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1.  A patient with traumatic chylothorax 
Chylothorax refers to the accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity. Although rare, it is the most frequent cause of pleural effusion in the neonatal period. Its incidence is estimated at one in 15,000 neonates. The causes of chylothorax are multiple, and there are several major types of chylothorax defined by origin, ie, traumatic (and iatrogenic) chylothorax, medical (spontaneous) chylothorax, and congenital chylothorax. A case of neonatal chylothorax following surgery for esophageal atresia and our therapeutic approach to this entity are presented. Conservative therapy with total enteral nutrition and drainage were sufficient. Treatment for chylothorax is essentially medical, ie, pleural drainage, removal of dietary fats, treatment of any medical cause, and use of drugs to reduce production of chyle. In the event of failure or reappearance of a large effusion, surgical treatment is needed.
PMCID: PMC3459666  PMID: 23049269
chylothorax; octreotide; somatostatin; children
2.  Clinical characteristics and treatment of esophageal atresia: a single institutional experience 
Treatment for esophageal atresia has advanced over several decades due to improvements in surgical techniques and neonatal intensive care. Subsequent to increased survival, postoperative morbidity has become an important issue in this disease. The aim of our study was to analyze our experience regarding the treatment of esophageal atresia.
We reviewed and analyzed the clinical data of patients who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at Severance Children's Hospital from 1995 to 2010 regarding demographics, surgical procedures, and postoperative outcomes.
Seventy-two patients had surgery for esophageal atresia. The most common gross type was C (81.9%), followed by type A (15.3%). Primary repair was performed in 52 patients. Staged operation was performed in 17 patients. Postoperative esophageal strictures developed in 43.1% of patients. Anastomotic leakages occurred in 23.6% of patients, and recurrence of tracheoesophageal fistula was reported in 8.3% of patients. Esophageal stricture was significantly associated with long-gap (≥3 cm or three vertebral bodies) atresia (P = 0.042). The overall mortality rate was 15.3%. The mortality in patients weighing less than 2.5 kg was higher than in patients weighing at least 2.5 kg (P = 0.001). During the later period of this study, anastomotic leakage and mortality both significantly decreased compared to the earlier study period (P = 0.009 and 0.023, respectively).
The survival of patients with esophageal atresia has improved over the years and the rate of anastomotic leakage has been significantly reduced. However, overall morbidities related to surgical treatment of esophageal atresia still exists with high incidence.
PMCID: PMC3392315  PMID: 22792533
Esophageal atresia; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Prognosis; Survival
3.  Persisting right-sided chylothorax in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case report 
Chylothorax caused by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is very rare and the best therapeutic approach, especially the role of modern immunochemotherapy, is not yet defined.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 65-year-old male Caucasian patient with right-sided chylothorax caused by a concomitantly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. As first-line treatment four cycles of an immunochemotherapy, consisting of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab were administered. In addition, our patient received total parenteral nutrition for the first two weeks of treatment. Despite the very good clinical response of the lymphoma to treatment, the chylothorax persisted and percutaneous radiotherapy of the thoracic duct was applied. However, eight weeks after the radiotherapy the chylothorax still persisted and our patient agreed to a surgical intervention. A ligation of the thoracic duct via a muscle sparing thoracotomy was performed, resulting in a complete cessation of the pleural effusion. Apart from the first two weeks our patient was treated on an out-patient basis for nearly six months.
In this case of chylothorax caused by chronic lymphocytic leukemia, immunochemotherapy in combination with conservative treatment, and even consecutive radiotherapy, were not able to stop pleural effusion, despite the very good clinical response of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia to treatment.
Out-patient management using repetitive thoracocenteses can be safe as bridging until definitive surgical ligation of the thoracic duct.
PMCID: PMC3204301  PMID: 21968097
California Medicine  1959;91(2):75-78.
Chylothorax is readily diagnosed from the characteristic qualities of the effusion. Treatment should initially be conservative, consisting of multiple aspirations followed, if necessary, by suction drainage.
