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1.  Large tubular colonic duplication in an adult treated with a small midline incision 
Tubular colonic duplication presenting in adults is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 29-year-old lady presenting with a long history of chronic constipation, abdominal mass and repeated episodes of abdominal pain. The abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan showed segmental bowel wall thickening thought to be small bowel, and dilatation with stasis of intraluminal content. The provisional diagnosis was small bowel duplication. She was scheduled for single port laparoscopic resection. However, a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon was found intraoperatively. Resection of the large T-shaped tubular colonic duplication containing multiple impacted large fecaloma and primary anastomosis was performed. There was no perioperative complication. We report, herein, the case of a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon in an adult who was successfully treated through mini-laparotomy assisted by single port laparoscopic surgery.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.3.190
PMCID: PMC3294114  PMID: 22403754
Colonic duplication; Congenital abnormalities; Adult; Laparoscopy
2.  Congenital Pouch Colon with Unilateral Renal Agenesis and Monorchism 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2010;20(4):491-494.
Background
Congenital pouch colon, also known as congenital short colon or “Pouch colon syndrome”, is a rare condition that occurs in association with anorectal malformations; colon is either partially or completely replaced by pouch-like dilatation and communicates with the urogenital tract by means of a fistula. This anomaly is exclusively seen in Northern parts of India with only a few cases reported from elsewhere.
Case Presentation
A 1-day old neonate was presented with abdominal distension due to lack of passage of meconium. Clinical and radiological investigations revealed ano-rectal malformation. Incidental findings were left sided renal agenesis and right sided anorchia. Laparotomy revealed congenital pouch colon which was dealt accordingly. The baby is now healthy and awaiting further reconstructive surgery.
Conclusion
Although urogenital anomalies are not uncommon with congenital pouch colon, the finding of renal agenesis with unilateral anorchia is quite rare.
PMCID: PMC3446092  PMID: 23056753
Renal; Agenesis; Congenital; Colonic Pouches; Monorchism
3.  Zonal adult Hirschsprung's disease. 
Gut  1996;39(5):765-767.
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital disorder which is rare in adulthood. In typical cases the aganglionosis involves mainly the rectum or rectosigmoid colon and the lesion starts from the anal valve. Zonal segmental aganglionosis is a very rare type even in children. PATIENT: A 54 year old women with zonal segmental aganglionosis had an aganglionic segment 18 cm in length located in the rectosigmoid colon with an 8 cm long normal appearing rectum and dilated proximal colon. Resection of the stenotic segment with end to end anastomosis was performed. CONCLUSION: The functional result was excellent five years after the operation.
Images
PMCID: PMC1383405  PMID: 9014779
4.  Colopexy as a treatment option for the management of acute transverse colon volvulus: a case report 
Introduction
Transverse colon volvulus is an uncommon acute surgical presentation associated with a higher rate of mortality than volvulae at other locations along the colon. Surgical resection or correction is the only treatment, and various methods have been described in case report literature to relieve the volvulus and prevent recurrence.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted with a three-day history of abdominal pain, absolute constipation and abdominal distension. Subsequent radiographic and computed tomography imaging revealed right-sided colonic dilatation suggestive of a volvulus. An emergency laparotomy was performed during which the dilated proximal bowel was decompressed and colopexy executed by using the greater omentum to fix the transverse colon at the hepatic and splenic flexures.
Conclusions
Volvulus of the transverse colon is rare but must form part of the clinician's differential diagnosis when encountering a patient with suspected bowel obstruction, especially in younger patients with no previous surgical history. Laparotomy is the treatment of choice and the technique of using the greater omentum as a fixing point for redundant bowel to the lateral abdominal wall is an option that may be considered especially when the bowel appears viable.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-151
PMCID: PMC3423063  PMID: 22691866
5.  Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;92(4):312-316.
Aim
To evaluate the outcome and morbidity after major surgical interventions for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Methods
Retrospective case note analysis of 227 children referred to a tertiary referral centre between 1994 and 2002 for treatment of IBD.
