Some men with metastatic germ cell tumours that have progressed after response to initial cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy are cured with conventional dose first salvage chemotherapy (CDCT) – however, many are not. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT) may be of value in these patients. Prognosis has recently been better defined by International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) prognostic factors. HDCT after response to CDCT has been offered at our institution over the past two decades. We retrospectively assessed the validity of the IPFSG prognostic factors in our patients and evaluated the value of HDCT.
We identified eligible men with metastatic germ cell tumour progressed after at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and treated with cisplatin-based CDCT alone or with carboplatin-based HDCT. We also collected their clinical data. Patients were classified into risk groups using IPFSG factors, and progression-free and overall survival factors were analyzed and compared in patients treated with CDCT alone and with HDCT.
We identified 38 eligible first salvage patients who had received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles) of CDCT. Twenty patients received CDCT alone and 18 patients received CDCT plus HDCT. The overall median progression- free survival was 24.6 months (95%CI, 7.3 to 28.7 months) and overall median overall survival was 34.6 months (95%CI, 17.2 to 51.3 months). Distribution by IPFSG category and 2-year progression- free survival and 3-year overall survival rates within each risk category were very similar to the IPFSG results. There were two toxic deaths with CDCT and none with HDCT. Overall, patients treated with CDCT plus HDCT had improved progression- free survival and overall survival.
The IPFSG prognostic risk factors appeared valid in our patient population. The safety of HDCT with etoposide and carboplatin was confirmed. HDCT was associated with improved progression- free survival and overall survival outcomes, consistent with observations of the IPFSG group. Ideally, the value of optimal HDCT should be determined in comparison to optimal CDCT as first salvage therapy in men with metastatic germ cell tumour with a randomized trial.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for patients with gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Previously, we validated the utility of the tumour regression grade (TRG) as a histopathological marker of tumour downstaging in patients receiving platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this study we profiled key DNA repair and damage signalling factors and correlated them with clinicopathological outcomes, including TRG response.
Methods and results:
Formalin-fixed human gastro-oesophageal cancers were constructed into tissue microarrays (TMAs). The first set consisted of 142 gastric/gastro-oesophageal cancer cases not exposed to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the second set consisted of 103 gastric/gastro-oesophageal cancer cases exposed to preoperative platinum-based chemotherapy. Expressions of ERCC1, XPF, FANCD2, APE1 and p53 were investigated using immunohistochemistry.
In patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, favourable TRG response (TRG 1, 2 or 3) was associated with improvement in disease-specific survival (P=0.038). ERCC1 nuclear expression correlated with lack of histopathological response (TRG 4 or 5) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.006) and was associated with poor disease-specific (P=0.020) and overall survival (P=0.040).
We provide evidence that tumour regression and ERCC1 nuclear protein expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry are promising predictive markers in gastro-oesophageal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy.
tumour regression grade; gastro-oesophageal cancers; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; ERCC1; APE1; p53
In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
Between March 2005 and April 2007, patients older than 3 years with a newly diagnosed high-risk MB or sPNET were enrolled. The patients received two cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (cycle A), and carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and ifosphamide (cycle B), followed by CSRT with 23.4 Gy and local RT with 30.6 Gy. After four cycles of post-RT chemotherapy (cycles A, B, A, and B), tandem double HDCT with ASCR was performed.
A total of 13 patients (MB=11, sPNET=2) were enrolled. Of these, one patient progressed, one patient died of septic shock after the second cycle of B, and one patient relapsed after the third cycle of B. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of the patients intended for HDCT was 76.9%, whereas the 3-year EFS rate of the patients who received HDCT was 100%. No treatment-related mortality occurred during HDCT.
Although the follow-up period was short and the patient cohort was small in size, the results of this study are encouraging. The limited toxicity and favorable EFS rate observed in children treated with reduced-dose CSRT followed by HDCT and ASCR warrant further exploration in a larger study population.
Radiotherapy; High-dose chemotherapy; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Medulloblastoma; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Children
A major problem associated with the chemosensitivity testing of fresh human tumour cells using the MTT assay is the contamination of nonmalignant cells in the tumour tissues. Highly purified fresh human gastric cancer cells could be obtained from 43 solid tumours and eight malignant ascites for the MTT assay. The success rate of the MTT assay was 87.9% (51 of the 58 cases), and the purity of tumour cells was greater than 90% after separation on Ficoll-Hypaque and Percoll discontinuous gradients in primary, or metastatic lesions, and also ascites. Cisplatin, mitomycin, and doxorubicin were more potent drugs than etoposide and 5-FU against gastric cancer cells. The chemosensitivity in differentiated cancer was equivalent to that in non-differentiated cancer. Twenty of the 51 patients with gastric cancer had evaluable lesions, and they received chemotherapy according to the results of the MTT assay using highly purified tumour cells. A clinical response was obtained in 12 of these 20 patients (response rate: 60.0%; five with complete response, seven with partial response).
