PhaP1 to PhaP4, PhaC1, PhaC1-C319A, and PhaC2) and indicated that some phasins can have additional functions. A chromosomal deletion of phaP6 or phaP7 had no visible effect on formation of PHB granules.
Phasins are proteins that are proposed to play important roles in polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis and granule formation. Here the phasin PhaP of Ralstonia eutropha has been analyzed with regard to its role in the synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Purified recombinant PhaP, antibodies against PhaP, and an R. eutropha phaP deletion strain have been generated for this analysis. Studies with the phaP deletion strain show that PhaP must accumulate to high levels in order to play its normal role in PHB synthesis and that the accumulation of PhaP to low levels is functionally equivalent to the absence of PhaP. PhaP positively affects PHB synthesis under growth conditions which promote production of PHB to low, intermediate, or high levels. The levels of PhaP generally parallel levels of PHB in cells. The results are consistent with models whereby PhaP promotes PHB synthesis by regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules or by interacting with polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and indicate that PhaP plays an important role in PHB synthesis from the early stages in PHB production and across a range of growth conditions.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyoxoesters that are produced by diverse bacteria and that accumulate as intracellular granules. Phasins are granule-associated proteins that accumulate to high levels in strains that are producing PHAs. The accumulation of phasins has been proposed to be dependent on PHA production, a model which is now rigorously tested for the phasin PhaP of Ralstonia eutropha. R. eutropha phaC PHA synthase and phaP phasin gene replacement strains were constructed. The strains were engineered to express heterologous and/or mutant PHA synthase alleles and a phaP-gfp translational fusion in place of the wild-type alleles of phaC and phaP. The strains were analyzed with respect to production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), accumulation of PhaP, and expression of the phaP-gfp fusion. The results suggest that accumulation of PhaP is strictly dependent on the genetic capacity of strains to produce PHB, that PhaP accumulation is regulated at the level of both PhaP synthesis and PhaP degradation, and that, within mixed populations of cells, PhaP accumulation within cells of a given strain is not influenced by PHB production in cells of other strains. Interestingly, either the synthesis of PHB or the presence of relatively large amounts of PHB in cells (>50% of cell dry weight) is sufficient to enable PhaP synthesis. The results suggest that R. eutropha has evolved a regulatory mechanism that can detect the synthesis and presence of PHB in cells and that PhaP expression can be used as a marker for the production of PHB in individual cells.
Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are polyoxoesters generated from (R)3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A by PHB synthase. During the polymerization reaction, the polymers undergo a phase transition and generate granules. Wautersia eutropha can transiently accumulate PHB when it is grown in a nutrient-rich medium (up to 23% of the cell dry weight in dextrose-free tryptic soy broth [TSB]). PHB homeostasis under these growth conditions was examined by quantitative Western analysis to monitor the proteins present, their levels, and changes in their levels over a 48-h growth period. The proteins examined include PhaC (the synthase), PhaP (a phasin), PhaR (a transcription factor), and PhaZ1a, PhaZ1b, and PhaZ1c (putative intracellular depolymerases), as well as PhaZ2 (a hydroxybutyrate oligomer hydrolase). The results show that PhaC and PhaZ1a were present simultaneously. No PhaZ1b or PhaZ1c was detected at any time throughout growth. PhaZ2 was observed and exhibited an expression pattern different from that of PhaZ1a. The levels of PhaP changed dramatically and corresponded kinetically to the levels of PHB. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provided the dimensions of the average cell and the average granule at 4 h and 24 h of growth (J. Tian, A. J. Sinskey, and J. Stubbe, J. Bacteriol. 187:3814-3824, 2005). This information allowed us to calculate the amount of each protein and number of granules per cell and the granule surface coverage by proteins. The molecular mass of PHB (106 Da) was determined by dynamic light scattering at 4 h, the time of maximum PHB accumulation. At this time, the surface area of the granules was maximally covered with PhaP (27 to 54%), and there were one or two PhaP molecules/PHB chain. The ratio of PHB chains to PhaC was ∼60, which required reinitiation of polymer formation on PhaC. The TEM studies of wild-type and ΔphaR strains in TSB provided further support for an alternative mechanism of granule formation (Tian et al., J. Bacteriol. 187:3814-3824, 2005).