Results
26 of 125 children with Crohn's disease (21%) required surgical management. 13 with disease proximal to the left colon underwent limited segmental resections and primary anastomosis, without significant morbidity. Primary surgery for 13 children with disease distal to the transverse colon included 6 subtotal‐colectomies or panprocto‐colectomies. All seven children undergoing conservative segmental resections (three with primary anastomosis, four with stoma formation), required further colonic resection or defunctioning stoma formation. All three children undergoing primary anastomosis developed a leak or fistula formation. 22 of 102 children with ulcerative colitis (22%) required surgery. Definitive procedures (n = 17) included J‐pouch ileoanal anastomosis (n = 11), ileorectal anastomosis (n = 2), straight ileoanal anastomosis (n = 3), and proctectomy/ileostomy (n = 1). Five children await restorative surgery after subtotal colectomy. Median daily stool frequency after J‐pouch surgery was 5 (range 3–15), and 10 of 11 children reported full daytime continence. All three children with straight ileoanal anastomosis had unacceptable stool frequency and remain diverted.
Conclusion
The complication rate after resectional surgery for IBD was 57% for Crohn's disease, and 31% for ulcerative colitis. In children with Crohn's disease, limited resection with primary anastomosis is safe proximal to the left colon. Where surgery is indicated for disease distal to the transverse colon, subtotal or panproctocolectomy is indicated, and an anastomosis should be avoided. Children with ulcerative colitis had a good functional outcome after J‐pouch reconstruction. However, the overall failure rate of attempted reconstructive surgery was 24%, largely owing to the poor results of straight ileoanal anastomosis.
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.096875
PMCID: PMC2083695  PMID: 16670116
6.  Volvulus of Small Bowel in a Case of Simple Meconium Ileus 
Meconium ileus is one of important causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Many patients respond well to nonsurgical management with enemas, however, few patients may develop complications in the postnatal period thus requiring urgent operation. A 2 day old newborn presented with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. There was a suspicion of meconium ileus. Contrast x-ray with gastrografin enema was suggestive of unused colon with beaded appearance. Patient had to be surgery as repeated enemas did not improve the condition and progressive abdominal distension occurred. At exploration twist of the dilated, meconium filled loop of small bowel found. De-twisting of the volvulus done and Bishop Koop ileostomy fashioned. Patient made an uneventful recovery. Stoma was closed six months later.
PMCID: PMC3418008  PMID: 22953274
Meconium ileus; Volvulus; Complications
7.  Transmesocolic Hernia of the Ascending Colon with Intestinal Obstruction 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(2):344-349.
An internal hernia may be either congenital or acquired. The reported incidence of such hernias is 1–2%. In rare cases, internal hernias are the cause of small bowel obstruction, with a reported incidence of 0.2–0.9%. Transmesocolic hernia of the ascending colon is especially rare. We report a case of transmesocolic hernia of the ascending colon with intestinal obstruction diagnosed preoperatively. A 91-year-old Japanese female was admitted to our hospital with abdominal distention and vomiting of 3 days duration. She had no past history of any abdominal surgery. Abdominal examination revealed distention and tenderness in the right iliac fossa. Abdominal computed tomography revealed ileus in the sac at the left side of the ascending colon and dilatation of the oral side of the intestine. We diagnosed a transmesocolic hernia of the ascending colon with intestinal obstruction and performed emergency surgery. At the time of operation, there was internal herniation of ileal loops through a defect in the ascending mesocolon, without any strangulation of the small bowel. The contents were reduced and the tear in the ascending mesocolon was closed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 14 days after surgery. In conclusion, preoperative diagnosis of bowel obstruction caused by a congenital mesocolic hernia remains difficult despite the techniques currently available, so it is important to consider the possibility of a transmesocolic hernia when diagnosing a patient with ileus with no past history of abdominal surgery.
doi:10.1159/000339691
PMCID: PMC3383250  PMID: 22740809
Transmesocolic hernia; Ascending colon; Intestinal obstruction
8.  Ischaemic dilatation of the colon. 
The present paper describes the presentation and management of 9 patients who developed dilatation in the colon during the course of spontaneous ischaemic colitis. The length of history varied from 16 hours to 6 weeks. The patients usually had diarrhoea and abdominal pain but no bleeding and posed a difficult diagnostic problem. At laparotomy, three distinct types of colonic dilatation were recognised. Dilatation of non-diseased colon proximal to localised ischaemic segments occurred in 2 patients, 3 patients exhibited dilatation of obviously gangrenous colon, 4 patients showed dilatation of ischaemic but possibly viable colon, yet in 1 of these, multiple sealed perforations were present. Resection of the obvious or possibly gangrenous colon was the treatment used but in the 2 patients with dilatation due to stricture, transverse colostomy alone was employed.