The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
This pilot study evaluates the degree of side effects during high-dose chemotherapy (HD-VIC) plus autologous bone marrow transplant (HDCT) and its possible prevention by the cytoprotective thiol-derivate amifostine. Additionally, the in-patient medical costs of both treatment arms were compared. 40 patients with solid tumours were randomized to receive HD-VIC chemotherapy with or without amifostine (910 mg/m2 at day 1–3) given as a short infusion prior to carboplatin and ifosfamide. Patients were stratified according to pretreatment. HDCT consisted of an 18 h infusion of carboplatin (500 mg/m2/d over 18 h), ifosfamide (4 g/m2/d over 4 h) and etoposide (500 mg/m2/d) all given for 3 consecutive days. All patients received prophylactic application of G-CSF (5 μg kg−1 subcutaneously) to ameliorate neutropenia after treatment. Patients were monitored for nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal side effects, haematopoietic recovery, as well as frequency of fever and infections. The median fall of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 10% from baseline in the amifostine group (105 to 95 ml min−1) and 37% in the control patient group (107 to 67 ml min−1) (P< 0.01). Amifostine-treated patients revealed a less pronounced increase in albumine and low molecular weight protein urinary excretion. Stomatitis grade III/IV occurred in 25% without versus 0% of patients with amifostine (P = 0.01). Acute nausea/vomiting was frequently observed immediately during or after the application of amifostine despite intensive antiemetic prophylaxis consisting of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists/dexamethasone/trifluorpromazine. However, delayed emesis occurred more often in the control patients. Engraftment of neutrophil (> 500 μl−1) and thrombocytes (> 25 000 μl−1)were observed at days 9 versus 10 and 10 versus 12, respectively, both slightly in favour of the amifostine arm. In addition, a lower number of days with fever and a shortened duration of hospital stay were observed in the amifostine arm. The reduction of acute toxicity observed in the amifostine arm resulted in 30% savings in costs for supportive care (Euro 4396 versus Euro 3153 per patient). Taking into account the drug costs of amifostine, calculation of in-patient treatment costs from the start of chemotherapy to discharge revealed additional costs of Euro 540 per patient in the amifostine arm. This randomized pilot study indicates that both organ and haematotoxicity of HD-VIC chemotherapy can be ameliorated by the use of amifostine. Additionally, a nearly complete preservation of GFR was observed in amifostine-treated patients which may be advantageous if repetitive cycles of HDCT are planned. Larger randomized trials evaluating amifostine cytoprotection during high-dose chemotherapy are warranted. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
toxicity; high-dose chemotherapy; PBSC transplantation; cytoprotection; amifostine; pharmacoeconomics
We evaluated the expression patterns of proapoptotic BAX, antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and p53, the proposed upstream effector of these molecules, as potential prognostic markers in UICC stage III colon cancer by immunohistochemical staining. To identify high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI+) individuals, we performed single-strand conformation polymorphism-based analysis for BAT26. A total of 188 patients who had received 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy (5-FU/folinic acid or 5-FU/levamisole) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 84.5 months. We found that BAX, Bcl-2 and p53 protein expressions were high or positive in 59, 70 and 50% of 188 cases, respectively. MSI+ tumours were detected in 9% of 174 evaluable patients. BAX or Bcl-2 was correlated with a higher degree of differentiation or left-sided tumours (P=0.01 or P=0.03, respectively); MSI was correlated with right-sided tumours (P<0.0001). In contrast to p53, Bcl-2, or MSI, low BAX, advanced pN category, low grade of differentiation and treatment with 5-FU/levamisole were univariately associated with poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.0005, P=0.001, P=0.005 and P=0.01, respectively) and poorer overall survival (OS) (P=0.002, P=0.0001, P=0.003 and P=0.02, respectively). Besides pN category and treatment arm, BAX was an independent variable related to both OS and DFS (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively). In both univariate and multivariate analysis, the p53−/BAX high in comparison with the p53+/BAX high subset conferred a significantly improved DFS (P=0.03 and P=0.03, respectively) as well as a marginally improved OS (P=0.07 and P=0.08, respectively). BAX protein expression may be of central significance for clinical outcome to 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer, and bivariate analysis of p53/BAX possibly may provide further prognostic evidence.
