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1.  Effects of prehospital 12-lead ECG on processes of care and mortality in acute coronary syndrome: a linked cohort study from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project 
Heart  2014;100(12):944-950.
Objective
To describe patterns of prehospital ECG (PHECG) use and determine its association with processes and outcomes of care in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI.
Methods
Population-based linked cohort study of a national myocardial infarction registry.
Results
288 990 patients were admitted to hospitals via emergency medical services (EMS) between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2009. PHECG use increased overall (51% vs 64%, adjusted OR (aOR) 2.17, 95% CI 2.12 to 2.22), and in STEMI (64% vs 79%, aOR 2.34, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.44). Patients who received PHECG were younger (71 years vs 74 years, P<0.0001); and less likely to be female (33.1% vs 40.3%, OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.89), or to have comorbidities than those who did not. For STEMI, reperfusion was more frequent in those having PHECG (83.5% vs 74.4%, p<0.0001). PHECG was associated with more primary percutaneous coronary intervention patients achieving call-to-balloon time <90 min (27.9% vs 21.4%, aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.54) and more patients who received fibrinolytic therapy achieving door-to-needle time <30 min (90.6% vs 83.7%, aOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.38). Patients with PHECG exhibited significantly lower 30-day mortality rates than those who did not (7.4% vs 8.2%, aOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.96).
Conclusions
Findings from this national MI registry demonstrate a survival advantage in STEMI and non-STEMI patients when PHECG was used.
doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304599
PMCID: PMC4033209  PMID: 24732676
pre-hospital care; emergency medicine; 12 lead ECG; quality of care and outcomes; acute coronary syndrome
2.  Hospital Improvement in Time to Reperfusion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction, 1999-2002 
Background: Rapid reperfusion improves survival for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to analyze recent trends in door-to-reperfusion time and identify hospital characteristics associated with improved performance.
Methods: In this retrospective observational study from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 3 and 4 between 1999 and 2002, we analyzed door-to-needle and door-to-balloon times in patients admitted with STEMI and receiving fibrinolytic therapy (n=68,439 patients in 1,015 hospitals) or percutaneous coronary intervention (n=33,647 patients in 421 hospitals) within 6 hours of hospital arrival.
Results: In 1999, only 46% of the patients in the fibrinolytic therapy cohort were treated within the recommended 30-minute door-to-needle time; only 35% of the patients in the percutaneous coronary intervention cohort were treated within the recommended 90-minute door-to-balloon time. Improvement in these times to reperfusion over the 4-year study period was not statistically significant (door-to-needle: -0.01 min/yr, CI -0.24, +0.23, p > 0.9; door-to-balloon: -0.57 min/yr, CI -1.24, +0.10, p=0.09). Only 33% (337/1,015) of hospitals improved door-to-needle time by more than 1 minute per year, and 26% (110/421) improved door-to-balloon time by more than 3 minutes per year. No hospital characteristic was significantly associated with improvement in door-to-needle time. Only high annual percutaneous coronary intervention volume and location in New England were significantly associated with greater improvement in door-to-balloon time.
Conclusions: Fewer than half of patients with STEMI receive reperfusion in the recommended door-to-needle or door-to-balloon time, and mean time to reperfusion has not decreased significantly in recent years. Relatively few hospitals have shown substantial improvement.
Condensed Abstract
We analyzed door-to-needle and door-to-balloon times in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and receiving fibrinolytic therapy (n=68,439 patients in 1,015 hospitals) or percutaneous coronary intervention (n=33,647 patients in 421 hospitals) within 6 hours of hospital arrival in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 3 and 4. Despite national initiatives to measure and reduce these times, guideline recommendations were met less than half of the time, with no substantial trend toward improvement. Nevertheless, some individual hospitals experienced substantial improvement while others worsened. Structural features of hospitals did not adequately predict change in performance. Other factors need to be identified and used by hospitals for performance improvement programs.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2005.04.071
PMCID: PMC1475926  PMID: 16386663
3.  Effect of Prior Stroke on the Use of Evidence-Based Therapies and In-Hospital Outcomes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction (from the NCDR ACTION GWTG Registry) 
The American journal of cardiology  2011;107(10):1441-1446.
Patients with previous stroke are at high-risk for myocardial infarction (MI). Concern regarding increased risk of bleeding or recurrent stroke in this patient population might alter therapeutic decisions. Data were collected from 281 hospitals in the United States in the NCDR ACTION Registry. Patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI; n = 15,997) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI; n = 25,514) entered into the registry from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2007 were included. We assessed use of evidence-based medications and procedures in patients with and without previous stroke. Risk-adjusted odds ratio of death, major bleeding not related to coronary artery bypass grafting, and a composite outcome (major adverse cardiac events [MACEs], i.e., death/MI/stroke/cardiogenic shock/congestive heart failure) were calculated using logistic regression. Previous stroke was reported in 5.1% of patients with STEMI and 9.3% of those with NSTEMI. Of patients with STEMI eligible for reperfusion therapy, those with previous stroke were less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared to patients without previous stroke. Patients with previous stroke had longer door-to-needle and door-to-balloon times. Of patients with STEMI and NSTEMI, those with previous stroke were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies. Death, MACEs, and major bleeding were more common with previous stroke. When adjusted for baseline risk, patients with previous stroke were at increased risk of death (only those with STEMI) and MACEs but not bleeding. In conclusion, patients with STEMI and previous stroke are at increased risk for death and patients with STEMI and NSTEMI are at increased risk of MACE. Despite this, previous stroke patients are less likely to receive guideline-based MI therapies.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.01.020
PMCID: PMC3743416  PMID: 21420059
4.  Time trends in STEMI—improved treatment and outcome but still a gender gap: a prospective observational cohort study from the SWEDEHEART register 
BMJ Open  2012;2(2):e000726.
Objective
In ST elevation myocardial infarction women received less evidence-based medicine and had worse outcome during the fibrinolytic era. With the shift to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) as preferred reperfusion strategy, the authors aimed to investigate whether these gender differences has diminished.
Design, setting and participants
Cohort study including consecutive ST elevation myocardial infarction patients registered 1998–2000 (n=15 697) and 2004–2006 (n=14 380) in the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions.