Images
PMCID: PMC2498318  PMID: 3789623
9.  Congenital pouch colon and segmental dilatation of the colon: A report of two unusual cases 
This report describes two unusual cases of anorectal malformation. The first had a type III congenital pouch colon with a colovesical fistula. In the other very similar case, segmental dilatation of the colon was present along with penoscrotal hypospadias and, distally, a length of normal colon ending in a rectourethral fistula. In both patients, the appendix was short, stubby and a Y-shaped duplication of the normal colon was present just proximal to the dilated segment of colon.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.78133
PMCID: PMC3119939  PMID: 21731234
Anorectal malformation; congenital pouch colon; duplication of colon; segmental dilatation of colon
10.  Ogilvie's syndrome in a case of myxedema coma 
Ogilvie's syndrome [acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO)] presents as massive colonic dilatation without a mechanical cause, usually in critically ill patients due to imbalanced sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The initial therapy remains conservative with supportive measures (correction of metabolic, infectious or pharmacologic factors) followed by neostigmine and decompressive colonoscopy. Surgery is reserved for patients with clinical deterioration or with evidence of colonic ischemia or perforation. A 60-year-old lady presented with fever, altered sensorium, obstipation, bradycardia and abdominal distension. Investigation revealed hyponatremia and acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Supportive measures and decompressive colonoscopy were not of great benefit. Thyroid profile was suggestive of primary hypothyroidism. Colonic motility was restored only on starting thyroxin. The case is illustrative of the need to consider hypothyroidism, a common endocrine disorder, in the differential diagnosis of Ogilvie's.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.95710
PMCID: PMC3354859  PMID: 22629518
Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction; hypothyroidism; myxedema; Ogilvie's syndrome
11.  A report of left dorsal displacement of the large colon in a tropical horse 
We report one such case which was diagnosed intraoperatively as left dorsal colon volvulus due to multiple mesenteric abnormalities. A 17-year-old castrated male horse was taken to the Tehran University Veterinary Hospital for treatment of metacarpal wound accompanied by severe abdominal distension and acute colic. The treatment and measurement were taken for a month, and the prepared biopsy indicated that the healing trend was obvious. Unfortunately, prior to discharge, the clinical colic manifestations emerged and the animal suddenly died. Dilated large intestine was palpated per rectum and a ventral midline exploratory laparotomy was performed, a complete volvulus of the ascending colon was identified with multiple mesenteric anomalies of unknown aetiology. The pathologic changes observed in this study accurately reflect those changes reported in horse with naturally occurring colonic volvulus and can serve as a reference for subsequent studies on attenuating bowel injury. The present study results can be used to make a scientific assessment of prognosis in the pre-operative, operative, and post-operative management of horses with large colon volvulus.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60072-6
PMCID: PMC3634933  PMID: 23620860
Large colon; Horse; Pathology; Volvulus; Laparotomy
12.  Favorable surgical treatment outcomes for chronic constipation with features of colonic pseudo-obstruction 
AIM: To determine long-term outcomes of surgical treatments for patients with constipation and features of colonic pseudo-obstruction.
METHODS: Consecutive 42 patients who underwent surgery for chronic constipation within the last 13 years were prospectively collected. We identified a subgroup with colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) features, with dilatation of the colon proximal to the narrowed transitional zone, in contrast to typical slow-transit constipation (STC), without any dilated colonic segments. The outcomes of surgical treatments for chronic constipation with features of CPO were analyzed and compared with outcomes for STC.
