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1.  Should highly active antiretroviral therapy be prescribed in critically ill HIV-infected patients during the ICU stay? A retrospective cohort study 
Background
The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) remains controversial. We evaluate impact of HAART prescription in HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU of Tourcoing Hospital from January 2000 to December 2009.
Results
There were 91 admissions concerning 85 HIV-infected patients. Reasons for ICU admission were an AIDS-related diagnosis in 46 cases (51%). Fifty two patients (57%) were on HAART at the time of ICU admission, leading to 21 immunovirologic successes (23%). During the ICU stay, HAART was continued in 29 patients (32%), and started in 3 patients (3%). Only one patient experienced an adverse event related to HAART. Mortality rate in ICU and 6 months after ICU admission were respectively 19% and 27%. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative unajusted survival probability over 6 months were higher in patients treated with HAART during the ICU stay (Log rank: p = 0.04). No benefit of HAART in ICU was seen in the adjusted survival proportion at 6 months or during ICU stay. Prescription of HAART during ICU was associated with a trend to lower incidence of new AIDS-related events at 6 months (respectively 17% and 34% with and without HAART, p = 0.07), and with higher incidence of antiretroviral resistance after ICU stay (respectively 25% and 7% with and without HAART, p = 0.02).
Conclusions
Our results suggest a lower death rate over 6 months in critically ill HIV-infected patients taking HAART during ICU stay. The optimal time to prescribe HAART in critically ill patients needs to be better defined.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-9-27
PMCID: PMC3544704  PMID: 23020962
HIV; Intensive care; HAART
2.  Survival of HIV‐infected patients in the intensive care unit in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy 
Thorax  2007;62(11):964-968.
Background
Several studies have described improved outcomes for HIV‐infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A study was undertaken to examine the outcome from the ICU for HIV‐infected patients and to identify prognostic factors.
Methods
A retrospective study of HIV‐infected adults admitted to a university affiliated hospital ICU between January 1999 and December 2005 was performed. Information was collected on patient demographics, receipt of HAART (no patient began HAART on the ICU), reason for ICU admission and hospital course. Outcomes were survival to ICU discharge and to hospital discharge.
Results
102 patients had 113 admissions to the ICU; HIV infection was newly diagnosed in 31 patients. Survival (first episode ICU discharge and hospital discharge) was 77% and 68%, respectively, compared with 74% and 65% for general medical patients. ICU and hospital survival was 78% and 67% in those receiving HAART, and 75% and 66% in those who were not. In univariate analysis, factors associated with survival were: haemoglobin (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51, for an increase of 1 g/dl), CD4 count (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.58, for a 10‐fold increase in cells/µl), APACHE II score (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90, for a 10 unit increase) and mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.83).
Conclusions
The outcome for HIV‐infected patients admitted to the ICU was good and was comparable to that in general medical patients. More than a quarter of patients had newly diagnosed HIV infection. Patients receiving HAART did not have a better outcome.
doi:10.1136/thx.2006.072256
PMCID: PMC2117109  PMID: 17517829
3.  Improved survival for HIV infected patients with severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is independent of highly active antiretroviral therapy 
Thorax  2006;61(8):716-721.
Background
Despite a decline in incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), severe PCP continues to be a common cause of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) where mortality remains high. A study was undertaken to examine the outcome from intensive care for patients with PCP and to identify prognostic factors.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of HIV infected adults admitted to a university affiliated hospital ICU between November 1990 and October 2005. Case note review collected information on demographic variables, use of prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and hospital course. The main outcome was 1 month mortality, either on the ICU or in hospital.
Results
Fifty nine patients were admitted to the ICU on 60 occasions. Thirty four patients (57%) required mechanical ventilation. Overall mortality was 53%. No patient received HAART before or during ICU admission. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with mortality were the year of diagnosis (before mid 1996 (mortality 71%) compared with later (mortality 34%; p = 0.008)), age (p = 0.016), and the need for mechanical ventilation and/or development of pneumothorax (p = 0.031). Mortality was not associated with sex, ethnicity, prior receipt of sulpha prophylaxis, haemoglobin, serum albumin, CD4 count, Pao2, A‐ao2 gradient, co‐pathology in bronchoscopic lavage fluid, medical co‐morbidity, APACHE II score, or duration of mechanical ventilation.
Conclusions
Observed improved outcomes from severe PCP for patients admitted to the ICU occurred in the absence of intervention with HAART and probably reflect general improvements in ICU management of respiratory failure and ARDS rather than improvements in the management of PCP.
doi:10.1136/thx.2005.055905
PMCID: PMC2104703  PMID: 16601092
AIDS; intensive care; mechanical ventilation;  Pneumocystis jirovecii ; opportunistic infections; respiratory failure
4.  Admissions to intensive care unit of HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: etiology and prognostic factors 
Critical Care  2011;15(4):R202.
Introduction
Although access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has prolonged survival and improved life quality, HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression or comorbidities may develop complications that require critical care support in intensive care units (ICU). This study aimed to describe the etiology and analyze the prognostic factors of HIV-infected Taiwanese patients in the HAART era.
Methods
Medical records of all HIV-infected adults who were admitted to ICU at a university hospital in Taiwan from 2001 to 2010 were reviewed to record information on patient demographics, receipt of HAART, and reason for ICU admission. Factors associated with hospital mortality were analyzed.
