Developing effective techniques for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) could increase the usefulness of these cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. To this end, we investigated the post-freeze/thaw viability and apoptotic behavior of Passage 1 (P1) adult stem cells (ASCs) in 11 different media: (i) the traditional media containing Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with 80% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (ii) DMEM with 80% human serum (HS) and 10% DMSO, (iii) DMEM with 1% methyl cellulose (MC) and 10% of either HS or FCS or DMSO, and (iv) DMEM with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, or 10% DMSO. Approximately 1 mL (106 cells/mL) of P1 ASCs were frozen overnight in a −80°C freezer and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks before being rapidly thawed in a 37°C water bath (1–2 min of agitation), resuspended in culture media, and seeded in separate wells of a 6-well plate for a 24-h incubation period at 37°C. After 24 h, the thawed samples were analyzed by bright-field microscopy and flow cytometry. The results suggest that the absence of DMSO (and the presence of MC) significantly increases the fraction of apoptotic and/or necrotic ASCs. However, the percentage of viable cells obtained with 2% DMSO and DMEM was comparable with that obtained in freezing media with 10% DMSO and 80% serum (HS or FCS), that is, ∼84% ± 5% and ∼84% ± 8%, respectively. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation behavior of the frozen thawed cells was also assessed using histochemical staining. Our results suggest that post-thaw ASC viability, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiability can be maintained even when they are frozen in the absence of serum but with a minimal concentration of 2% DMSO in DMEM.
Both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) bear a great potential in regenerative medicine. In addition to optimized clinical grade culture conditions, efficient clinical grade cryopreservation methods for these cells are needed. Obtaining good survival after thawing has been problematic.
We used a novel, chemically defined effective xeno-free cryopreservation system for cryostorage and banking of hESCs and iPSCs. The earlier established slow freezing protocols have, even after recent improvements, resulted in low viability and thawed cells had a high tendency to differentiate. The medium is a completely serum and animal substance free product containing dimethylsulfoxide, anhydrous dextrose and a polymer as cryoprotectants. The cells were directly frozen at −70°C, without a programmed freezer.
The number of frozen colonies versus the number of surviving colonies differed significantly for both HS293 (χ2 = 9.616 with one degree of freedom and two-tailed P = 0.0019) and HS306 (χ2 = 8.801 with one degree of freedom and two-tailed P = 0.0030). After thawing, the cells had a high viability (90–96%) without any impact on proliferation and differentiation, compared with the standard freezing procedure where viability was much lower (49%). The frozen–thawed hESCs and iPSCs had normal karyotype and maintained properties of pluripotent cells with corresponding morphological characteristics, and expressed pluripotency markers after 10 passages in culture. They formed teratomas containing tissue components of the three germ layers.
The defined freezing–thawing system described here offers an excellent simple option for banking of hESCs and iPSCs.
human embryonic stem cells; defined; cryopreservation; survival; differentiation
Development of techniques to isolate, culture, and transplant human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has the future potential to treat male infertility. To maximize the efficiency of these techniques, methods for SSC cryopreservation need to be developed to bank SSCs for extended periods of time. Although, it has been demonstrated that SSCs can reinitiate spermatogenesis after freezing, optimal cryopreservation protocols that maximize SSC proliferative capacity post-thaw have not been identified. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation technique for preservation of SSCs. To identify efficient cryopreservation methods for long-term preservation of SSCs, isolated testis cells enriched for SSCs were placed in medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or DMSO and trehalose (50 mM, 100 mM, or 200 mM), and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 1 week, 1 month, or 3 months. Freezing in 50 mM trehalose resulted in significantly higher cell viability compared to DMSO at all thawing times and a higher proliferation rate compared to DMSO for the 1 week freezing period. Freezing in 200 mM trehalose did not result in increased cell viability; however, proliferation activity was significantly higher and percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly lower compared to DMSO after freezing for 1 and 3 months. To confirm the functionality of SSCs frozen in 200 mM trehalose, SSC transplantation was performed. Donor SSCs formed spermatogenic colonies and sperm capable of generating normal progeny. Collectively, these results indicate that freezing in DMSO with 200 mM trehalose serves as an efficient method for the cryopreservation of SSCs.
Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials are considered a possible cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the limited amount of MSCs in bone marrow and the loss of differentiation capacity following in vitro expansion restrict their practical application. Effective improvement of MSC proliferation is necessary for the clinical application of MSC-based tissue engineering. The effects of estrogen supplements on proliferation and characterizations of human MSCs were investigated at the present study. Supplements of 17-β estradiol (E2) significantly increase the proliferation of human MSCs in vitro. The dose range of E2 to significantly increase MSC proliferation differs in the gender of MSC donor. E2 supplementation in cell proliferation maintains characterizations of MSCs, including cell surface markers, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacities. These data indicate that estrogen treatment can play an important role in improving human MSCs' expansion in vitro, which will effectively facilitate MSCs' function in the practical application of tissue engineering and regeneration.
Availability of large quantities of functionally effective dendritic cells (DC) represents one of the major challenges for immunotherapeutic trials against infectious or malignant diseases. Low numbers or insufficient T-cell activation of DC may result in premature termination of treatment and unsatisfying immune responses in clinical trials. Based on the notion that cryopreservation of monocytes is superior to cryopreservation of immature or mature DC in terms of resulting DC quantity and immuno-stimulatory capacity, we aimed to establish an optimized protocol for the cryopreservation of highly concentrated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for DC-based immunotherapy. Cryopreserved cell preparations were analyzed regarding quantitative recovery, viability, phenotype, and functional properties. In contrast to standard isopropyl alcohol (IPA) freezing, PBMC cryopreservation in an automated controlled-rate freezer (CRF) with subsequent thawing and differentiation resulted in significantly higher cell yields of immature and mature DC. Immature DC yields and total protein content after using CRF were comparable with results obtained with freshly prepared PBMC and exceeded results of standard IPA freezing by approximately 50 %. While differentiation markers, allogeneic T-cell stimulation, viability, and cytokine profiles were similar to DC from standard freezing procedures, DC generated from CRF-cryopreserved PBMC induced a significantly higher antigen-specific IFN-γ release from autologous effector T cells. In summary, automated controlled-rate freezing of highly concentrated PBMC represents an improved method for increasing DC yields and autologous T-cell stimulation.
DC; Dendritic cells; Cryopreservation; Cellular immunotherapy; Cell yields
Amniotic fluid (AF) was described as a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for biomedicine purposes. Therefore, evaluation of alternative cryoprotectants and freezing protocols capable to maintain the viability and stemness of these cells after cooling is still needed. AF stem cells (AFSCs) were tested for different freezing methods and cryoprotectants. Cell viability, gene expression, surface markers, and plasticity were evaluated after thawing. AFSCs expressed undifferentiated genes Oct4 and Nanog; presented typical markers (CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105) and were able to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. All tested cryoprotectants preserved the features of AFSCs however, variations in cell viability were observed. In this concern, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) showed the best results. The freezing protocols tested did not promote significant changes in the AFSCs viability. Time programmed and nonprogrammed freezing methods could be used for successful AFSCs cryopreservation for 6 months. Although tested cryoprotectants maintained undifferentiated gene expression, typical markers, and plasticity of AFSCs, only Me2SO and glycerol presented workable viability ratios.
Cell transplantation for regenerative medicine has become an appealing therapeutic method; however, stem and progenitor cells are not always freshly available. Cryopreservation offers a way to freeze cells as they are generated, for storage and transport until required for therapy. This study was performed to assess the feasibility of cryopreserving peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for the subsequent in vitro generation of their derived therapeutic population, circulating angiogenic cells (CACs).