RESULTS: Of the 42 patients who underwent surgery for constipation, 33 patients had CPO with dilatation of the colon proximal to the narrowed transitional zone. There were 16 males and 17 females with a mean age of 51.2 ± 16.1 years. All had symptoms of chronic intestinal obstruction, including abdominal distension, pain, nausea, or vomiting, and the mean duration of symptoms was 67 mo (range: 6-252 mo). Preoperative defecation frequency was 1.5 ± 0.6 times/wk (range: 1-2 times/wk). Thirty-two patients underwent total colectomy, and one patient underwent diverting transverse colostomy. There was no surgery-related mortality. Postoperative histologic examination showed hypoganglionosis or agangliosis in 23 patients and hypoganglionosis combined with visceral neuropathy or myopathy in 10 patients. In contrast, histology of STC group revealed intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (n = 6) and visceral myopathy (n = 3). Early postoperative complications developed in six patients with CPO; wound infection (n = 3), paralytic ileus (n = 2), and intraabdominal abscess (n = 1). Defecation frequencies 3 mo after surgery improved to 4.2 ± 3.2 times/d (range: 1-15 times/d). Long-term follow-up (median: 39.7 mo) was available in 32 patients; all patients had improvements in constipation symptoms, but two patients needed intermittent medication for management of diarrhea. All 32 patients had distinct improvements in constipation symptoms (with a mean bowel frequency of 3.3 ± 1.3 times/d), social activities, and body mass index (20.5 kg/m2 to 22.1 kg/m2) and were satisfied with the results of their surgical treatment. In comparison with nine patients who underwent colectomy for STC without colon dilatation, those in the CPO group had a lower incidence of small bowel obstructions (0% vs 55.6%, P < 0.01) and less difficulty with long-distance travel (6.7% vs 66.7%, P = 0.007) on long-term follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Chronic constipation patients with features of CPO caused by narrowed transitional zone in the left colon had favorable outcomes after total colectomy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i32.4441
PMCID: PMC3436063  PMID: 22969211
Constipation; Total colectomy; Pseudo-obstruction; Surgical outcome; Hypoganglionosis
13.  Asymptomatic Tubular Duplication of the Transverse Colon in an Adult 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(1):189-191.
Colonic duplication is a rare congenital anomaly of the alimentary tract. In most cases, symptomatic duplications of the colon are recognized and treated by childhood. It is uncommon for these lesions to be detected in the adulthood since they present with vague symptoms if at all. We experienced a case of asymptomatic tubular duplication of the transverse colon in a 40-year-old female. Barium enema revealed a tubular duplication of the transverse colon. The duplicated segment arose from the mid ascending colon and incorporated just proximal to the splenic flexure, running parallel to the transverse colon and communicating with it at both ends. Colonoscopy demonstrated a normal colonic mucosa in the duplicated segment. The diameter of its lumen gradually narrowed proximally and the colonoscope could not be passed through the proximal opening of the segment. The patient did not need any treatment. Duplications of the alimentary tract can be found at any age. The possibility of congenital lesions in the adult population should not be overlooked.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2005.46.1.189
PMCID: PMC2823051  PMID: 15744828
Transverse colon; duplication; tubular; communicating; adult
14.  Loss of interstitial cells and a fibromuscular layer on the luminal side of the colonic circular muscle presenting as megacolon in an adult patient 
Gut  1999;45(5):775-779.
BACKGROUND—Animal studies have shown that the neuromuscular structures on the luminal side of the colonic circular muscle coordinate circular muscle activity. These structures have been identified by electron microscopy in the normal human colon, but have never been thoroughly studied in patients with acquired intestinal hypoganglionosis.
AIMS—To perform histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic examinations of the colon of a patient with acquired intestinal hypoganglionosis presenting as megacolon.
PATIENT—A 32 year old man with a one year history of constipation and abdominal distention, a massively dilated ascending and transverse colon, and a normal calibre rectum and descending and sigmoid colon. He had a high titre of circulating serum anti-neuronal nuclear antibodies.
METHODS—Histology, immunocytochemistry (for neurofilaments, neurone specific enolase, synaptophysin, glial fibrillar acidic protein, S100 protein, and smooth muscle α-actin), and electron microscopic examinations on the resected colon.
RESULTS—The number of ganglion cells and nerve trunks was decreased throughout the colon. Disruption of the neural network and a loss of interstitial cells of Cajal were observed on the luminal side of the circular muscle; in their place, the non-dilated colon contained a hypertrophic fibromuscular layer.
CONCLUSIONS—Striking architectural alterations occurred at the site regarded as the source of the coordination of colonic circular muscle activity in an adult patient with acquired intestinal hypoganglionosis presenting as megacolon.