Results
During the 10-year study period, there were 145 ICU admissions for 135 patients, with respiratory failure being the most common cause (44.4%), followed by sepsis (33.3%) and neurological disease (11.9%). Receipt of HAART was not associated with survival. However, CD4 count was independently predictive of hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], per-10 cells/mm3 decrease, 1.036; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.003 to 1.069). Admission diagnosis of sepsis was independently associated with hospital mortality (AOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.11 to 7.62). A hospital-to-ICU interval of more than 24 hours and serum albumin level (per 1-g/dl decrease) were associated with increased hospital mortality, but did not reach statistical significance in multivariable analysis.
Conclusions
Respiratory failure was the leading cause of ICU admissions among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan. Outcome during the ICU stay was associated with CD4 count and the diagnosis of sepsis, but was not associated with HAART in this study.
doi:10.1186/cc10419
PMCID: PMC3387644  PMID: 21871086
5.  The effect of acute kidney injury on long-term health-related quality of life: a prospective follow-up study 
Critical Care  2013;17(1):R17.
Introduction
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication in critically ill patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We hypothesized that ICU survivors with AKI would have a worse health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcome than ICU survivors without AKI.
Methods
We performed a long-term prospective observational study. Patients admitted for > 48 hours in a medical-surgical ICU were included and divided in two groups: patients who fulfilled RIFLE criteria for AKI and patients without AKI. We used the Short-Form 36 to evaluate HRQOL before admission (by proxy within 48 hours after admission of the patient), at ICU discharge, hospital discharge, 3 and 6 months following ICU discharge (all by patients). Recovery in HRQOL from ICU-admission onwards was assessed using linear mixed modelling.
Results
Between September 2000 and January 2007 all admissions were screened for study participation. We included a total of 749 patients. At six months after ICU discharge 73 patients with AKI and 325 patients without AKI could be evaluated. In survivors with and without AKI, the pre-admission HRQOL (by proxy) and at six months after ICU discharge was significantly lower compared with an age matched general population. Most SF-36 dimensions changed significantly over time from ICU discharge. Change over time of HRQOL between the different AKI Rifle classes (Risk, Injury, Failure) showed no significant differences. At ICU discharge, scores were lowest in the group with AKI compared with the group without AKI for the physical functioning, role-physical and general health dimensions. However, there were almost no differences in HRQOL between both groups at six months.
Conclusions
The pre-admission HRQOL (by proxy) of AKI survivors was significantly lower in two dimensions compared with the age matched general population. Six months after ICU discharge survivors with and without AKI showed an almost similar HRQOL. However, compared with the general population with a similar age, HRQOL was poorer in both groups.
doi:10.1186/cc12491
PMCID: PMC4057105  PMID: 23356544
6.  Factors influencing physical functional status in intensive care unit survivors two years after discharge 
BMC Anesthesiology  2013;13:11.
Background
Studies suggest that in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU), physical functional status (PFS) improves over time, but does not return to the same level as before ICU admission. The goal of this study was to assess physical functional status two years after discharge from an ICU and to determine factors influencing physical status in this population.
Methods
The study reviewed all patients admitted to two non-trauma ICUs during a one-year period and included patients with age ≥ 18 yrs, ICU stay ≥ 24 h, and who were alive 24 months after ICU discharge. To assess PFS, Karnofsky Performance Status Scale scores and Lawton-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores at ICU admission (K-ICU and L-ICU) were compared to the scores at the end of 24 months (K-24mo and L-24mo). Data at 24 months were obtained through telephone interviews.
Results
A total of 1,216 patients were eligible for the study. Twenty-four months after ICU discharge, 499 (41.6%) were alive, agreed to answer the interview, and had all hospital data available. PFS (K-ICU: 86.6 ± 13.8 vs. K-24mo: 77.1 ± 19.6, p < 0.001) and IADL (L-ICU: 27.0 ± 11.7 vs. L-24mo: 22.5 ± 11.5, p < 0.001) declined in patients with medical and unplanned surgical admissions. Most strikingly, the level of dependency increased in neurological patients (K-ICU: 86 ± 12 vs. K-24mo: 64 ± 21, relative risk [RR] 2.6, 95% CI, 1.8–3.6, p < 0.001) and trauma patients (K-ICU: 99 ± 2 vs. K-24mo: 83 ± 21, RR 2.7, 95% CI, 1.6–4.6, p < 0.001). The largest reduction in the ability to perform ADL occurred in neurological patients (L-ICU: 27 ± 7 vs. L-24mo: 15 ± 12, RR 3.3, 95% CI, 2.3–4.6 p < 0.001), trauma patients (L-ICU: 32 ± 0 vs. L-24mo: 25 ± 11, RR 2.8, 95% CI, 1.5–5.1, p < 0.001), patients aged ≥ 65 years (RR 1.4, 95% CI, 1.07–1.86, p = 0.01) and those who received mechanical ventilation for ≥ 8 days (RR 1.48, 95% CI, 1.02–2.15, p = 0.03).
Conclusions
Twenty-four months after ICU discharge, PFS was significantly poorer in patients with neurological injury, trauma, age ≥ 65 tears, and mechanical ventilation ≥ 8 days. Future studies should focus on the relationship between PFS and health-related quality of life in this population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-13-11
PMCID: PMC3701489  PMID: 23773812
Activities of Daily Living; Physical Functional Status; Intensive Care Unit; Long-term Care; Mortality; Prognosis; Health-related Quality of Life
7.  Retrospective analysis of outcome of women with breast or gynaecological cancer in the intensive care unit 
JRSM Short Reports  2013;4(1):2.
