Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) studies from our laboratory and others described decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and elevated proportion of lymphocytes expressing the activation marker, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) also known as CD26. However, neither these assays nor other laboratory tests are widely accepted for the diagnosis or prognosis of CFS. This study sought to determine if NKCC or DPPIV/CD26 have diagnostic accuracy for CFS.
Subjects included female and male CFS cases and healthy controls. NK cell function was measured with a bioassay, using K562 cells and 51Cr release. Lymphocyte associated DPPIV/CD26 was assayed by qualitative and quantitative flow cytometry. Serum DPPIV/CD26 was measured by ELISA. Analysis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed biomarker potential. Cytotoxic function of NK cells for 176 CFS subjects was significantly lower than in the 230 controls. According to ROC analysis, NKCC was a good predictor of CFS status. There was no significant difference in NK cell counts between cases and controls. Percent CD2+ lymphocytes (T cells and NK cells) positive for DPPIV/C26 was elevated in CFS cases, but there was a decrease in the number of molecules (rMol) of DPPIV/C26 expressed on T cells and NK cells and a decrease in the soluble form of the enzyme in serum. Analyses by ROC curves indicated that all three measurements of DPPIV/CD26 demonstrated potential as biomarkers for CFS. None of the DPPIV/C26 assays were significantly correlated with NKCC.
By ROC analysis, NKCC and three methods of measuring DPPIV/C26 examined in this study had potential as biomarkers for CFS. Of these, NKCC, %CD2+CD26+ lymphocytes and rMol CD26/CD2+ lymphocyte, required flow cytometry, fresh blood and access to a high complexity laboratory. Soluble DPPIV/C26 in serum is done with a standard ELISA assay, or with other soluble factors in a multiplex type of ELISA. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV on lymphocytes or in serum was not predictive of NKCC suggesting that these should be considered as non-redundant biomarkers. Abnormalities in DPPIV/CD26 and in NK cell function have particular relevance to the possible role of infection in the initiation and/or the persistence of CFS.
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a cell surface peptidase expressed by normal melanocytes, epithelial cells, and other cells. Malignant cells, including melanomas and carcinomas, frequently lose or alter DPPIV cell surface expression. Loss of DPPIV expression occurs during melanoma progression at a stage where transformed melanocytes become independent of exogenous growth factors for survival. Tetracycline-inducible expression vectors were constructed to express DPPIV in human melanoma cells. Reexpressing DPPIV in melanoma cells at or below levels expressed by normal melanocytes induced a profound change in phenotype that was characteristic of normal melanocytes. DPPIV expression led to a loss of tumorigenicity, anchorage-independent growth, a reversal in a block in differentiation, and an acquired dependence on exogenous growth factors for cell survival. Suppression of tumorigenicity and reversal of a block in differentiation were dependent on serine protease activity, assessed using mutant DPPIV molecules containing serine→alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, dependence on exogenous growth factors was not dependent on serine protease activity. Reexpression of either wild-type or mutant DPPIV rescued expression of a second putative cell surface serine peptidase, fibroblast activation protein α, which can form a heterodimer with DPPIV. This observation suggests that rescue of fibroblast activation protein α may play a role in regulating growth of melanocytic cells. These results support the view that downregulation of DPPIV is an important early event in the pathogenesis of melanoma.
melanoma; fibroblast activating protein α; serine protease; tumorigenicity; differentiation
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) also known as the T cell activation marker CD26 is a multifunctional protein which is involved in various biological processes. The association of human-DPPIV with components of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV1) is well documented and raised some discussions. Several reports implicated the interaction of human-DPPIV with the HIV1 transcription transactivator protein (HIV1-Tat) and the inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase activity of DPPIV by the HIV1-Tat protein. Furthermore, enzyme kinetic data implied another binding site for the HIV1-Tat other than the active centre of DPPIV. However, the biological significance of this interaction of the HIV1-Tat protein and human-DPPIV has not been studied, yet. Therefore, we focused on the interaction of HIV1-Tat protein with DPPIV and investigated the subsequent biological consequences of this interaction in Spodoptera frugiperda cells, using the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus system.