The surface of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage granules in bacteria is covered mainly by proteins referred to as phasins. The layer of phasins stabilizes the granules and prevents coalescence of separated granules in the cytoplasm and nonspecific binding of other proteins to the hydrophobic surfaces of the granules. Phasin PhaP1Reu is the major surface protein of PHB granules in Ralstonia eutropha H16 and occurs along with three homologues (PhaP2, PhaP3, and PhaP4) that have the capacity to bind to PHB granules but are present at minor levels. All four phasins lack a highly conserved domain but share homologous hydrophobic regions. To identify the region of PhaP1Reu which is responsible for the binding of the protein to the granules, N-terminal and C-terminal fusions of enhanced green fluorescent protein with PhaP1Reu or various regions of PhaP1Reu were generated by recombinant techniques. The fusions were localized in the cells of various recombinant strains by fluorescence microscopy, and their presence in different subcellular protein fractions was determined by immunodetection of blotted proteins. The fusions were also analyzed to determine their capacities to bind to isolated PHB granules in vitro. The results of these studies indicated that unlike the phasin of Rhodococcus ruber, there is no discrete binding motif; instead, several regions of PhaP1Reu contribute to the binding of this protein to the surface of the granules. The conclusions are supported by the results of a small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of purified PhaP1Reu, which revealed that PhaP1Reu is a planar, triangular protein that occurs as trimer. This study provides new insights into the structure of the PHB granule surface, and the results should also have an impact on potential biotechnological applications of phasin fusion proteins and PHB granules in nanobiotechnology.
Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(4HB)] is a strong thermoplastic biomaterial with remarkable mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, it is generally synthesized when 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) structurally related substrates such as γ-butyrolactone, 4-hydroxybutyrate or 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are provided as precursor which are much more expensive than glucose. At present, high production cost is a big obstacle for large scale production of poly(4HB).
Recombinant Escherichia coli strain was constructed to achieve hyperproduction of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(4HB)] using glucose as a sole carbon source. An engineering pathway was established in E. coli containing genes encoding succinate degradation of Clostridium kluyveri and PHB synthase of Ralstonia eutropha. Native succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase genes sad and gabD in E. coli were both inactivated to enhance the carbon flux to poly(4HB) biosynthesis. Four PHA binding proteins (PhaP or phasins) including PhaP1, PhaP2, PhaP3 and PhaP4 from R. eutropha were heterologously expressed in the recombinant E. coli, respectively, leading to different levels of improvement in poly(4HB) production. Among them PhaP1 exhibited the highest capability for enhanced polymer synthesis. The recombinant E. coli produced 5.5 g L-1 cell dry weight containing 35.4% poly(4HB) using glucose as a sole carbon source in a 48 h shake flask growth. In a 6-L fermentor study, 11.5 g L-1 cell dry weight containing 68.2% poly(4HB) was obtained after 52 h of cultivation. This was the highest poly(4HB) yield using glucose as a sole carbon source reported so far. Poly(4HB) was structurally confirmed by gas chromatographic (GC) as well as 1H and 13C NMR studies.
Significant level of poly(4HB) biosynthesis from glucose can be achieved in sad and gabD genes deficient strain of E. coli JM109 harboring an engineering pathway encoding succinate degradation genes and PHB synthase gene, together with expression of four PHA binding proteins PhaP or phasins, respectively. Over 68% poly(4HB) was produced in a fed-batch fermentation process, demonstrating the feasibility for enhanced poly(4HB) production using the recombinant strain for future cost effective commercial development.
Poly(4HB); PHB; Polyhydroxyalkanoates; PhaP; 4-hydroxybutyrate; Escherichia coli; Metabolic engineering; Synthetic biology
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are organelle-like multienzyme-polymer complexes (carbonosomes) and are widespread storage compounds in prokaryotes. The interaction of three PHB granule-bound proteins (PHB synthase PhaC1, phasin PhaP5, and PHB/DNA binding protein PhaM) was studied in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) microscopy in Ralstonia eutropha. To this end, a mobilizable 2-plasmid system for arabinose-controlled expression of protein fusions with the N-terminal (YN) and C-terminal (YC) parts of the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYfp) in Gram-negative bacteria was developed. Both plasmids were stably expressed in Escherichia coli and in transconjugants of R. eutropha. Homo-oligomerization of PhaC1, PhaP5, and PhaM and interactions between PhaC1 and PhaM and between PhaM and PhaP5 were detected in R. eutropha and colocalized with PHB granules under PHB-permissive conditions. PhaM-PhaC1 complexes were detected near the midcell/nucleoid region in the absence of PHB. Expression of BiFC complexes in R. eutropha with PhaM (PhaM homo-oligomers or PhaM-PhaC1 or PhaM-PhaP5 complexes) resulted in substantial cell elongation compared to wild-type cells and in BiFC signals that were generally located near the midcell/nucleoid region. Western blot analysis of wild-type cell extracts and proteome analysis of PHB granule-bound proteins revealed that PhaM and PhaP5 are expressed in R. eutropha and that PhaM is constitutively expressed independently of the presence or absence of PHB. Size exclusion chromatography analysis in combination with cross-linking experiments of purified PhaP5-His6 and PhaM-His6 showed that PhaP5 forms dimers and that PhaM is present in oligomeric (dodecamer) form. Implications of this finding for subcellular PHB localization and initiation of PHB granule formation in R. eutropha will be discussed.