adjuvant chemotherapy; BAT26; BAX; Bcl-2; colon carcinoma; microsatellite instability; p53/BAX pathway; prognosis
To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of tumour cell contamination of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections and to correlate these data with the clinical outcome after high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with stem cell rescue in patients with a high-risk Ewing tumour. Peripheral blood stem cell collections obtained from 171 patients were analysed. Tumour contamination was assessed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). The files of 88 patients who underwent HDCT followed by PBSC reinfusion were reviewed in detail, and their outcome compared to the PBSC RT–PCR results. Seven of 88 PBSC collections (8%) contained tumour cells as detected by RT–PCR. Peripheral blood stem cells were collected after a median of five cycles of chemotherapy. No clinical factor predictive of tumour cell contamination of PBSC harvest could be identified. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of the whole study population were 45.3 % and 51.8 % at 3 years from the date of the graft, respectively. Forty-five patients relapsed with a median time of 15 months after graft, only four of whom had tumour cell contamination of the PBSC harvest. Tumour cell contamination of PBSC collection is rare and does not seem to be associated with a significantly poorer EFS or OS in this high-risk population.
ewing tumour; PBSC; tumour cell contamination; RT–PCR; outcome
Background: The discovery that genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes accompany tumour formation in many human tumours has encouraged the search for genes that promote or suppress tumour spread and metastasis; nm23 is a promising candidate for a metastasis suppressing gene.
Aims: To evaluate whether expression of nm23-H1 protein or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the nm23-H1 gene is associated with colon cancer progression.
Materials/Methods: Paraffin wax embedded tissue sections were analysed immunohistochemically. DNA isolated from normal and tumour tissue was used for LOH analysis using a variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) marker located in the untranslated 5′ region of the nm23-H1 gene. RNA isolated from tumour and normal tissue was used for “real time” RT-PCR.
Results: Of 102 adenocarcinomas examined, 58.8% stained weakly for nm23-H1 protein. There was a negative correlation between nm23-H1 positivity and tumour histological grade. In VNTR analysis, 70.2% of patients were informative and 27.4% of tumours had nm23-H1 LOH. There was a positive correlation between nm23-H1 LOH and both tumour histological grade and Dukes’s stage. Expression of nm23-H1 mRNA was increased in 22 of 30 colon tumours compared with normal tissue. No significant correlation was found between nm23-H1 mRNA expression and histological grade or Dukes’s stage of tumours.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that nm23-H1 protein expression in early stages may have a role in suppressing metastasis in sporadic colon cancer, whereas at a later stage both reduced nm23-H1 protein expression and LOH of the nm23-H1 gene may play role in colon cancer progression and metastasis.
loss of heterozygosity; colon carcinoma; nm23-H1; protein expression; real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Aims—To explore the role of the Peutz-Jeghers gene (LKB1) in sporadic breast and colon cancers.
Methods—Thirty consecutive sporadic carcinomas of the breast and 23 of the colon were selected. DNA was extracted from paraffin wax embedded tissue and analysed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at microsatellite markers D19S886 and D19S565 close to the LKB1 gene. Tumours showing LOH were screened for LKB1 mutations by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP).
Results—Five breast carcinomas showed LOH (21% and 7% of those informative for D19S886 and D19S565, respectively). Five of the colorectal carcinomas showed LOH (15% and 36% of those informative for D19S886 and D19S565, respectively), with one sample showing allele loss with both markers. Screening of these 10 carcinomas by SSCP identified one migrational shift but sequencing revealed an intronic polymorphism only. Therefore, no coding mutations were found in these carcinomas.
Conclusions—These findings suggest that although allele loss at the LKB1 locus occurs relatively frequently in sporadic breast and colon cancers, mutations do not seem to be a feature.