The HIV1-Tat protein (Tat-BRU) co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with human-DPPIV protein, following co-expression in the baculovirus-driven Sf9 cell expression system. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of DPPIV protein was up-regulated in Tat/DPPIV-co-expressing cells after 72 h culturing and also in DPPIV-expressing Sf9 cells after application of purified recombinant Tat protein. As opposed to the expression of Tat alone, serine phosphorylation of the Tat protein was decreased when co-expressed with human-DPPIV protein.
We show for the first time that human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat co-immunoprecipitate. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the interaction of HIV1-Tat and human-DPPIV may be involved in signalling platforms that regulate the biological function of both human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat.
Lymphatic vessels play an important role in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and in the transport of immune cells to lymph nodes, but they also serve as the major conduit for cancer metastasis to regional lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these functions are poorly understood. Based on transcriptional profiling studies of cultured human dermal lymphatic (LEC) versus blood vascular endothelial cells (BEC), we found that dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) mRNA and protein are much more strongly expressed by cultured lymphatic endothelium than by blood vascular endothelium that only expressed low levels of DPPIV in culture. The enzymatic cleavage activity of DPPIV was significantly higher in cultured LEC than in BEC. Differential immunofluorescence analyses of human organ tissue microarrays for DPPIV and several vascular lineage-specific markers revealed that DPPIV is also specifically expressed in situ by lymphatic vessels of the skin, esophagus, small intestine, breast and ovary. Moreover, siRNA-mediated DPPIV knockdown inhibited LEC adhesion to collagen type I and to fibronectin, and also reduced cell migration and formation of tube-like structures. These results identify DPPIV as a novel lymphatic marker and mediator of lymphatic endothelial cell functions.
Lymphatic endothelial cells; lymphangiogenesis; DPPIV; cell migration
The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) gene family exhibits multiple functions and is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. It has attracted pharmaceutical interest in the areas of metabolic disorders as well as cancer. However, clinicopathologic significance of DPPIV family in colorectal cancer is not fully understood.
Materials and Methods
The clinical relevance of DPPIV and DPP10 expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining, and by assessing its clinicopathologic correlation in 383 colorectal cancer patients with known clinical outcomes.
DPPIV was not expressed in normal colon mucosa, but it showed luminal expression in 52 of the 383 colorectal cancers (13.5%). DPPIV expression in tumors was associated with right-sided location of the colon (p=0.010) and more advanced tumor stage (p=0.045). DPP10 was expressed in normal colonic mucosa, but its expression varied in primary colorectal cancer tissues. Loss of DPP10 expression was found in 11 colorectal cancers (CRCs) (2.9%), and multivariate analysis showed that loss of DPP10 expression was an independent factor for poor patient prognosis (p=0.008).
DPP10 may play a role in disease progression of colorectal cancer and loss of DPP10 expression in primary CRC is significantly associated with poor survival outcomes.
Colorectal cancer; dipeptidyl peptidase 10; progression; prognosis
CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a surface antigen with multiple functions, including a role in T-cell activation and the development of certain human cancers. We previously demonstrated that CD26/DPPIV enhanced sensitivity of Jurkat cells to doxorubicin. We now show that expression of CD26/DPPIV enhanced sensitivity of CD26 Jurkat transfectants to G2–M arrest mediated by the antineoplastic agent etoposide. The increased sensitivity to etoposide-induced G2–M arrest was associated with disruption of cell cycle-related events, including hyperphosphorylation of p34cdc2 kinase, change in cdc25C expression and phosphorylation, and alteration in cyclin B1 expression. CD26/DPPIV-associated enhancement of doxorubicin and etoposide-induced G2–M arrest was also observed in serum-free media, suggesting an effect of CD26 on cell-derived processes rather than serum-derived factors. Importantly, our work elucidated a potential mechanism for the enhanced susceptibility of CD26-expressing Jurkat cells to the topoisomerase II inhibitors by demonstrating that CD26/DPPIV surface expression was associated with increased topoisomerase II α levels and enhanced enzyme activity. Besides being the first to show a functional association between the multifaceted molecule CD26 and the key cellular protein topoisomerase II α, our studies provide additional evidence of a potential role for CD26 in the treatment of selected malignancies.