Outcome measures
1. Use of evidence-based medicine such as reperfusion therapy (pPCI or fibrinolysis) and evidence-based drugs at discharge. 2. Inhospital and 1-year mortality.
Results
Of those who got reperfusion therapy, pPCI was the choice in 9% in the early period compared with 68% in the late period. In the early period, reperfusion therapy was given to 63% of women versus 71% of men, p<0.001. Corresponding figures in the late period were 64% vs 75%, p<0.001. After multivariable adjustments, the ORs (women vs men) were 0.86 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.94) in the early and 0.80 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.89) in the late period. As regards evidence-based secondary preventive drugs at discharge in hospital survivors (platelet inhibitors, statins, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and β-blockers), there were small gender differences in the early period. In the late period, women had 14%–25% less chance of receiving these drugs, OR 0.75 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.81) through 0.86 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.00). In both periods, multivariable-adjusted inhospital mortality was higher in women, OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.36) and 1.21 (1.00 to 1.46). One-year mortality was gender equal, HR 0.95 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.05) and 0.96 (0.86 to 1.08), after adding evidence-based medicine to the multivariable adjustments.
Conclusion
In spite of an intense gender debate, focus on guideline adherence and the change in reperfusion strategy, the last decade gender differences in use of reperfusion therapy and evidence-based therapy at discharge did not decline during the study period, rather the opposite. Moreover, higher mortality in women persisted.
Article summary
Article focus
With (1) the focus on treatment guidelines, (2) the attention on gender differences in management and outcome and (3) the change in reperfusion strategy in STEMI in the last decade, we hypothesised
that gender differences in adherence to treatment guidelines would have diminished and
that gender differences in outcome would have decreased.
Key messages
Management improved and mortality decreased in STEMI patients in the late compared with the early period.
The gender treatment gap did not decrease between the two time periods.
The gender outcome gap did not decrease between the two time periods.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The study included a huge amount of STEMI patients, with enough numbers to assure adequate statistical analyses. Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies register is a unique Swedish National Quality register, with quality control and audit measures, covering all hospitals in Sweden treating STEMI patients and has standardised criteria for defining MI. Mortality data are complete as the vital status of all Swedish citizens is registered in the Cause of Death Register. One limitation is the non-randomised observational nature. Thus, multivariate analyses were used in order to reduce the bias inherent in this type of studies. Adjustments might be influenced by the lack of registration on some possible confounding factors in the database, for example, non-cardiac comorbidities and contraindications for specific treatments.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000726
PMCID: PMC3323814  PMID: 22457480
5.  Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate is an Independent Predictor of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(4):184-190.
Background and Objectives
Patients with renal dysfunction (RD) experience worse prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of admission estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on clinical outcomes of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI).
Subjects and Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 4,542 eligible patients from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). Patients were divided into three groups according to eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2): normal renal function (RF) group (eGFR ≥60, n=3,515), moderate RD group (eGFR between 30 to 59, n=894) and severe RD group (eGFR <30, n=133). Baseline characteristics, angiographic and procedural results, and in-hospital outcomes between the three groups were compared.
Results
Age, gender, Killip class ≥3, hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, peak creatine kinase-MB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, left ventricle ejection fraction, multivessel disease, infarct-related artery and rate of successful PCI were significantly different between the 3 groups (p<0.05). With decline in RF, in-hospital complications developed with an increasing frequency (14.1% vs. 31.8% vs. 45.5%, p<0.0001). In-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in the moderate and severe RD groups as compared to the normal RF group (2.3% vs. 13.9% vs. 25.6%, p<0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality was 2.67 {95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-4.93, p=0.002} in the moderate RD group, and 4.09 (95% CI 1.48-11.28, p=0.006) in the severe RD group as compared to the normal RF group.
Conclusion
Decreased admission eGFR was associated with worse clinical courses and it was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.4.184
PMCID: PMC3098410  PMID: 21607168
Glomerular filtration rate; Acute myocardial infarction; Mortality; Percutaneous coronary intervention
6.  Primary Angioplasty for the Treatment of Acute ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction 
Executive Summary
One of the longest running debates in cardiology is about the best reperfusion therapy for patients with evolving acute myocardial infarction (MI). Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY) is a surgical treatment to reopen a blocked coronary artery to restore blood flow. It is a type of percutaneous (through-the-skin) coronary intervention (PCI) also known as balloon angioplasty. When performed on patients with acute myocardial infarction, it is called primary angioplasty. Primary angioplasty is an alternative to thrombolysis, clot-dissolving drug therapy, for patients with acute MI associated with ST-segment elevation (STEMI), a change recorded with an electrocardiogram (ECG) during chest pain.
This review of the clinical benefits and policy implications of primary angioplasty was requested by the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee and prompted by the recent publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the New England Journal of Medicine (1) that compared referred primary angioplasty with on-site thrombolysis. The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed the literature comparing primary angioplasty with thrombolysis and other therapies (pre-hospital thrombolysis and facilitated angioplasty, the latter approach consisting of thrombolysis followed by primary angioplasty irrespective of response to thrombolysis) for acute STEMI.
There have been many RCTs and meta-analyses of these RCTs comparing primary angioplasty with thrombolysis and these were the subject of this analysis. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in mortality, reinfarction, and stroke for patients receiving primary angioplasty. Although the individual trials did not show significant improvements in mortality alone, they did show it for the outcomes of nonfatal reinfarction and stroke, and for an end point combining mortality, reinfarction, and stroke. However, researchers have raised concerns about these studies.
A main concern with the large RCTs is that they lack consistency in methods. Furthermore, there is some question as to their generalizability to practice in Ontario. Across the RCTs, there were differences in the type of thrombolytic drug, the use of stenting versus balloon-only angioplasty, and the use of the newer antiplatelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. The largest trial did not offer routine follow-up angioplasty for patients receiving thrombolysis, which is the practice in Ontario, and the meta-analysis included trials with streptokinase, an agent seldom used in hospitals in Ontario. Thus, the true magnitude of mortality benefit can only be surmised from head-to-head comparisons of current standard therapies for primary angioplasty and for thrombolysis.
By taking a more restrictive sample of the available studies, the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review that was more consistent with patterns of practice in Ontario and selected trials that used accelerated alteplase as the thrombolytic agent.
