The addition of rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy (R-CHOP) has significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, new predictors of patient response to R-CHOP have not been established. We aimed to evaluate the impact of R-CHOP compared with CHOP in patients with DLBCL and to establish clinical predictors of better outcomes in these patients.
We retrospectively identified 177 patients diagnosed with CD20-positive DLBCL and treated with CHOP (N=82) or R-CHOP (N=95). The response rate, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were compared between the 2 treatment groups. All patients were classified into primary extranodal lymphoma (PENL) or nodal lymphoma (NL) subgroups, and the clinical parameters of each subgroup were analyzed.
The overall response rate was higher in R-CHOP group (95% vs. 84%, P=0.07). The 3-year EFS rate was significantly higher in R-CHOP group (71% vs. 52%, P=0.013), but the OS rate was comparable between the 2 groups (79% vs. 69%, P=0.23). A significant survival benefit was seen with R-CHOP compared to CHOP therapy in NL patients (P=0.002 for EFS and 0.04 for OS). Multivariate analyses confirmed that R-CHOP therapy is an independent prognostic factor for EFS (hazard ratio of 0.32 [0.17-0.62], P=0.001) and OS (hazard ratio of 0.4 [0.18-0.87], P=0.02) in NL patients.
Patients in the PENL group did not benefit from R-CHOP chemotherapy.
CHOP; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Rituximab; Primary extranodal lymphoma
Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) with or without radiotherapy was compared with CHOP with or without RT for the treatment of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. R-CHOP was more effective than CHOP, with results comparable with those of more intensive regimens.
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Describe the effect of the addition of rituximab to standard CHOP chemotherapy on the outcome of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.Explain potential changes in the use of radiotherapy and aggressive chemotherapy in the rituximab era.
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More aggressive treatment approaches (methotrexate, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin [the MACOP-B regimen] or consolidation with high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation) have been considered to be superior to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) in patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL). Rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) is the standard of care for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, whereas efficacy in PMLBCL has not been adequately confirmed.
Patient and Methods.
Seventy-six consecutive PMLBCL patients who received R-CHOP with or without radiotherapy (RT) were compared with 45 consecutive historical controls treated with CHOP with or without RT. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were balanced.
The rate of early treatment failure was much lower with R-CHOP with or without RT (9% versus 30%; p = .004). The 5-year freedom from progression rate after R-CHOP with or without RT was 81%, versus 48% for CHOP with or without RT (p < .0001). The 5-year event-free survival rates were 80% and 47% (p < .0001) and the 5-year overall and lymphoma-specific survival rates were 89% and 69% (p = .003) and 91% and 69% (p = .001), respectively, with only seven of 76 lymphoma-related deaths. Among R-CHOP responders, 52 of 68 received RT.
Based on these results, most patients with PMLBCL appear to be cured by R-CHOP in 21-day cycles with or without RT, which could be the current standard of care. Therefore, the need for more aggressive treatment strategies is questionable unless high-risk patients are adequately defined. Further studies are required to establish the precise role of RT.
Rituximab; CHOP; Large B-cell lymphoma; Primary mediastinal; Radiotherapy; Standard of care
The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is a widely accepted model that is used to predict the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are treated using chemotherapy. However, the prognostic value of the IPI has been a focal point of debate in the immunochemotherapy era. The aim of this study was to reassess the value of the IPI and revised IPI (R-IPI) in a Chinese population. A multicentre retrospective analysis of DLBCL patients who were treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP)-like chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus rituximab (R-CHOP-like) was performed. The prognostic values of IPI and R-IPI at the time of diagnosis with respect to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated. Among the 438 patients in the study, 241 received a CHOP-like regimen and 197 patients received an R-CHOP-like regimen. Although the IPI remained predictive for the CHOP-like group, it failed to distinguish between the various prognostic categories in the R-CHOP-like group. Notably, redistribution of the IPI factors into R-IPI factors identified three discrete prognostic groups with significantly different outcomes in both the CHOP-like and R-CHOP-like groups. In the R-CHOP-like group, these three risk groups, very good, good and poor, had distinctly different 3-year PFS rates of 96, 84.3 and 67.5% (P=0.001), and 3-year OS rates of 96, 87.6 and 71.1% (P=0.003), respectively. Our study demonstrates the power of the R-IPI as a simplified and more clinically relevant predictor of disease outcome than the standard IPI in DLBCL populations in the rituximab era. Therefore, the R-IPI merits further study in a larger population-based prospective study.