Approximately half of the patients will not respond to these measures, and direct ligation and division of the duct is necessary for cure. This operation is most readily carried out through the right chest, the thoracic duct being ligated just above the diaphragm. In cases in which the duct is surrounded by tumor, radiotherapy to the mediastinum is often successful in controlling the reaccumulation of chyle, but irradiation is generally not recommended until after a tissue diagnosis has been made by thoracotomy.
Nutritional problems are often concomitants of chylothorax.
PMCID: PMC1577889  PMID: 13671361
5.  Chylothorax: report of a case complicating ductus ligation through a median sternotomy, and review. 
Thorax  1976;31(5):610-616.
An unusual case of chylothorax is described in a 4-year-old child after repair of a ventricular septal defect and ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus through a median sternotomy. Left chylothorax developed after a latent period of six days and was treated initially with continuous drainage and parenteral supplementation of proteins and lipids. Operative intervention with oversewing of the site of the leak in the anterior mediastinum proved necessary after three weeks. The anatomical variations of the thoracic duct are outlined to explain the occurrence of chylothorax after diverse intrathoracic operations. The physiological effects of a thoracic duct fistula and various aspects of management are reviewed.
PMCID: PMC470484  PMID: 996825
6.  A rare case of acid-fast bacilli in chylothorax 
Chylothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusion. Here we present a case of chylous pleural effusion in which acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was demonstrated (by AFB direct smear examination). The patient had been suffering from chronic pancreatitis for one year and had undergone pancreatoduodenostomy nine months back. He presented with abdominal pain and dyspnea of six months duration and his chest skiagram showed right-sided pleural effusion. Thoracocentasis showed milky white pleural fluid with triglyceride content of 678 mg/dl, diagnostic of chylothorax. The patient clinically improved and his pleural effusion also completely resolved with anti-tuberculosis treatment.
PMCID: PMC3354493  PMID: 22628934
Chylothorax; acid-fast bacilli; pleural effusion; tuberculosis
7.  Esophageal atresia: Factors influencing survival - Experience at an Indian tertiary centre 
To study the clinical profile of the cases of esophageal atresia (EA) and/or tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) and various factors affecting the surgical and early postoperative management and their outcome.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective analysis of 127 cases of EA from February 2004 to May 2006 was performed. Waterston prognostic criteria were used for grading.
EA with TEF was the commonest type in 117 cases (92%). Associated congenital anomalies were present in 52 (41%) patients, the commonest being the cardiac anomalies, which was followed by the gastrointestinal anomalies. VACTERL was found in 6 (5%) cases. Prematurity, associated congenital anomalies, gap between esophageal ends and preoperative respiratory status were the significant factors affecting the survival (P = < 0.001). Primary extrapleural repair was the surgical approach in most of the patients. Azygos vein was preserved in 46 cases and no retropleural drainage was used in 27 cases. Staged procedures were performed in 19 cases, including 6 cases of isolated esophageal atresia. Pneumonitis and sepsis were the most common early postoperative complications (42%). Hypoxia and cardiorespiratory arrest were the most common causes of mortality (11 cases). Anastomotic leak complicated 13 cases, including 9 major and 4 minor leaks. Major leak followed by sepsis caused 7 deaths. Survival as per Waterston criteria was 100% in group A, 83% in group B and 22% in group C.
Factors affecting the survival are major or life-threatening associated anomalies, long gap, pneumonia and sepsis at presentation or that acquired during hospitalization and major leaks. The high incidence of low birth weight, delayed diagnosis, poor referral, low-socio economic status and lack of advanced neonatological back up are important contributory factors to poor outcome.
PMCID: PMC2810819  PMID: 20177477
Associated anomalies; esophageal atresia; prognosis; tracheoesophageal fistula
8.  Chylothorax: An Omnipresent Reality in Thoracic Surgical Procedures 
Loss of integrity of the thoracic duct will produce a chylous thoracic effusion. latrogenic chylothorax occurring during an intrathoracic surgical procedure in the vicinity of the thoracic duct is an omnipresent reality. The fluid is characteristically milky in appearance, sterile, and high in fat content.