Results from this meta-analysis suggest that the rates for primary angioplasty are significantly better for mortality, reinfarction, and stroke, in the short term (30 days), and for mortality, reinfarction, and the combined end point at 6 months. When primary angioplasty was compared with in-hospital thrombolysis, results showed a significant reduction in adverse event rates associated with primary angioplasty. However, 1 large RCT of pre-hospital thrombolysis (i.e., thrombolysis given by paramedics before arriving at the hospital) compared with primary angioplasty documented that pre-hospital thrombolysis is an equivalent intervention to primary thrombolysis in terms of survival. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of studies that compared pre-hospital thrombolysis with in-hospital thrombolysis showed a reduction in all hospital mortality rates in favour of pre-hospital thrombolysis, supporting the findings of the pre-hospital thrombolysis study. (2)
Clinical trials to date have reported that hospital stay is often reduced for patients who receive primary angioplasty compared with thrombolysis. Using a cost-analysis performed alongside the only study from Ontario, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there might be savings associated with primary angioplasty. These savings may partly offset the investment the provincial government would have to make to increase access to this technology. These savings should also be shown outside of a clinical trial protocol if the overall efficiencies of primary angioplasty are to be verified.
Based on this health technology policy analysis, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concludes that primary angioplasty has advantages with respect to mortality and combined end points compared with in-hospital thrombolysis (Level 1 evidence). However, pre-hospital thrombolysis improves survival compared with in-hospital thrombolysis (Level 1 evidence) and is equivalent to primary angioplasty (Level 1 evidence).
Results from the literature review raise concerns about the loss of therapeutic advantage due to treatment delays, time lapse from symptom onset to revascularization, time-of-day variations, the hospital volume of procedures, and the ability of hospitals to achieve in practice what RCTs have shown.
Furthermore, questions relevant to applying primary angioplasty widely, involve the diagnosis by paramedics, ambulance diversion protocols, paramedic training, and inter-hospital transfer protocols. These logistical considerations need to be addressed to realise the potential to improve patient outcomes. In its analysis, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concludes that it is unrealistic to reorganise the emergency medical services across Ontario to fully implement a primary angioplasty program.
Finally, it is important to evaluate the potential of this technology in the context of Ontario’s health system. This includes urban and rural considerations, the ability to expand access to primary angioplasty and to minimize symptom-to-assessment time through a diverse strategy including public awareness. Therefore, a measured, evaluative approach to adopting this technology is warranted.
Furthermore, the alternative approach to pre-hospital or early thrombolysis, especially within 120 minutes from onset of symptoms, should be considered when developing the approach to improving outcomes for acute MI. This could include efforts to decrease the symptom-to-thrombolysis time through strategies such as a concerted public education program to expedite presentation to emergency rooms after onset of symptoms, a pre-hospital ECG and thrombolysis checklist in ambulances to reduce door-to-needle time on arrival at emergency rooms, and, especially in remote areas, access to pre-hospital thrombolysis.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat therefore recommends that this analysis of primary angioplasty be viewed in the overall context of all interventions for the management of acute MI and, in particular, of improving access to primary angioplasty and maximising the use of early thrombolysis.
Outcomes for patients with acute MI can be improved if efforts are made to optimise the interval from symptom onset to thrombolysis or angioplasty. This will require concerted efforts, including public awareness through education to reduce the symptom-to-emergency room time, and maximising efficiencies in door-to-intervention times for primary angioplasty and for early thrombolysis.
Primary angioplasty and early thrombolysis cannot be considered in isolation from one another. For example, patients who have persistent STEMI 90 minutes after receiving thrombolysis should be considered for angioplasty (“rescue angioplasty”). Furthermore, for patients with acute MI who are in cardiac shock, primary angioplasty is considered the preferred intervention. The concomitant use of primary angioplasty and thrombolysis (“facilitated angioplasty”) is considered experimental and has no place in routine management of acute MI at this time. In remote parts of the province, consideration should be given to introducing pre-hospital thrombolysis as the preferred intervention through upgrading a select number of paramedics to advanced care status.
PMCID: PMC3387753  PMID: 23074449
7.  Use of Evidence-Based Therapies in and Short-term Outcomes of STEMI and NSTEMI in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Report from the National Cardiovascular Data ACTION Registry 
Circulation  2010;121(3):357-365.
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and death. Our goal was to characterize the association between CKD severity and short-term outcomes and the use of in-hospital evidence-based therapies among patients with STEMI and NSTEMI.
Methods and Results
The study sample was drawn from the ACTION Registry, a nation-wide sample of STEMI (n=19,029) and NSTEMI (n=30,462) patients. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation in relation to use of acute (first 24 hours) therapies and early (first 48 hours) cardiac catheterization as well as in-hospital major bleeding events and death. Overall, 30.5% and 42.9% of patients with STEMI and NSTEMI, respectively, had CKD. Regardless of MI type, patients with progressively more severe CKD had higher rates of death. For STEMI, the odds ratio for Stage 3a, 3b, 4, and 5 CKD compared to patients with no CKD was 2.49, 3.72, 4.82, and 7.97 (p-value for trend<0.0001). For NSTEMI, the analogous odds ratios were 1.81, 2.41, 3.50, and 4.09 (p-value for trend<0.0001). In addition, patients with progressively more severe CKD were less likely to receive acute evidence-based therapies including aspirin, beta-blockers or clopidogrel, undergo any reperfusion (STEMI) or revascularization (NSTEMI), and had higher rates of bleeding.
Conclusions
Reports over the past decade have highlighted the importance of CKD among patients with MI. Data from this contemporary cohort suggest patients with CKD still receive fewer evidence-based therapies and have substantially higher mortality rates.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.865352
PMCID: PMC2874063  PMID: 20065168
Chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; dialysis; STEMI; NSTEMI; outcomes; resource utilization
8.  Management and in-hospital outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to intensive care units at the turn of the century: results from the French nationwide USIC 2000 registry 
Heart  2004;90(12):1404-1410.
Objective: To assess actual practices and in-hospital outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction on a nationwide scale.
Methods: Of 443 intensive care units in France, 369 (83%) prospectively collected data on all cases of infarction (within < 48 hours of symptom onset) in November 2000.
