Massive unilocular intraabdominal cysts in children are rare. Alimentary tract duplications can present diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Although they can occur anywhere from the mouth to the anus, they are commonly seen in relation to the ileum. We herein present an unusual case of duplication cyst itself occupying virtually all of the available intraabdominal volume. It appeared to be an enteric duplication cyst of ileal origin.
A 3-month-old girl was admitted to our hospital for investigation of progressive abdominal distension and biliary vomiting. Plain radiography of the abdomen showed normal air-fluid level in the stomach and paucity of gases in rest of the abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge, homogenous cyst extending from the xiphisternum down to the pelvis. The cyst was excised completely. Macroscopic examination and histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of a huge enteric duplication cyst arising from the ileum.
Enteric duplication cyst should be considered in a patient with an abdominal cystic mass. Radiologist must take into account patient age, clinical parameters, and imaging findings to identify the likely etiology of a cystic mass.
abdominal cystic masses; enteric duplication cyst; magnetic resonance imaging; plain radiography
Background. Duplication of the alimentary tract is a rare congenital anomaly. Gastric duplication cysts (GDCs) represent 4% of all alimentary tract duplications, and approximately 67% manifest within the first year of life. Duplication cysts in adults are generally encountered as incidental findings at endoscopy or laparotomy. Herein, we report two rare cases of symptomatic GDC presenting in adults. Case 1. A 27-year-old male presented with a five-month history of back pain. Exam revealed mild epigastric tenderness with a vague palpable mass in left upper abdomen. CT scan showed 8 × 7.4 × 6 cm homogenous, nonseptated cystic mass posterosuperior to pancreatic tail. On laparotomy, a cystic mass measuring 11 × 8 cm was found, which was densely adherent to posterior wall of stomach suggestive of GDC. Case 2. A 28-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain associated with vomiting for 2 months. Exam revealed mild epigastric tenderness. CT scan showed four cystic lesions in the medial wall of distal stomach measuring approximately one cm each suggestive of duplication cysts. Exploratory laparotomy with antrectomy and truncal vagotomy with Billroth II reconstruction were performed. Pathology in both patients was diagnostic of GDC. Conclusion. GDC is a rare anomaly, and its presentation in adults is even rarer.
Duodenal duplication is a rare congenital malformation and has been reported as a rare cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis. Hemorrhagic ascites has been reported in only one case of duodenal duplication.
An 11-year-old Chinese girl presented with abdominal pain, hematemesis and dark stools. On admission, an abdominal examination revealed a moderately distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Biochemical investigations showed increased serum levels of amylase, lipase, and urine amylase. An abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed an enlarged and heterogeneous pancreas with poorly delineated borders. There was a cystic lesion measuring 25mm × 48mm × 28mm, located between the descending portion of her duodenum and the head of her pancreas. There were massive effusion signals in her abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. A tubular cyst measuring 32mm × 52mm × 30mm was found in the second part of the duodenum, next to the head of her pancreas. The anterior wall of the duplication cyst was resected and anastomosis of the remaining cyst to the duodenum was performed for drainage. Histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed duodenal mucosa, submucosa and muscle coats, indicative of a duodenal duplication.
It is important to be aware of duodenal duplication when evaluating a patient with recurrent acute pancreatitis accompanied by massive hemorrhagic ascites.
Acute pancreatitis; Child; Duodenal duplication; Hemorrhagic ascites
Duplication cysts (DCs) of alimentary tract are rare congenital malformations. They are firmly attached to the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and they are supplied by surrounding mesenteric blood vessels. More than 80% of cases occur before the age of two years and only a minority of cases present in adulthood. “Completely isolated duplication” of the alimentary tract is an extremely rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. They have gastrointestinal epithelial and wall characteristics without an anatomic association with the alimentary tract. Their main characteristic is that they have their own blood supply. A 20-year-old male was admitted to our department with symptoms persisting for a period of one week prior to admission, which included abdominal pain, fever, and a palpable abdominal mass. CT revealed an unexplained intraperitoneal abscess. This case represents a rare clinical example of infected isolated duplication cyst managed with percutaneous drainage and surgical excision of the cyst 3 weeks later. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case to use this approach.