There seems to be a general agreement that initial management be conservative, namely, dietary control and adequate drainage. The success of conservative management will depend on collateral lymphatic channels developing. If conservative measures fail, thoracotomy for ligation of the duct is indicated. When to terminate nonoperative therapy and opt for operative is controversial.
PMCID: PMC2571442  PMID: 3795290
9.  Reduction of the closure time of postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas with fibrin sealant 
AIM: To assess whether the use of fibrin sealant shortens the closure time of postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs).
METHODS: The prospective case-control study included 70 patients with postoperative ECFs with an output of < 500 mL/d, a fistulous tract of > 2 cm and without any local complication. They were divided into study (n = 23) and control groups (n = 47). Esophageal, gastric and colocutaneous fistulas were monitored under endoscopic visualization, which also allowed fibrin glue application directly through the external hole. Outcome variables included closure time, time to resume oral feeding and morbidity related to nutritional support.
RESULTS: There were no differences in mean age, fistula output, and follow-up. Closure-time for all patients of the study group was 12.5 ± 14.2 d and 32.5 ± 17.9 d for the control group (P < 0.001), and morbidity related to nutritional support was 8.6% and 42.5%, respectively (P < 0.01). In patients with colonic fistulas, complete closure occurred 23.5 ± 19.5 d after the first application of fibrin glue, and spontaneous closure was observed after 36.2 ± 22.8 d in the control group (P = 0.36). Recurrences were observed in 2 patients because of residual disease. One patient of each group died during follow-up as a consequence of septic complications related to parenteral nutrition.
CONCLUSION: Closure time was significantly reduced with the use of fibrin sealant, and oral feeding was resumed faster. We suggest the use of fibrin sealant for the management of stable enterocutaneous fistulas.
PMCID: PMC2883136  PMID: 20533600
Enterocutaneous fistulas; Fibrin sealant; Spontaneous closure
10.  Refractory chylothorax following a transhepatic gunshot wound to the abdomen requiring unorthodox surgical treatment. 
An 18 year-old-male sustained a gunshot wound to the abdomen which required an uneventful hepatorrhaphy. He later returned with a large right effusion and was diagnosed with a chylothorax. The output was persistent despite conservative measures. Thoracotomy with attempted thoracic duct ligation was unsuccessful at decreasing the output. Re-exploration and ligation of the thoracic duct was required thru an abdominal approach.
PMCID: PMC3649136  PMID: 24946329
11.  Unilateral pedal lymphangiography with non-contrast computerized tomography is valuable in the location and treatment decision of idiopathic chylothorax 
To identify the value of unilateral pedal lymphangiography (LAG) with non-contrast CT in the location and treatment decision of idiopathic chylothorax after failure of thoracic duct ligation.
Materials and Methods
Twenty four patients aged 9–84 year old (median 44 yr) who had idiopathic chylothorax were involved, and unilateral pedal LAG with non-contrast CT was performed in every patient. All patients failed to previous right supra-diaphragmatic thoracic duct ligation.
The amount of iodized oil used was 6–14 ml with no related complications. LAG demonstrated 8 patients with thoracic duct leaks and 10 patients with leaks elsewhere, but no visible chylous leak in 6 patients. Ligation of thoracic duct was performed as the primary treatment in all 8 cases as having thoracic duct leakage and cured 7(87.5%) patients. For 8 patients not having thoracic duct lesion under LAG, the successful rate of thoracic duct ligation was 25% (2 out of 8 patients), which was significantly lower than patients due to thoracic duct lesions (P = 0.02). Meanwhile, non-operative therapy had significantly higher successful rate (87.5% vs 25%, P = 0.02).
Unilateral pedal LAG with non-contrast CT could identify the causes and locate the leaks of idiopathic chylothorax in 75% of patients after failure of thoracic duct ligation. Two thirds of patients were found not to have thoracic duct leakage and would be better managed by non-operative treatment.