Results: 2320 patients (median age 68 years, 73% men) were included, of whom 83% had ST segment elevation infarction (STEMI). Patients without STEMI were older and had a more frequent history of cardiovascular disease. Median time to admission was 5.0 hours for patients with and 6.5 hours for those without STEMI. Reperfusion therapy was used for 53% of patients with STEMI (thrombolysis 28%, primary angioplasty 25%). In-hospital mortality was 8.7% (5.5% of patients without and 9.3% of those with STEMI). Multivariate analysis found that age, Killip class, lower blood pressure, higher heart rate on admission, anterior location of infarct, STEMI, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, and no current smoking independently predicted in-hospital mortality. At hospital discharge, 95% received antiplatelet agents, 75% received β blockers, and over 60% received statins. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were prescribed for 40% of the patients without and 52% of those with ST elevation.
Conclusions: This nationwide registry, including all types of centres irrespective of their size and experience, shows continued improvement in patient care and outcomes. Time from symptom onset to admission, however, has not improved in recent years and reperfusion therapy is used for just over 50% of patients with STEMI, with an increasing use of primary angioplasty.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.025460
PMCID: PMC1768566  PMID: 15547013
myocardial infarction; intensive care units; in-hospital outcome
9.  Baseline characteristics, management practices, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results of the Saudi project for assessment of coronary events (SPACE) registry 
Objectives
The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry is the first in Saudi Arabia to study the clinical features, management, and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.
Methods
We conducted a prospective registry study in 17 hospitals in Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and December 2007. ACS patients included those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina; both were reported collectively as NSTEACS (non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome).
Results
5055 patients were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58 ± 12.9 years; 77.4% men, 82.4% Saudi nationals; 41.5% had STEMI, and 5.1% arrived at the hospital by ambulance. History of diabetes mellitus was present in 58.1%, hypertension in 55.3%, hyperlipidemia in 41.1%, and 32.8% were current smokers; all these were more common in NSTEACS patients, except for smoking (all P < 0.0001). In-hospital medications were: aspirin (97.7%), clopidogrel (83.7%), beta-blockers (81.6%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (75.1%), and statins (93.3%). Median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival for STEMI patients was 150 min (IQR: 223), 17.5% had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 69.1% had thrombolytic therapy, and 14.8% received it at less than 30 min of hospital arrival. In-hospital outcomes included recurrent myocardial infarction (1.5%), recurrent ischemia (12.6%), cardiogenic shock (4.3%), stroke (0.9%), major bleeding (1.3%). In-hospital mortality was 3.0%.
Conclusion
ACS patients in Saudi Arabia present at a younger age, have much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, less access to ambulance use, delayed treatment by thrombolytic therapy, and less primary PCI compared with patients in the developed countries. This is the first national ACS registry in our country and it demonstrated knowledge-care gaps that require further improvements.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2011.05.004
PMCID: PMC3727434  PMID: 23960654
Acute coronary syndromes; Acute myocardial infarction; Unstable angina; Registry; Saudi Arabia; Middle East
10.  Reperfusion therapy for ST elevation acute myocardial infarction in Europe: description of the current situation in 30 countries 
European Heart Journal  2009;31(8):943-957.
Aims
Patient access to reperfusion therapy and the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) or thrombolysis (TL) varies considerably between European countries. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic contemporary picture of how patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are treated in different European countries.
Methods and results
The chairpersons of the national working groups/societies of interventional cardiology in European countries and selected experts known to be involved in the national registries joined the writing group upon invitation. Data were collected about the country and any existing national STEMI or PCI registries, about STEMI epidemiology, and treatment in each given country and about PCI and p-PCI centres and procedures in each country. Results from the national and/or regional registries in 30 countries were included in this analysis. The annual incidence of hospital admission for any acute myocardial infarction (AMI) varied between 90–312/100 thousand/year, the incidence of STEMI alone ranging from 44 to 142. Primary PCI was the dominant reperfusion strategy in 16 countries and TL in 8 countries. The use of a p-PCI strategy varied between 5 and 92% (of all STEMI patients) and the use of TL between 0 and 55%. Any reperfusion treatment (p-PCI or TL) was used in 37–93% of STEMI patients. Significantly less reperfusion therapy was used in those countries where TL was the dominant strategy. The number of p-PCI procedures per million per year varied among countries between 20 and 970. The mean population served by a single p-PCI centre varied between 0.3 and 7.4 million inhabitants. In those countries offering p-PCI services to the majority of their STEMI patients, this population varied between 0.3 and 1.1 million per centre. In-hospital mortality of all consecutive STEMI patients varied between 4.2 and 13.5%, for patients treated by TL between 3.5 and 14% and for patients treated by p-PCI between 2.7 and 8%. The time reported from symptom onset to the first medical contact (FMC) varied between 60 and 210 min, FMC-needle time for TL between 30 and 110 min, and FMC-balloon time for p-PCI between 60 and 177 min.
Conclusion
Most North, West, and Central European countries used p-PCI for the majority of their STEMI patients. The lack of organized p-PCI networks was associated with fewer patients overall receiving some form of reperfusion therapy.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehp492
PMCID: PMC2854523  PMID: 19933242
Acute myocardial infarction; Reperfusion therapy; Thrombolysis; Primary angioplasty; Europe; Mortality; Incidence
11.  The Impact of Initial Treatment Delay Using Primary Angioplasty on Mortality among Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(3):357-364.
The impact of treatment delays to reperfusion on patient mortality after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is controversial. We analyzed 5,069 patients included in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between November 2005 and January 2007. We selected 1,416 patients who presented within 12 hr of symptom onset and who were treated with primary PCI. The overall mortality at one month was 4.4%. The medians of door-to-balloon time, symptom onset-to-balloon time, and symptom onset-to-door time were 90 (interquartile range, 65-136), 274 (185-442), and 163 min (90-285), respectively. One-month mortality was not increased significantly with any increasing delay in door-to-balloon time (4.3% for ≤90 min, 4.4% for >90 min; p=0.94), symptom onset-to-balloon time (3.9% for ≤240 min, 4.8% for >240 min; p=0.41), and symptom onset-to-door time (3.3% for ≤120 min, 5.0% for >120 min; p=0.13). These time variables had no impact on one-month mortality in any subgroup. Thus, this first nationwide registry data in Korea showed a good result of primary PCI, and the patient prognosis may not depend on the initial treatment delay using the current protocols.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.3.357
PMCID: PMC2526512  PMID: 18583867
Myocardial Infarction; Mortality; Angioplasty
12.  The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry: Design and results of a phase I pilot study 
The Canadian Journal of Cardiology  2009;25(7):e255-e258.