PBMCs were isolated from healthy human donors. Freshly isolated cells were either analyzed immediately or cryopreserved in media containing 6% plasma serum and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide. PBMCs were thawed after being frozen for 1 (early thaw) or 28 (late thaw) days and analyzed, or cultured for 4 days to generate CACs. Analysis of the cells consisted of flow cytometry for viability and phenotype, as well as functional assays for their adhesion and migration potential, cytokine secretion, and in vivo angiogenic potential.
The viability of PBMCs and CACs as well as their adhesion and migration properties did not differ greatly after cryopreservation. Phenotypic changes did occur in PBMCs and to a lesser extent in CACs after freezing; however the potent CD34+VEGFR2+CD133+ population remained unaffected. The derived CACs, while exhibiting changes in inflammatory cytokine secretion, showed no changes in the secretion of important regenerative and chemotactic cytokines, nor in their ability to restore perfusion in ischemic muscle.
Overall, it appears that changes do occur in cryopreserved PBMCs and their generated CACs; however, the CD34+VEGFR2+CD133+ progenitor population, the secretion of pro-vasculogenic factors, and the in vivo angiogenic potential of CACs remain unaffected by cryopreservation.
Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) can suppress T-cell activation in vitro in an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-dependent manner. However, their clinical effects on immune ailments have been inconsistent, with a recent phase III study showing no benefit in acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). We here tested the hypothesis that the banked, cryopreserved MSC often used in clinical trials display biologic properties distinct from that of MSC in the log phase of growth typically examined in pre-clinical studies. In freshly thawed cryopreserved MSC derived from normal human volunteers, we observed that MSC up-regulate heat-shock proteins, are refractory to interferon (IFN)-γ-induced up-regulation of IDO, and are compromised in suppressing CD3/CD28-driven T cell proliferation. Immune suppressor activity, IFN-γ responsiveness and induction of IDO were fully restored following 24 h of MSC tissue culture post-thaw. These results highlight a possible cause for the inefficacy of MSC-based immunotherapy reported in clinical trials using cryopreserved MSC thawed immediately prior to infusion.
cryopreservation; immunosuppression; immunotherapy; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; interferon-gamma; mesenchymal stromal cells
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same donor were mixed with fat tissues cryopreserved at -70°C for 8 weeks and injected subcutaneously into 6-week-old BALB/c-nu nude mice. Graft volume and weight were measured, and histology was evaluated 4 and 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSC-treated group showed significantly enhanced graft volume and weight. The histological evaluation demonstrated significantly better fat cell integrity compared with the vehicle-treated control 4 weeks post-transplantation. No significant difference in graft weight, volume, or histological parameters was found among the groups 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSCs enhanced the survival and quality of transplanted cryopreserved fat tissues. Cultured and expanded hAdMSCs have reconstructive capacity in cryopreserved fat grafting by increasing the number of stem cells.
Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs); cryopreserved fat tissues; viability of fat grafts; dose-dependent.
Effective cryopreservation of oocytes is critically needed in many areas of human reproductive medicine and basic science, such as stem cell research. Currently, oocyte cryopreservation has a low success rate. The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms associated with oocyte cryopreservation through biophysical means using a mouse model. Specifically, we experimentally investigated the biomechanical properties of the ooplasm prior and after cryopreservation as well as the consequences of reversible dismantling of the F-actin network in mouse oocytes prior to freezing. The study was complemented with the evaluation of post-thaw developmental competence of oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Our results show that the freezing-thawing process markedly alters the physiological viscoelastic properties of the actin cytoskeleton. The reversible depolymerization of the F-actin network prior to freezing preserves normal ooplasm viscoelastic properties, results in high post-thaw survival and significantly improves developmental competence. These findings provide new information on the biophysical characteristics of mammalian oocytes, identify a pathophysiological mechanism underlying cryodamage and suggest a novel cryopreservation method.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising candidate cell type for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications by virtue of their capacity for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation. Our intent was to characterize the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. hMSCs isolated from the bone marrow of adult patients were cultured with osteogenic medium for up to 28 days and exposed to daily PEMF stimulation with single, narrow 300 μs quasi-rectangular pulses with a repetition rate of 7.5 Hz. Relatively greater cell numbers were observed at late stages of osteogenic culture with PEMF exposure. The production of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early marker of osteogenesis, was significantly enhanced at day 7 with PEMF treatment in both basal and osteogenic cultures as compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, the expressions of other early osteogenic genes, including Runx2/Cbfa1 and ALP, were also partially modulated by PEMF exposure, indicating that osteogenesis in hMSCs was associated with the specific PEMF stimulation. Based on ALP and alizarin red S staining, the accumulation of ALP protein produced by the hMSCs as well as calcium deposits reached their highest levels at day 28. Our results indicate that extremely low frequency PEMF stimulation may play a modulating role in hMSC osteogenesis. Taken together, these findings provide insights on the development of PEMF as an effective technology for regenerative medicine.