CD26/DPPIV; cell cycle; G2–M; topoisomerase II α; Jurkat
Several of the proinflammatory peptides involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, including peptides induced downstream of tumor necrosis factor-α as well as the monocyte/T cell-attracting chemokines RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α and the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P, have their biological half-lives controlled by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Proteolysis by DPPIV regulates not only the half-life but also receptor preference and downstream signaling. In this article, we examine the role of DPPIV homologs, including CD26, the canonical DPPIV, and their substrates in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The differing specific activities of the DPPIV family members and their differential inhibitor response provide new insights into therapeutic design.
The pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum secretes dipeptidyl peptidase (Dpp) IV enzyme activity and has two putative DPPIV homologs (HcDPPIVA and HcDPPIVB). We previously showed that HcDPPIVB is the gene responsible for the majority of secreted DppIV activity in H. capsulatum culture supernatant, while we could not detect any functional contribution from HcDPPIVA. In order to determine whether HcDPPIVA encodes a functional DppIV enzyme, we expressed HcDPPIVA in Pichia pastoris and purified the recombinant protein. The recombinant enzyme cleaved synthetic DppIV substrates and had similar biochemical properties to other described DppIV enzymes, with temperature and pH optima of 42°C and 8, respectively. Recombinant HcDppIVA cleaved the host immunoregulatory peptide substance P, indicating the enzyme has the potential to affect the immune response during infection. Expression of HcDPPIVA under heterologous regulatory sequences in H. capsulatum resulted in increased secreted DppIV activity, indicating that the encoded protein can be expressed and secreted by its native organism. However, HcDPPIVA was not required for virulence in a murine model of histoplasmosis. This work reports a fungal enzyme that can function to cleave the immunomodulatory host peptide substance P.
Imbalanced protease expression and activities may contribute to the development of cancers including neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma is a fatal childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that frequently overexpresses mitogenic peptides, chemokines and their receptors. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), a cell surface serine protease, inactivates or degrades some of these bioactive peptides and chemokines, thereby regulating cell proliferation and survival. Our studies show that DPPIV is expressed in normal neural crest-derived structures, including superior cervical and dorsal root ganglion cells, sciatic nerve, and in adrenal glands, but its expression is greatly decreased or lost in cells derived from neuroblastoma, their malignant counterpart. Restoration of DPPIV expression in neuroblastoma cells led to their differentiation in association with increased expression of the neural marker MAP2 and decreased expression of chemokines including stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1) and its receptor CXCR4. Furthermore, DPPIV promoted apoptosis, and inhibited SDF1 mediated in vitro cell migration and angiogenic potential. These changes were accompanied by caspase activation, and decreased levels of phospho-AKT and MMP9 activity, down stream effectors of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling. Importantly, DPPIV suppressed the tumorigenic potential of neuroblastoma cells in a xenotransplantation mouse model. These data support a potential role for DPPIV in inhibiting neuroblastoma growth and progression.