PhaR from Paracoccus denitrificans functions as a repressor or autoregulator of the expression of genes encoding phasin protein (PhaP) and PhaR itself, both of which are components of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules (A. Maehara, S. Taguchi, T. Nishiyama, T. Yamane, and Y. Doi, J. Bacteriol. 184:3992-4002, 2002). PhaR is a unique regulatory protein in that it also has the ability to bind tightly to an effector molecule, PHA polyester. In this study, by using a quartz crystal microbalance, we obtained direct evidence that PhaR binds to the target DNA and poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)], one of the PHAs, at the same time. To identify the PhaR amino acid residues responsible for DNA binding, deletion and PCR-mediated random point mutation experiments were carried out with the gene encoding the PhaR protein. PhaR point mutants with decreased DNA-binding abilities were efficiently screened by an in vivo monitoring assay system coupled with gene expression of green fluorescent protein in Escherichia coli. DNA-binding abilities of the wild-type and mutants of recombinant PhaR expressed in E. coli were evaluated using a gel shift assay and a surface plasmon resonance analysis. These experiments revealed that basic amino acids and a tyrosine in the N-terminal region, which is highly conserved among PhaR homologs, are responsible for DNA binding. However, most of the mutants with decreased DNA-binding abilities were unaffected in their ability to bind P(3HB), strongly suggesting that PhaR has two separate domains capable of binding to the target DNA and P(3HB).
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are accumulated as intracellular granules by many bacteria under unfavorable conditions, enhancing their fitness and stress resistance. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most widespread and best-known PHA. Apart from the genes that catalyze polymer biosynthesis, natural PHA producers have several genes for proteins involved in granule formation and/or with regulatory functions, such as phasins, that have been shown to affect polymer synthesis. This study evaluates the effect of PhaP, a phasin, on bacterial growth and PHB accumulation from glycerol in bioreactor cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli carrying phaBAC from Azotobacter sp. strain FA8. Cells expressing phaP grew more, and accumulated more PHB, both using glucose and using glycerol as carbon sources. When cultures were grown in a bioreactor using glycerol, PhaP-bearing cells produced more polymer (2.6 times) and more biomass (1.9 times) than did those without the phasin. The effect of this protein on growth promotion and polymer accumulation is expected to be even greater in high-density cultures, such as those used in the industrial production of the polymer. The recombinant strain presented in this work has been successfully used for the production of PHB from glycerol in bioreactor studies, allowing the production of 7.9 g/liter of the polymer in a semisynthetic medium in 48-h batch cultures. The development of bacterial strains that can efficiently use this substrate can help to make the industrial production of PHAs economically feasible.
Degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by the thiolytic activity of the PHB depolymerase PhaZ1 from Ralstonia eutropha H16 was analyzed in the presence of different phasins. An Escherichia coli strain was constructed that harbored the genes for PHB synthesis (phaCAB), the phasin PhaP1, and the PHB depolymerase PhaZ1. PHB was isolated in the native form (nPHB) from this recombinant E. coli strain, and the in vitro degradation of the polyester was examined. Degradation resulted in the formation of the expected 3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A (3HB-CoA) and in the formation of a second product, which occurred in significantly higher concentrations than 3HB-CoA. This second product was identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) as crotonyl-CoA. Replacement of PhaP1 by PhaP2 or PhaP4 resulted in a lower degradation rate, whereas the absence of the phasins prevented the degradation of nPHB by the PHB depolymerase PhaZ1 almost completely. In addition, the in vitro degradation of nPHB granules isolated from R. eutropha H16 (wild type) and from the R. eutropha ΔphaP1 and ΔphaP1-4 deletion mutants was examined. In contrast to the results obtained with nPHB granules isolated from E. coli, degradation of nPHB granules isolated from the wild type of R. eutropha yielded high concentrations of 3HB-CoA and low concentrations of crotonyl-CoA. The degradation of nPHB granules isolated from the ΔphaP1 and ΔphaP1-4 deletion mutants of R. eutropha was significantly reduced in comparison to that of nPHB granules isolated from wild-type R. eutropha. Stereochemical analyses of 3HB-CoA revealed that the (R) stereoisomer was collected after degradation of granules isolated from E. coli, whereas the (S) stereoisomer was collected after degradation of granules isolated from R. eutropha. Based on these results, a newly observed mechanism in the degradation pathway for PHB in R. eutropha is proposed which is connected by crotonyl-CoA to the β-oxidation cycle. According to this model, the NADPH-dependent synthesis of PHB with (R)-3HB-CoA as the intermediate and the PHB degradation yielding (S)-3HB-CoA, which is further converted in an NAD-dependent reaction, are separated.