pulsed electromagnetic field; osteogenesis; human mesenchymal stem cells; proliferation; mineralization
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine and autoimmune diseases, based on their differentiation abilities and immunosuppressive properties. However, the therapeutic applications raise a series of questions about the safety of culture-expanded MSCs for human use. This paper summarized recent findings about safety issues of MSCs, in particular their genetic stability in long-term in vitro expansion, their cryopreservation, banking, and the role of serum in the preparation of MSCs.
Autologous, and in some cases allogeneic, hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) are stored for varying periods of time prior to infusion. For periods of greater than 48 h, storage requires cryopreservation. It is essential to optimize cell storage and ensure the quality of the product for subsequent reinfusion.
A number of important variables may affect the subsequent quality of infused HSC and therapeutic cells (TC). This review discusses these and also reviews the regulatory framework that now aims to ensure the quality of stem cells and TC for transplantation.
Important variables included cell concentration, temperature, interval from collection to cryopreservation, manipulations performed. They also included rate of freezing and whether controlled-rate freezing was employed. Parameters studied were type of cryoprotectant utilized [dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is most commonly used, sometimes in combination with hydroxyethyl starch (HES)]; and storage conditions. It is also important to assess the quality of stored stem cells. Measurements employed included the total cell count (TNC), mononuclear cell count (MNC), CD34+ cells and colony-forming units - granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM). Of these, TNC and CD34+ are the most useful. However, the best measure of the quality of stored stem cells is their subsequent engraftment. The quality systems used in stem cell laboratories are described in the guidance of the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT (Europe) and the EBMT (JACIE) and the EU Directive on Tissues and Cells plus its supporting commission directives. Inspections of facilities are carried out by the appropriate national agencies and JACIE.
For high-quality storage of HSC and TC, processing facilities should use validated procedures that take into account critical variables. The quality of all products must be assessed before and after storage.
Accreditation; cryopreservation; hemopoietic stem cells; regulatory authorities
Cryopreservation of isolated follicles may be a potential option to restore fertility in young women with cancer, because it can prevent the risks of cancer transmission. Several freezing protocols are available, including slow-rate freezing, open-pulled straws vitrification (OPS) and solid-surface vitrification (SSV, a new freezing technique). The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of these freezing procedures on viability, ultrastructure and developmental capacity of isolated rat follicles.
Isolated follicles from female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to SSV, OPS and slow-rate freezing groups for cryopreservation. Follicle viability assessment and ultrastructural examination were performed after thawing. In order to study the developmental capacity of thawed follicles, we performed in vitro culture with a three-dimensional (3D) system by alginate hydrogels.
Our results showed that the totally viable rate of follicles vitrified by SSV (64.76%) was slightly higher than that of the OPS group (62.38%) and significantly higher than that of the slow-rate freezing group (52.65%; P < 0.05). The ultrastructural examination revealed that morphological alterations were relatively low in the SSV group compared to the OPS and slow-rate freezing groups. After in vitro culture within a 3D system using alginate hydrogels, we found the highest increase (28.90 ± 2.21 μm) in follicle diameter in follicles from the SSV group. The estradiol level in the SSV group was significantly higher than those in the OPS and slow-rate freezing groups at the end of a 72-hr culture period (P < 0.05).