PMCID: PMC3904686  PMID: 24393538
Idiopathic chylothorax; Lymphangiography; Unilateral; Thoracic duct
12.  Chylothorax 
During a high‐speed road traffic accident, a 26‐year‐old man suffered multiple fractures of his thoracic vertebrae and bilateral pneumothoraces. The day after admission and commencement of nasogastric feeding, milky fluid was noted in his right chest drain. Feeding was stopped and a contrast oesophogram and oesophagoscopy were performed, which were normal. The chylothorax quickly resolved and both drains were removed on day 6. Initial treatment of chylothorax aims to decompress the pleural space and minimise chyle production by not feeding the patient via the enteral route. Most authors recommend conservative management for 2 weeks or more unless certain parameters are met: average daily chyle loss of > 1.5 l for a 5‐day period, or imminent nutritional complications. In this case, surgical management of the chylothorax and spinal fractures was planned. However, conservative management was successful, highlighting the fact that early aggressive surgical intervention for chyle leaks in blunt trauma is not necessary.
PMCID: PMC2658219  PMID: 17251600
13.  Chylothorax 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr01.2009.1417.
During a high speed road traffic accident, a 26-year-old man suffered multiple fractures of his thoracic vertebrae and bilateral pneumothoraces. The day after admission and commencement of nasogastric feeding, milky fluid was noted in his right chest drain. Feeding was stopped and a contrast oesophogram and oesophagoscopy were performed, which were normal. The chylothorax quickly resolved and both drains were removed on day 6. Initial treatment of chylothorax aims to decompress the pleural space and minimise chyle production by stopping enteral feeding. Most authors recommend conservative management for 2 weeks or more unless certain parameters are met: average daily chyle loss of >1.5 litres for a 5 day period, or imminent nutritional complications. In this case, surgical management of the chylothorax and spinal fractures was planned. However, conservative management was successful, highlighting the fact that early aggressive surgical intervention for chyle leaks in blunt trauma is not necessary.
PMCID: PMC3029408  PMID: 21687029
14.  Bilateral chylothorax following neck dissection: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:311.
Chylothorax is an extremely rare but potentially life-threatening complication after radical neck dissection. We report the case of a bilateral chylothorax after total thyroidectomy and cervico-central and cervico-lateral lymphadenectomy for thyroid carcinoma.
Case presentation
A 40-year-old European woman underwent total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postoperatively she developed dyspnoea and pleural effusion. A chylothorax was found and the initial conservative therapy was not successful. She had to be operated on again and the thoracic duct was legated.
The case presentation reports a very rare complication after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection, but it has to be kept in mind to prevent dangerous complications.
PMCID: PMC4036830  PMID: 24885488
Thyroidectomy; Neck dissection; Bilateral chylothorax
15.  Stent Implantation for Effective Treatment of Refractory Chylothorax due to Superior Vena Cava Obstruction as a Complication of Congenital Cardiac Surgery 
Chylothorax is a serious complication of congenital cardiac surgery and is significantly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Central venous obstruction, which is often related to the insertion of central venous catheters for postoperative management, is known to be an important risk factor for treatment failure and mortality associated with this condition. We present the case of a 6-month-old girl with refractory chylothorax after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. The chylous drainage continued for more than 2 months despite maximal conservative therapy (water restriction, total parenteral nutrition, and infusion of somatostatin and steroid) and surgical ligation of the thoracic duct. Subsequently, we observed stenosis of the superior vena cava (SVC) caused by large thrombi possibly associated with the prolonged use of central venous catheter placed in the internal jugular vein. Because transcatheter balloon dilation failed to relieve the stenosis, we performed stent implantation for the SVC and innominate vein. After the procedure, chylous drainage dramatically reduced, and the patient was discharged from the hospital. In conclusion, central venous obstruction due to thrombosis should be routinely examined when chylothorax is diagnosed and is resistant to conservative therapy after congenital heart surgery. Stent implantation can effectively relieve the venous obstruction and thus be a life-saving treatment option for this difficult condition.