OBJECTIVE:
The delay between the availability of clinical evidence and its application to the care of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains undefined. The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry provides a comprehensive view of the current diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with ACS; thus, the registry may be used to identify opportunities to improve the care of these patients.
METHODS:
Eight hospitals in different regions of Saudi Arabia were involved in the pilot phase of the registry, from December 2005 to July 2006. The study patients included individuals with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and unstable angina.
RESULTS:
A total of 435 patients (77% men and 80% Saudis) with a mean age of 57.1 years were enrolled. Medical history included previously diagnosed ischemic heart disease (32%), percutaneous coronary intervention (12%), diabetes mellitus (53%), hypertension (48%), current smoking (39%), hyperlipidemia (31%) and family history of premature coronary artery disease (11%). The median door-to-needle time for fibrinolytic therapy received by patients with STEMIs was 90 min. Inhospital medications included acetylsalicylic acid (98%), clopidogrel (73%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (74%), beta-blockers (73%), statins (88%), unfractionated heparin (80%), low-molecular weight heparin (22%) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (9%). The inhospital mortality rate was 5%.
CONCLUSION:
The first nationwide registry of patients with ACS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. In contrast to registries from developed countries, our cohort is characterized by a younger age at presentation and a much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Most patients with STEMIs did not receive fibrinolytic therapy within the time recommended in the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The results of the present pilot study show potential targets for improvement in care.
PMCID: PMC2723036  PMID: 19584982
Acute coronary syndrome; Fibrinolytic therapy; Middle East; Registry; Saudi Arabia
13.  The effect of a charted history of depression on emergency department triage and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction 
Background
Patients with acute myocardial infarction may have worse outcomes if they also have a history of depression. The early management of acute myocardial infarction is known to influence outcomes, and patients with a coexisting history of depression may be treated differently in the emergency department than those without one. Our goal was to determine whether having a charted history of depression was associated with a lower-priority emergency department triage score and worse performance on quality-of-care indices.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort analysis involving patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 96 acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario from April 2004 to March 2005. We calculated the adjusted odds of low-priority triage (Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale score of 3, 4 or 5) for patients with acute myocardial infarction who had a charted history of depression. We compared these odds with those for patients having a charted history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Secondary outcome measures were the odds of meeting benchmark door-to-electrocardiogram, door-to-needle and door-to-balloon times.
Results
Of 6784 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 680 (10.0%) had a past medical history of depression documented in their chart. Of these patients, 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.3%–42.9%) were assigned a low-priority triage score, as compared with 32.7% (95% CI 31.5%–33.9%) of those without a charted history of depression. The adjusted odds of receiving a low-priority triage score with a charted history of depression were 1.26 (p = 0.01) versus 0.88 (p = 0.23) with asthma and 1.12 (p = 0.24) with COPD. For patients with a charted history of depression, the median door-to-electrocardiogram time was 20.0 minutes (v. 17.0 min for the rest of the cohort), median door-to-needle time was 53.0 (v. 37.0) minutes, and median door-to-balloon time was 251.0 (v. 110.0) minutes. The adjusted odds of missing the benchmark time with a charted history of depression were 1.39 (p < 0.001) for door-to-electrocardiogram time, 1.62 (p = 0.047) for door-to-needle time and 9.12 (p = 0.019) for door-to-balloon time.
Interpretation
Patients with acute myocardial infarction who had a charted history of depression were more likely to receive a low-priority emergency department triage score than those with other comorbidities and to have worse associated performance on quality indicators in acute myocardial infarction care.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.100685
PMCID: PMC3071386  PMID: 21398248
14.  Fibrinolytic Therapy Versus Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Kentucky: Time to Establish Systems of Care? 
Southern medical journal  2013;106(7):391-398.
Background
Fibrinolytic therapy is recommended for ST-segment myocardial infarctions (STEMI) when primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is not available or cannot be performed in a timely manner. Despite this recommendation, patients often are transferred to PPCI centers with prolonged transfer times, leading to delayed reperfusion. Regional approaches have been developed with success and we sought to increase guideline compliance in Kentucky.
Methods
A total of 191 consecutive STEMI patients presented to the University of Kentucky (UK) Chandler Medical Center between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events, extent of myocardial injury, bleeding, and 4) length of stay. Patients were analyzed by presenting facility—the UK hospital versus an outside hospital (OSH)—and treatment strategy (PPCI vs fibrinolytic therapy). Further analyses assessed primary and secondary outcomes by treatment strategy within transfer distance and compliance with American Heart Association guidelines.
Results
Patients presenting directly to the UK hospital had significantly shorter door-to-balloon times than those presenting to an OSH (83 vs 170 minutes; P < 0.001). This did not affect short-term mortality or secondary outcomes. By comparison, OSH patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy had a numeric reduction in mortality (4.0% vs 12.3%; P = 0.45). Overall, only 20% of OSH patients received timely reperfusion, 13% PPCI, and 42% fibrinolytics. In a multivariable model, delayed reperfusion significantly predicted major adverse cardiovascular events (odds ratio 3.87, 95% confidence interval 1.15–13.0; P = 0.02), whereas the presenting institution did not.