Our results suggest that the SSV method is an appropriate and convenient method for cryopreservation of isolated rat follicles compared with the conventional slow-rate freezing method and the OPS method.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered a potential cell source for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering. However, noticeable limitations of insufficient supply and reduction of differentiation potential impact the feasibility of their clinical application. This study investigated the in vitro function of steroids and gender differences on the proliferation and differentiation of rat MSCs. Bone marrow MSCs of age-matched rats were exposed to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation media supplements with various concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and dexamethasone. Cell proliferation was measured by MTS assay; osteogenic markers and steroid-associated growth factors and receptors were evaluated by ELISA and real-time PCR. The results revealed that supplements of E2 and dexamethasone increase MSC proliferation in a biphasic manner. The optimal dose and interaction of steroids required to improve MSC proliferation effectively varied depending on the gender of donors. Supplementation of E2 effectively improves osteogenic differentiation markers including ALP, osteocalcin and calcium levels for MSCs isolated from both male and female donors. The mRNA of TGF-β1 and BMP-7 are also up-regulated. However, effective doses to maximally improve osteogenic potentials and growth factors for MSCs are different between male and female donors. The relationship between steroid receptors, osteogenic markers and cytokines are also varied by genders. The outcomes of the present study strongly indicate that steroids potentially function as an effective modulator to improve the capacity of MSCs in bone regeneration. It provides crucial information for improving and optimizing MSCs for future clinical application of bone regeneration.
steroid regulation; mesenchymal stem cells; proliferation; differentiation; gender difference
Cryopreservation of human gonadal tissue and oocytes has brought about new and exciting research in reproductive medicine, as well as new cryopreservation techniques that are dramatically improving post-thaw viability and freezing damage. The work done on gonadal tissues is aimed at improving the quality of life for infertile patients and for prepubertal patients undergoing gonadotoxic chemotherapy, patients for whom hormonal stimulation /IVF is not an option, and women without partners. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes is the best model for timing IVF. Vitrification is likely to benefit the field, and since 2005, implantation and pregnancy rates from vitrified oocytes have matched or eclipsed results from conventional methods, due to new cell-specific methods and formulas. Cryopreservation of immature oocytes leads to a new direction of egg banking in future. Preserving ovarian tissue for autografting is still promising and has resulted in folliculogenesis, resumed hormone production and live births in limited cases. The use of small cortical blocks, or mechanical/chemical digestion of ovarian tissue for isolation of follicles is a new direction for ovary preservation for reasons of cryoprotectant permeation and graft revascularization. Maturation of follicles in vitro has become more feasible with the use of alginate microencapsulation. Testicular tissue preservation has taken a sharp turn towards preservation of gonadal stem cells. Research into the mechanism for spermatogenesis points to the ability for male germ cells to resume spermatogenesis. The cryopreservation of minced testicular tissue for isolation of germ cells via chemical digestion has produced viable cells, however structural damage that may be avoided by vitrification has been noted to the surrounding cell junctions and supporting cells.
Vitrification; Oocyte; Immature Oocyte; Ovarian Tissue; Alginate Encapsulation; Male Germ Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based regenerative therapy is currently regarded as an alternative approach to salvage the acute myocardial infarcted hearts. However, the efficiency of MSCs transplantation is limited by lower survival rate of engrafted MSCs. In previous study, we found that 1.0 μg/ml Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could protect MSCs against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and meanwhile enhance the proliferation of MSCs. Therefore, in the present study, we firstly preconditioned MSCs with 1.0 μg/ml LPS, then transplanted MSCs into ischemic myocardium, and observed the survival and cardiac protective capacity of MSCs in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Furthermore, we tried to explore the underlying mechanisms and the role of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in the signal pathway of LPS-induced cardiac protection.