Objectives
Advances in oncological care have led to improved short and long-term outcomes of female patients with breast and gynecological cancer but little is known about their prognosis when admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of patients with women's cancer in ICU.
Design
Retrospective analysis of data of patients with breast and gynecological cancer in ICU between February 2004 and July 2008.
Setting
ICU in a tertiary referral centre in London.
Participants
Nineteen critically ill women with breast or gynaecological cancer.
Main outcome measures
ICU and six-month outcome.
Results
Eleven women had breast cancer and eight patients had gynaecological cancer. Twelve patients were known to have metastatic disease. The main reasons for admission to ICU were sepsis (94.7%), respiratory failure (36.8%) and need for vasoactive support (26.3%). ICU mortality was 31.6%. There was no difference in age and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on admission to ICU between ICU survivors and non-survivors. During their stay in ICU, non-survivors had significantly more organ failure. Six-month mortality was 68.4%. Four patients had >1 admission to ICU.
Conclusions
ICU outcome of critically ill women with breast or gynaecological cancer was similar to that of other non-cancer patient cohorts but six-month mortality was significantly higher. The decision to admit patients with women's cancer to the ICU should depend on the severity of the acute illness rather than factors related to the underlying malignancy. More research is needed to explore the outcome of patients with women's cancer after discharge from ICU.
doi:10.1258/shorts.2012.012036
PMCID: PMC3572657  PMID: 23413404
8.  Sepsis is a major determinant of outcome in critically ill HIV/AIDS patients 
Critical Care  2010;14(4):R152.
Introduction
New challenges have arisen for the management of critically ill HIV/AIDS patients. Severe sepsis has emerged as a common cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for those living with HIV/AIDS. Contrastingly, HIV/AIDS patients have been systematically excluded from sepsis studies, limiting the understanding of the impact of sepsis in this population. We prospectively followed up critically ill HIV/AIDS patients to evaluate the main risk factors for hospital mortality and the impact of severe sepsis on the short- and long-term survival.
Methods
All consecutive HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases research center, from June 2006 to May 2008, were included. Severity of illness, time since AIDS diagnosis, CD4 cell count, antiretroviral treatment, incidence of severe sepsis, and organ dysfunctions were registered. The 28-day, hospital, and 6-month outcomes were obtained for all patients. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis measured the effect of potential factors on 28-day and 6-month mortality.
Results
During the 2-year study period, 88 HIV/AIDS critically ill patients were admitted to the ICU. Seventy percent of patients had opportunist infections, median CD4 count was 75 cells/mm3, and 45% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Location on a ward before ICU admission, cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunctions on the first day after admission, and the presence of severe sepsis/septic shock were associated with reduced 28-day and 6-month survival on a univariate analysis. After a multivariate analysis, severe sepsis determined the highest hazard ratio (HR) for 28-day (adjusted HR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.21-8.07) and 6-month (adjusted HR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.42-7.86) mortality. Severe sepsis occurred in 44 (50%) patients, mainly because of lower respiratory tract infections. The survival of septic and nonseptic patients was significantly different at 28-day and 6-month follow-up times (log-rank and Peto test, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Severe sepsis has emerged as a major cause of admission and mortality for hospitalized HIV/AIDS patients, significantly affecting short- and longer-term survival of critically ill HIV/AIDS patients.
doi:10.1186/cc9221
PMCID: PMC2945136  PMID: 20698966
9.  Survival Analysis of 314 Episodes of Sepsis in Medical Intensive Care Unit in University Hospital: Impact of Intensive Care Unit Performance and Antimicrobial Therapy 
Croatian medical journal  2006;47(3):385-397.
Aim
To evaluate epidemiology of sepsis in medical intensive care unit (ICU) in an university hospital, and the impact of ICU performance and appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy on survival of septic patients.
Methods
Observational, partly prospective study conducted over 6 years assessed all patients meeting the criteria for sepsis at ICU admission at the Sisters of Mercy Hospital in Zagreb. Clinical presentation of sepsis was defined according to 2001 International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Demographic data, admission category, source of infection, severity of sepsis, ICU or hospital stay and outcome, ICU performance, and appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy were analyzed.
Results
The analysis included 314 of 5022 (6.3%) patients admitted to ICU during the study period. There were 176 (56.1%) ICU survivors. At the ICU admission, sepsis was present in 100 (31.8%), severe sepsis in 89 (28.6%), and septic shock in 125 (39.8%) patients with mortality rates 17%, 33.7%, 72.1%, respectively. During ICU treatment, 244 (77.7%) patients developed at least one organ dysfunction syndrome. Of 138 (43.9%) patients who met the criteria for septic shock, 107 (75.4) were non-survivors (P<0.001). Factors associated with in-ICU mortality were acquisition of sepsis at another department (odds ratio [OR] 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.19), winter season (OR 0.42; 0.20-0.89), limited mobility (OR 0.28; 0.14-0.59), ICU length of stay (OR 0.82; 0.75-0.91), sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on day 1 (OR 0.80; 0.72-0.89), history of global heart failure (OR 0.33; 0.16-0.67), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-connected respiratory failure (OR 0.50; 0.27-0.93), septic shock present during ICU treatment (OR 0.03; 0.01-0.10), and negative blood culture at admission (OR 2.60; 0.81-6.23). Microbiological documentation of sepsis was obtained in 235 (74.8%) patients. Urinary tract infections were present in 168 (53.5%) patients, followed by skin or soft tissue infections in 58 (18.5%) and lower respiratory tract infections in 44 (14.0%) patients. Lower respiratory tract as focus of sepsis was connected with worse outcome (P<0.001). Empirical antibiotic treatment was considered adequate in 107 (60.8%) survivors and 42 (30.4%) non-survivors. Patients treated with adequate empirical antibiotic therapy had significantly higher survival time in hospital (log-rank, P = 0.001).