International Prognostic Index; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; rituximab
Due to superior results observed with the addition of rituximab into treatment of patients with the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL),the R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) regimen and its variants became the standard initial treatment of these patients. However, the treatment recommendations are based on results of clinical studies while the conditions of routine treatment are far different from the ones in clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was therefore to compare the treatment results of routinely treated patients with the DLBCL to results reported by some larger studies.
Patients and methods
Two hundred and ninety five patients with the DLBCL were treated between 2004 and 2008 according to the then protocol with R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like regimens at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana. Treatment response was evaluated according to Cheson’s criteria and the disease-free and overall survival by means of Kaplan Meier survival curves.
Response to treatment in our evaluation diverged from the reported one predominately in the low risk group (international prognostic index [IPI] categorisation) and in the very good prognosis group (revised international prognostic index (R-IPI) categorisation). The determined complete response (CR) rates in other IPI and R-IPI groups were generally within expectations. Also in the disease-free survival the largest discrepancy occurred in the low-risk patient group (3 year disease-free survival rate of 75%) and in the very good prognosis group (4 year disease-free survival rate of 59%). In all other IPI risk groups, the disease-free survival at 3 years (low intermediate risk 76%, high intermediate risk group 57%, and high risk group 53%) agreed very well with the quoted ones. Slightly worse was the compliance of the 4 year disease-free survival rates (72% in the good prognosis and 51% in the poor prognosis group) with the results from the literature. The 3 year overall survival rates (low risk patients 87%, high intermediate risk 61% and high risk patients 51%) were somewhat worse than the reported ones in all IPI subgroups except in the low intermediate risk group (82%). On the other hand, the 4 year overall survival rates of the R-IPI categories (94% in the very good prognosis group, 80% in the good prognosis group, 56% in the poor prognosis group) were much better correlated with the data from the literature.
In total, the treatment outcomes of routinely treated patient with the DLBCL at our institute are quite encouraging when compared to results of some larger studies. There are probably no dilemmas about how to treat young good prognosis patients and patients aged over 60 years at present. However, the 5 year overall survival rate of 76% for the young poor prognosis group is unsatisfying and needs to be improved. At present, quite a few studies are underway to clarify which of the regimens will perform best in this population.
diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; R-CHOP; treatment result; routine treatments
The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and clinical features of severe pulmonary complications in patients receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) as the initial treatment for lymphoma.
A retrospective analysis of pulmonary infection and drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis (DIIP) was performed using lymphoma registry data. R-CHOP was administered in 71 patients and CHOP in 29 patients.
The severe pulmonary adverse events tended to occur more frequently with R-CHOP (18.3%) than CHOP alone (13.8%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.771). DIIP occurred in five patients in the R-CHOP arm (7%) and in one in the CHOP arm (3%). The continuous use of steroids for conditions other than lymphoma significantly increased the risk of pulmonary infection including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (p = 0.036) in the multivariate analysis. International prognostic index, tumor stage, smoking, previous tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lymphoma involvement of lung parenchyma were not related to pulmonary adverse events. Patients who experienced severe pulmonary events showed shorter survival when compared to those without complications (p = 0.002).
Our experiences with serial cases with DIIP during chemotherapy and the correlation of continuous steroid use with pulmonary infection suggest that the incidence of pulmonary complications might be high during lymphoma treatment, and careful monitoring should be performed.