Methods and results
Acute myocardial infarction model was developed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. 60 rats were divided into 4 groups randomly and given an intramyocardial injection of one of the following treatments: 30 μl PBS (control group), 3 × 106 wild MSCs/30 μl (wMSCs group), 3 × 106 LPS-preconditioned wild MSCs/30 μl (LPS-wMSCs group), or 3 × 106 LPS-preconditioned TLR4 gene deleted MSCs/30 μl (LPS-tMSCs group). After 3 weeks, LPS-preconditioned wild MSCs transplantation ameliorated cardiac function and reduced fibrosis of infarcted myocardium. Vascular density was markedly increased in LPS-wMSCs group compared with other three groups. Survival rate of engrafted MSCs was elevated and apoptosis of myocardium was reduced in infarcted heart. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phospho-Akt was increased in the infarcted myocardium after transplantation of LPS-preconditioned MSCs.
LPS preconditioning enhanced survival of engrafted MSCs, stimulated expression of VEGF and activated PI3K/Akt pathway. LPS preconditioning before MSCs transplantation resulted in superior therapeutic neovascularization and recovery of cardiac function. LPS preconditioning provided a novel strategy in maximizing biologic and functional properties of MSCs.
AIM: To investigate the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone grafts using two different cultivation methods: static and dynamic.
METHODS: MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow. MSC culture was analyzed according to the morphology, cell differentiation potential, and surface molecular markers. Before cell culture, freeze-dried bone (FDB) was maintained in culture for 3 d in order to verify culture medium pH. MSCs were co-cultured with FDB using two different cultivation methods: static co-culture (two-dimensional) and dynamic co-culture (three-dimensional). After 24 h of cultivation by dynamic or static methods, histological analysis of Cell adhesion on FDB was performed. Cell viability was assessed by the Trypan Blue exclusion method on days 0, 3 and 6 after dynamic or static culture. Adherent cells were detached from FDB surface, stained with Trypan Blue, and quantified to determine whether the cells remained on the graft surface in prolonged non-dynamic culture. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS and a P < 0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: The results showed a clear potential for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSC cultures. Rat MSCs were positive for CD44, CD90 and CD29 and negative for CD34, CD45 and CD11bc. FDBs were maintained in culture for 3 d and the results showed there was no significant variation in the culture medium pH with FDB compared to pure medium pH (P > 0.05). In histological analysis, there was a significant difference in the amount of adhered cells on FDB between the two cultivation methods (P < 0.05). The MSCs in the dynamic co-culture method demonstrated greater adhesion on the bone surface than in static co-culture method. On day 0, the cell viability in the dynamic system was significantly higher than in the static system (P < 0.05). There was a statistical difference in cell viability between days 0, 3 and 6 after dynamic culture (P < 0.05). In static culture, cell viability on day 6 was significantly lower than on day 3 and 0 (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: An alternative cultivation method was developed to improve the MSCs adhesion on FDB, demonstrating that dynamic co-culture provides a superior environment over static conditions.
Mesenchymal stem cell; Cell culture; Cell adhesion; Bone matrix; Freeze drying
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are potential cellular sources of therapeutic stem cells. MSCs are a multipotent population of cells capable of differentiating into a number of mesodermal lineages. Treatment using MSCs appears to be a helpful approach for structural restoration in regenerative medicine. Correct identification of these cells is necessary, but there is inadequate information on the MSC profile of cell surface markers and mRNA expression in dogs. In this study, we performed molecular characterization of canine BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs using immunological and mRNA expression analysis.
Samples were confirmed to be multipotent based on their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. And these cells were checked as stem cell, hematopoietic and embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers by flow cytometry. BM- and AT-MSCs showed high expression of CD29 and CD44, moderate expression of CD90, and were negative for CD34, CD45, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. SSEA-1 was expressed at very low levels in AT-MSCs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog in BM- and AT-MSCs. There was no significant difference in expression of Oct3/4 and Sox2 between BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs. However, Nanog expression was 2.5-fold higher in AT-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. Using immunocytochemical analysis, Oct3/4 and Sox2 proteins were observed in BM- and AT-MSCs.
