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1.  Esophageal Anastomosis Medial to Preserved Azygos Vein in Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Restoration of Normal Mediastinal Anatomy 
Objective: We intended to prospectively study the technical feasibility and advantages of esophageal anastomosis medial to the preserved azygos vein in neonates diagnosed with esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF). The results were compared to the cases where azygos vein was either not preserved, or the anastomosis was done lateral to the arch of preserved azygos vein.
Material and methods: A total of 134 patients with EA/TEF were admitted between January 2007 and July 2008 of which 116 underwent primary repair. Eleven patients with long gap esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula and 7 patients who expired before surgery were excluded. Patients were randomly divided in three groups comparable with respect to the gestational age, age at presentation, sex, birth weight, associated anomalies and the gap between the pouches after mobilization: Group A (azygos vein ligated and divided), Group B (azygos vein preserved with esophageal anastomosis lateral to the vein), and Group C azygos vein preserved with esophageal anastomosis medial to the vein). All the patients were operated by extra-pleural approach. The three groups were compared with respect to operative time and early postoperative complications like pneumonitis, anastomotic leaks and mortality. Odds ratio and Chi square test were used for the statistical analysis.
Results: Group A, B and C had 35, 43 and 38 patients respectively. No significant difference was observed in average operative time in the 3 groups. Though incidence of postoperative pneumonitis was higher in group A (28%) as compared to group B (13.95%) and group C (11.62%), it was not statistically significant (p > 0.005). Anastomotic leak occurred in 7 patients in group A (20%), 6 patients in group B (13.95%) and 4 patients (10.52%) in group C (p > 0.005). Group A had 3 major and 4 minor anastomotic leaks; group B had 2 major and 4 minor leaks and group C had 1 major and 3 minor leaks. There were10 deaths in the series- 5 in group A, 3 in group B and 2 in group C (p > 0.005). Patients with major anastomotic leaks in all 3 groups expired after re-exploration. The minor leaks were managed conservatively and all of them healed spontaneously. Severe pneumonitis and septicemia in patients having major associated anomalies also contributed to the mortality.
Conclusions: Although esophageal anastomosis medial to the preserved azygos vein restores the normal mediastinal anatomy without technical difficulty or increased operative time, the study could not prove a statistically significant advantage in terms of mortality and postoperative complications.
PMCID: PMC4420363  PMID: 26023409
Esophageal atresia;  Tracheoesophageal fistula;  Azygos vein preservation
2.  Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia with a distal fistula – lessons from the first 10 operations 
Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia (EA) repair was first performed in 1999, but still the technique is treated as one of the most complex pediatric surgical procedures.
The study presents a single-center experience and learning curve of thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal (distal) fistula.
Material and methods
From 2012 to 2014, 10 consecutive patients with esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula were treated thoracoscopically in our center. There were 8 girls and 2 boys. Mean gestational age was 36.5 weeks and mean weight was 2230 g. Four children had associated anomalies. The surgery was performed after stabilization of the patient between the first and fourth day after birth. Five patients required intubation before surgery for respiratory distress. Bronchoscopy was not performed before the operation.
In 8 patients, the endoscopic approach was successfully used thoracoscopically, while in 2 patients conversion to an open thoracotomy was necessary. In all patients except 1, the anastomosis was patent, with no evidence of leak. One patient demonstrated a leak, which did not resolve spontaneously, necessitating surgical repair. In long-term follow-up, 1 patient required esophageal dilatation of the anastomosis. All patients are on full oral feeding.
The endoscopic approach is the method of choice for the treatment of esophageal atresia in our center because of excellent visualization and precise atraumatic preparation even in neonates below a weight of 2000 g.
PMCID: PMC4414109  PMID: 25960794
videothoracoscopy; esophageal atresia; distal esophageal fistula
3.  Clinical characteristics and treatment of esophageal atresia: a single institutional experience 
Treatment for esophageal atresia has advanced over several decades due to improvements in surgical techniques and neonatal intensive care. Subsequent to increased survival, postoperative morbidity has become an important issue in this disease. The aim of our study was to analyze our experience regarding the treatment of esophageal atresia.
We reviewed and analyzed the clinical data of patients who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at Severance Children's Hospital from 1995 to 2010 regarding demographics, surgical procedures, and postoperative outcomes.
Seventy-two patients had surgery for esophageal atresia. The most common gross type was C (81.9%), followed by type A (15.3%). Primary repair was performed in 52 patients. Staged operation was performed in 17 patients. Postoperative esophageal strictures developed in 43.1% of patients. Anastomotic leakages occurred in 23.6% of patients, and recurrence of tracheoesophageal fistula was reported in 8.3% of patients. Esophageal stricture was significantly associated with long-gap (≥3 cm or three vertebral bodies) atresia (P = 0.042). The overall mortality rate was 15.3%. The mortality in patients weighing less than 2.5 kg was higher than in patients weighing at least 2.5 kg (P = 0.001). During the later period of this study, anastomotic leakage and mortality both significantly decreased compared to the earlier study period (P = 0.009 and 0.023, respectively).