PMCID: PMC3370830  PMID: 22693423
chylothorax; thrombosis; central venous catheter; stenting
16.  Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula: Effect of pleural cover on anastomotic dehiscence 
A significant number of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula patients have long gaps and a high propensity to leak. Anastomotic leak in esophageal atresia is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality.
In a prospective randomized trial, we analyzed the risk factors leading to anastomotic dehiscence and studied the effect of pleural wrap as an additional vascular cover around the esophageal anastomosis.
Materials and Methods:
Forty patients were divided into two groups A and B randomly. In 20 patients of group A, pleural wrap was utilized for covering the anastomosis and in 20 patients of group B, no such wrap was utilized.
Both the groups were comparable regarding age, sex, weight, gap length, tension at anastomosis and the hospital stay. The overall leak rate was 25% (10/40) in both the groups. The leak rate was not significantly different in two groups whenever a gap length was less than 2 cm or more than 3 cm. However, for a gap length of 2–3 cm, the leak rate in group A was 18% (2/11) and in group B was 50% (4/8) (P = 0.05). Thirty percent (3/10) of patients, whose anastomosis was under tension, leaked in group A as compared to 75% (6/8) in group B patients (P = 0.001).
Use of pleural wrap was associated with less anastomotic dehiscence in patients with moderate gap esophageal atresia (2–3 cm) especially when the anastomosis was under tension.
PMCID: PMC3119936  PMID: 21731231
Anastomotic dehiscence; esophageal atresia; pleural wrap; tracheoesophageal fistula
17.  Anorectal Malformations Associated with Esophageal Atresia in Neonates 
Anorectal malformations are often associated with other anomalies, reporting frequency with 40-70%. Gastrointestinal anomalies have been known to be relatively less common than associated anomalies of other organ system. This study was performed to assess a distinctive feature of cases associated with esophageal atresia.
Clinical data (from January 2000 through December 2011) on the 196 subjects with anorectal malformations, managed in our Hospital, were reviewed. Total 14 neonates were identified with accompanying esophageal atresia and retrospective analysis was conducted.
The incidence was 7.1% and there were 8 male and 6 female subjects. Only 2 cases were associated with esophageal atresia without tracheoesophageal fistula. Although variable cases of anorectal malformation in female subjects, almost cases were anorectal malformations with rectourethral fistula in male. Other associated anomalies were identified in all cases, with more than 3 anomalies in 10 cases. There were 4 VACTERL (Vertebral abnormalities, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal and Limb anomalies) associations accounting for 28.6%, but could not identify chromosomal anomaly. Most cases were managed with staged procedure, usually primary repair of esophageal atresia and diverting colostomy. Overall mortality rate was 21.4%, mainly caused by heart problems.
This study shows that early diagnosis and rational surgical approach with multidisciplinary plan are mandatory in managing anorectal malformations with esophageal atresia, when considering a high frequency of associated anomaly and a relative high mortality.
PMCID: PMC3746047  PMID: 24010103
Anorectal malformation; Esophageal atresia; Neonates
18.  Efficiency and safety of mesh fixation in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair using n-butyl cyanoacrylate: long-term biocompatibility in over 1,300 mesh fixations 
Hernia  2011;16(2):153-162.
In adult patients, most inguinal hernias are treated by implanting a prosthetic mesh. To prevent mesh dislocation and thus recurrence, different types of fixation have been proposed. In contrast to penetrating fixation known to cause acute chronic pain, adhesive fixation is becoming increasingly popular as it reduces markedly the risk of injury and chronic pain. Apart from the biological sealants (e.g., fibrin glue), surgical adhesives include a group of synthetic glues and genetically engineered protein glues. For example, cyanoacrylate is used in various medical and veterinary indications due to its fast action, excellent bonding strength and low price.
The main objective of this paper was to communicate positive results obtained using n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue to fix prosthetic meshes in over 1,300 TAPP repairs of primary and recurrent inguinal hernias. The secondary objective was to highlight the rationale (e.g., safety) for using non-fibrin based glue in this type of procedure.