Intra-abdominal esophageal duplications are rare entities in adults. They are mostly asymptomatic, but since they can lead to complications surgical excision is advised for all duplication cysts. We present a case of a 20-year-old male with colic-like abdominal pain, mimicking symptoms of cholecystolithiasis. However after cholecystectomy the symptoms were still present. A computed tomography-scan of the abdomen and an endoscopic ultrasound revealed a cyst of the esophagus of 3.0 cm × 2.3 cm in size. Diagnostic laparoscopy was planned, during which we observed a para-esophageal cyst at the gastro-esophageal junction. Laparoscopic excision of this cyst was performed. Pathophysiological examination revealed an esophageal duplication cyst. We report a rare case of a symptomatic intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst in an adult. One must consider this diagnosis when more common diagnoses to account for the patient’s symptoms are excluded. Removal of duplication cysts can be done laparoscopically.
Esophageal duplication cyst; Intra-abdominal; Symptomatic; Laparoscopy
A 21 day old male child presented with non bilious vomiting and abdominal mass.
This case is reported because pyloroduodenal duplication cysts are an extremely rare congenital anomaly, whose clinical presentation often mimics those of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Ultrasound examination showed cystic mass at pyloric region and barium study was suggestive of extrinsic mass compressing the pyloric region. A laparotomy, a tense cystic mass was present at the pyloroduodenal junction (PDC) which was resected and end to end anastomosis was done. Patients followed an uneventful recovery and doing well.
The clinical and radiological analysis can reveal configurational changes consistent with a large extrinsic mass rather than muscular hypertrophy and can lead to accurate preoperative diagnosis.
Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome.
Gastric duplication cyst; Acute abdomen; Peritonitis
Duplication cysts are rare gastrointestinal congenital abnormalities and can occur anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract. Duplication cysts are firmly attached to or share the wall of the alimentary tract and have a common blood supply with the adjacent segment of the bowel. Completely isolated duplication cysts are an extremely rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications with their own exclusive blood supply, and they do not communicate with the intestine. These cysts are usually diagnosed during early childhood, and very rarely detected in adults, mostly incidentally, due to a lack of symptoms. A 28-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of lower abdominal pain and distention and a palpable mass for 1 month. Based upon computed tomography and sonographic findings, a small bowel duplication cyst was tentatively diagnosed. The cyst had no connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Herein we report the case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication cyst in an adult. Resection of the cyst was performed safely without requiring bowel resection.
Enteric duplications are rare congenital anomalies of the digestive tract that can occur anywhere along its length, with the majority being found in the small intestine. The duodenum is the least common site. Almost all symptomatic duodenal duplications present early in life with abdominal pain and pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of a perforated tubular duodenal duplication in an elderly adult.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a case of a perforated tubular duodenal duplication in an elderly woman. She presented with diffuse abdominal pain, fever, and tachycardia. Emergent exploratory laparotomy revealed a perforated duodenal duplication. Excision of the duodenal duplication and primary closure of the defect was performed successfully. The patient recovered well.
Enteric duplications are poorly understood anomalies of embryonic development. They can be cystic or tubular dorsal enteric remnants lying in communication with the alimentary tract that are distinct from diverticula. A tubular duodenal duplication is exceedingly rare, and this case is made even more notable in that such an anomaly presented with sepsis and occurred in a 79 year old woman. We are unsure why the duplication ruptured. To the best of our knowledge this case represents the first report of a ruptured tubular duodenal duplication in an elderly adult.
This is a very rare occurrence and has never been described in an elderly patient before. Excision and primary closure led to a good outcome.
Duplication; Duodenum; Perforation; Duodenal; Elderly; Abdomen
Gastric duplication cysts comprise 2-7% of gastrointestinal duplications, rare congenital malformations that can be present at almost any part of the alimentary tract. They mostly present with gastrointestinal obstruction symptoms, ulceration, and painless hemorrhage. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and fullness sensation. Gastric duplications are mostly cystic in shape. Herein, we present a 58-year-old man with a gastric duplication cyst, 70×30×35 mm in size, with the initial presentation of abdominal pain, icterus, and elevated liver enzymes. The patient provided informed consent for this report.
Jaundice; Elevated liver enzymes; Abdominal pain
Duplications of the alimentary tract are very rare. A one-month-old female presented with symptoms of anorexia, vomiting and continuous watery diarrhea. The plain abdominal radiograph showed thickened intestinal wall and signs of small bowel obstruction. The fevers, vomiting, and continuous wartery diarrhea persisted despite antibiotics, and worsened. The patient failed to respond to medical managements, 27 hours after admission, the patient died due to multiple organ failures. The autopsy was performed, small bowel obstruction due to an ileocecal duplication cyst (3 × 3 cm) was recognized. The ileocecal duplication cyst was attached to the ileum which was changed edematous and necrotic. This potential diagnosis should be borne in mind for a patient who complains of abdominal symptoms with an unknown cause, and duplication cyst should be recognized as a fatal cause in infant.