Conclusion
The mortality rate of sepsis was unacceptably high. The odds for poor outcome increased with acquisition of sepsis at another department, winter season, limited mobility, higher SOFA score on day 1, history of chronic global heart failure, COPD-connected respiratory failure, and septic shock present during ICU treatment, whereas longer ICU length of stay, positive blood culture, and adequate empirical antibiotic therapy were protective factors.
PMCID: PMC2080418  PMID: 16758516
10.  Variation exists in rates of admission to intensive care units for heart failure patients across hospitals in the United States 
Circulation  2013;127(8):923-929.
Background
Despite increasing attention on reducing relatively costly hospital practices while maintaining the quality of care, few studies have examined how hospitals use the intensive care unit (ICU), a high-cost setting, for patients admitted with heart failure (HF). We characterized hospital patterns of ICU admission for patients with HF and determined their association with the use of ICU-level therapies and patient outcomes.
Methods and Results
We identified 166,224 HF discharges from 341 hospitals in the 2009–10 Premier Perspective® database. We excluded hospitals with <25 HF admissions, patients <18 years old, and transfers. We defined ICU as including medical ICU, coronary ICU, and surgical ICU. We calculated the percent of patients admitted directly to an ICU. We compared hospitals in the top-quartile (high ICU admission) with the remaining quartiles. The median percentage of ICU admission was 10% (Interquartile Range 6% to 16%; range 0% to 88%). In top-quartile hospitals, treatments requiring an ICU were used less often: percentage of ICU days receiving mechanical ventilation (6% top quartile versus 15% others), non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (8% versus 19%), vasopressors and/or inotropes (9% versus 16%), vasodilators (6% versus 12%), and any of these interventions (26% versus 51%). Overall HF in-hospital risk standardized mortality was similar (3.4% versus 3.5%; P = 0.2).
Conclusions
ICU admission rates for HF varied markedly across hospitals and lacked association with in-hospital risk-standardized mortality. Greater ICU use correlated with fewer patients receiving ICU interventions. Judicious ICU use could reduce resource consumption without diminishing patient outcomes.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001088
PMCID: PMC3688061  PMID: 23355624
congestive heart failure; mortality
11.  Determinants of mortality for adults with cystic fibrosis admitted in Intensive Care Unit: a multicenter study 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):14.
Background
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is controversial because of poor outcome. This appraisal needs re-evaluation following recent changes in both CF management and ICU daily practice. Objectives were to determine long-term outcome of adults with CF admitted in ICU and to identify prognostic factors.
Methods
Retrospective multicenter study of 60 ICU hospitalizations for 42 adult CF patients admitted between 2000 and 2003. Reason for ICU admission, ventilatory support provided and one-year survival were recorded. Multiple logistic analysis was used to determine predictors of mortality.
Results
Prior to ICU admission, all patients (mean age 28.1 ± 8 yr) had a severe lung disease (mean FEV1 28 ± 12% predicted; mean PaCO2 47 ± 9 mmHg). Main reason for ICU hospitalization was pulmonary infective exacerbation (40/60). At admission, noninvasive ventilation was used in 57% of cases and was successful in 67% of patients. Endotracheal intubation was implemented in 19 episodes. Overall ICU mortality rate was 14%. One year after ICU discharge, 10 of the 28 survivors have been lung transplanted. Among recognized markers of CF disease severity, only the annual FEV1 loss was associated with a poor outcome (HR = 1.47 [1.18–1.85], p = 0.001). SAPSII (HR = 1.08 [1.03–1.12], p < 0.001) and endotracheal intubation (HR = 16.60 [4.35–63.34], p < 0.001) were identified as strong independent predictors of mortality.
Conclusion
Despite advanced lung disease, adult patients with CF admitted in ICU have high survival rate. Endotracheal intubation is associated with a poor prognosis and should be used as the last alternative. Although efforts have to be made in selecting patients with CF likely to benefit from ICU resources, ICU admission of these patients should be considered.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-14
PMCID: PMC1403757  PMID: 16438722
12.  Anemia, transfusion, and phlebotomy practices in critically ill patients with prolonged ICU length of stay: a cohort study 
Critical Care  2006;10(5):R140.
Introduction
Anemia among the critically ill has been described in patients with short to medium length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), but it has not been described in long-stay ICU patients. This study was performed to characterize anemia, transfusion, and phlebotomy practices in patients with prolonged ICU LOS.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients admitted to a medical-surgical ICU in a tertiary care university hospital over three years; patients included had a continuous LOS in the ICU of 30 days or longer. Information on transfusion, phlebotomy, and outcomes were collected daily from days 22 to 112 of the ICU stay.