The survival of patients with esophageal atresia has improved over the years and the rate of anastomotic leakage has been significantly reduced. However, overall morbidities related to surgical treatment of esophageal atresia still exists with high incidence.
PMCID: PMC3392315  PMID: 22792533
Esophageal atresia; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Prognosis; Survival
4.  A patient with traumatic chylothorax 
Chylothorax refers to the accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity. Although rare, it is the most frequent cause of pleural effusion in the neonatal period. Its incidence is estimated at one in 15,000 neonates. The causes of chylothorax are multiple, and there are several major types of chylothorax defined by origin, ie, traumatic (and iatrogenic) chylothorax, medical (spontaneous) chylothorax, and congenital chylothorax. A case of neonatal chylothorax following surgery for esophageal atresia and our therapeutic approach to this entity are presented. Conservative therapy with total enteral nutrition and drainage were sufficient. Treatment for chylothorax is essentially medical, ie, pleural drainage, removal of dietary fats, treatment of any medical cause, and use of drugs to reduce production of chyle. In the event of failure or reappearance of a large effusion, surgical treatment is needed.
PMCID: PMC3459666  PMID: 23049269
chylothorax; octreotide; somatostatin; children
5.  Esophageal lung resection and prosthesis placement in a preterm neonate 
This report describes a successful outcome in a preterm baby with an esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula, who initially underwent a primary esophageal repair; but a persistent nonexpanding lung on the side of surgery led to further investigations. A further diagnosis of an esophageal lung resulted in pneumonectomy and prophylactic placement of an intra-thoracic prosthesis to prevent post-pneumonectomy syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prophylactic placement of an intra-thoracic prosthesis in a neonate with the condition of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula and associated esophageal lung.
PMCID: PMC4360462  PMID: 25829674
Esophageal lung; esophageal atresia; intra-thoracic prosthesis; post-pneumonectomy syndrome; tracheo-esophageal fistula
6.  Postpneumonectomy syndrome in a newborn after esophageal atresia repair 
•After esophageal atresia repair, if postpneumonectomy syndrome develops, an associated esophageal lung must be considered.•Contrast esophagography, with the patient lying on the side of collapsed lung, is the optimal diagnostic study.•In infants with postpneumonectomy syndrome, infusion of normal saline in the hemithorax on the side of collapsed lung is a simple, rapid, and effective method to obtain mediastinum realignment in emergency with immediate improvement of clinical conditions.
Postpneumonectomy syndrome (PPS) is an ominous complication, caused by mediastinal shift following massive lung resection.
Presentation of the case
A neonate with oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula developed acute respiratory distress shortly after surgery, despite mechanical ventilation. The patient was found to have an associated oesophageal right lung that collapsed after oesophageal atresia repair and a left pulmonary artery sling causing left main bronchus stenosis mimicking a postpneumonectomy syndrome.
We will describe the diagnostic work-up and the therapeutic measures used both in the acute phase and as definitive treatment in this challenging case.
Neonatologists and paediatric surgeons should be aware of this rare association that may cause acute life threatening and worsening of patient’s clinical status. Prompt realignment of the mediastinum in the normal position is critical to obtain rapid improvement of the patient’s clinical conditions.
PMCID: PMC4430078  PMID: 25841156
Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations; Oesophageal atresia; Oesophageal lung; Iatrogenic hydrothorax; Pseudo-postpneumonectomy syndrome; Postpneumonectomy syndrome; Tissue expander
7.  Delayed Concurrent Chylothorax and Chyloperitoneum: Report of a Case after an Old Blunt Trauma 
Tanaffos  2011;10(1):52-56.
A 15- year-old boy was referred to Imam Reza Hospital with a right chest tube and chylothorax for 40 days. The patient had respiratory distress and undergone refractory treatment for chylothorax. The fluid content was chyle-rich in lipids. Computed Tomography of the chest showed a large, incompletely evacuated cyst in the left posterior mediastinum with left pleural effusion. The cyst could not be resected through right thoracotomy, because of the left side location of the cyst. Ligation of the thoracic duct through right thoracotomy was not effective in reducing chylous effusion 4 days later. Left chylothorax exacerbated because of the complication of right thoracotomy. Laparatomy was performed to ligate the thoracic duct 6 days later. On exploratory laparatomy, chylous effusion was detected in the peritoneum. Thoracic duct with all the fibro-fatty tissues was ligated below the diaphragm over the spine at 12th to 2nd vertebral spaces. Right chylothorax was resolved after ligation of thoracic duct transabdominally 1-2 days later. Left chylous effusion was decreased and treated 46 days after laparatomy. One year follow up of the patient showed excellent result. In our knowledge, thoracic duct cyst occurring as a result of a delayed chylothorax and chyloperitoneum has not been reported in the literature. Surgical thoracic duct ligation can be the treatment of choice.