DPPIV; Neuroblastoma; Apoptosis; Chemokine; Migration and Invasion
CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a cell surface ectoenzyme
which participates in immune and inflammatory reactions. We found that
CD26 was only partially expressed on human fibroblasts from periodontal
tissues, whereas fibroblasts from lung and skin expressed CD26
constitutively as revealed by flow cytometry. We examined the possible
upregulation of CD26 expression on human gingival fibroblasts in
response to various stimulants. Interleukin-1α (IL-1α); tumor
necrosis factor alpha; gamma interferon; lipopolysaccharide from
Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella
intermedia, and Escherichia coli; and
Prevotella glycoprotein augmented CD26 expression on
gingival fibroblasts. Among the stimulants, IL-1α exhibited the most
potent activity. Enzymatic activity of CD26 induced by IL-1α on
fibroblasts was determined colorimetrically in terms of Gly-Pro
hydrolysis of a synthetic chromogenic substrate, Gly-Pro
p-nitroanilide. Among various inhibitors tested, diprotin A
and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the enzymatic activity,
suggesting that the enzyme induced by IL-1α was DPPIV. The
upregulation of CD26 mRNA expression upon stimulation with IL-1α was
also revealed by a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay. In the
kinetic experiment, 48 h and several days were required for
maximum CD26 mRNA accumulation and CD26 molecule expression on the cell
surface, respectively. The addition of cycloheximide at 2 h before
IL-1α stimulation almost completely inhibited the accumulation of
CD26 mRNA. These results suggested that induction of CD26 on human
gingival fibroblasts is regulated at the transcriptional level and is
also dependent on a de novo-synthesized protein factor(s).
CD26 is a T-cell costimulatory molecule with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity in its extracellular region. We previously reported that recombinant soluble CD26 enhances peripheral blood T-cell proliferation induced by the recall antigen tetanus toxoid (TT). Recently, we demonstrated that CD26 binds caveolin-1 on antigen-presenting cell (APC), and that residues 201–211 of CD26 along with the serine catalytic site at residue 630, which constitute a pocket structure of CD26/DPPIV, contribute to binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. In addition, following CD26–caveolin-1 interaction on TT-loaded monocytes, caveolin-1 is phosphorylated, with linkage to NF-κB activation, followed by upregulation of CD86. Finally, reduced caveolin-1 expression on APC inhibits CD26-mediated CD86 upregulation and abrogates CD26 effect on TT-induced T-cell proliferation, and immunohistochemical studies revealed an infiltration of CD26+ T cells in the sublining region of rheumatoid synovium and high expression of caveolin-1 in the increased vasculature and synoviocytes of the rheumatoid synovium. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that CD26–cavolin-1 interaction plays a role in the upregulation of CD86 on TT-loaded APC and subsequent engagement with CD28 on T cells, leading to antigen-specific T-cell activation such as the T-cell-mediated antigen-specific response in rheumatoid arthritis.
Caveolin-1; CD26; Memory T cell; Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Synovial cell
Glucagon-like peptide-2(GLP-2) induces small intestine mucosal epithelial cell (EC) proliferation; and may have benefit for patients suffering from short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, GLP-2 is rapidly inactivated in vivo by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Therefore, we hypothesized that selectively inhibiting DPPIV would prolong the circulating life of GLP-2 and lead to increased intestinal adaptation after development of SBS.
8-week old C57BL/6J mice underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection and were treated with either sitagliptin, a DPPIV-inhibitor (DPPIV-I), starting 1 day before surgery versus placebo. DPPIV-I efficacy was assessed 3 days after resection, including intestinal morphology, EC apoptosis and EC proliferation. Adaptive mechanisms were assessed with quantitative real-time PCR, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was measured by radioimmunoassay.
Body weight loss and peripheral blood glucose levels did not change compared to SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment led to significant increases in villus height and crypt depth. DPPIV-I treatment did not significantly change EC apoptosis rates, but significantly increased crypt EC proliferation versus placebo-SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment markedly increased mRNA expression of β-catenin and c-myc in ileal mucosa. Plasma GLP-2 levels significantly increased(~40.9%) in DPPIV-I-SBS mice.
DPPIV- I treatment increased SBS adaptation, and may potentially be useful for SBS patients.