The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (PGAPs) are important for PHA synthesis and granule formation, but currently little is known about the haloarchaeal PGAPs. This study focused on the identification and functional analysis of the PGAPs in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. These PGAPs were visualized with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The most abundant protein on the granules was identified as a hypothetical protein, designated PhaP. A genome-wide analysis revealed that the phaP gene is located upstream of the previously identified phaEC genes. Through an integrative approach of gene knockout/complementation and fermentation analyses, we demonstrated that this PhaP is involved in PHA accumulation. The ΔphaP mutant was defective in both PHA biosynthesis and cell growth compared to the wild-type strain. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the number of PHA granules in the ΔphaP mutant cells was significantly lower, and in most of the ΔphaP cells only a single large granule was observed. These results demonstrated that the H. mediterranei PhaP was the predominant structure protein (phasin) on the PHA granules involved in PHA accumulation and granule formation. In addition, BLASTp and phylogenetic results indicate that this type of PhaP is exclusively conserved in haloarchaea, implying that it is a representative of the haloarchaeal type PHA phasin.
Phasins (PhaP) are proteins normally associated with granules of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable polymer accumulated by many bacteria as a reserve molecule. These proteins enhance growth and polymer production in natural and recombinant PHB producers. It has been shown that the production of PHB causes stress in recombinant Escherichia coli, revealed by an increase in the concentrations of several heat stress proteins. In this work, quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis was used to study the effect of PHB accumulation, and that of PhaP from Azotobacter sp. strain FA8, on the expression of stress-related genes in PHB-producing E. coli. While PHB accumulation was found to increase the transcription of dnaK and ibpA, the expression of these genes and of groES, groEL, rpoH, dps, and yfiD was reduced, when PhaP was coexpressed, to levels even lower than those detected in the non-PHB-accumulating control. These results demonstrated the protective role of PhaP in PHB-synthesizing E. coli and linked the effects of the protein to the expression of stress-related genes, especially ibpA. The effect of PhaP was also analyzed in non-PHB-synthesizing strains, showing that expression of this heterologous protein has an unexpected protective effect in E. coli, under both normal and stress conditions, resulting in increased growth and higher resistance to both heat shock and superoxide stress by paraquat. In addition, PhaP expression was shown to reduce RpoH protein levels during heat shock, probably by reducing or titrating the levels of misfolded proteins.
PhaR which is a repressor protein for microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) biosynthesis, is able to attach to bacterial PHA granules in vivo, was developed as an affinity tag for in vitro protein purification. Fusion of PhaR-tagged self-cleavable Ssp DnaB intein to the N-terminus of a target protein allowed protein purification with a pH and temperature shift. During the process, the target protein was released to the supernatant while PhaR-tagged intein was still immobilized on the PHA nanoparticles which were then separated by centrifugation.
Fusion protein PhaR-intein-target protein was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. The cell lysates after sonication and centrifugation were collected and then incubated with PHA nanoparticles to allow sufficient absorption onto the PHA nanoparticles. After several washing processes, self-cleavage of intein was triggered by pH and temperature shift. As a result, the target protein was released from the particles and purified after centrifugation. As target proteins, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), maltose binding protein (MBP) and β-galactosidase (lacZ), were successfully purified using the PhaR based protein purification method.
The successful purification of EGFP, MBP and LacZ indicated the feasibility of this PhaR based in vitro purification system. Moreover, the elements used in this system can be easily obtained and prepared by users themselves, so they can set up a simple protein purification strategy by themselves according to the PhaR method, which provides another choice instead of expensive commercial protein purification systems.
Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) are carbon and energy storage polymers that accumulate in inclusion bodies in many bacteria and archaea in response to environmental conditions. This work presents the results of a study of PHA inclusion body-associated proteins and an analysis of their coding region in Bacillus megaterium 11561. A 7,917-bp fragment of DNA was cloned and shown to carry a 4,104-bp cluster of 5 pha genes, phaP, -Q, -R, -B, and -C. The phaP and -Q genes were shown to be transcribed in one orientation, each from a separate promoter, while immediately upstream, phaR, -B, and -C were divergently transcribed as a tricistronic operon. Transfer of this gene cluster to Escherichia coli and to a PhaC− mutant of Pseudomonas putida gave a Pha+ phenotype in both strains. Translational fusions to the green fluorescent protein localized PhaP and PhaC to the PHA inclusion bodies in living cells. The data presented are consistent with the hypothesis that the extremely hydrophilic protein PhaP is a storage protein and suggests that PHA inclusion bodies are not only a source of carbon, energy, and reducing equivalents but are also a source of amino acids.
Medium chain length (mcl-) polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are synthesized by many bacteria in the cytoplasm as storage compounds for energy and carbon. The key enzymes for PHA metabolism are PHA polymerase (PhaC) and depolymerase (PhaZ). Little is known of how mcl-PHA accumulation and degradation are controlled. It has been suggested that overall PHA metabolism is regulated by the β-oxidation pathway of which the flux is governed by intracellular ratios of [NADH]/[NAD] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA]. Another level of control could relate to modulation of the activities of PhaC and PhaZ. In order to investigate the latter, assays for in vitro activity measurements of PhaC and PhaZ in crude cell extracts are necessary.
Two in vitro assays were developed which allow the measurement of PhaC and PhaZ activities in crude cell extracts of Pseudomonas putida U. Using the assays, it was demonstrated that the activity of PhaC decreased 5-fold upon exponential growth on nitrogen limited medium and octanoate. In contrast, the activity of PhaZ increased only 1.5-fold during growth. One reason for the changes in the enzymatic activity of PhaC and PhaZ could relate to a change in interaction with the phasin surface proteins on the PHA granule. SDS-PAGE analysis of isolated PHA granules demonstrated that during growth, the ratio of [phasins]/[PHA] decreased. In addition, it was found that after eliminating phasins (PhaF and PhaI) from the granules PhaC activity decreased further.
Using the assays developed in this study, we followed the enzymatic activities of PhaC and PhaZ during growth and correlated them to the amount of phasins on the PHA granules. It was found that in P. putida PhaC and PhaZ are concomitantly active, resulting in parallel synthesis and degradation of PHA. Moreover PhaC activity was found to be decreased, whereas PhaZ activity increased during growth. Availability of phasins on PHA granules affected the activity of PhaC.
Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of biomolecules used widely in both basic research and clinical diagnostic applications. Beads displaying a specific antigen are used to bind antibodies which are then fluorescently labelled using secondary antibodies. As the individual suspension bead passes through the sensing region of the FACS machine, fluorescent signals are acquired and analysed. Currently, antigens are tediously purified and chemically cross-linked to preformed beads. Purification and coupling of proteins often renders them inactive and they will not be displayed in its native configuration. As an alternative, we genetically engineered Escherichia coli to produce biopolyester (polyhdroxyalkanoate=PHA) granules displaying diagnostically relevant antigens in their native conformation and suitable for FACS analysis.
Hybrid genes were constructed, which encode either the mouse interleukin-2 (IL2) or the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) fused via an enterokinase site providing linker region to the C terminus of the PHA granule associated protein PhaP, respectively. The hybrid genes were expressed in PHA-accumulating recombinant E. coli. MOG and IL2 fusion proteins were abundantly attached to PHA granules and were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and N terminal sequencing. A more abundant second fusion protein of either MOG or IL2 resulted from an additional N terminal fusion, which did surprisingly not interfere with attachment to PHA granule. PHA granules displaying either IL2 or MOG were used for FACS using monoclonal anti-IL2 or anti-MOG antibodies conjugated to a fluorescent dye. FACS analysis showed significant and specific binding of respective antibodies. Enterokinase treatment of IL2 displaying PHA granules enabled removal of IL2 as monitored by FACS analysis. Mice were immunized with either MOG or OVA (ovalbumin) and the respective sera were analysed using MOG-displaying PHA granules and FACS analysis showing a specific and sensitive detection of antigen-specific antibodies within a wide dynamic range.
E. coli can be genetically engineered to produce PHA granules displaying correctly folded eukaryotic proteins and which can be applied as beads in FACS based diagnostics. Since PHA granule formation and protein attachment occurs in one step already inside the bacterial cell, microbial production could be a cheap and efficient alternative to commercial beads.