PMCID: PMC4153130  PMID: 25191352
Thoracic duct; Cyst; Chylothorax; Chyloperitoneum; Trauma
8.  Esophageal atresia: Factors influencing survival - Experience at an Indian tertiary centre 
To study the clinical profile of the cases of esophageal atresia (EA) and/or tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) and various factors affecting the surgical and early postoperative management and their outcome.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective analysis of 127 cases of EA from February 2004 to May 2006 was performed. Waterston prognostic criteria were used for grading.
EA with TEF was the commonest type in 117 cases (92%). Associated congenital anomalies were present in 52 (41%) patients, the commonest being the cardiac anomalies, which was followed by the gastrointestinal anomalies. VACTERL was found in 6 (5%) cases. Prematurity, associated congenital anomalies, gap between esophageal ends and preoperative respiratory status were the significant factors affecting the survival (P = < 0.001). Primary extrapleural repair was the surgical approach in most of the patients. Azygos vein was preserved in 46 cases and no retropleural drainage was used in 27 cases. Staged procedures were performed in 19 cases, including 6 cases of isolated esophageal atresia. Pneumonitis and sepsis were the most common early postoperative complications (42%). Hypoxia and cardiorespiratory arrest were the most common causes of mortality (11 cases). Anastomotic leak complicated 13 cases, including 9 major and 4 minor leaks. Major leak followed by sepsis caused 7 deaths. Survival as per Waterston criteria was 100% in group A, 83% in group B and 22% in group C.
Factors affecting the survival are major or life-threatening associated anomalies, long gap, pneumonia and sepsis at presentation or that acquired during hospitalization and major leaks. The high incidence of low birth weight, delayed diagnosis, poor referral, low-socio economic status and lack of advanced neonatological back up are important contributory factors to poor outcome.
PMCID: PMC2810819  PMID: 20177477
Associated anomalies; esophageal atresia; prognosis; tracheoesophageal fistula
9.  Reduction of the closure time of postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas with fibrin sealant 
AIM: To assess whether the use of fibrin sealant shortens the closure time of postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs).
METHODS: The prospective case-control study included 70 patients with postoperative ECFs with an output of < 500 mL/d, a fistulous tract of > 2 cm and without any local complication. They were divided into study (n = 23) and control groups (n = 47). Esophageal, gastric and colocutaneous fistulas were monitored under endoscopic visualization, which also allowed fibrin glue application directly through the external hole. Outcome variables included closure time, time to resume oral feeding and morbidity related to nutritional support.
RESULTS: There were no differences in mean age, fistula output, and follow-up. Closure-time for all patients of the study group was 12.5 ± 14.2 d and 32.5 ± 17.9 d for the control group (P < 0.001), and morbidity related to nutritional support was 8.6% and 42.5%, respectively (P < 0.01). In patients with colonic fistulas, complete closure occurred 23.5 ± 19.5 d after the first application of fibrin glue, and spontaneous closure was observed after 36.2 ± 22.8 d in the control group (P = 0.36). Recurrences were observed in 2 patients because of residual disease. One patient of each group died during follow-up as a consequence of septic complications related to parenteral nutrition.
CONCLUSION: Closure time was significantly reduced with the use of fibrin sealant, and oral feeding was resumed faster. We suggest the use of fibrin sealant for the management of stable enterocutaneous fistulas.
PMCID: PMC2883136  PMID: 20533600
Enterocutaneous fistulas; Fibrin sealant; Spontaneous closure
10.  Closure of bronchopleural fistula by interventional bronchoscopy using sealants and endobronchial devices 
Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication in the form of a sinus tract between the pleural space and the bronchial tree. Chronic bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a rare but a serious complication of several pulmonary and postoperative conditions. BPF carries a high morbidity and mortality and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and thus high resource consumption. Till date surgical intervention has been the main stay of management of chronic BPF. Our study was carried out to study the efficacy of sealants like Bioglue, Tissel glue and endobronchial devices like coils to close the BPFs through bronchoscopic interventions in those cases which failed to close with the conventional treatment regimen and progressed to chronicity.
This study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. A total 25 patients of chronic BPF/air leaks were selected and subjected to bronchoscopic localization and subsequent intervention using sealants and coils.