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a pathogen associated with adult periodontitis. It produces dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPPIV), which may act as a virulence factor by contributing to the degradation of connective tissue. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which DPPIV contributes to the destruction of connective tissue. DPPIV itself did not show gelatinase or collagenase activity toward human type I collagen, but it promoted the activity of the host-derived matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) (gelatinase) and MMP-1 (collagenase). DPPIV bound to fibronectin and mediated the adhesion of P. gingivalis to fibronectin. Mutant DPPIV with catalytic Ser mutagenized to Ala (DPPSA) did not accelerate the degradation of collagen and gelatin by MMPs but retained fibronectin-binding activity. The adhesion of human gingival fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 cells to fibronectin was inhibited by DPPIV. Strain 4351ADPPSA exhibited an intermediate level of virulence in mice, between that of the strain expressing wild-type DPPIV (4351ADPP) and that of the strain harboring only the plasmid vector (4351AVEC). It is suggested that both activity promoting the degradation of collagen and gelatin and binding to fibronectin are required for full virulence. These results reveal novel biological functions of DPPIV and suggest a pathological role in the progression of periodontitis.
CD26 is a 110-kDa multifunctional molecule having dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity and is present on the surface of human T cells. Soluble CD26 (sCD26) exists in human blood and enhances the proliferation of peripheral T lymphocytes induced by tetanus toxoid (TT). The mechanisms by which CD26 enhances the activation of T cells and monocytes remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we compared the stimulation of THP-1 cells and isolated human monocytes with a combination of recombinant sCD26 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the stimulation of these cells with LPS alone. We found that addition of sCD26 increased TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA and protein expression and enhanced ERK1/2 levels in the cytosol as well as c-Fos, NF-κB p50, NF-κB p65, and CUX1 levels in the nuclei of these cells. On the other hand, the selective DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin inhibited the increase in TNF-α mRNA and protein expression as well as the increase in ERK, c-Fos, NF-κB p50, NF-κB p65, and CUX1 levels. However, it did not inhibit the increase in IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. We then demonstrated that sCD26 enhanced binding of transcription factors to the TNF- and IL-6 promoters and used reporter assays to demonstrate that transcription factor binding enhanced promoter activity. Once again, we observed differential activities at the TNF- and IL-6 promoters. Finally, we demonstrated that CUX-1 overexpression enhanced TNF- production on sCD26/LPS stimulation, while CUX-1 depletion had no effect. Neither CUX-1 overexpression nor CUX-1 depletion had an effect on IL-6 stimulation. These results are discussed in the context of a model that describes the mechanisms by which stimulation of monocytic cells by sCD26 and LPS leads to elevation of TNF- and IL-6 expression. CUX-1 is identified as a new transcription factor that differently regulates the activities of the TNF- and IL-6 promoters.
Dipeptidyl peptidase type IV (DppIV) enzymes are broadly distributed phylogenetically and display diverse functions, including intercellular signaling, immunomodulation, protein maturation and processing, metabolism, and nutrient acquisition. We identified a secreted proteolytic activity in Histoplasma capsulatum effective toward DppIV-specific substrates. In order to determine the gene(s) that encodes this activity, we identified two putative DPPIV homologs (HcDPPIVA and HcDPPIVB) in H. capsulatum based on a homology search with Aspergillus fumigatus DppIV. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that HcDppIVA is similar to secreted DppIV enzymes, while HcDppIVB clusters with intracellular DapB-like enzymes. Unexpectedly, silencing of HcDPPIVA by RNA interference (RNAi) had no effect on secreted DppIV activity and an HcDPPIVA-null deletion mutant also showed no abrogation of secreted DppIV activity. In contrast, RNAi silencing of HcDPPIVB significantly reduced the level of secreted DppIV activity. RNAi silencing of HcDPPIVB in the HcDPPIVA-null mutant had no additional effect on secreted DppIV activity, indicating that HcDPPIVA does not contribute to secreted activity. RNAi silencing of HcDPPIVB did not affect the ability to kill a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, indicating that this gene is not required for infection of macrophages.
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is mainly vectorially targeted to the apical surface in MDCK cells. BFA was found to abolish the apical targeting of DPPIV. This BFA effect could be achieved under conditions where the ER to Golgi transport and the total surface expression of DPPIV were essentially unaffected. BFA executed its effect during the transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the surface. The inhibition of apical targeting resulted in enhanced mis-targeting to the basolateral surface. The mistargeted DPPIV was transcytosed back to the apical domain only after BFA withdrawal. In contrast, the basolateral targeting of uvomorulin was unaffected by BFA. These results established that the apical targeting of DPPIV was selectively abolished by BFA.