Results
A total of 155 patients were enrolled. The mean age, admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and median ICU LOS were 62.3 ± 16.3 years, 23 ± 8, and 49 days (interquartile range 36–70 days), respectively. Mean hemoglobin remained stable at 9.4 ± 1.4 g/dl from day 7 onward. Mean daily phlebotomy volume was 13.3 ± 7.3 ml, and 62% of patients received a mean of 3.4 ± 5.3 units of packed red blood cells at a mean hemoglobin trigger of 7.7 ± 0.9 g/dl after day 21. Transfused patients had significantly greater acuity of illness, phlebotomy volumes, ICU LOS and mortality, and had a lower hemoglobin than did those who were not transfused. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following as independently associated with the likelihood of requiring transfusion in nonbleeding patients: baseline hemoglobin, daily phlebotomy volume, ICU LOS, and erythropoietin therapy (used almost exclusively in dialysis dependent renal failure in this cohort of patients). Small increases in average phlebotomy (3.5 ml/day, 95% confidence interval 2.4–6.8 ml/day) were associated with a doubling in the odds of being transfused after day 21.
Conclusion
Anemia, phlebotomy, and transfusions, despite low hemoglobin triggers, are common in ICU patients long after admission. Small decreases in phlebotomy volume are associated with significantly reduced transfusion requirements in patients with prolonged ICU LOS.
doi:10.1186/cc5054
PMCID: PMC1751075  PMID: 17002795
13.  The challenge of admitting the very elderly to intensive care 
The aging of the population has increased the demand for healthcare resources. The number of patients aged 80 years and older admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) increased during the past decade, as has the intensity of care for such patients. Yet, many physicians remain reluctant to admit the oldest, arguing a "squandering" of societal resources, that ICU care could be deleterious, or that ICU care may not actually be what the patient or family wants in this instance. Other ICU physicians are strong advocates for admission of a selected elderly population. These discrepant opinions may partly be explained by the current lack of validated criteria to select accurately the patients (of any age) who will benefit most from ICU hospitalization. This review describes the epidemiology of the elderly aged 80 years and older admitted in the ICU, their long-term outcomes, and to discuss some of the solutions to cope with the burden of an aging population receiving acute care hospitalization.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-29
PMCID: PMC3224497  PMID: 21906383
14.  Outcomes of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients in the Intensive Care Unit 
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) experience higher rates of hospitalisation, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality and are more likely to require admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) than patients with normal renal function. Sepsis and cardiovascular diseases are the most common reasons for ICU admission. ICU mortality rates in patients requiring chronic hemodialysis are significantly higher than for patients without ESRD; however, dialysis patients have a better ICU outcome than those with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy suggesting that factors other than loss of renal function contribute to their prognosis. Current evidence suggests, the longer-term outcomes after discharge from ICU may be favourable and that long-term dependence on dialysis should not prejudice against prompt referral or admission to ICU.
doi:10.1155/2013/715807
PMCID: PMC3665164  PMID: 23762546
15.  Five-year risk of end-stage renal disease among intensive care patients surviving dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury: a nationwide cohort study 
Critical Care  2013;17(4):R145.
Introduction
Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (D-AKI) is common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, follow-up data on the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among these patients remain sparse. We assessed the short-term and long-term risk of ESRD after D-AKI, compared it with the risk in other ICU patients, and examined the risk within subgroups of ICU patients.
Methods
We used population-based medical registries to identify all adult patients admitted to an ICU in Denmark from 2005 through 2010, who survived for 90 days after ICU admission. D-AKI was defined as needing acute dialysis at or after ICU admission. Subsequent ESRD was defined as a need for chronic dialysis for more than 90 days or a kidney transplant. We computed the cumulative ESRD risk for patients with D-AKI and for other ICU patients, taking into account death as a competing risk, and computed hazard ratios (HRs) using a Cox model adjusted for potential confounders.
Results
We identified 107,937 patients who survived for 90 days after ICU admission. Of these, 3,062 (2.8%) had an episode of D-AKI following ICU admission. The subsequent risk of ESRD up to 180 days after ICU admission was 8.5% for patients with D-AKI, compared with 0.1% for other ICU patients. This corresponds to an adjusted HR of 105.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 78.1 to 142.9). Among patients who survived 180 days after ICU admission without developing ESRD (n = 103,996), the 181-day to 5-year ESRD risk was 3.8% for patients with D-AKI, compared with 0.3% for other ICU patients, corresponding to an adjusted HR of 6.2 (95% CI: 4.7 to 8.1). During the latter period, the impact of AKI was most pronounced in the youngest patients, aged 15 to 49 years (adjusted HR = 12.8, 95% CI: 6.5 to 25.4) and among patients without preexisting chronic kidney disease (adjusted HR = 11.9, 95% CI: 8.5 to 16.8).
Conclusion
D-AKI is an important risk factor for ESRD for up to five years after ICU admission.
doi:10.1186/cc12824
PMCID: PMC4055988  PMID: 23876346
acute kidney injury; cohort studies; critical care; end-stage renal disease; intensive care units; prognosis; renal dialysis
16.  Intensive care outcomes in bone marrow transplant recipients: a population-based cohort analysis 
Critical Care  2008;12(3):R77.
Introduction
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission for bone marrow transplant recipients immediately following transplantation is an ominous event, yet the survival of these patients with subsequent ICU admissions is unknown. Our objective was to determine the long-term outcome of bone marrow transplant recipients admitted to an ICU during subsequent hospitalizations.