Key Words: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome • LKB1 • colon cancer • breast cancer
Detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA flow cytometry (FCM) were used to trace the origin of bilateral ovarian cancer from 16 patients. From each tumour the DNA index (DI) and LOH patterns for chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 17, 18, 22 and X were determined with 36 microsatellite markers. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded as well as frozen specimens were used. Flow cytometric cell sorting was used to enrich tumour cells for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-driven LOH analysis. Analysis of the LOH data showed that in 12 of the 16 cases concordance was observed for all informative markers, namely retention of heterozygosity (ROH) or loss of identical alleles in both tumour samples. In four cases discordant LOH patterns were observed. In two cases the discordant LOH was found for one of the chromosomes tested while other LOH patterns clearly indicated a unifocal origin. This suggests limited clonal divergence. In the other two cases all LOH patterns were discordant, most likely indicating an independent origin. The number of chromosomes showing LOH ranged from 0 to 6. Comparison of DNA FCM and the LOH data showed that the latter technique has a higher sensitivity for the detection of a unifocal origin. In 14/16 cases evidence was found for a unifocal origin, while in two cases clonal divergence was found at LOH level and in two other cases clonal divergence at DNA ploidy level. In 12 cases the complete observed allelotype had developed before the formation of metastases, including the two cases showing a large DNA ploidy difference.
Background: α Fetoprotein (AFP) producing gastric cancer is an unusual form of aggressive adenocarcinoma with a complex histological picture, including enteroblastic and hepatoid differentiation.
Aims: To investigate the genetic events underlying the phenotypic diversity in AFP producing gastric cancer and the ability of these tumours to produce AFP ectopically.
Methods: Multiple foci from 19 AFP producing gastric adenocarcinomas were microdissected and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was performed with a panel of microsatellite markers on nine chromosomal arms.
Results: For informative cases, LOH was most frequently detected on 17p (100%), followed by 13q (88%), 3p (87%), 5q and 9p (80%), 11q (70%), 18q (58%), 16q (53%), and 8p (50%). The average fractional allelic loss was 0.72. LOH was detected either homogeneously throughout the microdissected foci, or only in some parts of the neoplastic foci for each case. Heterogeneous patterns of LOH indicated genetic progression and/or divergence in clonal evolution. Furthermore, in six cases with heterogeneous LOH of 13q, 13q LOH was restricted to immunohistochemically AFP positive neoplastic foci.
Conclusion: AFP-GC arises as an aggressive clone with extensive LOH and high fractional allelic loss. The presence of heterogeneous patterns of LOH suggested that the AFP producing carcinoma foci might evolve through genetic progression and/or genetic divergence. Silencing of the crucial gene on 13q may be involved in the acquisition of the AFP producing phenotype.
α fetoprotein; gastric cancer; loss of heterozygosity; genetics
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
Recent studies in breast cancer suggest that monitoring the isolated tumour cells (ITC) may be used as a surrogate marker to evaluate the efficacy of systemic chemotherapy. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of preoperative chemotherapy on ITC in the blood and bone marrow of patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer. After sorting out the CD45-positive cells, the presence of ITC defined as cytokeratin-positive cells was examined before and after preoperative chemotherapy. The patients received two courses of preoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin (100 mg m−2, day 1) and 5-fluorouracil (1000 mg m−2, days 1–5), administered every 28 days. Fourteen of 32 (44%) patients initially diagnosed with ITC in blood and/or bone marrow were found to be negative (responders) after preoperative chemotherapy (P<0.01). The incidence of ITC in bone marrow was also significantly (P<0.01) reduced from 97 (31 of 32) to 53% (17 of 32). The difference between patients positive for ITC in the blood before (n=7, 22%) and after (n=5, 16%) chemotherapy was statistically insignificant. The overall 3-year survival rates were 32 and 49% in the responders and non-responders, respectively (P=0.683). These data indicate that preoperative chemotherapy can reduce the incidence of ITC in patients with gastric cancer.
gastric cancer; isolated tumour cells; neoadjuvant chemotherapy
High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell support has been studied in both the salvage and first-line setting in advanced germ cell tumor (GCT) patients with poor-risk features. While early studies reported significant treatment-related mortality, introduction of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, recombinant growth factors and better supportive care have decreased toxicity; and in more recent reports treatment-related deaths are observed in <3% of patients. Two to three cycles of high-dose carboplatin and etoposide is the standard backbone for HDCT, given with or without additional agents including ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Three large randomized Phase III trials have failed to show a benefit of HDCT over conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) in the first-line treatment of patients with intermediate- or poor-risk advanced GCT, and to date the routine use of HDCT has been reserved for the salvage setting. Several prognostic models have been developed to help predict outcome of salvage HDCT, the most recent of which applies to both CDCT and HDCT in the initial salvage setting. Patients that relapse after HDCT are usually considered incurable, and additional therapy is provided with palliative intent.
chemotherapy; germ cell tumors; high-dose chemotherapy; stem cell transplantation; testicular cancer
AIM: To investigate the relation between gastric cancer and microsatellite instability (MSI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and promoter region methylation.