Analysis of the effects of cyclosporine A (25–28 mgkg−1) and/or methotrexate (0.1 mgkg−1) treatments on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) activities and on algesic response in two distinct status of murine macrophages (Mφs) was undertaken. In resident Mφs, DPPIV and POP were affected by neither individual nor combined treatments. In thioglycolate-elicited Mφs, methotrexate increased DPPIV (99–110%) and POP (60%), while cyclosporine inhibited POP (21%). Combined treatment with both drugs promoted a rise (51–84%) of both enzyme activities. Only cyclosporine decreased (42%) the tolerance to algesic stimulus. Methotrexate was revealed to exert prevalent action over that of cyclosporine on proinflammatory Mφ POP. The opposite effects of methotrexate and cyclosporine on POP activity might influence the availability of the nociceptive mediators bradykinin and substance P in proinflammatory Mφs. The exacerbated response to thermally induced algesia observed in cyclosporine-treated animals could be related to upregulation of those mediators.
OBJECTIVES--To examine the expression and concentrations of three ectopeptidases likely to be involved in regulating the functional levels of adhesion molecules and the turnover of connective tissue components, in patients with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) (SSc) and in normal individuals. METHODS--Monoclonal antibodies against these antigens were used for immunoperoxidase staining of cryostat skin sections and for flow cytometric (fluorescence activated cell sorter) analysis of cultured dermal fibroblasts grown from SSc patients and normal controls. RESULTS--Although neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP) (CD10) was not detected in either SSc or normal skin, aminopeptidase N (APN) (CD13) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) (CD26) were both readily visualised. However, DPPIV appeared to be present in smaller concentrations in the SSc biopsy specimens. Moreover, while fibroblasts grown in vitro from both SSc and normal skin also had similar concentrations of APN, the expression of DPPIV in the cultured SSc cells was found to be very much less than that present in the normal fibroblasts. It is noteworthy that NEP, which was not detected in the tissue sections, was nevertheless readily detected in fibroblasts in culture. CONCLUSIONS--These results show that a number of cell surface proteases are expressed by dermal fibroblasts both in vivo and in vitro, and it is suggested that the marked downregulation of DPPIV in SSc could be at least partly responsible for the increased concentrations of adhesion molecules and matrix proteins associated with the molecular pathology of this disease.
The koji mold Aspergillus oryzae secretes a prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase (DPPIV) when the fungus is cultivated in a medium containing wheat gluten as the sole nitrogen and carbon source (MMWG). We cloned and sequenced the DPPIV gene from an A. oryzae library by using the A. fumigatus dppIV gene as a probe. Reverse transcriptase PCR experiments showed that the A. oryzae dppIV gene consists of two exons, the first of which is only 6 bp long. The gene encodes an 87.2-kDa polypeptide chain which is secreted into the medium as a 95-kDa glycoprotein. Introduction of this gene into A. oryzae leads to overexpression of prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase activity, while disruption of the gene abolishes all prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase activity in MMWG. The dppIV null mutants did not exhibit any change in phenotype other than the absence of prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase activity, suggesting that this activity is not essential. This loss of activity diminished the number of dipeptides and increased the number of larger peptides present in the MMWG culture broth. These effects were reversed by the addition of purified, recombinant DPPIV from the methylotrophic yeast expression vector Pichia pastoris. Our results suggest that the DPPIV enzyme may be of importance in industrial hydrolysis of what gluten-based substrates, which are rich in Pro residues.
Immunosuppressants decrease circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity in transplant patients, and decreased DPPIV activity has been associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema. One study has reported an increased incidence of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema among transplant patients compared to published rates, while several case series report angioedema in patients taking specific immunosuppressant agents.
To test the hypothesis that transplant patients are at increased risk of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema.