Methods
We conducted a population-based cohort analysis of all adult bone marrow transplant recipients who received subsequent ICU care in Ontario, Canada from 1 January 1992 to 31 March 2002. The primary endpoint was mortality at 1 year.
Results
A total of 2,653 patients received bone marrow transplantation; 504 of which received ICU care during a subsequent hospitalization. Patients receiving any major procedure during their ICU stay had higher 1-year mortality than those patients who received no ICU procedure (87% versus 44%, P < 0.0001). Death rates at 1 year were highest for those receiving mechanical ventilation (87%), pulmonary artery catheterization (91%), or hemodialysis (94%). In combination, the strongest independent predictors of death at 1 year were mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 7.4; 95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 11.4) and hemodialysis (odds ratio, 8.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 36.7), yet no combination of procedures uniformly predicted 100% mortality.
Conclusion
The prognosis of bone marrow transplant recipients receiving ICU care during subsequent hospitalizations is very poor but should not be considered futile.
doi:10.1186/cc6923
PMCID: PMC2481474  PMID: 18547422
17.  Long-term outcomes and clinical predictors of hospital mortality in very long stay intensive care unit patients: a cohort study 
Critical Care  2006;10(2):R59.
Introduction
Little information is available on prognosis and outcomes of very long stay intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The purpose of this study was to identify long-term outcomes after hospital discharge and readily available clinical predictors of hospital mortality for patients requiring prolonged care in the ICU.
Method
Clinical data were collected from consecutive patients requiring at least 30 days of ICU care admitted over 3 calendar years (2001 to 2003) to a medical/surgical ICU in a university-affiliated tertiary care centre.
Results
A total of 182 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 63 years, median ICU stay of 48.5 days (interquartile range 36–78 days) and ICU mortality of 32%. They accounted for 8% of total admissions and 48% of total occupied beds. Of these patients, 42% died in hospital, 44% returned to their previous place of residence, and 14% were transferred to long-term care institutions. By 6 months after hospital discharge a further 8% of the patients had died, 40% remained at their previous place of residence, and 10% were in long-term care. Predictors of hospital mortality, identified using multivariate logistic regression, included age (odds ratio [OR] 1.45 per additional decade, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–1.91), any immunosuppression (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.7–15.5), mechanical ventilation for longer than 90 days (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.3–12.0), treatment with inotropes or vasopressors for more than 3 days at or after day 30 in the ICU (OR 7.1, 95% CI 2.6–19.3), and acute renal failure requiring dialysis at or after day 30 in the ICU (OR 6.3, 95% CI 2.0–19.7).
Conclusion
Patients with very long stays in the ICU appear to have a reasonable chance of survival, with most survivors in our cohort residing at their previous place of residence 6 months after hospital discharge. Prolonged requirement for life support therapies (ventilation, vasoactive agents, or acute dialysis) and a limited number of pre-existing co-morbidities (immunosuppression and, to a lesser extent, patient age) were predictors of increased hospital mortality. These predictors may assist in clinical decision making for this resource intensive patient population, and their reproducibility in other very long stay patient populations should be explored.
doi:10.1186/cc4888
PMCID: PMC1550909  PMID: 16606475
18.  Assessment of risk factors related to healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection at patient admission to an intensive care unit in Japan 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:303.
Background
Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients prolongs ICU stay and causes high mortality. Predicting HA-MRSA infection on admission can strengthen precautions against MRSA transmission. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in an ICU from data obtained within 24 hours of patient ICU admission.
Methods
We prospectively studied HA-MRSA infection in 474 consecutive patients admitted for more than 2 days to our medical, surgical, and trauma ICU in a tertiary referral hospital in Japan. Data obtained from patients within 24 hours of ICU admission on 11 prognostic variables possibly related to outcome were evaluated to predict infection risk in the early phase of ICU stay. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for HA-MRSA infection.
Results
Thirty patients (6.3%) had MRSA infection, and 444 patients (93.7%) were infection-free. Intubation, existence of open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission, were detected as independent prognostic indicators. Patients with intubation or open wound comprised 96.7% of MRSA-infected patients but only 57.4% of all patients admitted.
Conclusions
Four prognostic variables were found to be risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in ICU: intubation, open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission. Preemptive infection control in patients with these risk factors might effectively decrease HA-MRSA infection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-303
PMCID: PMC3219579  PMID: 22044716
19.  Intensive Care Usage by HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era 
In the 1980s the outlook for patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and critical illness was poor. Since then several studies of outcome of HIV+ patients on ICU have shown improving prognosis, with anti-retroviral therapy playing a large part. We retrospectively examined intensive care (ICU) admissions in a large HIV unit in London. Between April 2001 and April 2006 43 patients were admitted to the ICU. The mean age of patients was 44 years and 74% were male. Fifty-six percent of admissions were receiving anti-retroviral therapy and 44% had an AIDS defining diagnosis. The median CD4 count was 128 cells/mL and the median APACHE II score was 21. The commonest diagnostic ICU admission category was respiratory disease. This group experienced higher mortality despite slightly lower APACHE II scores, though this did not achieve statistical significance. The follow up period was one year or until April 2007, when data were censored. ICU mortality was 33%, in hospital mortality was 51% and overall mortality at the end of the study period was 67%. Median survival was 1008 days. The CD4 count did not predict long-term survival, although the sample size was too small for this to be conclusive.
doi:10.1155/2011/847835
PMCID: PMC3205706  PMID: 22121360
20.  Effect of oral beta-blocker on short and long-term mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure: results from the BASEL-II-ICU study 
Critical Care  2010;14(6):R198.