Keywords: megacolon; intestine; hypoganglionosis; pseudo-obstruction; interstitial cells of Cajal
PMCID: PMC1727704  PMID: 10517919
15.  Colonic duplication in an adult who presented with chronic constipation attributed to hypothyroidism 
Gastrointestinal duplications are an uncommon congenital abnormality that manifest before the age of two in 80% of cases. Ileal duplication is the most common while colonic duplication, either cystic or tubular, occurs in 10%-15% of cases and remains asymptomatic and undiagnosed in most cases. Mostly occurring in pediatric patients, colonic duplication is encountered in adults in only a few cases. The most common clinical manifestations are abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction. Rarely, duplications present with signs of acute abdomen or acute bleeding. This study reports a case of colonic duplication in an adult who presented with chronic constipation. Complete diagnostic workup was made on several occasions during the previous eight year period, but no pathology was found and chronic constipation was attributed to hypothyroidism caused by long standing Hashimoto thyroiditis. Multislice CT, performed because of abdominal distension, defined colonic pathology but the definite diagnosis of duplication of the transversal colon was made at operation. The cystic duplication and the adjacent part of the ascending and transversal colon were excised en-block. This study implies that colonic duplication, though uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic constipation even when precipitating factors for constipation, such as hypothyroidism are present.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.644
PMCID: PMC2681163  PMID: 18203304
Colonic duplication; Constipation; Abdominal distension; Hypothyroidism
16.  Long segment and short segment familial Hirschsprung's disease: variable clinical expression at the RET locus. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1994;31(8):602-606.
Hirschsprung's disease (aganglionic megacolon, HSCR) is a frequent condition of unknown origin (1/5000 live births) resulting in intestinal obstruction in neonates and severe constipation in infants and adults. In the majority of cases (80%), the aganglionic tract involves the rectum and the sigmoid colon only (short segment HSCR), while in 20% of cases it extends toward the proximal end of the colon (long segment HSCR). In a previous study, we mapped a gene for long segment familial HSCR to the proximal long arm of chromosome 10 (10q11.2). Further linkage analyses in familial HSCR have suggested tight linkage of the disease gene to the RET protoncogene mapped to chromosome 10q11.2. Recently, nonsense and missense mutations of RET have been identified in HSCR patients. However, the question of whether mutations of the RET gene account for both long segment and short segment familial HSCR remained unanswered. We have performed genetic linkage analyses in 11 long segment HSCR families and eight short segment HSCR families using microsatellite DNA markers of chromosome 10q. In both anatomical forms, tight pairwise linkage with no recombinant events was observed between the RET proto-oncogene locus and the disease locus (Zmax = 2.16 and Zmax = 5.38 for short segment and long segment HSCR respectively at 0 = 0%) Multipoint linkage analyses performed in the two groups showed that the maximum likelihood estimate was at the RET locus. Moreover, we show that point mutations of the RET proto-oncogene occur either in long segment or in short segment HSCR families and we provide evidence for incomplete penetrance of the disease causing mutation. These data suggest that the two anatomical forms of familial HSCR, which have been separated on the basis of clinical and genetic criteria, may be regarded as the variable clinical expression of mutations at the RET locus.
PMCID: PMC1050020  PMID: 7815416
17.  Atresia of ileocecal junction, ileocecal valve: Rare variants of bowel atresia 
Atresia of ileocecal junction and isolated atresia of ileocecal valve are rare types of intestinal atresia with very few reports in literature. We report two such cases. Radiology showed dilated ileal segment and distal micro colon in both the cases. At laparotomy there was atresia of ileocecal junction in the first case and isolated ileocaecal valve atresia with normal ileocecal junction in the other case. Both the babies were managed by ileocolic resection with an end to end anastomosis. The prognosis of ileocecal atresias is satisfactory.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.57706
PMCID: PMC2847138  PMID: 20376255
Atresia; cecum; ileum; ileocecal valve; intestines
18.  A Case of Giant Lipoma Causing Chronic Recurrent Intussusception of the Colon 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(2):165-168.
Colonic lipomas, which often occur in elderly women, usually have small size and occur mainly in the cecum and ascending colon. Most colonic lipomas are asymptomatic and identified incidentally at the time of endoscopy or surgery. However, they may cause symptoms such as bleeding, obstruction or intussusception as their size increases. Intermittent episodes of intussusception are uncommon but may be caused by large pedunculated lipoma. In a 68-year-old woman suffering intermittent abdominal pain, 5.5×4.5×3.8-cm huge mass was found by colonoscopy at proximal ascending colon, which was intussuscepted to proximal transverse colon on abdominal computed tomography. Segmental right colonic resection was conducted. We report a case of symptomatic giant pedunculated colonic lipoma causing intussusception requiring surgical intervention, with a successful recovery after surgery.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.2.165
PMCID: PMC3401622  PMID: 22866259
Intussusception; Colon; Lipoma
19.  Efficacy and Complications of Surgery for Crohn's Disease 
Gastroenterology & Hepatology  2010;6(9):587-596.