Conclusions
In contemporary treatment of STEMI in Kentucky, ongoing delays to reperfusion therapy remain regardless of treatment strategy. For further improvement in care, acceptance of transfer delays is necessary and institutions should adopt standardized protocols in association with a regional system of care.
doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31829ba880
PMCID: PMC3746985  PMID: 23820318
primary percutaneous coronary intervention; fibrinolytic therapy; ST-segment myocardial infarction; systems of care
15.  Impact of smoking status on outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention 
There are some data showing lower mortality of smokers comparing to non-smokers in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when treated with thrombolysis or without reperfusion therapy. However, the role of smoking status is less established in patients with STEMI undergoing mechanical reperfusion. We evaluate the influence of smoking on outcome in patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 1,086 patients enrolled into EUROTRANSFER Registry were included into present analysis. Patients were divided according to smoking status during STEMI presentation into those who were current smokers (391 patients, 36 %) and non-smokers (695 patients, 64 %). Current smokers were younger and more often men and less frequently had high-risk features as previous myocardial infarction, history of chronic renal failure, previous PCI, diabetes mellitus, anterior wall STEMI, and multivessel disease. Unadjusted mortality at 1 year was lower in current smokers comparing to non-smokers (3.3 vs. 9.5 %; OR 0.33 CI 0.18–0.6; p = 0.0001). However, after adjustment for age and gender by logistic regression, there was no longer significant difference between groups (OR 0.7; CI 0.37–1.36; p = 0.30). In conclusion, current smokers with STEMI treated with primary PCI have lower mortality at 1 year comparing to non-smokers, but this result may be explained by differences in baseline characteristics and not by smoking status itself. Current smokers developed STEMI more than 10 years earlier than non-smokers with similar age and sex-adjusted risk of death at 1 year. These results emphasize the role of efforts to encourage smoking cessation as prevention of myocardial infarction.
doi:10.1007/s11239-012-0764-0
PMCID: PMC3459076  PMID: 22773074
Smoking; Myocardial infarction; Angioplasty; Risk factors
16.  Relationship of treatment delays and mortality in patients undergoing fibrinolysis and primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events 
Heart  2007;93(12):1552-1555.
Objective
Treatment delays may result in different clinical outcomes in patients with ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who receive fibrinolytic therapy vs primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this analysis was to examine how treatment delays relate to 6‐month mortality in reperfusion‐treated patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE).
Design
Prospective, observational cohort study.
Setting
106 hospitals in 14 countries.
Patients
3959 patients who presented with STEMI within 6 h of symptom onset and received reperfusion with either a fibrin‐specific fibrinolytic drug or primary PCI.
Main outcome measures
6‐month mortality.
Methods
Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between outcomes and treatment delay separately in each cohort, with time modelled with a quadratic term after adjusting for covariates from the GRACE risk score.
Results
A total of 1786 (45.1%) patients received fibrinolytic therapy, and 2173 (54.9%) underwent primary PCI. After multivariable adjustment, longer treatment delays were associated with a higher 6‐month mortality in both fibrinolytic therapy and primary PCI patients (p<0.001 for both cohorts). For patients who received fibrinolytic therapy, 6‐month mortality increased by 0.30% per 10‐min delay in door‐to‐needle time between 30 and 60 min compared with 0.18% per 10‐min delay in door‐to‐balloon time between 90 and 150 min for patients undergoing primary PCI.
Conclusions
Treatment delays in reperfusion therapy are associated with higher 6‐month mortality, but this relationship may be even more critical in patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.112847
PMCID: PMC2095752  PMID: 17591643
17.  Are patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction undertreated? 
Background
The worse prognosis in patients without ST-elevation (non-STEMI) as compared to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), may be due to treatment differences. We aimed to evaluate the differences in characteristics, treatment and outcome in patients with non-STEMI versus STEMI in an unselected patient population.
Methods
Individual patient data from all patients in our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of MI between Jan 2001 and Jan 2002 were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained until December 2004. Patients were categorized according to the presenting electrocardiogram into non-STEMI or STEMI.
Results
A total of 824 patients were discharged with a diagnosis of MI, 29% with non-STEMI and 71% with STEMI. Patients with non-STEMI were significantly older and had a higher cardiovascular risk profile. They underwent less frequently coronary angiography and revascularization and received less often clopidogrel and ACE-inhibitor on discharge. Long-term mortality was significantly higher in the non-STEMI patients as compared to STEMI patients, 20% vs. 12%, p = 0.006, respectively. However, multivariate analysis showed that age, diabetes, hypertension and no reperfusion therapy (but not non-STEMI presentation) were independent and significant predictors of long-term mortality.
Conclusion
In an unselected cohort of patients discharged with MI, there were significant differences in baseline characteristics, and (invasive) treatment between STEMI and non-STEMI. Long-term mortality was also different, but this was due to differences in baseline characteristics and treatment. More aggressive treatment may improve outcome in non-STEMI patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-7-8
PMCID: PMC1832214  PMID: 17338808
18.  New Horizons of Acute Myocardial Infarction: From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(2):173-180.
As the first nationwide Korean prospective multicenter data collection registry, the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) launched in November 2005. Through a number of innovative approaches, KAMIR suggested new horizons about acute myocardial infarction (AMI) which contains unique features of Asian patients from baseline characteristics to treatment strategy. Obesity paradox was existed in Korean AMI patients, whereas no gender differences among them. KAMIR score suggested new risk stratifying method with increased convenience and an enhanced accuracy for the prediction of adverse outcomes. Standard loading dose of clopidogrel was enough for Asian AMI patients. Triple antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and cilostazol could improve clinical outcomes than dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Statin improved clinical outcomes even in AMI patients with very low LDL-C levels. The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention was higher and door-to-balloon time was shorter than the previous reports. Zotarolimus eluting stents as the 2nd generation drug-eluting stent (DES) was not superior to the 1st generation DES, in contrast to the western AMI studies. KAMIR made a cornerstone in the study of Korean AMI and expected to be new standards of care for AMI with the renewal of KAMIR design to overcome its pitfalls.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.2.173
PMCID: PMC3565126  PMID: 23399991
Acute Myocardial Infarction; ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction; Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
19.  Treatment delays in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction at the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute 
The Canadian Journal of Cardiology  2007;23(Suppl B):53B-57B.
BACKGROUND:
Current guidelines for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) recommend performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 90 min of hospital arrival. However, recent data suggest that in a real-world setting, median door-to-balloon (DTB) time is closer to 180 min for transfer patients, with less than 5% of patients being treated within 90 min. A retrospective observational study was conducted to assess time to treatment in patients undergoing primary PCI at the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute (QHLI).
METHODS:
Consecutive lytic-eligible patients undergoing primary PCI at the QHLI for STEMI between April 2004 and March 2005 were included in the present analysis. The primary evaluation was DTB time measured from arrival at the first hospital to first balloon inflation. Clinical outcomes were in-hospital death, reinfarction and bleeding. DTB times and hospital outcomes of patients transferred from referring hospitals were compared with those of patients presenting directly to the QHLI.