Rituximab; Drug therapy; Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; Adverse effects; Lung diseases, interstitial
Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) has long been a standard treatment for lymphoma. Improvements to the efficacy of this regimen can be made by increasing the doses of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, as in the chemotherapeutic regimen of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (ACVBP), and by reducing the standard dosing interval, as seen with the CHOP-14 regimen. Adding the immunotherapeutic agent rituximab (R) to either CHOP or ACVBP has been shown to improve outcomes significantly, such that six cycles of R-CHOP plus two cycles of ritux-imab are as effective as eight cycles of R-CHOP, and R-CHOP-21 appears to be at least as effective as the more dose-intense R-CHOP-14. In patients who have several adverse prognostic factors, R-ACVBP plus autologous stem-cell transplantation has been shown to produce good treatment outcomes. The use of positron emission tomography scanning before and early in treatment should allow prediction of long-term outcomes, and therefore the adaptation of treatment to individual prognosis and treatment needs. In patients with follicular lymphoma, rituximab has been shown to improve the efficacy of conventional chemotherapies. In addition, rituximab alone or yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan are effective maintenance therapies in this condition.
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; treatment; chemotherapy; rituximab.
In 2006, we published the results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial EORTC 20981 on the role of rituximab in remission induction and maintenance treatment of relapsed/resistant follicular lymphoma (FL). At that time, the median follow-up for the maintenance phase was 33 months. Now, we report the long-term outcome of maintenance treatment, with a median follow-up of 6 years.
Patients and Methods
Overall, 465 patients were randomly assigned to induction with either six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP). Those in complete remission or partial remission after induction (n = 334) were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment with rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously once every 3 months) or observation.
Rituximab maintenance significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with observation (median, 3.7 years v 1.3 years; P < .001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.55), both after CHOP induction (P < .001; HR, 0.37) and R-CHOP (P = .003; HR, 0.69). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 74% in the rituximab maintenance arm, and it was 64% in the observation arm (P = .07). After progression, a rituximab-containing salvage therapy was given to 59% of patients treated with CHOP followed by observation, compared with 26% after R-CHOP followed by rituximab maintenance. Rituximab maintenance was associated with a significant increase in grades 3 to 4 infections: 9.7% v 2.4% (P = .01).
With long-term follow-up, we confirm the superior PFS with rituximab maintenance in relapsed/resistant FL. The improvement of OS did not reach statistical significance, possibly because of the unbalanced use of rituximab in post-protocol salvage treatment.
The addition of rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone [CHOP (i.e., R-CHOP)] is considered to be the standard regimen for treating localized, primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PG-DLBCL). However, few studies have reported the long-term efficacy of R-CHOP therapy in the management of localized PG-DLBCL. In the present study, we performed a retrospective analysis of 11 patients with localized PG-DLBCL, who were treated with R-CHOP at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital and Kasukabe Municipal Hospital (Japan) from 2001 to 2008. Limited stage cancer was defined as stage I/II according to the Lugano staging system for gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas. The relative dose intensity (RDI) of CHOP therapy was calculated for each patient. The median age of the patients was 68 years (range, 48–82). Gastralgia and anemia were common symptoms at initial presentation. All patients except 1 received 6 cycles of R-CHOP treatment without consolidative radiation therapy or prior surgery. RDI was maintained at over 80% in 9 out of 11 patients. All patients achieved complete remission and the estimated overall survival with a median follow-up of 54 months (range, 39–103) was 100%, without relapse or significant GI adverse effects, such as perforation or bleeding during R-CHOP treatment. No long-term adverse effects of rituximab were recorded during the observation period. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed in 72.7% (8 cases) of the patients, but was eradicated in a limited number of patients. Our data suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of the addition of rituximab to conventional CHOP therapy in the management of localized PG-DLBCL.
primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; relative dose intensity; Helicobacter pylori; R-CHOP
Human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may potentiate rituximab activity by upregulating CD20 expression and activating effector cells necessary for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. GM-CSF was combined with standard rituximab + CHOP (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone) chemotherapy (R-CHOP) in the treatment of elderly patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
Patients and Methods
Thirty-eight patients over the age of 60 years with newly diagnosed DLBCL were treated with R-CHOP every 21 days for 6–8 cycles and GM-CSF 250 μg/m2 per day on days 3–10. Patients were evaluated for response after cycles 4, 6, and 8. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete response, and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival, and overall survival (OS).