Patients with Crohn's disease commonly undergo surgery during their lifetime. Indications for surgical intervention include obstruction, intra-abdominal or perianal abscess, enterocutaneous fistulas, and complex perianal disease. As medical therapies continue to improve, it is important that surgical therapies are chosen carefully. This is particularly important in the treatment of perianal fistulas; combined surgical and medical therapy offer the best chance for success. In the treatment of small-bowel disease, bowel preservation is key. For the repair of short strictures, endoscopic dilatation is the preferred method when accessible; strictureplasty has been shown to be safe and effective for increasingly longer segments of disease. Intra-abdominal abscesses should be drained percutaneously, if possible. In the presence of colonic disease, segmental resection is recommended. Unfortunately, refractory disease still frequently requires complete proctectomy and permanent diversion.
PMCID: PMC2976865  PMID: 21088749
Crohn's disease; fistula; surgery; stricture
20.  Management of patients with stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon: Report of five cases 
To our knowledge, stercoral perforation of the colon is rarely seen with fewer than 90 cases reported in the literature till date. We explored the principles of management to prevent impending mortality in five patients with this condition. Five patients, two males and three females, whose median age was 64 years, had sustained stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon. Chronic constipation was the common symptom among these patients. Three patients underwent a Hartmann’s procedure and another two were treated with segmental colectomy with anastomosis and diverting colostomy. There was one surgical mortality and the other patients had an uneventful hospital stay. Timely intervention to prevent and/or treat any associated sepsis along with extensive peritoneal lavage and surgical intervention to remove diseased colonic tissue at the primary stercoral ulceration site coupled with aggressive therapy for peritonitis are key treatment modalities in salvaging patients presenting with stercoral perforation of the colon.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i3.500
PMCID: PMC4066079  PMID: 16489660
Stercoral perforation; Colon; Management
21.  Gallstone ileus: One-stage surgery in an elderly patient 
INTRODUCTION
Gallstone ileus (G.I.) is a mechanical bowel obstruction due to impaction of a large gallstone within the bowel and represents an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis. It accounts for 1–4% of all cases of mechanical bowel obstruction, up to 25% in patients over 65 years of age.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 75 year old male patient was referred to our hospital in March 2009 with clinical signs of bowel obstruction (abdominal pain and distension, post-prandial vomiting, absolute constipation) during the previous 3 days. A plain abdominal film demonstrated dilated bowel loops, air fluid levels and an image of a stone in the inferior left quadrant. Afterwards, diagnosis of Gallstone ileus was made by means of ultrasonography and colonoscopy. The patient underwent emergent laparotomy and a cholecysto-transverse colon fistula was observed. One-stage procedure consisting of enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula repair was performed. The post-operative course was complicated by a dehiscence of the colic suture with acute peritonitis. Therefore a colostomy was performed, followed by rapid recovery of general clinical conditions.
DISCUSSION
Surgical treatment for G.I. by cholecysto-enteric fistula is still controversial. Enterolithotomy alone is best suited in all elderly patients with significant comorbidities. One-stage procedure – enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula repair – should be reserved for young, fit and low risk patients. In our case, mechanical obstruction was associated with a severe cholecystitis with a large fistula between gallbladder and transverse colon.
CONCLUSION
A “radical” surgical option could certainly be characterized by a significant morbidity.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.12.016
PMCID: PMC3604665  PMID: 23396396
Gallstone ileus; Elderly patients; Radical surgery
22.  Visceral Myopathy Presenting as Acute Appendicitis and Ogilvie Syndrome 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:906457.