RESULTS:
During the study period, 203 lytic-eligible patients were treated with primary PCI. Sixty-nine patients presented directly to the QHLI and 134 were transferred from other hospitals. Six transfer patients were excluded because of missing time variables. The median DTB time was 114 min in transfer patients, compared with 87 min in patients presenting directly to the QHLI (P<0.001). DTB time was less than 90 min in 24% of the transfer population compared with 55% of patients presenting directly to the QHLI (P<0.001). In patients referred from hospitals within a radius of 30 km from the QHLI (n=100), median DTB time was 106 min with 30% receiving PCI within 90 min. In these patients, estimated PCI-related delay was 74 min. For patients presenting to hospitals beyond 30 km (n=28), median DTB time was 142 min with 4% receiving reperfusion within 90 min. In these patients, estimated PCI-related delay was 110 min. Median DTB time for patients presenting during off hours at the QHLI was 92 min compared with 79 min for patients presenting during regular business hours (P=0.02). In patients transferred from other hospitals, median DTB time was 118 min during off hours and 108 min during normal business hours (P=0.07).
CONCLUSIONS:
A DTB time of less than 90 min can be achieved in the majority of patients presenting directly to a primary PCI centre. However, for patients presenting to community hospitals, transfer for primary PCI is often associated with delayed revascularization. The present study highlights the need for careful patient selection when deciding between on-site thrombolytic therapy and transfer for primary PCI for STEMI patients presenting to hospitals without PCI facilities.
PMCID: PMC2794463  PMID: 17932588
Acute coronary syndromes; Angioplasty; Myocardial infarction; Stent
20.  Off-hour presentation and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-analysis 
Objective To assess the association between off-hour (weekends and nights) presentation, door to balloon times, and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Data sources Medline in-process and other non-indexed citations, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus through April 2013.
Study selection Any study that evaluated the association between time of presentation to a healthcare facility and mortality or door to balloon times among patients with acute myocardial infarction was included.
Data extraction Studies’ characteristics and outcomes data were extracted. Quality of studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A random effect meta-analysis model was applied. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic and I2.
Results 48 studies with fair quality, enrolling 1 896 859 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. 36 studies reported mortality outcomes for 1 892 424 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 30 studies reported door to balloon times for 70 534 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Off-hour presentation for patients with acute myocardial infarction was associated with higher short term mortality (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.09). Patients with STEMI presenting during off-hours were less likely to receive percutaneous coronary intervention within 90 minutes (odds ratio 0.40, 0.35 to 0.45) and had longer door to balloon time by 14.8 (95% confidence interval 10.7 to 19.0) minutes. A diagnosis of STEMI and countries outside North America were associated with larger increase in mortality during off-hours. Differences in mortality between off-hours and regular hours have increased in recent years. Analyses were associated with statistical heterogeneity.
Conclusion This systematic review suggests that patients with acute myocardial infarction presenting during off-hours have higher mortality, and patients with STEMI have longer door to balloon times. Clinical performance measures may need to account for differences arising from time of presentation to a healthcare facility.
doi:10.1136/bmj.f7393
PMCID: PMC3898160  PMID: 24452368
21.  Concomitant renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus as prognostic factors for acute myocardial infarction 
Background
Diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction are prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, few studies have assessed the effects of renal insufficiency in association with diabetes in the context of AMI. Here, we investigated the clinical outcomes according to the concomitance of renal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI.
Methods
From November 2005 to August 2008, 9905 patients (63 ± 13 years; 70% men) with AMI were enrolled in a nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) and were categorized into 4 groups: Group I (n = 5700) had neither diabetes nor renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), Group II (n = 1730) had diabetes but no renal insufficiency, Group III (n = 1431) had no diabetes but renal insufficiency, and Group IV (n = 1044) had both diabetes and renal insufficiency. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including a composite of all cause-of-death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and coronary artery bypass graft after 1-year clinical follow-up.
Results
Primary endpoints occurred in 1804 (18.2%) patients. There were significant differences in composite MACE among the 4 groups (Group I, 12.5%; Group II, 15.7%; Group III, 30.5%; Group IV, 36.5%; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for multiple covariates, the 1-year mortality increased stepwise from Group III to IV as compared with Group I (hazard ratio [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-2.86; p = 0.001; and HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.62-3.62; p < 0.001, respectively). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in probability of death at 1 year between Group III and IV (p = 0.288).
Conclusions
Renal insufficiency, especially in association with diabetes, is associated with the occurrence of composite MACE and indicates poor prognosis in patients with AMI. Categorization of patients with diabetes and/or renal insufficiency provides valuable information for early-risk stratification of AMI patients.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-10-95
PMCID: PMC3225317  PMID: 22035298
acute myocardial infarction; diabetes mellitus; major adverse cardiac events; renal insufficiency
22.  Impact of Delay in Door-to-Needle Time on Mortality in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction 
The American journal of cardiology  2007;100(8):1227-1232.
Fibrinolytic therapy remains the most common reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), particularly in smaller centers. Previous studies evaluated the relationship between time to treatment and outcomes when few patients were treated within 30 minutes of hospital arrival and many did not receive modern adjunctive medications. To quantify the impact of delay in door-to-needle time on mortality in a recent and representative cohort of STEMI patients, we analyzed a cohort of 62,470 STEMI patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy at 973 hospitals that participated in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction from 1999–2002. We employed hierarchical models to evaluate the independent effect of door-to-needle time on in-hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality was lower with shorter door-to-needle times (2.9% for ≤30 minutes, 4.1% for 31–45 minutes, and 6.2% for >45 minutes; p< 0.001 for trend). Compared with those experiencing door-to-needle times ≤30 minutes, the adjusted odd ratios (OR) of dying were 1.17 (confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.31) and 1.37 (CI 1.23–1.52; p for trend <0.001) for those patients with door-to-needle times of 31–45 minutes and >45 minutes, respectively. This relationship was particularly pronounced in those presenting within 1 hour of symptom onset to presentation time [OR: 1.25 (CI 1.01–1.54) and 1.54 (CI 1.27–1.87) respectively; p for trend <0.001]. In conclusion, timely administration of fibrinolytic therapy continues to significantly impact mortality in the modern era, particularly in patients presenting early after symptom onset.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.05.043
PMCID: PMC2715362  PMID: 17920362
myocardial infarction; mortality; reperfusion; fibrinolysis; thrombolysis
23.  Symptom-to-door time in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: Overemphasized or overlooked? Results from the AMI-McGill study 
BACKGROUND:
Ischemic time is a major determinant of infarct size in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Emphasis is placed on reducing the door-to-reperfusion therapy time component, whereas the symptom-to-door time is often overlooked.