Thirty-eight patients were enrolled, with a median age of 72 years, and 29% of patients having high-risk disease (International Prognostic Index [IPI] score ≥ 4). A complete or unconfirmed complete response (CR) was achieved in 53% of patients. After a median follow-up of 51.1 months, the 3-year PFS and OS were 78% and 84%. Twenty-one percent of patients discontinued protocol treatment because of chemotherapy-related toxicity and 16% because of GM-CSF toxicity. Dose intensity for planned chemotherapy cycles was 81.1%.
These data suggest that survival outcomes may be modestly improved when GM-CSF is combined with R-CHOP in the treatment of elderly DLBCL. GM-CSF had toxicity precluding planned administration in 16% of patients, which may limit usefulness of this agent. Further investigation of GM-CSF in combination with rituximab-containing chemotherapy is warranted.
DLBCL; Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; Sargramostim; Toxicity
AIM: To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of rituximab plus chemotherapy in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
METHODS: Sixty patients (median age: 58 years) with histologically confirmed gastric DLBCL treated at four Italian institutions between 2000 and 2007, were included in this analysis. Patients were selected by stage (I-IV, Lugano staging system), European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-2) and treatment strategies. Treatment strategies were chemotherapy alone (group A, n = 30) [scheduled as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) and CHOP-like], and chemotherapy combined with rituximab (group B, n = 30). The primary end point of the study was complete response (CR) rate; the secondary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 62 mo (range: 31-102 mo). We observed a significant difference between the two groups (A vs B) in terms of CR [76.6% (23/30) vs 100%, P = 0.04) and DFS at 5 years [73.3% (22/30) vs 100%, P = 0.03). To date, 19 group A (63.3%) patients are alive and 11 have died, while all group B patients are alive. No significant differences in toxicity were observed between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: Rituximab in combination with chemotherapy improves CR rate, DFS and OS. Further prospective trials are needed to confirm our results.
Rituximab; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Stomach neoplasms; Chemotherapy
Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare disease entity with only a few reported cases in Korea. In this paper, we report a case of PCL in a 59-year-old man presenting with chest pain. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed through a cardiac catheterization-assisted percutaneous endomyocardial biopsy, and there was no evidence of extracardiac involvement of the lymphoma.The patient had a complete clinical response after systemic chemotherapy with a rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) regimen and additional post-chemotherapeutic radiation therapy. The patient experienced a long-term disease-free survival of over 4 years. However, he received coronary artery bypass graft surgery due to an acute myocardial infarction that occurred 3 years after the completion of the radiation therapy. Although the addition of radiation therapy to the treatment is thought to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with PCL, a careful and thorough consideration of the potential complications of radiation therapy, particularly with respect to cardiac complications, should be considered.
Lymphoma; Myocardial infarction; Drug therapy; Radiotherapy
The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for survival in patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the adrenal gland.
Thirty one patients diagnosed with primary adrenal DLBCL from 14 Korean institutions and treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) were analyzed.
Complete remission (CR) and overall response rate after R-CHOP chemotherapy were 54.8% and 87.0%. The 2-year estimates of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 68.3% and 51.1%. In patients achieving CR, significant prolongations of OS (P = 0.029) and PFS (P = 0.005) were observed. Ann Arbor stage had no influence on OS. There was no significant difference in OS between patients with unilateral involvement of adrenal gland and those with bilateral involvement. When staging was modified to include bilateral adrenal involvement as one extranodal site, early stage (I or II) significantly correlated with longer OS (P = 0.021) and PFS (P <0.001).
Contrary to prior reports, our data suggests that outcomes of primary adrenal DLBCL are encouraging using a regimen of R-CHOP, and that achieving CR after R-CHOP is predictive of survival. Likewise, our modified staging system may have prognostic value.
Primary adrenal lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Prognostic factor; R-CHOP
Although the use of monoclonal antibodies as single agents has had a tremendous impact on the care of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), the greatest benefit has been generated by the addition of monoclonal antibodies to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Rituximab is the monoclonal antibody responsible for all clinical improvement noted to date. The addition of rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy (R-CHOP regimen) improves the response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Adding rituximab to CHOP chemotherapy improves response rates and PFS in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Finally, the addition of rituximab to a variety of chemotherapy regimens improves the response rates, PFS, and OS in follicular lymphoma (FL). Several other (epratuzumab, bevacizumab, alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody–chemotherapy combinations are currently under study in NHL. This review will summarize the data supporting the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy in NHL and discuss preliminary data regarding the use of other monoclonal antibodies in combination with chemotherapy.
A combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP) has been a standard therapy for histologically aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas for over 20 years, but several newer regimens, referred to as second or third generation, have been reported to give improved results in single-centre studies. Positive evidence from randomised trials has been lacking, and the British National Lymphoma Investigation therefore commenced a randomised comparison of CHOP vs a third-generation regimen, PACEBOM, in November 1987. A total of 459 eligible patients were entered into the trial: 226 in the CHOP arm and 233 in the PACEBOM arm. Overall, there was no significant difference in outcome between the two arms of the trial. In patients with stage IV disease there was an apparent improvement in survival for those treated with PACEBOM, but considerable caution must be exercised with such subgroup analysis.
Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (nhl) of liver is a very rare malignancy. Here, we report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with constipation and right groin pain of 2 months’ duration. A computed tomography (ct) scan of the abdomen incidentally detected multiple hypodense nodules in both lobes of the liver. Diagnosis of primary nhl of liver was made using ultrasound-guided biopsy. Extensive investigations—which included bone marrow biopsy; fluorescence in situ hybridization; flow cytometry; ct scan of chest, abdomen, and pelvis; and whole-body positron-emission tomography—showed no involvement of bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, or any other organ. The patient is currently being treated with a chop-r (cyclophosphamide–doxorubicin–vincristine–prednisolone/rituximab) regimen. The case has many unique features, including normal liver function tests, especially that for lactate dehydrogenase; no type B symptoms; and negative serology for viruses. The case demonstrates that primary hepatic lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of space-occupying liver lesions in presence of normal levels of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen. The literature is extensively reviewed.
Primary hepatic lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; liver; rituximab
Ovarian involvement as primary or secondary lymphomatous process is extremely uncommon. In most cases, the diagnosis is usually not suspected initially and is confirmed only after detailed histopathological evaluation. We report a patient with primary ovarian diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and associated auto-immune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) who achieved complete remission after treatment with Rituximab-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy. This patient was a 50 year old female, who presented with fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, weight loss and anemia. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a large left ovarian mass with bilateral hydronephrosis. We performed exploratory laparotomy and partial resection of the mass was done due to the adhesions. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of DLBCL. After six R-CHOP chemotherapy cycles, patient achieved complete response with correction of anemia. To our knowledge, this may be the first case report till date of primary ovarian DLBCL with AIHA treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy who achieved complete remission in terms of primary disease as well as hemolytic anemia.
Hemolytic anemia; ovarian lymphoma; Rituximab
Primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare type of extranodal lymphoma with poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of primary bone marrow DLBCL successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy and rescued by in vivo rituximab-purged autologous stem cells. A 39-year-old woman visited our hospital because of anemia. Bone marrow examination revealed a large B-cell lymphoma invasion. An 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan revealed disseminated bone marrow uptake without evidence of dissemination at other sites. These findings led to a diagnosis of primary bone marrow DLBCL. Our patient underwent R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy and achieved complete remission. Subsequently, she received high-dose chemotherapy with an in vivo rituximab-purged autologous stem cell transplant. Seven years have passed since the transplantation, and she remains in remission. This suggests that transplantation of an in vivo rituximab-purged autograft is a promising strategy for primary bone marrow DLBCL.
We established a mouse model of microenvironment-dependent human lymphoma, and assessed the therapeutic potential of bevacizumab, an antitumor agent acting on the microenvironment. NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mice were used as recipients of primary tumor cells from a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which engraft and proliferate in a microenvironment-dependent manner. The lymphoma cells could be serially transplanted in NOG mice, but could not be maintained in in vitro cultures. Injection of bevacizumab together with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) significantly increased necrosis and decreased vascularization in the tumor, compared with CHOP alone. Levels of human soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R) in the serum of bevacizumab+CHOP-treated mice (reflecting the DLBCL tumor burden) were significantly lower than in CHOP recipients. Mice receiving bevacizumab monotherapy also showed significant benefit in terms of tumor necrosis and vascularization, as well as decreased serum sIL2R concentrations. The present DLBCL model reflects the human DLBCL in vivo environment more appropriately than current mouse models using established tumor cell lines. This is the first report to evaluate the efficacy of bevacizumab in such a tumor microenvironment-dependent model. Bevacizumab may be a potential treatment strategy for DLBCL patients.