Introduction
Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is responsible for about one-third of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and is associated with adverse outcomes. Predictors of short- and long-term outcomes in unselected ICU-patients with ARF are ill-defined. The purpose of this analysis was to determine predictors of in-hospital and one-year mortality and assess the effects of oral beta-blockers in unselected ICU patients with ARF included in the BASEL-II-ICU study.
Methods
The BASEL II-ICU study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial of 314 (mean age 70 (62 to 79) years) ICU patients with ARF evaluating impact of a B-type natriuretic peptide- (BNP) guided management strategy on short-term outcomes.
Results
In-hospital mortality was 16% (51 patients) and one-year mortality 41% (128 patients). Multivariate analysis assessed that oral beta-blockers at admission were associated with a lower risk of both in-hospital (HR 0.33 (0.14 to 0.74) P = 0.007) and one-year mortality (HR 0.29 (0.16 to 0.51) P = 0.0003). Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed the lower mortality in ARF patients when admitted with oral beta-blocker and further shows that the beneficial effect of oral beta-blockers at admission holds true in the two subgroups of patients with ARF related to cardiac or non-cardiac causes. Kaplan-Meier analysis also shows that administration of oral beta-blockers before hospital discharge gives striking additional beneficial effects on one-year mortality.
Conclusions
Established beta-blocker therapy appears to be associated with a reduced mortality in ICU patients with acute respiratory failure. Cessation of established therapy appears to be hazardous. Initiation of therapy prior to discharge appears to confer benefit. This finding was seen regardless of the cardiac or non-cardiac etiology of respiratory failure.
Trial registration
clinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00130559
doi:10.1186/cc9317
PMCID: PMC3219994  PMID: 21047406
21.  OUTCOMES FOR CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH HIV AND SEVERE SEPSIS IN THE ERA OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY 
Journal of Critical Care  2011;27(1):51-57.
RATIONALE
With the advent of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), sepsis has become a more frequent ICU diagnosis for patients with HIV infections. Yet, little is known about the etiologies of acute infections in critically ill patients with HIV and the factors that affect in-hospital mortality.
METHODS
Cases of patients with HIV requiring intensive care specifically for severe sepsis were identified over 27 months. Demographic information, variables related to acute illness severity, variables related to HIV infection, and all acute infections contributing to ICU stay were recorded.
RESULTS
Of 990 patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis, 136 (13.7%) were HIV-infected. There were 194 acute infections among the 125 patients with full data available; 112 of the infections were nosocomial/healthcare-associated, 55 were AIDS-related, and 27 were community-acquired. Patients with nosocomial/healthcare-associated and AIDS-related infections had lower CD4 counts and were less likely to be on HAART (p<0.05). The inpatient mortality was 42%. In a multivariable logistic regression model, only the APACHE II score (odds ratio, OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02–1.23) was significantly associated with hospital mortality, although any HAART use (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.22–1.33, p=0.18) approached statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS
In this large cohort study, nosocomial/healthcare-associated infections were common in ICU patients with HIV and severe sepsis. Hospital mortality was associated with acute illness severity, but not clearly associated with variables related to HIV infection. Interventions that aim to prevent or more effectively treat nosocomial infections in critically ill patients with HIV may favorably impact clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2011.08.015
PMCID: PMC3269533  PMID: 22033058
22.  Survival trends in critically ill HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era 
Critical Care  2010;14(3):R107.
Introduction
The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV-related life-threatening infectious complications. Our objective was to assess whether highly active ART was associated with improved survival in critically ill HIV-infected patients.
Methods
A retrospective study from 1996 to 2005 was performed in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital specialized in the management of immunocompromised patients. A total of 284 critically ill HIV-infected patients were included. Differences were sought across four time periods. Risk factors for death were identified by multivariable logistic regression.
Results
Among the 233 (82%) patients with known HIV infection before ICU admission, 64% were on highly active ART. Annual admissions increased over time, with no differences in reasons for admission: proportions of patients with newly diagnosed HIV, previous opportunistic infection, CD4 counts, viral load, or acute disease severity. ICU and 90-day mortality rates decreased steadily: 25% and 37.5% in 1996 to 1997, 17.1% and 17.1% in 1998 to 2000, 13.2% and 13.2% in 2001 to 2003, and 8.6% in 2004 to 2005. Five factors were independently associated with increased ICU mortality: delayed ICU admission (odds ratio (OR), 3.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29 to 7.17), acute renal failure (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.63 to 10.92), hepatic cirrhosis (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 1.21 to 11.84), ICU admission for coma (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.46), and severe sepsis (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.53 to 8.80). Admission to the ICU in the most recent period was independently associated with increased survival: admission from 2001 to 2003 (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.99), and between 2004 and 2005 (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.53).
Conclusions
ICU survival increased significantly in the highly active ART era, although disease severity remained unchanged. Co-morbidities and organ dysfunctions, but not HIV-related variables, were associated with death. Earlier ICU admission from the hospital ward might improve survival.
doi:10.1186/cc9056
PMCID: PMC2911753  PMID: 20534139
23.  Relationships among initial hospital triage, disease progression, and mortality in community-acquired pneumonia 
Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)  2012;17(8):1207-1213.