sudden unexpected death; small bowel obstruction; ileocecal duplication cyst
Gastric duplication cyst is a very rare gastrointestinal tract malformation that accounts for 2%-4% of alimentary tract duplications. Most cases are diagnosed within the first year of life, following presentation of abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss and clinical discovery of an abdominal palpable mass. This case report describes a very uncommon symptomatic gastric duplication cyst diagnosed for the first time in adulthood. Only a few other case reports of similar condition exist, and all were identified by endosonography. The current case involves a 52-year-old male who presented with a one-month history of progressive iron deficiency anemia without overt gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which revealed a 2.0 cm pinkish subepithelial lesion, suspected to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and source of gastrointestinal bleeding. The endosonography showed inhomogeneous hypoechoic lesions with focal anechoic areas arising from a second and third layer of the gastric wall. Differential diagnoses of GIST, neuroendocrine tumor, or pancreatic heterotopia were made. The lesion was removed using an endoscopic submucosal resection technique. Histopathology revealed an erosive gastric mass composed of a complex structure of dilated gastric glands surrounded by fibro-muscular tissue, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle bundles, which led to the diagnosis of gastric duplication.
Gastric duplication cyst; Gastrointestinal bleeding; Endoscopy; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Differential diagnosis; Adult
Duplication of the alimentary tract may occur in any site, from the mouth to the anus, and in recent years such anomalies have received wide notice. Pyloric duplication cyst is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the alimentary tract, whose clinical presentation often mimics those of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Gastrointestinal duplications are observed in 1 of every 4500 autopsies, predominantly in white males. It represents 2.2 % of all gastric duplications, with only 18 have been reported up to 2011 (Table 1). In most cases preoperative diagnosis is not made. We report a case of a pyloric duplication cyst in a 3-year-old girl with progressive increased vomiting. The patient had an ultrasonography, upper gastrointestinal series, and computer tomography of the abdomen. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and histopathology examination. The patient was asymptomatic at 12-month follow-up. The clinical and radiological analysis can reveal configurational changes consistent with a large extrinsic mass rather than muscular hypertrophy and can lead to accurate preoperative diagnosis.
Pyloric duplication; Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; Gastric outlet obstruction; Enucleation; Pyloroantrectomy
Duplication cysts are congenital cystic malformation of the alimentary tract consisting of a duplication of the segment to which it is adjacent. It can occur anywhere from mouth to anus. Oesophageal duplication cysts comprise 4% of the same. Of these, total intra-abdominal oesophageal duplication cysts are extremely rare. On review of literature, only 3 case reports of total intra-abdominal oesophageal duplication managed laparoscopically are found. All these cases were adults. We report the first paediatric case of intra-abdominal oesophageal duplication cyst excised laparoscopically.
Duplication cyst; oesophageal; laparoscopy
Duodenal duplication cysts are a rare subtype of gastrointestinal duplications cysts. Approximately 5% of gastrointestinal duplication cysts occur in the duodenum. An 18-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and a subjective abdominal bulge. A computed tomography scan was subsequently performed and showed a solid and cystic mass with wall calcifications in the lesser sac of the upper abdomen. A duodenal duplication cyst was found unexpectedly on histopathologic analysis. This was also an unusual case as there was no evidence of malignancy. Four years after surgery, the patient remains asymptomatic. We present a brief literature review on duodenal duplication cysts and discuss its differential diagnosis.
Duodenum; Duplication cyst; Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Computed tomography; Lesser sac
About 10% to 15% of all duplication cysts in the alimentary tract are esophageal. Esophageal duplication cysts are intimately attached to the alimentary tract, are lined by mucous membrane and have smooth muscle. This paper describes a 2-year-old child who presented with symptoms of progressive respiratory distress. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made. At surgery a low cervical incision was made and the sternal manubrium split, thereby providing adequate exposure. The cyst was then removed. The most useful investigations were chest roentgenography and barium esophagography. Computerized tomography showed a small, round foreign body in the middle of the cyst that was subsequently found to be a bingo chip. Communication between the cyst and the esophagus was not obvious at the time of surgery and had not been demonstrated by barium esophagography. When complete excision of the cyst is not possible because of inflammatory reaction all the mucosa must be removed to prevent recurrence. Careful postoperative respiratory support and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy are recommended.
A 4-year-old girl presented with non-bilious vomiting and loss of appetite and weight. At laparotomy, a non-communicating pyloroduodenal duplication cyst was present. Subtotal excision of the cyst and cauterization of the mucosal lining of the common wall was performed. The post-operative recovery was uneventful.