bevacizumab; NOD/Shi-scid; IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mouse; lymphoma; tumor microenvironment
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a large spectrum of lymphoproliferative diseases. Traditional methods of EBV detection include the immunohistochemical identification of viral proteins and DNA probes to the viral genome in tumoral tissue. The present study explored the detection of the EBV genome, using the BALF5 gene, in the bone marrow or blood mononuclear cells of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and related its presence to the clinical variables and risk factors. The results show that EBV detection in 21.5% of patients is not associated with age, gender, staging, B symptoms, international prognostic index scores or any analytical parameters, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or β-2 microglobulin (B2M). The majority of patients were treated with R-CHOP-like (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone or an equivalent combination) and some with CHOP-like chemotherapy. Response rates [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] were not significantly different between EBV-negative and -positive cases, with 93.2 and 88.9%, respectively. The survival rate was also similar in the two groups, with 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 64.3 and 76.7%, respectively. However, when analyzing the treatment groups separately there was a trend in EBV-positive patients for a worse prognosis in patients treated with CHOP-like regimens that was not identified in patients treated with R-CHOP-like regimens. We conclude that EBV detection in the bone marrow and blood mononuclear cells of DLBC patients has the same frequency of EBV detection on tumoral lymphoma tissue but is not associated with the risk factors, response rate and survival in patients treated mainly with immunochemotherapy plus rituximab. These results also suggest that the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy improves the prognosis associated with EBV detection in DLBCL.
Epstein-barr virus; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; mononuclear cells; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma risk factors; rituximab
R-CHOP (rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) and R-CVP (rituximab with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone) have both been used successfully in the treatment of patients with symptomatic follicular lymphoma (FL). No study has compared the efficacy of the two treatment modalities and attempted to evaluate the role of anthracyclines in the management of patients with FL. We conducted a meta-analysis of relevant literature comparing the two treatment arms for FL with response being the final endpoint.
Patients and Methods
Two analyses were conducted: The first analysis compared R-CHOP to R-CVP as frontline agents for the treatment of FL, and the second analysis included both untreated and relapsed patients.
For both studies, R-CVP was superior to R-CHOP when evaluating for complete response (CR). Odds ratios were 2.86 (95% CI, 1.81–4.51) in the first analysis and 1.48 (95% CI, 0.991–2.22) in the second analysis. However for overall response (CR+Partial response, PR), R-CHOP was superior, with odds ratios of 5.45 (95% CI: 2.51 – 11.83) and 5.54 (95% CI: 2.69 – 11.40), for the first and second analyses, respectively.
R-CHOP and R-CVP protocols achieve excellent overall response. In patients with known cardiac history, omission of anthracyclines is reasonable and R-CVP provides a competitive CR rate. In younger patients with FL where cumulative cardio-toxicity may be of importance in the long term and in whom future stem cell transplantation is an option, again R-CVP may be a more appealing option.
Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a poor prognosis. We explored the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of an aggressive immunochemotherapy treatment program that included autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) for patients up to age 69 years with newly diagnosed MCL.
Patients and Methods
The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). A successful trial would yield a 2-year PFS of at least 50% and an event rate (early progression plus nonrelapse mortality) less than 20% at day +100 following ASCT. Seventy-eight patients were treated with two or three cycles of rituximab combined with methotrexate and augmented CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). This treatment was followed by intensification with high doses of cytarabine and etoposide combined with rituximab and filgrastim to mobilize autologous peripheral-blood stem cells. Patients then received high doses of carmustine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide followed by ASCT and two doses of rituximab.
There were two nonrelapse mortalities, neither during ASCT. With a median follow-up of 4.7 years, the 2-year PFS was 76% (95% CI, 64% to 85%), and the 5-year PFS was 56% (95% CI, 43% to 68%). The 5-year overall survival was 64% (95% CI, 50% to 75%). The event rate by day +100 of ASCT was 5.1%.