OBJECTIVES:
To correlate the symptom-to-door time with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with STEMI.
METHODS:
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)-McGill was a cohort study of consecutive patients with STEMI who presented to three adult university hospitals. Multivariate linear regression was performed to correlate the symptom-to-door time with postinfarction LVEF adjusted for reperfusion method, prior myocardial infarction and components of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score.
RESULTS:
There were 188 patients, with a mean age of 66 years. On arrival to hospital, 23% of patients were in Killip class II to IV and 87% received reperfusion therapy (20% fibrinolytic therapy and 67% primary percutaneous coronary intervention). The median symptom-to-door time was 120 min (first quartile: 60 min, third quartile: 290 min) and the median door-to-reperfusion therapy time was 93 min (first quartile: 54 min, third quartile: 155 min). Three variables were independently correlated with LVEF in the study’s regression model: symptom-to-door time (beta: –0.66, 95% CI –1.18 to –0.14; P=0.01), Killip class II to IV on arrival (beta: –6.43, 95% CI –11.87 to –0.99; P=0.02) and anterior territory of the infarction (beta: –5.86, 95% CI –10.55 to –1.18; P=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS:
Symptom-to-door time was negatively correlated with postinfarction LVEF in patients with STEMI. Strategies to shorten this delay, such as educating high-risk patients about the symptoms of AMI, should be considered.
PMCID: PMC2649636  PMID: 18340392
Angioplasty; Echocardiography; Fibrinolysis; Myocardial infarction; Thrombolysis
24.  Temporal trends in treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction among men and women in Switzerland between 1997 and 2011 
Background:
Few data are available concerning the impact of gender on temporal trends in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Methods:
All STEMI patients consecutively enrolled in the AMIS (Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland) Plus project from 1997–2011 were included. Temporal trends in presentation, treatment and outcomes were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions with generalized estimations.
Results:
Of 21,620 STEMI patients, 5786 were women and 15,834 men from 78 Swiss hospitals. Women were 8.6 years older, presented 48 minutes later with less pain, but more dyspnea, and more frequently had atrial fibrillation (5.5 vs. 3.9%, p<0.001), heart failure (Killip class >2) (9.7 vs. 7.3%, p<0.001), and moderate or severe comorbidities (24.8 vs. 18.2%, p<0.001). Women were less likely to undergo primary reperfusion treatment after adjustment for baseline characteristics and admission year (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71–0.90, p<0.001) or receive early and discharge drugs, such as thienopyridines, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and statins. In 1997, thrombolysis was performed in 51% of male and 39% of female patients; its use rapidly decreased during the 1990s and has now become negligible. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention increased from under 10% in both genders in 1997 to over 70% in females and over 80% in males since 2006. Patients admitted in cardiogenic shock increased by 8% per year in both genders. The incidence of both reinfarction and cardiogenic shock developing during hospitalization decreased significantly over 15 years while in-hospital mortality decreased from 10 to 5% in men and from 18 to 7% in women. This corresponds to a relative reduction of 5% per year for males (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.99, p=0.006) and 6% per year for female STEMI patients (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91–0.97, p<0.001). Despite higher crude in-hospital mortality, female gender per se was not an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84–1.35, p=0.59).
Conclusion:
Substantial changes have occurred in presentation, treatment, and outcome of men and women with STEMI in Switzerland over the past 15 years. Although parallel trends were seen in both groups, ongoing disparities in certain treatments remain. However, these did not translate into worse risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality, suggesting that the gender gap in STEMI care may be closing.
doi:10.1177/2048872612454021
PMCID: PMC3760536  PMID: 24062906
Acute myocardial infarction; evidence-based medicine; primary angioplasty; sex; trends
25.  Guidelines-based treatment of anaemic STEMI patients: practice patterns and effects on in-hospital mortality: a retrospective analysis from the NCDR 
Background:
Anaemia is associated with an increased risk for morbidity and mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. While several physiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association, decreased receipt of guidelines-based care may also contribute. We examined the relationship between admission haemoglobin (Hgb) level, receipt of ACC/AHA guidelines-based treatments, and in-hospital outcomes among STEMI patients. We also evaluated whether administration of these treatments modified the association between anaemia and in-hospital mortality in this group.
Methods and results:
We analysed data from 92,686 patients diagnosed with STEMI included in the NCDR ACTION Registry-GWTG database from January 2007 to March 2011. Patients were stratified by initial Hgb value: 83.1% (n=77,035) were classified as non-anaemic (Hgb >13.0 g/dl for men, >12.0 g/dl for women), 11.6% (n=10,710) as mildly anaemic (11.1−13.0 g/dl for men, 11.1−12.0 g/dl for women), 4.4% (n=4059) as moderately anaemic (9.1−11.0 g/dl), and 1.0% (n=882) as severely anaemic (<9.0 g/dl). Anaemia was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of other baseline comorbidities and decreased odds of receiving several class I recommended pharmacological treatments (heparin, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, p<0.01). The overall use of reperfusion therapy (fibrinolytic therapy and/or percutaneous coronary intervention) was also lower in anaemic vs. non-anaemic patients (p<0.01). Anaemia was associated higher in-hospital mortality risk, which remained significant after adjustment for use of guidelines-recommended therapies and interventions (p<0.01).
Conclusions:
In a national sample of STEMI patients, anaemia on presentation was associated with decreased receipt of ACC/AHA guidelines-based care and higher in-hospital mortality. However, the higher mortality rates could not be fully explained by differences in in-hospital treatment.
doi:10.1177/2048872612471216
PMCID: PMC3760583  PMID: 24062932
Anaemia; guidelines; outcomes; ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI); treatment

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