METHODS: Fifty primary gastric carcinoma specimens were collected from patients with no family history of cancer. In addition, normal tissues were also collected from patients as controls. DNA was extracted by polymerase chain reaction for single-strand conformation polymorphism, bisulfite DNA sequencing, and methylation-specific band analysis.
RESULTS: The positive rate for MSI and LOH in gastric carcinoma was 16% and 20%, respectively. According to the tumor, node and metastasis staging system, the LOH frequency was higher in gastric carcinoma at stages III and IV than in gastric carcinoma at stages I and II (P = 0.01), which was also significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinico- pathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma. Methylation of bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) gene promoter was detected in 64.44% of gastric carcinoma tissue samples. However, no statistical significance was observed between promoter region methylation and carcinoma differentiation. Interestingly, the BMP3 gene methylation rate was 71.05% and 28.58%, respectively, in MSI positive and negative cases (P = 0.031), suggesting that BMP3 genetic instability and promoter methylation are initiated during gastric carcinogenesis. LOH was detected mostly in the late stages of gastric carcinoma, indicating that gastric carcinoma at late stages has a higher infiltration and a poorer prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Promotor region methylation of the BMP3 gene may cause gastric carcinoma in Chinese people.
Bone morphogenetic protein 3 gene; Gastric carcinoma; Microsatellite instability; Loss of heterozygocity; Methylation
Background. Dose-dependent response makes certain pediatric brain tumors appropriate targets for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue (HDCT-AHSCR). Methods. The clinical outcomes and toxicities were analyzed retrospectively for 18 consecutive patients ≤19 y/o treated with HDCT-AHSCR at UCLA (1999–2009). Results. Patients' median age was 2.3 years. Fourteen had primary and 4 recurrent tumors: 12 neural/embryonal (7 medulloblastomas, 4 primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and a pineoblastoma), 3 glial/mixed, and 3 germ cell tumors. Eight patients had initial gross-total and seven subtotal resections. HDCT mostly consisted of carboplatin and/or thiotepa ± etoposide (n = 16). Nine patients underwent a single AHSCR and nine ≥3 tandems. Three-year progression-free and overall survival probabilities were 60.5% ± 16 and 69.3% ± 11.5. Ten patients with pre-AHSCR complete remissions were alive/disease-free, whereas 5 of 8 with measurable disease were deceased (median followup: 2.3 yrs). Nine of 13 survivors avoided radiation. Single AHSCR regimens had greater toxicity than ≥3 AHSCR (P < .01). Conclusion. HDCT-AHSCR has a definitive, though limited role for selected pediatric brain tumors with poor prognosis and pretransplant complete/partial remissions.
The efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was investigated in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Patients over 1 yr of age who were newly diagnosed with stage 4 neuroblastoma from January 2000 to December 2005 were enrolled in The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology registry. All patients who were assigned to receive HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the efficacy of single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Seventy and 71 patients were assigned to receive single or tandem HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis. Fifty-seven and 59 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR as scheduled. Twenty-four and 38 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group remained event free with a median follow-up of 56 (24-88) months. When the survival rate was analyzed according to intent-to-treat at diagnosis, the probability of the 5-yr event-free survival±95% confidence intervals was higher in the tandem HDCT group than in the single HDCT group (51.2±12.4% vs. 31.3±11.5%, P=0.030). The results of the present study demonstrate that the tandem HDCT/ASCR strategy is significantly better than the single HDCT/ASCR strategy for improved survival in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients.