Background. Visceral myopathy is rare pathological condition of gastrointestinal tract with uncertain clinical presentation and unknown etiology. It often presents with symptoms of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction of colon. We report a case of visceral myopathy which presented to us as acute appendicitis and Ogilvie syndrome, and we managed it surgically. Method and Result. A case report of 20-year female clinically presented as acute appendicitis and we performed laparoscopic exploration which revealed inflamed appendix with grossly dilated ascending colon. We performed laparoscopic appendectomy and postoperatively managed the patients with IV fluids, antibiotics, neostigmine, and extended length rectal tube for enema and decompression. During postoperative period, she developed abdomen distension and peritonitis, and we ordered abdomen CT which revealed colon pseudo- obstruction. We performed right hemicolectomy with permanent ileostomy, and the histopathology reports of resected colon were visceral myopathy. Conclusion. Visceral myopathy is very rare group of disease and poorly understood condition that may present with chronic or acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction and often mimic other more common gastrointestinal disease. VM should be considered as differential diagnosis whenever the patient presents with acute appendicitis, uncharacteristic abdominal symptoms, recurrent attacks of abdominal distention, and pain with no radiological evidence of intestinal obstruction.
doi:10.1155/2013/906457
PMCID: PMC3657428  PMID: 23738185
23.  Colonic pseudo-obstruction: a new complication of jejunoileal bypass. 
Gut  1975;16(11):903-908.
Five female patients ranging in age from 25 to 44 years are reported in whom jejunoileal bypass (three end-to-side and two end-to end), performed for morbid obesity, was complicated 1 1/2 to three years later by symptoms of colonic pseudo-obstruction. In each size, the colon was markedly elongated, dilated, and atonic but with no demonstrate organic obstruction. The cause of this complication is not known. Full thickness rectal biopsy in one case showed normal intrinsic nervous plexuses and ganglia. Serum electrolytes were normal. Functional and defunctionalized small bowel were not involved. Symptoms varied from complete colonic paralysis to incapacitating crampy abdominal pain and distention. In the three patients with end-to-side bypass, dilatation affected the entire colon, while, in the two patients with end-to-end bypass, the dilatation was localized to colon distal to the anastomosis with the defunctionalized small bowel. Resection of the affected portion of colon in one case resulted in recurrence distal to the new site of drainage of defunctioned bowel. Treatment with anti-anaerobe antibiotics in two cases produced dramatic but temporary relief of symptoms.
PMCID: PMC1413130  PMID: 1238312
24.  Acute necrotizing colitis due to sigmoid colon cancer 
When obstructive colitis becomes fulminant, it is known as ‘acute necrotizing colitis’. We report a rare case of acute necrotizing colitis due to sigmoid colon cancer, in which shock status occurred within ten hours of onset. A 79-year-old female with acute abdominal pain was transported to our hospital with acute shock. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography revealed thickening of the wall of the sigmoid colon and marked dilation of the proximal colon. Emergency surgery was performed with the intraoperative findings of severe sigmoid colon stenosis and proximal dilation of the colon without perforation, and a large volume of putrid ascitic fluid. The intestine was proximally dilated and black in color, from the sigmoid colon to the ileum 60 cm proximal to the terminal ileum, suggesting acute necrosis. Total colectomy with 80 cm resection of terminal ileum and ileostomy was performed. Whereas acute necrotizing colitis is a rare condition and its etiology remains obscure, the chronic ischemic state must play some role. Our patient was of advanced age and had diabetes mellitus and hypertension. These factors might lead to a chronic ischemic state of the bowel due to arteriosclerosis. In addition to the underlying condition, massive bacterial reflux into the ileum from the colon might cause the capillary vasoconstriction of the bowel that led to her critical state.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-19
PMCID: PMC3906958  PMID: 24460766
Necrotizing colitis; Fulminant obstructive colitis; Obstructed colon cancer
25.  Toxic dilatation and perforation in inflammatory bowel disease. 
The diagnosis and management of dilatation of the colon and free intestinal perforation in inflammatory or infective bowel disease are reviewed with reference to 32 cases seen during an 8-year period. Toxic dilatation of the colon occurred in 20 patients, including 6 with infective colitis. Ileostomy with subtotal colectomy and mucous fistula is a satisfactory operation for toxic dilatation due to inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with infective colitis can generally be treated without operation. Free intestinal perforation was seen in 12 patients. Colonic perforation may occur in association with toxic dilatation, but more usually it occurs without dilatation as a complication of Crohn's disease. Free perforation of the ileum was seen after a short illness in patients with Crohn's disease.
PMCID: PMC2494134  PMID: 7114766

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