Pseudomonas lemoignei has five different polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) depolymerase genes (phaZ1 to phaZ5), which encode the extracellularly localized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerases C, B, and D, poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV) depolymerase, and PHB depolymerase A, respectively. Four of the five genes (phaZ1 to phaZ4) have been cloned, and one of them (phaZ1) was studied in detail earlier (D. Jendrossek, B. Müller, and H. G. Schlegel, Eur. J. Biochem. 218:701-710, 1993). The fifth PHA depolymerase gene (phaZ5) was identified by colony hybridization of recombinant Escherichia coli clones with a phaZ5-specific oligonucleotide. The nucleotide sequence of a 3,704-bp EcoRI fragment was determined and found to contain two large open reading frames (ORFs) which coded for a polypeptide with significant similarities to glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases of various sources (313 amino acids; M(r), 32,193) and for the precursor of PHB depolymerase A (PhaZ5; 433 amino acids; M(r), 44,906). The PHV depolymerase gene (phaZ4) was subcloned, and the nucleotide sequence of a 3,109-bp BamHI fragment was determined. Two large ORFs (ORF3 and ORF4) that represent putative coding regions were identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF3 (134 amino acids; M(r), 14,686) revealed significant similarities to the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlfE) of enterobacteria. ORF4 (1,712 bp) was identified as the precursor of a PHV depolymerase (567 amino acids; M(r), 59,947). Analysis of primary structures of the five PHA depolymerases of P. lemoignei and of the PHB depolymerases of Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas pickettii revealed homologies of 25 to 83% to each other and a domain structure: at their N termini, they have typical signal peptides of exoenzymes. The adjacent catalytic domains are characterized by several conserved amino acids that constitute putative catalytic triads which consist of the consensus sequence of serine-dependent hydrolases including the pentapeptide G-X-S-X-G, a conserved histidine and aspartate, and a conserved region resembling the oxyanion hole of lipases. C terminal of the catalytic domain an approximately 40-amino-acid-long threonine-rich region (22 to 27 threonine residues) is present in PhaZ1, PhaZ2, PhaZ3, and PhaZ5. Instead of the threonine-rich region PhaZ4 and the PHB depolymerases of A. faecalis and P. pickettii contain an approximately 90-amino-acid-long sequence resembling the fibronectin type III module of eucaryotic extracellular matrix proteins. The function of the fibronectin type III module in PHA depolymerases remains obscure. Two types of C-terminal sequences apparently represent substrate-binding sites; the PHB type is present in the PHB depolymerases of A. faecalis and P. pickettii and in PhaZ2, PhaZ3, and PhaZ5 and the PHV type is present in the PHV-hydrolyzing depolymerases (PhaZ4 and PhaZ1). phaZ1 was transferred to A. eutrophus H16 and JMP222. All transconjugants of both strains were able to grow with extracellular PHB as a carbon source and produced translucent halos on PHB-containing solid media. PhaZ1, PhaZ2, PhaZ4, and PhaZ5 were purified from P. lemoignei and from recombinant E. coli; the processing sites of the precursors in E. coli were the same as in P. lemoignei, and similar substrate specificities were determined for the wild-type and the recombinant proteins. All PHA depolymerases hydrolyzed PHB at high specific activities. PhaZ1 and PhaZ4 additionally cleaved PHV, and PhaZ4 hydrolyzed poly(4-hydroxybutyrate). None of the depolymerases was able to hydrolyze polyactide or PHA consisting of monomers with more than five carbon atoms. While the wild-type depolymerase proteins were glycosylated and found to contain glucose and N-acetylglucosamine, none of the recombinant proteins was glycosylated. PHB hydrolysis was dependent on divalent cations such as Ca2+ and was inhibited by the presence of EDTA.