Total 25 patients with chronic BPF were treated with bronchoscopic interventions using glues, and coils.23 patients were males and 2 were females and 14 were postoperative while 11 patients were non operative. Only smaller fistulas were amenable to glues and coils while there was recurrence in patients with larger air leaks requiring surgical intervention.
From this study it is concluded that non-operative bronchoscopic interventions to seal the air leaks are effective only in smaller air leaks i.e. alveolopleural fistula (APF). The larger air leaks like leaking stump and larger bronchopleural fistula have not got long lasting and encouraging results with sealants and endobronchial devices.
PMCID: PMC3862617  PMID: 24600137
Bronchopleural fistula; Interventional bronchoscopy; Glues and coils
11.  Spilt Milk 
We report a case of bilateral chylothorax without evidence of chylous fistula in a 62-year-old man following total laryngectomy and bilateral selective neck dissection for laryngeal cancer. Chylous fistulae, a well-known complication of neck dissection, occurs following 1% to 2% of these surgeries. On rare occasions, the chyle leak may communicate with the pleural space, resulting in chylothorax. This is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. Bilateral chylothorax following neck dissection is even rarer, with less than 25 cases reported in the literature. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion, especially when the postoperative effusions do not respond to diuretics. Though no evidence-based treatment guidelines exist, expert opinion recommends conservative management as first-line therapy. Our patient was effectively treated by conservative management. We postulate a mechanism whereby bilateral chylothorax occurred in our patient without a chylous fistula.
PMCID: PMC4528870  PMID: 26425641
neck dissection; laryngectomy; thoracic duct; bilateral chylothorax
12.  Autologous fibrin sealant (Vivostat®) in the neurosurgical practice: Part I: Intracranial surgical procedure 
Hemorrhages, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and infections are the most challenging postoperative complications in Neurosurgery. In this study, we report our preliminary results using a fully autologous fibrin sealant agent, the Vivostat® system, in achieving hemostasis and CSF leakage repair during cranio-cerebral procedures.
From January 2012 to March 2014, 77 patients were studied prospectively and data were collected and analyzed. Autologous fibrin sealant, taken from patient's blood, was prepared with the Vivostat® system and applied on the resection bed or above the dura mater to achieve hemostasis and dural sealing. The surgical technique, time to bleeding control and associated complications were recorded.
A total of 79 neurosurgical procedures have been performed on 77 patients. In the majority of cases (98%) the same autologous fibrin glue provided rapid hemostasis and dural sealing. No patient developed allergic reactions or systemic complications in association with its application. There were no cases of cerebral hematoma, swelling, infection, or epileptic seizures after surgery whether in the immediate or in late period follow-up.
In this preliminary study, the easy and direct application of autologous fibrin sealant agent helped in controlling cerebral bleeding and in providing prompt and efficient dural sealing with resolution of CSF leaks. Although the use of autologous fibrin glue seems to be safe, easy, and effective, further investigations are strongly recommended to quantify real advantages and potential limitations.
PMCID: PMC4429333  PMID: 25984391
Autologous fibrin glue; cerebral hemorrhage; cerebrospinal fistula; dura mater; skull base
13.  Efficiency and safety of mesh fixation in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair using n-butyl cyanoacrylate: long-term biocompatibility in over 1,300 mesh fixations 
Hernia  2011;16(2):153-162.
In adult patients, most inguinal hernias are treated by implanting a prosthetic mesh. To prevent mesh dislocation and thus recurrence, different types of fixation have been proposed. In contrast to penetrating fixation known to cause acute chronic pain, adhesive fixation is becoming increasingly popular as it reduces markedly the risk of injury and chronic pain. Apart from the biological sealants (e.g., fibrin glue), surgical adhesives include a group of synthetic glues and genetically engineered protein glues. For example, cyanoacrylate is used in various medical and veterinary indications due to its fast action, excellent bonding strength and low price.
The main objective of this paper was to communicate positive results obtained using n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue to fix prosthetic meshes in over 1,300 TAPP repairs of primary and recurrent inguinal hernias. The secondary objective was to highlight the rationale (e.g., safety) for using non-fibrin based glue in this type of procedure.
We present the in vitro and in vivo data necessary for the approval of n-butyl cyanoacrylate Histoacryl® glue. We use an equivalent glue, Glubran-2®, to fix prosthetic meshes in 1,336 laparoscopic TAPP repairs.
Standardized tests to detect sensitization, irritation, genotoxicity or systemic toxicity demonstrated the safety and biocompatibility of Histoacryl®, which met all requirements, including those of ISO 10993. Histological long-term studies in rabbits yielded results comparable to routine suture fixations, with full integration of the mesh into the abdominal wall. The clinical results showed the following advantages: fast application of the glue, reduced postoperative pain, 0.0% infection rate, continuously low recurrence rate and shorter hospital stay. No adverse effects and no complaints were recorded.