Gastric duplication; gastric outlet obstruction; pyloroduodenal duplication
Congenital anomalies are a rare cause of pancreatitis in adults. Gastric duplications are the least common duplication of the gastrointestinal tract and are even more uncommon in the setting of a duplicate pancreas.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
This manuscript contains a case report and review of the literature of an adult who presented with recurrent pancreatitis and was found to have a gastric duplication cyst that communicated with a duplicate pancreas. The study aim is to alert practitioners to the duplicate anomaly and recommend appropriate therapy.
Combined gastric and pancreatic duplications usually occur in young females with nonspecific, recurrent abdominal pain. This combined duplication can result in pancreatitis when the gastric duplication is contiguous with the stomach. Heightened awareness of the condition, appropriate diagnostics with accurate interpretation and a minimalist approach to resection are warranted.
Recurrent abdominal pain and pancreatitis in young adults devoid of risk factors should lead to consideration of congenital anomalies. Not all cysts near the pancreas and stomach are pseudocysts. ECRP and abdominal CT/MRI provide critical diagnostic information. This dual anomaly is best treated by simple excision of the gastric duplication and heterotopic pancreas.
Gastric duplication; Pancreas duplication; Pancreatitis
Intestinal duplication is an uncommon congenital condition in young adults. A 25-year-old man complained of chronic, intermittent abdominal pain for 3 years following previous appendectomy for the treatment of suspected appendicitis. Abdominal discomfort and pain, suggestive of intestinal obstruction, recurred after operation. A tubular mass was palpable in the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography enterography scan identified suspicious intestinal intussusception, while Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy revealed a cluster of strip-like abnormal radioactivity in the right lower quadrant. On exploratory laparotomy, a tubular-shaped ileal duplication cyst was found arising from the mesenteric margin of the native ileal segment located 15 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. Ileectomy was performed along with the removal of the duplication disease, and the end-to-end anastomosis was done to restore the gastrointestinal tract continuity. Pathological examination showed ileal duplication with ectopic gastric mucosa. The patient experienced an eventless postoperative recovery and remained asymptomatic within 2 years of postoperative follow-up.
Ileal duplication cyst; Adulthood; Computed tomography enterography; Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy
Intestinal duplications are rare developmental anomalies that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Rectal duplication cysts account for approximately 4% of all duplication cysts. They usually present in childhood with symptoms of mass effect, local infection or more rarely with rectal bleeding from ectopic gastric mucosa.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 26 year old male presented with a history of bright red blood per rectum. On examination a mucosal defect with an associated cavity adjacent to the rectum was identified. This was confirmed with rigid proctoscopy and CT scan imaging. A complete transanal excision was performed.
Rectal duplication cysts are more common in pediatric patients. They more frequently present with symptoms of mass effect or local infection than with rectal bleeding. In adult patients they are a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Definitive treatment is with surgical excision. A transanal, transcoccygeal, posterior sagittal or a combined abdominoperineal approach may be used depending on anatomic characteristics of the duplication cyst.
We present a rare case of a rectal duplication cyst presenting in adulthood with rectal bleeding, managed with transanal excision.
Rectal duplication cyst; Adult; Rectal bleeding
Alimentary tract duplications are rare congenital anomalies. The presentation depends on their anatomical location, size and other characteristics. The most common variety is small bowel cystic duplication. We report a case of an eight years old girl who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and melena. Radioisotope technetium scan showed increased uptake of tracer in right lower abdomen and a diagnosis of Meckel’s diverticulum made. At surgery a cystic, communicating, ileal duplication found which was resected along with adjacent gut. It is thus reiterated that while investigating children with recurrent abdominal pain and melena, gut duplications must be included in the differential diagnosis.
Alimentary tract duplications; Pain abdomen; Melena
Enteric duplication (ED) is a rare congenital anomaly that can occur anywhere along the alimentary tract from the mouth, down to the anus and the nearby organs. This uncommon anomaly may be asymptomatic or presents with vague symptoms mimicking other common pathologies. We aim to present our experience, management challenges and patterns of ED with a review of the literature.
Settings and Design:
The study was carried out at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital (2005–2008 inclusive).
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively analyzed seven patients with ED managed in our hospital for sex, age, clinical presentations, duplication size and site, presence of ectopic tissue, complications, associated anomalies, radiological workups, and prognosis. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11.0 for window.