Our results provide fundamental information to enable for more reproducible and reliable quality control in the identification of canine BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs by protein and mRNA expression analysis.
Canine; Mesenchymal stem cell; Cell surface markers; Embryonic stem cell markers
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cell therapy requires production of therapeutic cells in large quantity, which starts from thawing the cryopreserved cells from a working cell bank or a master cell bank. An optimal cryopreservation and thaw process determines the efficiency of hPSC expansion and plays a significant role in the subsequent lineage-specific differentiation. However, cryopreservation in hPSC bioprocessing has been a challenge due to the unique growth requirements of hPSC, the sensitivity to cryoinjury, and the unscalable cryopreservation procedures commonly used in the laboratory. Tremendous progress has been made to identify the regulatory pathways regulating hPSC responses during cryopreservation and the development of small molecule interventions that effectively improves the efficiency of cryopreservation. The adaption of these methods in current good manufacturing practices (cGMP)-compliant cryopreservation processes not only improves cell survival, but also their therapeutic potency. This review summarizes the advances in these areas and discusses the technical requirements in the development of cGMP-compliant hPSC cryopreservation process.
cell banking; cryopreservation; human pluripotent stem cell
AIM: To optimize a xeno-free cryopreservation protocol for primary human hepatocytes.
METHODS: The demand for cryopreserved hepatocytes is increasing for both clinical and research purposes. Despite several hepatocyte cryopreservation protocols being available, improvements are urgently needed. We first compared controlled rate freezing to polystyrene box freezing and did not find any significant change between the groups. Using the polystyrene box freezing, we compared two xeno-free freezing solutions for freezing of primary human hepatocytes: a new medium (STEM-CELLBANKER, CB), which contains dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and anhydrous dextrose, both permeating and non-permeating cryoprotectants, and the frequently used DMSO - University of Wisconsin (DMSO-UW) medium. The viability of the hepatocytes was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method as well as a calcein-esterase based live-dead assay before and after cryopreservation. The function of the hepatocytes was evaluated before and after cryopreservation by assessing enzymatic activity of 6 major cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYPs): CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A7.
RESULTS: The new cryoprotectant combination preserved hepatocyte viability significantly better than the standard DMSO-UW protocol (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in viability estimation between both the trypan blue (TB) and the Live-Dead Assay methods. There was a correlation between viability of fresh hepatocytes and the difference in cell viability between CB and DMSO protocols (r2 = 0.69) using the TB method. However, due to high within-group variability in the activities of the major CYPs, any statistical between-group differences were precluded. Cryopreservation of human hepatocytes using the cryoprotectant combination was a simple and xeno-free procedure yielding better hepatocyte viability. Thus, it may be a better alternative to the standard DMSO-UW protocol. Estimating CYP activities did not seem to be a relevant way to compare hepatocyte function between different groups due to high normal variability between different liver samples.
CONCLUSION: The cryoprotectant combination may be a better alternative to the standard DMSO-UW protocol in primary human hepatocyte cryopreservation.
Human hepatocytes; Viability; Cytochrome P540; Dimethylsulphoxide; Cryoprotectant; Cryopreservation
For clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), labeling and tracking is crucial to evaluate cell distribution and homing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully established detecting MSCs labeled with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO). Despite initial reports that labeling of MSCs with SPIO is safe without affecting the MSC's biology, recent studies report on influences of SPIO-labeling on metabolism and function of MSCs. Exposition of cells and tissues to high magnetic fields is the functional principle of MRI. In this study we established innovative labeling protocols for human MSCs using clinically established SPIO in combination with magnetic fields and investigated on functional effects (migration assays, quantification of colony forming units, analyses of gene and protein expression and analyses on the proliferation capacity, the viability and the differentiation potential) of magnetic fields on unlabeled and labeled human MSCs. To evaluate the imaging properties, quantification of the total iron load per cell (TIL), electron microscopy, and MRI at 3.0 T were performed.