PHA synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Using a combinatorial genetic strategy to create unique chimeric class II PHA synthases, we have obtained a number of novel chimeras which display improved catalytic properties. To engineer the chimeric PHA synthases, we constructed a synthetic phaC gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans (phaC1Po) that was devoid of an internal 540-bp fragment. Randomly amplified PCR products (created with primers based on conserved phaC sequences flanking the deleted internal fragment) were generated using genomic DNA isolated from soil and were substituted for the 540-bp internal region. The chimeric genes were expressed in a PHA-negative strain of Ralstonia eutropha, PHB−4 (DSM 541). Out of 1,478 recombinant clones screened for PHA production, we obtained five different chimeric phaC1Po genes that produced more PHA than the native phaC1Po. Chimeras S1-71, S4-8, S5-58, S3-69, and S3-44 exhibited 1.3-, 1.4-, 2.0-, 2.1-, and 3.0-fold-increased levels of in vivo activity, respectively. All of the mutants mediated the synthesis of PHAs with a slightly increased molar fraction of 3-hydroxyoctanoate; however, the weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of the PHAs in all cases remained almost the same. Based upon DNA sequence analyses, the various phaC fragments appear to have originated from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The amino acid sequence analyses showed that the chimeric proteins had 17 to 20 amino acid differences from the wild-type phaC1Po, and these differences were clustered in the same positions in the five chimeric clones. A threading model of PhaC1Po, developed based on homology of the enzyme to the Burkholderia glumae lipase, suggested that the amino acid substitutions found in the active chimeras were located mostly on the protein model surface. Thus, our combinatorial genetic engineering strategy proved to be broadly useful for improving the catalytic activities of PHA synthase enzymes.
A genome survey of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing Ralstonia eutropha H16 detected the presence of 16 orthologs of R-specific enoyl coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratase, among which three proteins shared high homologies with the enzyme specific to enoyl-CoAs of medium chain length encoded by phaJ4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (phaJ4Pa). The recombinant forms of the three proteins, termed PhaJ4aRe to PhaJ4cRe, actually showed enoyl-CoA hydratase activity with R specificity, and the catalytic efficiencies were elevated as the substrate chain length increased from C4 to C8. PhaJ4aRe and PhaJ4bRe showed >10-fold-higher catalytic efficiency than PhaJ4cRe. The functions of the new PhaJ4 proteins were investigated using previously engineered R. eutropha strains as host strains; these strains are capable of synthesizing poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] from soybean oil. Deletion of phaJ4aRe from the chromosome resulted in significant decrease of 3HHx composition in the accumulated copolyester, whereas no change was observed with deletion of phaJ4bRe or phaJ4cRe, indicating that only PhaJ4aRe was one of the major enzymes supplying the (R)-3HHx-CoA monomer through β-oxidation. Introduction of phaJ4aRe or phaJ4bRe into the R. eutropha strains using a broad-host-range vector enhanced the 3HHx composition of the copolyesters, but the introduction of phaJ4cRe did not. The two genes were then inserted into the pha operon on chromosome 1 of the engineered R. eutropha by homologous recombination. These modifications enabled the biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HHx) composed of a larger 3HHx fraction without a negative impact on cell growth and PHA production on soybean oil, especially when phaJ4aRe or phaJ4bRe was tandemly introduced with phaJAc from Aeromonas caviae.
Protein Kinases are key regulators of cell function and play essential roles in the occurrence and development of many human diseases. Many kinase inhibitors have been used for molecular targeted treatment of those diseases such as cancer and inflammation. However, those highly hydrophobic kinase inhibitors shared the common features of poor bioavailability and limited in vivo half-life, which strongly impeded their practical applications. Our previous study demonstrated that microbial synthesized biodegradable polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), a member of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family, could serve as a promising delivery nanocarrier for those hydrophobic kinase inhibitors. Recently, a novel natural synthesized hybrid copolymer, PEG200 end-capped PHBHHx (PHBHHxPEG) was produced by Aeromonas hydrophila fermentation. In this study, the novel PHBHHxPEG NPs were prepared and investigated to serve as intracellular delivery nanocarriers for sustained release of hydrophobic kinase inhibitors.
PHBHHxPEG nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by an emulsification–solvent evaporation method were spherical with a diameter around 200 nm. The entrapment efficiency on rapamycin in PHBHHxPEG NPs was 91.9% and the sustained release of rapamycin from PHBHHxPEG NPs could be achieved for almost 10 days. The cellular uptake of PHBHHxPEG NPs was significant higher than that of PHBHHx NPs. The anti-proliferation effect and mTOR inhibition ability of rapamycin-loaded PHBHHxPEG NPs was stronger than that of drug-loaded PHBHHx NPs and free rapamycin.