The experimental and clinical data demonstrate the safe use and the excellent cost-benefit ratio of n-butyl cyanoacrylate compared with other techniques of mesh fixation.
PMCID: PMC3315639  PMID: 22015810
Laparoscopic hernia repair; Mesh fixation; Glue fixation; Cyanoacrylate
14.  Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula: Effect of pleural cover on anastomotic dehiscence 
A significant number of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula patients have long gaps and a high propensity to leak. Anastomotic leak in esophageal atresia is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality.
In a prospective randomized trial, we analyzed the risk factors leading to anastomotic dehiscence and studied the effect of pleural wrap as an additional vascular cover around the esophageal anastomosis.
Materials and Methods:
Forty patients were divided into two groups A and B randomly. In 20 patients of group A, pleural wrap was utilized for covering the anastomosis and in 20 patients of group B, no such wrap was utilized.
Both the groups were comparable regarding age, sex, weight, gap length, tension at anastomosis and the hospital stay. The overall leak rate was 25% (10/40) in both the groups. The leak rate was not significantly different in two groups whenever a gap length was less than 2 cm or more than 3 cm. However, for a gap length of 2–3 cm, the leak rate in group A was 18% (2/11) and in group B was 50% (4/8) (P = 0.05). Thirty percent (3/10) of patients, whose anastomosis was under tension, leaked in group A as compared to 75% (6/8) in group B patients (P = 0.001).
Use of pleural wrap was associated with less anastomotic dehiscence in patients with moderate gap esophageal atresia (2–3 cm) especially when the anastomosis was under tension.
PMCID: PMC3119936  PMID: 21731231
Anastomotic dehiscence; esophageal atresia; pleural wrap; tracheoesophageal fistula
15.  Anorectal Malformations Associated with Esophageal Atresia in Neonates 
Anorectal malformations are often associated with other anomalies, reporting frequency with 40-70%. Gastrointestinal anomalies have been known to be relatively less common than associated anomalies of other organ system. This study was performed to assess a distinctive feature of cases associated with esophageal atresia.
Clinical data (from January 2000 through December 2011) on the 196 subjects with anorectal malformations, managed in our Hospital, were reviewed. Total 14 neonates were identified with accompanying esophageal atresia and retrospective analysis was conducted.
The incidence was 7.1% and there were 8 male and 6 female subjects. Only 2 cases were associated with esophageal atresia without tracheoesophageal fistula. Although variable cases of anorectal malformation in female subjects, almost cases were anorectal malformations with rectourethral fistula in male. Other associated anomalies were identified in all cases, with more than 3 anomalies in 10 cases. There were 4 VACTERL (Vertebral abnormalities, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal and Limb anomalies) associations accounting for 28.6%, but could not identify chromosomal anomaly. Most cases were managed with staged procedure, usually primary repair of esophageal atresia and diverting colostomy. Overall mortality rate was 21.4%, mainly caused by heart problems.
This study shows that early diagnosis and rational surgical approach with multidisciplinary plan are mandatory in managing anorectal malformations with esophageal atresia, when considering a high frequency of associated anomaly and a relative high mortality.
PMCID: PMC3746047  PMID: 24010103
Anorectal malformation; Esophageal atresia; Neonates
16.  Endoscopic Stenting and Clipping for Anastomotic Stricture and Persistent Tracheoesophageal Fistula after Surgical Repair of Esophageal Atresia in an Infant 
Case Reports in Medicine  2014;2014:738981.
Anastomotic stricture (AS) and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are two complications of surgical repair of esophageal atresia (EA). Therapeutic endoscopic modalities include stenting, tissue glue, and clipping for TEF and endoscopic balloon dilation bougienage and stenting for esophageal strictures. We report herein a two-month infant with both EA and TEF who benefited from a surgical repair for EA, at the third day of life. Two months later he experienced deglutition disorders and recurrent chest infections. The esophagogram showed an AS and a TEF confirmed with blue methylene test at bronchoscopy. A partially covered self-expanding metal type biliary was endoscopically placed. Ten weeks later the stent was removed. This allows for easy passage of the endoscope in the gastric cavity but a persistent recurrent fistula was noted. Instillation of contrast demonstrated a fully dilated stricture but with a persistent TEF. Then we proceeded to placement of several endoclips at the fistula site. The esophagogram confirmed the TEF was obliterated. At 12 months of follow-up, he was asymptomatic. Stenting was effective to alleviate the stricture but failed to treat the TEF. At our knowledge this is the second case of successful use of endoclips placement to obliterate recurrent TEF after surgical repair of EA in children.