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Transplantation, Autologous
Although a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is commonly observed using microsatellite markers in a cell-proliferating malignant disorder, controversial findings of psoriasis, a keratinocyte-outgrowth disease, remain to be explained. It was hypothesized that unstable natures of the microsatellite markers for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) might give a rise to either a false-positive or -negative LOH. Twenty-one frozen skin tissues and 33 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archives were obtained from patients with psoriatic plaques and colorectal cancers, respectively. In the frozen psoriatic skin, two of the 17 microsatellite markers selected from 11 chromosomal arms were associated with artifact LOHs that were not reproduced in repeated PCRs. The remaining 15 stable microsatellite markers with few PCR artifacts demonstrated a borderline-level LOH in cases with an ambiguous heterozygosity such as a juxtaposed allelic band. Infrequent LOHs (3 out of 242 heterozygous markers, 1.2%) were detected in psoriatic cases with two separate alleles. In colorectal cancers, a set of the 15 stable microsatellite markers identified a minimal borderline-level LOH at the cut-off point that was same with that of psoriasis. These results indicate that the selection of reproducible microsatellite sequences and the cautious criteria for informative heterozygosity are required to obtain the reliable LOH results from variable genomic DNAs, and that psoriatic lesions harbor few LOH.
Aims: To determine whether microsatellite mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene have pathological or prognostic significance in nephroblastomas and to correlate APC alterations with β catenin immunoexpression.
Methods: One hundred nephroblastomas were analysed, 83 of which received preoperative chemotherapy. Normal and tumour DNA was isolated using standard proteinase K digestion and phenol/chloroform extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissue. Polymerase chain reaction using four APC microsatellite markers—D5S210, D5S299, D5S82, and D5S346—was performed and the products analysed. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the LSAB kit with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. Results were correlated with clinicopathological data using the χ2 test.
Results: Allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity was more frequent than microsatellite instability, with 30% of cases showing allelic imbalance/ loss of heterozygosity and 16% showing microsatellite instability. Although there was a significant correlation between the results for individual markers and the clinicopathological data, the overall results do not support a prognostic role for APC in nephroblastoma. Expression of β catenin was seen in 93% of cases. Staining was predominantly membranous, with epithelium, blastema, and stroma being immunoreactive. Cytoplasmic redistribution was seen in 58% of cases, but no nuclear staining was detected. No significant associations between β catenin expression and the clinicopathological parameters were found. Kaplan–Meier survival plots showed that patients with loss of membranous staining and pronounced cytoplasmic staining (score, 3) had a significantly shorter survival (p = 0.04; median survival, 5.87 months).
Conclusion: Microsatellite analysis of APC and immunoexpression of β catenin did not provide significant pathological or prognostic information in this cohort of nephroblastomas.
Background and Objectives
Several trials have generated conflicting results about the results of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT) for primary breast cancer. This meta-analysis summarizes the available evidence from all suitable studies.
Design and Methods
Prospective, randomized trials with HDCT as a first-line therapy for primary breast cancer were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest for our analysis was survival (disease-free survival and overall survival); secondary endpoints included treatment-related mortality (TRM) and second (non-breast) cancers. We used a median age of 47, a PR positive rate of 50% and a premenopausal rate of 70% as cutoff values to complete the subgroup analyses, which were pre-planned according to the prepared protocol.
Fourteen trials with 5747 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. Compared with non-HDCT, non-significant second (non-breast) cancers (RR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.82–1.98) and higher TRM (RR = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.32–8.86) were associated with HDCT for primary breast cancer. A significant DFS benefit of HDCT was documented (HR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79–0.99). No difference in OS (overall survival) was found when the studies were pooled (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.82–1.00, p = 0.062). In subgroup analysis, age and hormone receptor status had a significant interaction with prolonged DFS and OS.
HDCT has a benefit on DFS and OS compared to SDC in some special patients with high-risk primary breast cancer.
AIM: To investigate the prognostic value of chromosome 18q microsatellite alterations (MA) in stage II colon cancer.
METHODS: One hundred and six patients with sporadic stage II colon cancer were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor and adjacent normal mucosal tissue samples. MA, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI), was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis and DNA sequencing at 5 microsatellite loci on chromosome 18q (D18S474, D18S55, D18S58, D18S61 and D18S64).
RESULTS: Among the 102 patients eligible for MA information, the overall frequencies of LOH, high and low frequency MSI/microsatellite stable were 49.0%, 17.6% and 82.4%, respectively. The high frequency of 18q-LOH was significantly associated with the poor 5-year overall survival (OS) (P = 0.008) and disease free survival (P = 0.006). High levels of MSI were significantly associated with a longer 5-year OS (P = 0.045) while the higher frequency of 18q-LOH at the loci of D18S474 and D18S61 was significantly associated with a poorer 5-year OS (P = 0.010 and 0.005, respectively). But multivariate analysis showed that only the frequency of 18q-LOH was significantly associated with the prognosis of the disease.
CONCLUSION: High frequency of 18q-LOH is an independent prognostic factor indicating poor prognosis of the patients with stage II colon cancer.