We present the in vitro and in vivo data necessary for the approval of n-butyl cyanoacrylate Histoacryl® glue. We use an equivalent glue, Glubran-2®, to fix prosthetic meshes in 1,336 laparoscopic TAPP repairs.
Standardized tests to detect sensitization, irritation, genotoxicity or systemic toxicity demonstrated the safety and biocompatibility of Histoacryl®, which met all requirements, including those of ISO 10993. Histological long-term studies in rabbits yielded results comparable to routine suture fixations, with full integration of the mesh into the abdominal wall. The clinical results showed the following advantages: fast application of the glue, reduced postoperative pain, 0.0% infection rate, continuously low recurrence rate and shorter hospital stay. No adverse effects and no complaints were recorded.
The experimental and clinical data demonstrate the safe use and the excellent cost-benefit ratio of n-butyl cyanoacrylate compared with other techniques of mesh fixation.
PMCID: PMC3315639  PMID: 22015810
Laparoscopic hernia repair; Mesh fixation; Glue fixation; Cyanoacrylate
19.  A Novel Technique for Risk Calculation of Anastomotic Leakage after Thoracoscopic Repair for Esophageal Atresia with Distal Fistula 
World Journal of Surgery  2008;32(7):1396-1399.
This study was designed to determine the risk of anastomotic leakage after thoracoscopic repair for esophageal atresia by digitally measuring the length of the proximal esophagus and distance of carina to proximal esophagus.
With the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), the length of the proximal esophagus from the top of the first thoracic vertebra was measured on the preoperative chest x-ray, as well as the distance from the carina to the proximal esophagus. The chest x-rays of 27 neonates, born with esophageal atresia with distal fistula, were examined. Furthermore, the tapes from the procedures were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test for equality of means by using SPSS® 12.0.1 for Windows.
Both groups were comparable, and there was a statistical significant difference in both length of the proximal esophagus (p < 0.023) and distance of carina to proximal esophagus (p < 0.022) in patients who did and did not leak postoperatively. There seems to be a tendency toward a shorter proximal esophagus in recent years that was not obvious earlier.
The digital measurement of the length of the proximal esophagus (M < 7 mm) and distance of carina to proximal esophagus (M > 13.5 mm) with the use of PACS gives a good risk calculation for postoperative leakage.
PMCID: PMC2480506  PMID: 18224466
20.  Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: endoscopic repair based on a combined diagnostic approach 
The treatment of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea has evolved since the first recorded instance of this condition by Willis in 1676. The advancements in radiology and endoscopic nasal surgery have provided ways to solve this potentially dangerous condition. But even now quite a few questions remain unanswered while tackling this difficult clinical situation. Laboratory tests for confirming the presence of cerebrospinal fluid in nasal fluid can yield false positive results and radiological evaluation has never been foolproof when it comes to small leaks and multiple leaks. Also the postoperative recurrence needs to be brought within acceptable limits.
We have tried to evaluate endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea based on a combined diagnostic approach. The methods for diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea have been reevaluated based on our experience with a view to prevent recurrences and complications.
Materials and methods
The study group included twenty patients of CSF rhinorrhea who have been treated by endoscopic repair and spans over a period of five years from January 2001 to December 2005. A combination of retrospective and prospective methods of study has been used. Patients have been subjected to laboratory, radiological and dye studies for confirmation and localization of leak. Endoscopic repair of CSF fistula with composite graft and fibrin glue has been performed. Postoperative management included intracranial pressure reducing measures and control of primary condition in cases of spontaneous leak.
Endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea produced a first time success rate of 92%. CT/MR Cisternogram could localize the defect in 85% cases while intrathecal fluorescein aided localization whenever it was used. The use of fibrin glue with composite graft and postoperative intracranial pressure reducing measures could improve the success rate.