PMCID: PMC4279268  PMID: 25580132
17.  A Novel Technique for Risk Calculation of Anastomotic Leakage after Thoracoscopic Repair for Esophageal Atresia with Distal Fistula 
World Journal of Surgery  2008;32(7):1396-1399.
This study was designed to determine the risk of anastomotic leakage after thoracoscopic repair for esophageal atresia by digitally measuring the length of the proximal esophagus and distance of carina to proximal esophagus.
With the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), the length of the proximal esophagus from the top of the first thoracic vertebra was measured on the preoperative chest x-ray, as well as the distance from the carina to the proximal esophagus. The chest x-rays of 27 neonates, born with esophageal atresia with distal fistula, were examined. Furthermore, the tapes from the procedures were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test for equality of means by using SPSS® 12.0.1 for Windows.
Both groups were comparable, and there was a statistical significant difference in both length of the proximal esophagus (p < 0.023) and distance of carina to proximal esophagus (p < 0.022) in patients who did and did not leak postoperatively. There seems to be a tendency toward a shorter proximal esophagus in recent years that was not obvious earlier.
The digital measurement of the length of the proximal esophagus (M < 7 mm) and distance of carina to proximal esophagus (M > 13.5 mm) with the use of PACS gives a good risk calculation for postoperative leakage.
PMCID: PMC2480506  PMID: 18224466
18.  Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: endoscopic repair based on a combined diagnostic approach 
The treatment of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea has evolved since the first recorded instance of this condition by Willis in 1676. The advancements in radiology and endoscopic nasal surgery have provided ways to solve this potentially dangerous condition. But even now quite a few questions remain unanswered while tackling this difficult clinical situation. Laboratory tests for confirming the presence of cerebrospinal fluid in nasal fluid can yield false positive results and radiological evaluation has never been foolproof when it comes to small leaks and multiple leaks. Also the postoperative recurrence needs to be brought within acceptable limits.
We have tried to evaluate endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea based on a combined diagnostic approach. The methods for diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea have been reevaluated based on our experience with a view to prevent recurrences and complications.
Materials and methods
The study group included twenty patients of CSF rhinorrhea who have been treated by endoscopic repair and spans over a period of five years from January 2001 to December 2005. A combination of retrospective and prospective methods of study has been used. Patients have been subjected to laboratory, radiological and dye studies for confirmation and localization of leak. Endoscopic repair of CSF fistula with composite graft and fibrin glue has been performed. Postoperative management included intracranial pressure reducing measures and control of primary condition in cases of spontaneous leak.
Endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea produced a first time success rate of 92%. CT/MR Cisternogram could localize the defect in 85% cases while intrathecal fluorescein aided localization whenever it was used. The use of fibrin glue with composite graft and postoperative intracranial pressure reducing measures could improve the success rate.
Management of a suspected CSF leak requires a combined diagnostic approach. Endoscopic repair with composite graft and fibrin glue should be the first line of management in cases of CSF rhinorrhea requiring surgical closure. Intracranial pressure reducing measures play an important role in preventing postoperative recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3449996  PMID: 23120618
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea; Endoscopic skull base surgery; Fluorescein dye; Endoscopic repair of CSF leak; Mondini’s dysplasia; CSF otorhinorrhea
19.  Effect of fibrin glue on the prevention of persistent cerebral spinal fluid leakage after incidental durotomy during lumbar spinal surgery 
European Spine Journal  2009;18(8):1169-1174.
Approximately one million spinal surgeries are performed in the United States each year. The risk of an incidental durotomy (ID) and resultant persistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a significant concern for surgeons, as this complication has been associated with increased length of hospitalization, worse neurological outcome, and the development of CSF fistulae. Augmentation of standard dural suture repair with the application of fibrin glue has been suggested to reduce the frequency of these complications. This study examined unintended durotomies during lumbar spine surgery in a large surgical patient cohort and the impact of fibrin glue usage as part of the ID repair on the incidence of persistent CSF leakage. A retrospective analysis of 4,835 surgical procedures of the lumbar spine from a single institution over a 10-year period was performed to determine the rate of ID. The 90-day clinical course of these patients was evaluated. Clinical examination, B-2 transferrin assay, and radiographic imaging were utilized to determine the number of persistent CSF leaks after repair with or without fibrin glue. Five hundred forty-seven patients (11.3%) experienced a durotomy during surgery. Of this cohort, fibrin glue was used in the dural repair in 278 patients (50.8%). Logistic models evaluating age, sex, redo surgery, and the use of fibrin glue revealed that prior lumbar spinal surgery was the only univariate predictor of persistent CSF leak, conferring a 2.8-fold increase in risk. A persistent CSF leak, defined as continued drainage of CSF from the operative incision within 90 days of the surgery that required an intervention greater than simple bed rest or over-sewing of the wound, was noted in a total of 64 patients (11.7%). This persistent CSF leak rate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with prior lumbar surgery (21%) versus those undergoing their first spine surgery (9%). There was no statistical difference in persistent CSF leak between those cases in which fibrin glue was used at the time of surgery and those in which fibrin glue was not used. There were no complications associated with the use of fibrin glue. A history of prior surgery significantly increases the incidence of durotomy during elective lumbar spine surgery. In patients who experienced a durotomy during lumbar spine surgery, the use of fibrin glue for dural repair did not significantly decrease the incidence of a persistent CSF leak.