PHBHHxPEG NPs could achieve the efficient entrapment and sustained release of rapamycin. The novel biodegradable PHBHHxPEG appeared a promising nanocarrier for sustained delivery of hydrophobic kinase inhibitors with improved cellular uptake and kinase inhibition efficiency.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate; PEG; Rapamycin; Nanoparticle; Drug delivery
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) inclusions are polymeric storage inclusions formed in some bacterial species when carbon levels are high but levels of another essential nutrient, such as nitrogen, are low. Though much is known about PHA synthesis, little is known about inclusion structure. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to elucidate the structure of PHA inclusions at the nanoscale level, including the characterization of different layers of structure. AFM data suggest that underneath the inclusion envelope, there is a 2- to 4-nm-thick network layer that resides on top of a harder layer that is likely to be a crystalline lamellar polymer. The network is comprised of ∼20-nm-wide linear segments and junctions that are typically formed by the joining of three to four of the linear segments. In some cases, ∼50-nm globular structures that are raised ∼1 to 2 nm above the network are present at the junctions. These globular structures always have a central pore that is ∼15 nm in diameter. To determine if the major surface protein of PHA inclusions, PhaP, is involved in the structure of this network, inclusions from Cupriavidus necator H16 ΔphaP were examined. No network structure was detected. Instead, apparently random globular structures were found on the surfaces of the inclusions. When PhaP levels were reconstituted in this strain by the addition of phaP on a plasmid, the network was also reconstituted, albeit in a slightly different arrangement from that of the wild-type network. We conclude that PhaP participates in the formation of the inclusion network.
Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolyesters consisting of diverse monomers. PHA synthase PhaC2Ps cloned from Pseudomonas stutzeri 1317 is able to polymerize short-chain-length (scl) 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) monomers and medium-chain-length (mcl) 3-hydroxyalkanoates (3HA) with carbon chain lengths ranging from C6 to C12. However, the scl and mcl PHA production in Escherichia coli expressing PhaC2Ps is limited with very low PHA yield.
To improve the production of PHA with a wide range of monomer compositions in E. coli, a series of optimization strategies were applied on the PHA synthase PhaC2Ps. Codon optimization of the gene and mRNA stabilization with a hairpin structure were conducted and the function of the optimized PHA synthase was tested in E. coli. The transcript was more stable after the hairpin structure was introduced, and western blot analysis showed that both codon optimization and hairpin introduction increased the protein expression level. Compared with the wild type PhaC2Ps, the optimized PhaC2Ps increased poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by approximately 16-fold to 30% of the cell dry weight. When grown on dodecanoate, the recombinant E. coli harboring the optimized gene phaC2PsO with a hairpin structure in the 5’ untranslated region was able to synthesize 4-fold more PHA consisting of 3HB and medium-chain-length 3HA compared to the recombinant harboring the wild type phaC2Ps.
The levels of both PHB and scl-mcl PHA in E. coli were significantly increased by series of optimization strategies applied on PHA synthase PhaC2Ps. These results indicate that strategies including codon optimization and mRNA stabilization are useful for heterologous PHA synthase expression and therefore enhance PHA production.
PHB; Polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHA synthase; Codon optimization; Hairpin; Escherichia coli
Seven strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were tested for the accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). During growth with benzoate Desulfonema magnum accumulated large amounts of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)]. Desulfosarcina variabilis (during growth with benzoate), Desulfobotulus sapovorans (during growth with caproate), and Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (during growth with caproate) accumulated poly(3HB) that accounted for 20 to 43% of cell dry matter. Desulfobotulus sapovorans and Desulfobacterium autotrophicum also synthesized copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate when valerate was used as the growth substrate. Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfotalea psychrophila were the only SRB tested in which PHAs were not detected. When total DNA isolated from Desulfococcus multivorans and specific primers deduced from highly conserved regions of known PHA synthases (PhaC) were used, a PCR product homologous to the central region of class III PHA synthases was obtained. The complete pha locus of Desulfococcus multivorans was subsequently obtained by inverse PCR, and it contained adjacent phaEDm and phaCDm genes. PhaCDm and PhaEDm were composed of 371 and 306 amino acid residues and showed up to 49 or 23% amino acid identity to the corresponding subunits of other class III PHA synthases. Constructs of phaCDm alone (pBBRMCS-2::phaCDm) and of phaEDmCDm (pBBRMCS-2::phaEDmCDm) in various vectors were obtained and transferred to several strains of Escherichia coli, as well as to the PHA-negative mutants PHB−4 and GPp104 of Ralstonia eutropha and Pseudomonas putida, respectively. In cells of the recombinant strains harboring phaEDmCDm small but significant amounts (up to 1.7% of cell dry matter) of poly(3HB) and of PHA synthase activity (up to 1.5 U/mg protein) were detected. This indicated that the cloned genes encode functionally active proteins. Hybrid synthases consisting of PhaCDm and PhaE of Thiococcus pfennigii or Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 were also constructed and were shown to be functionally active.