We assessed the proportion of transplant patients in 145 cases with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema and 280 ACE inhibitor-exposed controls. We measured the relationship between case–control status, transplant status, and immunosuppressant use and circulating DPPIV activity. We also assessed the incidence of angioedema among consecutive patients who underwent renal or cardiac transplant and were treated with an ACE inhibitor.
Transplant patients were significantly overrepresented among ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema cases compared to controls (odds ratio 18.5, 95% CI 2.3–147.2, P = 0.0004). Immunosuppressant use, chronic renal failure, seasonal allergies and smoking were also associated with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema in univariate analysis. The association of transplant status with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema was no longer significant after inclusion of immunosuppressant therapy in a multivariate analysis. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity was significantly decreased in sera from cases compared to ACE inhibitor-exposed controls, as well as in individuals taking immunosuppressants. Two of 47 ACE inhibitor-treated renal transplant patients and one of 36 ACE inhibitor-treated cardiac transplant patients developed angioedema.
Transplant patients are at increased risk of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema possibly because of the effects of immunosuppressants on the activity of DPPIV.
angioedema; dipeptidyl peptidase IV; immunosuppressant; transplant
In order to develop minimally toxic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) protocols suitable for use in a wider range of indications, it is important to identify ways to enhance BM engraftment at a given level of recipient conditioning. CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1α plays a crucial physiological role in homing of hematopoietic stem cells to BM. It is regulated by the ectopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV; DPP4) known as CD26, which cleaves dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptide chains. Blocking DPPIV enzymatic activity had a beneficial effect on hematopoietic stem cell engraftment in various but very specific experimental settings. Here we investigated whether inhibition of DPPIV enzymatic activity through Diprotin A or sitagliptin (Januvia) improves BM engraftment in nonmyeloablative murine models of syngeneic (i.e., CD45-congenic) and allogeneic (i.e., Balb/c to B6) BMT (1 Gy total body irradiation, 10–15 × 106 unseparated BM cells/mouse). Neither Diprotin A administered in vivo at the time of BMT and/or used for in vitro pretreatment of BM nor sitagliptin administered in vivo had a detectable effect on the level of multilineage chimerism (follow-up >20 weeks). Similarly, sitagliptin did not enhance chimerism after allogeneic BMT, even though DPPIV enzymatic activity measured in serum was profoundly inhibited (>98% inhibition at peak exposure). Our results provide evidence that DPPIV inhibition via Diprotin A or sitagliptin does not improve engraftment of unseparated BM in a nonmyeloablative BMT setting.
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)
and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)
are important in blood glucose regulation.However, both incretin
hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl
peptidase IV (DPPIV). The concept of DPPIV inhibition
as a treatment for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new
large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced
β-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin
(STZ) (125 mg/kg)–treated minipig, using the
DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg).VP did
not significantly affect levels of intact GLP-1 but increased
levels of intact GIP (from 4543 ± 1880 to 9208 ± 3267 pM
× min; P<.01), thus improving glucose tolerance (area under
the curve [AUC] for glucose reduced from 1904 ± 480 to
1582 ± 353 mM × min;P = .05).VP did not increase insulin
levels during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) but increased
the insulinogenic index in normal animals (from 83 ± 42 to 192 ± 108; P < .05), but not after NIA + STZ,
possibly because of less residual insulin secretory capacity
in these animals. GIP seems to contribute to the antihyperglycemic
effect of VP in this model; however, additional
mechanisms for the effect of DPPIV inhibition cannot be
excluded. The authors conclude that DPPIV inhibitors may
be useful to treat type 2 diabetes, even when this is due to
reduced β-cell mass.
AIM: To investigate whether irradiation (IR) and partial hepatectomy (PH) may prepare the host liver for non-parenchymal cell (NPC) transplantation.
METHODS: Livers of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)-deficient rats were pre-conditioned with external beam IR (25 Gy) delivered to two-thirds of the right liver lobules followed by a one-third PH of the untreated lobule. DPPIV-positive liver cells (NPC preparations enriched for liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes) were transplanted via the spleen into the recipient livers. The extent and quality of donor cell engraftment and growth was studied over a long-term interval of 16 wk after transplantation.