PMCID: PMC2899517  PMID: 19283413
CSF leak; Lumbar spine surgery; Tisseel; Fibrin glue; Incidental durotomy
20.  Current knowledge on esophageal atresia 
Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus. The improvement of survival observed over the previous two decades is multifactorial and largely attributable to advances in neonatal intensive care, neonatal anesthesia, ventilatory and nutritional support, antibiotics, early surgical intervention, surgical materials and techniques. Indeed, mortality is currently limited to those cases with coexisting severe life-threatening anomalies. The diagnosis of EA is most commonly made during the first 24 h of life but may occur either antenatally or may be delayed. The primary surgical correction for EA and TEF is the best option in the absence of severe malformations. There is no ideal replacement for the esophagus and the optimal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA is still controversial. The primary complications during the postoperative period are leak and stenosis of the anastomosis, gastro-esophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility, fistula recurrence, respiratory disorders and deformities of the thoracic wall. Data regarding long-term outcomes and follow-ups are limited for patients following EA/TEF repair. The determination of the risk factors for the complicated evolution following EA/TEF repair may positively impact long-term prognoses. Much remains to be studied regarding this condition. This manuscript provides a literature review of the current knowledge regarding EA.
PMCID: PMC3406418  PMID: 22851858
Esophageal atresia; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Esophageal stenosis; Long-gap; Gastro-esophageal reflux
21.  Clinico-Radiological Diagnosis of Isolated Congenital Esophageal Stenosis in a Preterm Neonate 
A 2-day-old preterm female neonate weighing 1.6 kg and having excessive frothing from mouth was investigated for suspected esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. X-ray findings of an unusually low-ending upper pouch (up to T8 level) and the absence of gas in abdomen lead to suspicion of an unusual variety of esophageal atresia. Hence unlike the usual management of pure esophageal atresia, in terms of esophagostomy and gastrostomy in neonatal period, right thoracotomy was performed allowing successful primary anastomosis. A high index of suspicion on the basis of radiological picture led to early diagnosis of a rare anomaly like congenital esophageal stenosis and successful management of this low birth weight baby.
PMCID: PMC4336058  PMID: 25755945
congenital esophageal stenosis (CES); esophageal atresia (EA); preterm low birth weight (LBW) neonate; primary resection anastomosis; radiological diagnosis
22.  The Role of Fibrin Glue in the Treatment of High and Low Fistulas in Ano 
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of fibrin glue in high and low anal fistulas.
Methods: A prospective, non-randomized trial was carried out on 30 patients who were diagnosed to have fistulas in ano. They were evaluated by categorizing them into high (with the internal opening above the anorectal ring)(14/30) and low anal fistulas (with the internal opening below the anorectal ring)(16/30). The fibrin glue was instilled in their anal tracts. The character of the anal tract, whether it was single or multiple and primary or recurrent, was analyzed. The outcome in terms of a postoperative discharge (failure), the incidence of a postoperative perianal pain/abscess and the glue reaction, was noted at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. A success was defined as the absence of any discharge at 6 months.
Results: Fourteen patients with high anal fistulas and 16 with low anal fistulas (with a mean age of 48.5yrs) were treated with fibrin glue. 19 patients had primary tracts (7- high group and 12- low group) and 11 had recurrent tracts (7- high group and 4- low group). 20 fistulas were single tracted (8- high and 12- low) and ten were multiple tracted (6- high and 4-low). The success rate at 6 months was 57.14% in the high group and it was 81.25% in the low group. The failure rate was 85.71% in the recurrent high fistula group as compared to 25% in the recurrent low fistula group (p=0.049). 25% of the single tracted high fistulas failed to heal as compared to a 100% healing rate in the single low fistulas group (p=0.90).
Conclusion: This procedure is thus, superior to the conventional surgical treatment, in terms of the patient comfort, an undisturbed sphincter function, a reduced overall hospital stay, wound pain and the complications and adverse reactions. It showed the best results in the primary, single tracted and the low anal fistulas.