Chromosome 18q; Loss of heterozygosity; Microsatellite instability; Stage II colon cancer; Prognosis
Background—The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)
and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are strongly
implicated in tumour invasion and metastasis.
Aims—To investigate the presence of individual
MMPs and TIMPs in gastric cancer.
Methods—The presence of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3,
MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was identified in a group of gastric cancers
(n=74) by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies. These
antibodies were effective on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded sections.
Results—A large proportion (94%) of gastric
cancers contained MMP-2; MMP-1 and MMP-9 were also detected in 73% and
70% of tumours respectively. MMP-3 was only present in 27% of
tumours. MMP-1 and MMP-9 were found predominantly in intestinal type
tumours. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were identified in 41% and 57% of tumours
respectively. Immunoreactivity for individual MMPs or TIMPs was not
identified in normal stomach.
Conclusions—This study shows the presence
of matrix metalloproteinases, particularly MMP-2, and TIMPs in stomach
cancer. Antibodies which are effective in formalin fixed, paraffin wax
embedded sections are useful for the identification of MMPs and TIMPs
in diagnostic specimens.
immunohistochemistry; matrix metalloproteinase; neoplasm; stomach
Previously, we indicated that stromal genetic instability might contribute to tumorigenesis of both sporadic and ulcerative colitis associated colorectal adenocarcinomas. Considering the established adenoma‐adenocarcinoma sequence, in this study we analysed genetic instability in colorectal adenoma cells and surrounding stroma.
In 164 colorectal tumours (34 hyperplastic polyps, 38 tubular adenomas with low grade dysplasia (TA‐L), 51 tubular adenomas with high grade dysplasia (TA‐H), and 41 invasive carcinomas), epithelial and stromal genetic instability with National Cancer Institute standard microsatellite markers and chromosome 17 (Chr17) markers, were analysed by a combination of laser capture microdissection and GeneScan approaches.
While frequencies of both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) were extremely low in hyperplastic polyps, LOH in tubular adenomas was detected in both epithelial (TA‐L 13.2%, TA‐H 27.5%) and stromal (5.3% and 5.9%, respectively) elements, along with MSI (5.3% and 13.7%, and 5.3 and 5.9%, respectively). Frequencies of epithelial alterations were higher in TA‐H than in TA‐L, and greatest in the carcinoma group. On the other hand, frequencies of stromal LOH or MSI were almost constant (5.3% ∼ 17.1%, 5.3% ∼ 17.1%, respectively) in adenomas and invasive carcinomas. In addition, p53 was found to be significantly overexpressed in a greater proportion of TA‐L with LOH than in those without genetic instability.
The results indicate the presence of genetic alterations in stroma from an early stage of carcinogenesis, accompanied by stepwise increasing genetic instability of epithelia with progression to cancer. Thus microenvironmental changes due to genetic alteration in Chr17 markers in stromal cells may play an important role in colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma development.
genetic instability; stroma; colorectum; adenoma; tumorigenesis
Background/Aims: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 13q has been reported to occur frequently in human ovarian cancer, and indications have been found that chromosome 13 may also play a specific role in the inherited form of ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to define regions on chromosome 13 that may harbour additional tumour suppressor genes involved in the tumorigenesis of BRCA1 related ovarian and fallopian tube cancer.
Materials/methods: DNA extracted from paraffin wax blocks of 36 BRCA1 associated ovarian and fallopian tube carcinomas was analysed by LOH polymerase chain reaction using seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 13q.
Results: High LOH frequencies were found on loci 13q11, 13q14, 13q21, 13q22–31, 13q32, and 13q32–4, suggesting the presence of putative tumour suppressor genes on the long arm of chromosome 13 that may play a role in the pathogenesis of BRCA1 related ovarian and fallopian tube cancer. LOH patterns appeared to be independent of the type of BRCA1 mutation, stage, and grade. Although in some cases there were indications for loss of larger parts of chromosome 13, in most cases losses were fairly randomly distributed over chromosome 13 with retained parts in between lost parts. Microsatellite instability was found in six cases.
Conclusion: Several loci on chromosome 13q show high frequencies of LOH in BRCA1 related ovarian and fallopian tube cancer, and may therefore harbour putative tumour suppressor genes involved in the carcinogenesis of this particular type of hereditary cancer.
BRCA1; loss of heterozygosity; ovarian carcinoma; fallopian tube carcinoma