Management of a suspected CSF leak requires a combined diagnostic approach. Endoscopic repair with composite graft and fibrin glue should be the first line of management in cases of CSF rhinorrhea requiring surgical closure. Intracranial pressure reducing measures play an important role in preventing postoperative recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3449996  PMID: 23120618
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea; Endoscopic skull base surgery; Fluorescein dye; Endoscopic repair of CSF leak; Mondini’s dysplasia; CSF otorhinorrhea
21.  Current knowledge on esophageal atresia 
Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus. The improvement of survival observed over the previous two decades is multifactorial and largely attributable to advances in neonatal intensive care, neonatal anesthesia, ventilatory and nutritional support, antibiotics, early surgical intervention, surgical materials and techniques. Indeed, mortality is currently limited to those cases with coexisting severe life-threatening anomalies. The diagnosis of EA is most commonly made during the first 24 h of life but may occur either antenatally or may be delayed. The primary surgical correction for EA and TEF is the best option in the absence of severe malformations. There is no ideal replacement for the esophagus and the optimal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA is still controversial. The primary complications during the postoperative period are leak and stenosis of the anastomosis, gastro-esophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility, fistula recurrence, respiratory disorders and deformities of the thoracic wall. Data regarding long-term outcomes and follow-ups are limited for patients following EA/TEF repair. The determination of the risk factors for the complicated evolution following EA/TEF repair may positively impact long-term prognoses. Much remains to be studied regarding this condition. This manuscript provides a literature review of the current knowledge regarding EA.
PMCID: PMC3406418  PMID: 22851858
Esophageal atresia; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Esophageal stenosis; Long-gap; Gastro-esophageal reflux
22.  Effect of fibrin glue on the prevention of persistent cerebral spinal fluid leakage after incidental durotomy during lumbar spinal surgery 
European Spine Journal  2009;18(8):1169-1174.
Approximately one million spinal surgeries are performed in the United States each year. The risk of an incidental durotomy (ID) and resultant persistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a significant concern for surgeons, as this complication has been associated with increased length of hospitalization, worse neurological outcome, and the development of CSF fistulae. Augmentation of standard dural suture repair with the application of fibrin glue has been suggested to reduce the frequency of these complications. This study examined unintended durotomies during lumbar spine surgery in a large surgical patient cohort and the impact of fibrin glue usage as part of the ID repair on the incidence of persistent CSF leakage. A retrospective analysis of 4,835 surgical procedures of the lumbar spine from a single institution over a 10-year period was performed to determine the rate of ID. The 90-day clinical course of these patients was evaluated. Clinical examination, B-2 transferrin assay, and radiographic imaging were utilized to determine the number of persistent CSF leaks after repair with or without fibrin glue. Five hundred forty-seven patients (11.3%) experienced a durotomy during surgery. Of this cohort, fibrin glue was used in the dural repair in 278 patients (50.8%). Logistic models evaluating age, sex, redo surgery, and the use of fibrin glue revealed that prior lumbar spinal surgery was the only univariate predictor of persistent CSF leak, conferring a 2.8-fold increase in risk. A persistent CSF leak, defined as continued drainage of CSF from the operative incision within 90 days of the surgery that required an intervention greater than simple bed rest or over-sewing of the wound, was noted in a total of 64 patients (11.7%). This persistent CSF leak rate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with prior lumbar surgery (21%) versus those undergoing their first spine surgery (9%). There was no statistical difference in persistent CSF leak between those cases in which fibrin glue was used at the time of surgery and those in which fibrin glue was not used. There were no complications associated with the use of fibrin glue. A history of prior surgery significantly increases the incidence of durotomy during elective lumbar spine surgery. In patients who experienced a durotomy during lumbar spine surgery, the use of fibrin glue for dural repair did not significantly decrease the incidence of a persistent CSF leak.
PMCID: PMC2899517  PMID: 19283413
CSF leak; Lumbar spine surgery; Tisseel; Fibrin glue; Incidental durotomy
23.  The Role of Fibrin Glue in the Treatment of High and Low Fistulas in Ano 
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of fibrin glue in high and low anal fistulas.