The Cancer and Leukemia Group B 59909 regimen is feasible, safe, and effective in patients with newly diagnosed MCL. The incorporation of rituximab with aggressive chemotherapy and ASCT may be responsible for the encouraging outcomes demonstrated in this study, which produced results comparable to similar treatment regimens.
Advanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008.
Patients and Methods
Patients were eligible for the study if they had advanced-stage (bulky stage II, III, or IV) evaluable FL of any grade (1, 2, or 3) and had not received previous therapy. In one arm of the study, patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy at 3-week intervals with six doses of rituximab (CHOP-R). In another arm of the study, patients received six cycles of CHOP followed by consolidation with tositumomab/iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).
After a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, the 2-year estimate of progression-free survival (PFS) was 76% on the CHOP-R arm and 80% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .11). The 2-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 97% on the CHOP-R arm and 93% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .08).
There was no evidence of a significant improvement in PFS comparing CHOP-RIT with CHOP-R. However, PFS and OS were outstanding on both arms of the study. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of combining CHOP-R induction chemotherapy with RIT consolidation and/or extended rituximab maintenance therapy.
Standard treatment for stage I or non-bulky stage II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been either a brief course of chemotherapy plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) or prolonged cycles of chemotherapy. The introduction of rituximab has necessitated re-evaluation of the treatment for limited disease (LD) DLBCL.
Thirty-nine LD DLBCL patients (median age, 52 years; range, 24-85) treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment outcomes were evaluated, and toxicity, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the treatment and risk factors.
The median follow-up duration was 34.6 months (range, 9.1-65.4). The 3-year EFS and OS were 76.0% and 86.0%, respectively. Among the 36 patients who underwent either 3-4 cycles of R-CHOP followed by IFRT (N=22) or 6-8 cycles of R-CHOP (N=14), there was no difference in the 3-year EFS (79.4% vs. 71.6%, P=0.638) and 3-year OS (85.7% vs. 92.9%, P=0.732). Severe neutropenia and neutropenic fever were more frequent in patients treated with R-CHOP alone, with 1 treatment-related mortality. Among the IFRT patients, 1 required hospital admission for IFRT-related complications. No events or deaths were reported among patients without adverse risk factors.
The difference in outcomes between the 2 treatment options was not significant. Analysis of treatment outcomes suggested that baseline characteristics and expected toxicities should be considered in LD DLBCL treatment. Further studies are needed to define the optimal treatment in the rituximab era.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Rituximab
Primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare disease of which the etiology and pathogenesis remain controversial, and there is currently no standard treatment for it. We present the results of a long-term followup of two patients who were diagnosed with PRL and treated with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisolone and rituximab (CHOP + R) regimen. Both patients reached a complete response, and there is no evidence of recurrence after 4.5- and 5-year followup periods. Based on our experience and other recently published studies, we recommend the combination of CHOP + rituximab as the elective treatment for this disease. To our knowledge, this is the longest followup period with a complete response that has been reported with this modality of treatment.
This study aimed to survey the clinical spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in terms of epidemiology, pathologic subtypes, stage, and prognostic index as well as treatment outcomes.
In 2007-2008, 13 university hospitals evenly distributed in the Korean peninsula contributed to the online registry of DLBCL at www.lymphoma.or.kr and filed a total of 1,665 cases of DLBCL recorded since 1990.
Our analysis showed a higher prevalence of DLBCL in male than in female individuals (M:F=958:707), and extranodal disease was more common than primary nodular disease (53% vs. 47%). Among the 1,544 patients who had been treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) therapy with or without radiation, 993 (63.9%) were alive, with 80% free of disease, 417 were dead (26.8%), with 13% free of disease, and 144 (9.3%) were lost to follow-up, with 23% free of disease. Age below 60 years, stage at diagnosis, international prognostic index (IPI) score regardless of age, and addition of rituximab to CHOP therapy in low- and low-intermediate-risk groups according to IPI scores significantly increased survival duration.
The epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and biological behavior of DLBCL in Korea are similar to those observed in Western countries, and the advent of rituximab improved survival.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Epidemiology; Survival; Rituximab; CHOP regimen