Background and objective
Appropriate triage of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may improve morbidity, mortality, and use of hospital resources. Worse outcomes from delayed intensive care unit (ICU) admission have long been suspected but have not been verified.
Methods
In a retrospective study of consecutive patients with CAP admitted from 1996–2006 to the ICUs of a tertiary care hospital, we measured serial severity scores, intensive therapies received, ICU-free days, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Primary outcome was mortality. We developed a regression model of mortality with ward triage (and subsequent ICU transfer within 72 hours) as the predictor, controlled by propensity for ward triage and radiographic progression.
Results
Of 1,059 hospital-admitted patients, 269 (25%) were admitted to the ICU during hospitalization. Of those, 167 were directly admitted to the ICU without current requirement for life support, while 61 (23%) were initially admitted to the hospital ward, 50 of those undergoing ICU transfer within 72 hours. Ward triage was associated with increased mortality (OR 2.6, p=0.056) after propensity adjustment. The effect was less (OR 2.2, p=0.12) after controlling for radiographic progression. The effect probably increased (OR 4.0, p=0.08) among patients with ≥ 3 severity predictors at admission.
Conclusions
Initial ward triage among patients subsequently transferred to the ICU is associated with twofold higher 30-day mortality. This effect is most apparent among patients with ≥ 3 severity predictors at admission and is partially attenuated by controlling for radiographic progression. Intensive monitoring of ward-admitted patients with CAP seems warranted. Further research is needed to optimize triage in CAP.
doi:10.1111/j.1440-1843.2012.02225.x
PMCID: PMC3544548  PMID: 22805170
Intensive Care; Outcome Assessment; Pneumonia; Respiratory Tract Infections; Triage
24.  ACUTE LIFE-THREATENING ASTHMA IN ASIR CENTRAL HOSPITAL 
Aim:
This study was conducted to analyze the severe acute asthma admissions in Asir Central Hospital (ACH) in Abha, Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to identify risk factors and final outcome of acute life-threatening asthma.
Method:
All patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with acute bronchial asthma from June 1989 to May 1995 were analyzed. Total admis-sions to the ICU were obtained to determine the prevalence of asthma admission to the ICU.
Results:
There were 13 admissions for 8 patients. Three patients died and five were discharged in good condition. All patients received almost similar modes of therapy. Late presentation was the main cause of death. No patient died of asthma outside the ICU. Asthma constituted 0.42% of total ICU admissions. Several risk factors for admission to ICU were identified, including: poor compliance, previous requirement of systemic steroids, history of previous intubation, and psychiatric illness.
Conclusion:
Asthma continued to be a cause of death despite the availability of treatment. Late presentation is the main cause of death. With proper management the outcome for a majority of patients could be good even in acute life-threatening asthma.
PMCID: PMC3437136  PMID: 23008568
Acute; bronchial asthma; risk factors; life-threatening; Asir rsegion
25.  A risk factor analysis of healthcare-associated fungal infections in an intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study 
Background
The incidence of fungal healthcare-associated infection (HAI) has increased in a major teaching hospital in the northern part of Taiwan over the past decade, especially in the intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that were responsible for the outbreak and trend in the ICU.
Methods
Surveillance fungal cultures were obtained from “sterile” objects, antiseptic solutions, environment of infected patients and hands of medical personnel. Risk factors for comparison included age, gender, admission service, and total length of stay in the ICU, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at admission to the ICU, main diagnosis on ICU admission, use of invasive devices, receipt of hemodialysis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, history of antibiotic therapy before HAI or during ICU stay in no HAI group, and ICU discharge status (ie, dead or alive). Univariable analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors for ICU fungal HAIs and ICU mortality.
Results
There was a significant trend in ICU fungal HAIs from 1998 to 2009 (P < 0.001). A total of 516 episodes of ICU fungal HAIs were identified; the rates of various infections were urinary tract infection (UTI) (54.8%), blood stream infection (BSI) (30.6%), surgical site infection (SSI) (6.6%), pneumonia (4.5%), other sites (3.5%). The fungi identified were: yeasts (54.8%), Candida albicans (27.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.6%), Candida glabrata (6.6%), Candida parapsilosis (1.9%), Candida species (0.8%), and other fungi (1.9%). Candida albicans accounted for 63% of all Candida species. Yeasts were found in the environment of more heavily infected patients. The independent risk factors (P < 0.05) of developing ICU fungal HAIs from all sites were TPN use, sepsis, surgical patients, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal UTI included TPN use, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal BSI included TPN use, sepsis, and higher APACHE II score. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal pneumonia included TPN use, surgical patients. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal SSI included surgical patients, and TPN use. The odds ratios of TPN use in various infection types ranged from 3.51 to 8.82. The risk of mortality in patients with ICU fungal HAIs was over 2 times that of patients without ICU HAIs in the multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
There was a secular trend of an increasing number of fungal HAIs in our ICU over the past decade. Patients with ICU fungal HAIs had a significantly higher mortality rate than did patients without ICU HAIs. Total parenteral nutrition was a significant risk factor for all types of ICU fungal HAIs, and its use should be monitored closely.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-10
PMCID: PMC3548709  PMID: 23298156
Intensive care unit; Fungal infection; Outbreak surveillance; Candida; Total parenteral nutrition

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