RESULTS: Host liver staining demonstrated 3 different repopulation types. Well defined clusters of donor-derived hepatocytes with canalicular expression of DPPIV were detectable either adjacent to or in between large areas of donor cells (covering up to 90% of the section plane) co-expressing the endothelial marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. The third type consisted of formations of DPPIV-positive duct-like structures which co-localized with biliary epithelial CD49f.
CONCLUSION: Liver IR and PH as a preconditioning stimulus enables multiple cell liver repopulation by donor hepatocytes, LSECs, and bile duct cells.
Cell transplants; Dipeptidyl peptidase IV protein; Endothelial cells; Liver cell transplantation; Liver irradiation; Liver repopulation
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) inhibitors enhance renovascular responses to angiotensin II (Ang) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) but not Wistar-Kyoto rats. Because DPPIV inhibitors are often used in the metabolic syndrome, it is important to determine whether in this setting DPPIV inhibition enhances renovascular responses to Ang.Six-week-old Lean-ZSF1 rats (harbor SHR genes; do not have the metabolic syndrome; n=11) and Obese-ZSF1 rats (harbor SHR genes; express the metabolic syndrome; n=10) were obtained from Charles River (Wilmington, MA).At 7 weeks of age, compared to Lean-ZSF1, Obese-ZSF1 demonstrated significant (p<0.05) increases in body weight (262±8 versus 310±13 g), plasma glucose (112±4 versus 153±9 mg/dl), hemoglobin A1c (4.7±0.1 versus 5.8±0.4 %), urinary glucose excretion (0.02±0.003 versus 6.70±1.80 g/kg body weight/24 hours) and urinary protein excretion (100±7 versus 313±77 mg/kg body weight/24 hours). Mean blood pressure was high (133±7 mmHg) in both strains.At 8 weeks of age, kidneys were isolated and perfused. In Lean-ZSF1, renovascular responses (changes in perfusion pressure) to physiological levels of Ang (0.1 nmol/L) were 3.4±1.3 (n=5) and 18.2±5.9 (n=6) mmHg in untreated versus sitagliptin-treated (1 µmol/L) kidneys, respectively. In Obese-ZSF1, renovascular responses to Ang were 5.5±1.3 (n=4) and 17.8±8.2 (n=6) mmHg in untreated versus sitagliptin-treated kidneys, respectively.Analysis of variance revealed a significant (p=0.0367) effect of sitagliptin on renovascular responses to Ang that was strain independent.Conclusion: Sitagliptin enhances renovascular responses to Ang in rats harboring SHR genes, and this effect persists in rats with diabetic nephropathy and the metabolic syndrome.
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen associated with adult periodontitis. We cloned and sequenced the gene (dpp) coding for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPPIV) from P. gingivalis W83, based on the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments derived from purified DPPIV. An Escherichia coli strain overproducing P. gingivalis DPPIV was constructed. The enzymatic properties of recombinant DPPIV purified from the overproducer were similar to those of DPPIV isolated from P. gingivalis. The three amino acid residues Ser, Asp, and His, which are thought to form a catalytic triad in the C-terminal catalytic domain of eukaryotic DPPIV, are conserved in P. gingivalis DPPIV. When each of the corresponding residues of the enzyme was substituted with Ala by site-directed mutagenesis, DPPIV activity significantly decreased, suggesting that these three residues of P. gingivalis DPPIV are involved in the catalytic reaction. DPPIV-deficient mutants of P. gingivalis were constructed and subjected to animal experiments. Mice injected with the wild-type strain developed abscesses to a greater extent and died more frequently than those challenged with mutant strains. Mice injected with the mutants exhibited faster recovery from the infection, as assessed by weight gain and the rate of lesion healing. This decreased virulence of mutants compared with the parent strain suggests that DPPIV is a potential virulence factor of P. gingivalis and may play important roles in the pathogenesis of adult periodontitis induced by the organism.