Seven children between the age range of 44 hours–10 years had ED, one sublingual and six intraabdominal duplications. Midgut volvulus with long segment bowel gangrene complicated two cases. The diagnosis was incidental in all. Three cases were diagnosed following conventional radiological contrast examination and the rest at surgery. Ultrasound was not helpful in making diagnosis in all the six intraabdominal duplications. Though surgery was recommended for all, one of the patients declined. Only one patient had unsuccessful surgery.
ED requires high index of clinical suspicion and careful management. Many cases of nonspecific abdominal pains should be properly evaluated before patients suffer avoidable complications.
Bowel gangrene; children; enteric duplication; surgery; volvulus
A pancreatic pseudocyst is a common sequela of severe acute pancreatitis. Commonly, it presents with abdominal pain and a mass in the epigastrium several weeks after the acute episode and can be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. We report a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst awaiting endoscopic therapy who developed a life-threatening complication following a rather innocuous trauma to the abdomen.
A 23-year-old Asian male student presented as an emergency with an acute abdomen a week after a minor trauma to his upper abdomen. The injury occurred when he was innocently punched in the abdomen by a friend. He experienced only moderate discomfort briefly at the time. His past medical history included coeliac disease and an admission four months previously with severe acute pancreatitis. He was hospitalized for 15 days; his pancreatitis was thought to be due to alcohol binge drinking on weekends. Ultrasound scanning showed no evidence of gallstone disease. Five days after the trauma, he became anorexic, lethargic and feverish and started vomiting bilious content. Seven days post-trauma, he presented to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain. An emergency laparotomy was performed where a transverse linear duodenal laceration was found at the junction of the first and second part of his duodenum, with generalized peritonitis. His stomach and duodenum were stretched over a large pancreatic pseudocyst posterior to his stomach. It was postulated that an incomplete duodenal injury (possibly a serosal tear) occurred following the initial minor trauma, which was followed by local tissue necrosis at the injury site resulting in a delayed presentation of generalized peritonitis.
This is the first reported case of a traumatic duodenal laceration following minor blunt trauma in the presence of a large pancreatic pseudocyst. Minor blunt abdominal trauma in a normal healthy adult would not be expected to result in a significant duodenal injury. In the presence of a large pseudocyst, however, the stretching of the duodenum over the pseudocyst had probably predisposed the duodenum to this injury. Patients awaiting therapeutic interventions for their pancreatic pseudocysts should be warned about this unusual but life-threatening risk following minor blunt abdominal trauma.
Gastrointestinal tract duplication is a rare malformation associated with the presence of additional segment of the fetal gut. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review clinical features and imaging findings in intraoperatively confirmed cases of gastrointestinal tract duplication in children.
The analysis included own material from the years 2002–2012. The analyzed group included 14 children, among them 8 boys and 6 girls. The youngest patient was diagnosed at the age of three weeks, and the oldest at 12 years of age.
The duplication cysts were identified in the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=5), duodenum (n=1), terminal ileum (n=5), and rectum (n=1). In four cases, the duplication coexisted with other anomalies, such as patent urachus, Meckel’s diverticulum, mesenteric cyst, and accessory pancreas. Clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts was variable, and some of them were detected accidently. Thin- or thick-walled cystic structures adjacent to the wall of neighboring gastrointestinal segment were documented on diagnostic imaging.
Ultrasound and computed tomography are the methods of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Apart from the diagnosis of the duplication cyst, an important issue is the detection of concomitant developmental pathologies, including pancreatic heterotopy.
Congenital Abnormalities - surgery; Diagnosis; Differential; Diagnostic Imaging
Gastrointestinal duplications are an uncommon congenital abnormality that manifest before the age of two in 80% of cases. Ileal duplication is the most common while colonic duplication, either cystic or tubular, occurs in 10%-15% of cases and remains asymptomatic and undiagnosed in most cases. Mostly occurring in pediatric patients, colonic duplication is encountered in adults in only a few cases. The most common clinical manifestations are abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction. Rarely, duplications present with signs of acute abdomen or acute bleeding. This study reports a case of colonic duplication in an adult who presented with chronic constipation. Complete diagnostic workup was made on several occasions during the previous eight year period, but no pathology was found and chronic constipation was attributed to hypothyroidism caused by long standing Hashimoto thyroiditis. Multislice CT, performed because of abdominal distension, defined colonic pathology but the definite diagnosis of duplication of the transversal colon was made at operation. The cystic duplication and the adjacent part of the ascending and transversal colon were excised en-block. This study implies that colonic duplication, though uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic constipation even when precipitating factors for constipation, such as hypothyroidism are present.
Colonic duplication; Constipation; Abdominal distension; Hypothyroidism