PMCID: PMC3681059  PMID: 23814732
Fistula in ano; Fibrin glue; Failed fistula; Recurrenct fistula
23.  Esophageal Atresia and Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula — 25 Years' Experience and Current Management 
California Medicine  1969;111(3):165-168.
A review of the experience with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula over a 25-year period appears to lead to the advisability of the following procedures in surgical management:
• Emergency gastrostomy under local anesthesia in all patients.
• Extrapleural interruption of tracheo-esophageal fistula and end-to-end esophago-esophagostomy in patients who have the common type of upper esophageal atresia with distal tracheo-esophageal fistula.
• Upper esophageal stretching and eventual esophago-esophagostomy in patients with proximal and distal esophageal atresia with or without proximal tracheo-esophageal fistula.
PMCID: PMC1503623  PMID: 5823512
24.  Laryngo-tracheo-oesophageal clefts 
A laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LC) is a congenital malformation characterized by an abnormal, posterior, sagittal communication between the larynx and the pharynx, possibly extending downward between the trachea and the esophagus. The estimated annual incidence of LC is 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 live births, accounting for 0.2% to 1.5% of congenital malformations of the larynx. These incidence rates may however be underestimated due to difficulty in diagnosing minor forms and a high mortality rate in severe forms. A slightly higher incidence has been reported in boys than in girls. No specific geographic distribution has been found. Depending on the severity of the malformation, patients may present with stridor, hoarse cry, swallowing difficulties, aspirations, cough, dyspnea and cyanosis through to early respiratory distress. Five types of laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft have been described based on the downward extension of the cleft, which typically correlates with the severity of symptoms: Type 0 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft to Type 4 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft. LC is often associated with other congenital abnormalities/anomalies (16% to 68%), mainly involving the gastro-intestinal tract, which include laryngomalacia, tracheo-bronchial dyskinesia, tracheo-bronchomalacia (mostly in types 3 and 4), and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The syndromes most frequently associated with an LC are Opitz/BBB syndrome, Pallister Hall syndrome, VACTERL/VATER association, and CHARGE syndrome. Laryngeal clefts result from failure of fusion of the posterior cricoid lamina and abnormal development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. The causes of the embryological developmental anomalies leading to LC are not known but are thought to be multifactorial. LC appears to be mostly sporadic although some familial cases with suspected autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. The age of diagnosis depends mainly on the severity of the clinical symptoms and therefore on the extent of the LC. Diagnosis is made either based on clinical manifestations or on investigations, such as endoscopy, X-ray, CT scan, performed for other conditions. Differential diagnoses include tracheo-bronchial fistula, gastro-esophageal reflux disease and neurological swallowing disorders, as well as laryngomalacia and laryngeal palsy. Prenatal diagnosis of LC has never been reported, although associated anomalies may be detected on fetal ultrasonography. Once the cleft is diagnosed, it is essential to determine its length to orient the management and treatment approach. Management involves maintenance of satisfactory ventilation, prevention of secondary pulmonary complications as a result of repeated aspirations, and adequate feeding. Endotracheal intubation may be required for respiratory distress in severe cases. Treatment requires endoscopic or external surgery to close the cleft. Surgery should be performed as early as possible to avoid complications related to aspiration and gastric reflux, except in type 0 and type 1 cases in which conservative measures must first be attempted. The prognosis is variable depending on the severity of the LC and associated malformations. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment and management help to reduce mortality and morbidity.
PMCID: PMC3261097  PMID: 22151899
25.  Lung function abnormalities in repaired oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. 
Thorax  1992;47(12):1030-1034.
BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications are common after neonatal repair of oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. The prevalence of lung function abnormalities and the relation between gastrointestinal complications and lung function has not been studied in a large number of patients. METHODS: Lung volumes and flow-volume loops were measured in 155 patients without spinal curvature aged 6-37 years who had undergone surgery for oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. RESULTS: Sixty four of the 155 patients had evidence of mild lower airways disease, with values for FEV1 more than two standardised scores below the predicted value in 39 (25%) and above 2 standardised scores for the residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio in 64 (41%). Restrictive lung disease (TLC more than 2 standardised scores below predicted) was present in 28 (18%). Severe lung function abnormalities were present in under 10% of the 155. Half the subjects had some evidence of extra-thoracic tracheal obstruction, with a high ratio of expiratory to inspiratory flow for peak flow in 76 (50%) and at 50% of vital capacity in 59 (38%). Patients with radiological gastro-oesophageal reflux in early childhood had more airways obstruction and smaller lung volumes. Patients with current gastrointestinal symptoms were similar in their lung function to symptom free patients. CONCLUSIONS: Minor lung function abnormalities are common in patients after repair of oesophageal atresia. Early diagnosis and management of gastro-oesophageal reflux may help to minimise these lung function abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC1021095  PMID: 1494766

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