Methods: A prospective, non-randomized trial was carried out on 30 patients who were diagnosed to have fistulas in ano. They were evaluated by categorizing them into high (with the internal opening above the anorectal ring)(14/30) and low anal fistulas (with the internal opening below the anorectal ring)(16/30). The fibrin glue was instilled in their anal tracts. The character of the anal tract, whether it was single or multiple and primary or recurrent, was analyzed. The outcome in terms of a postoperative discharge (failure), the incidence of a postoperative perianal pain/abscess and the glue reaction, was noted at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. A success was defined as the absence of any discharge at 6 months.
Results: Fourteen patients with high anal fistulas and 16 with low anal fistulas (with a mean age of 48.5yrs) were treated with fibrin glue. 19 patients had primary tracts (7- high group and 12- low group) and 11 had recurrent tracts (7- high group and 4- low group). 20 fistulas were single tracted (8- high and 12- low) and ten were multiple tracted (6- high and 4-low). The success rate at 6 months was 57.14% in the high group and it was 81.25% in the low group. The failure rate was 85.71% in the recurrent high fistula group as compared to 25% in the recurrent low fistula group (p=0.049). 25% of the single tracted high fistulas failed to heal as compared to a 100% healing rate in the single low fistulas group (p=0.90).
Conclusion: This procedure is thus, superior to the conventional surgical treatment, in terms of the patient comfort, an undisturbed sphincter function, a reduced overall hospital stay, wound pain and the complications and adverse reactions. It showed the best results in the primary, single tracted and the low anal fistulas.
PMCID: PMC3681059  PMID: 23814732
Fistula in ano; Fibrin glue; Failed fistula; Recurrenct fistula
24.  Pleural Fluid Characteristics of Chylothorax 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2009;84(2):129-133.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the biochemical parameters of chylous pleural fluids and better inform current clinical practice in the diagnosis of chylothorax.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with chylothorax (defined by the presence of chylomicrons) who underwent evaluation during a 10-year period from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2006. The biochemical parameters and appearance of the fluid assessed during diagnostic evaluation were analyzed.
RESULTS: The study consisted of 37 men (50%) and 37 women (50%), with a median age of 61.5 years (range, 20-93 years). Chylothorax was caused by surgical procedures in 51%. The chylous pleural fluid appeared milky in only 44%. Pleural effusion was exudative in 64 patients (86%) and transudative in 10 patients (14%). However, pleural fluid protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels varied widely. Transudative chylothorax was present in all 4 patients with cirrhosis but was also seen with other causes. The mean ± SD triglyceride level was 728±797 mg/dL, and the mean ± SD cholesterol value was 66±30 mg/dL. The pleural fluid triglyceride value was less than 110 mg/dL in 10 patients (14%) with chylothorax, 2 of whom had a triglyceride value lower than 50 mg/dL.
CONCLUSION: Chylothoraces may present with variable pleural fluid appearance and biochemical characteristics. Nonmilky appearance is common. Chylous effusions can be transudative, most commonly in patients with cirrhosis. Traditional triglyceride cutoff values used in excluding the presence of chylothorax may miss the diagnosis in fasting patients, particularly in the postoperative state.
Chylothoraces may present with variable pleural fluid appearance and biochemical characteristics; nonmilky appearance is common; traditional triglyceride cutoff values used in excluding the presence of chylothorax may miss the diagnosis in fasting patients, particularly in the postoperative state.
PMCID: PMC2664583  PMID: 19181646
25.  Esophageal Atresia and Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula — 25 Years' Experience and Current Management 
California Medicine  1969;111(3):165-168.
A review of the experience with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula over a 25-year period appears to lead to the advisability of the following procedures in surgical management:
• Emergency gastrostomy under local anesthesia in all patients.
• Extrapleural interruption of tracheo-esophageal fistula and end-to-end esophago-esophagostomy in patients who have the common type of upper esophageal atresia with distal tracheo-esophageal fistula.
• Upper esophageal stretching and eventual esophago-esophagostomy in patients with proximal and distal esophageal atresia with or without proximal tracheo-esophageal fistula.
PMCID: PMC1503623  PMID: 5823512

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