Human MSCs labeled with SPIO permanently exposed to magnetic fields arranged and grew according to the magnetic flux lines. Exposure of MSCs to magnetic fields after labeling with SPIO significantly enhanced the TIL compared to SPIO labeled MSCs without exposure to magnetic fields resulting in optimized imaging properties (detection limit: 1,000 MSCs). Concerning the TIL and the imaging properties, immediate exposition to magnetic fields after labeling was superior to exposition after 24 h. On functional level, exposition to magnetic fields inhibited the ability of colony formation of labeled MSCs and led to an enhanced expression of lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in labeled MSCs under adipogenic differentiation, and to a reduced expression of alkaline phosphatase in unlabeled MSCs under osteogenic differentiation as detected by qRT-PCR. Moreover, microarray analyses revealed that exposition of labeled MSCs to magnetic fields led to an up regulation of CD93 mRNA and cadherin 7 mRNA and to a down regulation of Zinc finger FYVE domain mRNA. Exposition of unlabeled MSCs to magnetic fields led to an up regulation of CD93 mRNA, lipocalin 6 mRNA, sialic acid acetylesterase mRNA, and olfactory receptor mRNA and to a down regulation of ubiquilin 1 mRNA. No influence of the exposition to magnetic fields could be observed on the migration capacity, the viability, the proliferation rate and the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of labeled or unlabeled MSCs.
In our study an innovative labeling protocol for tracking MSCs by MRI using SPIO in combination with magnetic fields was established. Both, SPIO and the static magnetic field were identified as independent factors which affect the functional biology of human MSCs. Further in vivo investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of magnetic fields with stem cell biology.
Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited to the tumor microenvironment; however, controversy exists regarding their role in solid tumors. In this study, we identified and confirmed the presence of carcinoma-associated MSCs (CA-MSCs) in the majority of human ovarian tumor samples that we analyzed. These CA-MSCs had a normal morphologic appearance, a normal karyotype, and were nontumorigenic. CA-MSCs were multipotent with capacity for differentiating into adipose, cartilage, and bone. When combined with tumor cells in vivo, CA-MSCs promoted tumor growth more effectively than did control MSCs. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that CA-MSCs promoted tumor growth by increasing the number of cancer stem cells. Although CA-MSCs expressed traditional MSCs markers, they had an expression profile distinct from that of MSCs from healthy individuals, including increased expression of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6. Importantly, BMP2 treatment in vitro mimicked the effects of CA-MSCs on cancer stem cells, while inhibiting BMP signaling in vitro and in vivo partly abrogated MSC-promoted tumor growth. Taken together, our data suggest that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment have an expression profile that promotes tumorigenesis and that BMP inhibition may be an effective therapeutic approach for ovarian cancer.
Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG) as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears.
Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B.) microplus, R. (B.) decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B.) decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B.) microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period.
This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B.) decoloratus, R. (B.) microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.
Autologous bone grafting is the most effective treatment for long-bone nonunions, but it poses considerable risks to donors, necessitating the development of alternative therapeutics. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microencapsulation and BMP2 transgene delivery are being developed together to induce rapid bone formation. However, methods to make these treatments available for clinical applications are presently lacking. In this study we used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their ease of harvest, replication potential, and immunomodulatory capabilities. MSCs were from sheep and pig due to their appeal as large animal models for bone nonunion. We demonstrated that cryopreservation of these microencapsulated MSCs did not affect their cell viability, adenoviral BMP2 production, or ability to initiate bone formation. Additionally, microspheres showed no appreciable damage from cryopreservation when examined with light and electron microscopy. These results validate the use of cryopreservation in preserving the viability and functionality of PEG-encapsulated BMP2-transduced MSCs.