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1.  Phase III Randomized Intergroup Trial of CHOP Plus Rituximab Compared With CHOP Chemotherapy Plus 131Iodine-Tositumomab for Previously Untreated Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: SWOG S0016 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2012;31(3):314-320.
Purpose
Advanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008.
Patients and Methods
Patients were eligible for the study if they had advanced-stage (bulky stage II, III, or IV) evaluable FL of any grade (1, 2, or 3) and had not received previous therapy. In one arm of the study, patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy at 3-week intervals with six doses of rituximab (CHOP-R). In another arm of the study, patients received six cycles of CHOP followed by consolidation with tositumomab/iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).
Results
After a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, the 2-year estimate of progression-free survival (PFS) was 76% on the CHOP-R arm and 80% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .11). The 2-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 97% on the CHOP-R arm and 93% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .08).
Conclusion
There was no evidence of a significant improvement in PFS comparing CHOP-RIT with CHOP-R. However, PFS and OS were outstanding on both arms of the study. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of combining CHOP-R induction chemotherapy with RIT consolidation and/or extended rituximab maintenance therapy.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.42.4101
PMCID: PMC3732010  PMID: 23233710
2.  Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone with or Without Radiotherapy in Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The Emerging Standard of Care 
The Oncologist  2012;17(2):239-249.
Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) with or without radiotherapy was compared with CHOP with or without RT for the treatment of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. R-CHOP was more effective than CHOP, with results comparable with those of more intensive regimens.
Learning Objectives
After completing this course, the reader will be able to: Describe the effect of the addition of rituximab to standard CHOP chemotherapy on the outcome of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.Explain potential changes in the use of radiotherapy and aggressive chemotherapy in the rituximab era.
This article is available for continuing medical education credit at CME.TheOncologist.com
More aggressive treatment approaches (methotrexate, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin [the MACOP-B regimen] or consolidation with high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation) have been considered to be superior to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) in patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL). Rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) is the standard of care for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, whereas efficacy in PMLBCL has not been adequately confirmed.
Patient and Methods.
Seventy-six consecutive PMLBCL patients who received R-CHOP with or without radiotherapy (RT) were compared with 45 consecutive historical controls treated with CHOP with or without RT. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were balanced.
Results.
The rate of early treatment failure was much lower with R-CHOP with or without RT (9% versus 30%; p = .004). The 5-year freedom from progression rate after R-CHOP with or without RT was 81%, versus 48% for CHOP with or without RT (p < .0001). The 5-year event-free survival rates were 80% and 47% (p < .0001) and the 5-year overall and lymphoma-specific survival rates were 89% and 69% (p = .003) and 91% and 69% (p = .001), respectively, with only seven of 76 lymphoma-related deaths. Among R-CHOP responders, 52 of 68 received RT.
Conclusions.
Based on these results, most patients with PMLBCL appear to be cured by R-CHOP in 21-day cycles with or without RT, which could be the current standard of care. Therefore, the need for more aggressive treatment strategies is questionable unless high-risk patients are adequately defined. Further studies are required to establish the precise role of RT.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0275
PMCID: PMC3286173  PMID: 22282906
Rituximab; CHOP; Large B-cell lymphoma; Primary mediastinal; Radiotherapy; Standard of care
3.  Detection of the Epstein-Barr virus in blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells of patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is not associated with prognosis 
Oncology Letters  2012;4(6):1285-1289.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a large spectrum of lymphoproliferative diseases. Traditional methods of EBV detection include the immunohistochemical identification of viral proteins and DNA probes to the viral genome in tumoral tissue. The present study explored the detection of the EBV genome, using the BALF5 gene, in the bone marrow or blood mononuclear cells of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and related its presence to the clinical variables and risk factors. The results show that EBV detection in 21.5% of patients is not associated with age, gender, staging, B symptoms, international prognostic index scores or any analytical parameters, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or β-2 microglobulin (B2M). The majority of patients were treated with R-CHOP-like (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone or an equivalent combination) and some with CHOP-like chemotherapy. Response rates [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] were not significantly different between EBV-negative and -positive cases, with 93.2 and 88.9%, respectively. The survival rate was also similar in the two groups, with 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 64.3 and 76.7%, respectively. However, when analyzing the treatment groups separately there was a trend in EBV-positive patients for a worse prognosis in patients treated with CHOP-like regimens that was not identified in patients treated with R-CHOP-like regimens. We conclude that EBV detection in the bone marrow and blood mononuclear cells of DLBC patients has the same frequency of EBV detection on tumoral lymphoma tissue but is not associated with the risk factors, response rate and survival in patients treated mainly with immunochemotherapy plus rituximab. These results also suggest that the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy improves the prognosis associated with EBV detection in DLBCL.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.913
PMCID: PMC3506762  PMID: 23226803
Epstein-barr virus; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; mononuclear cells; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma risk factors; rituximab
4.  The clinical features, therapeutic responses, and prognosis of the patients with mantle cell lymphoma 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2012;31(7):348-353.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a special type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is incurable through conventional treatment. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features, therapeutic responses, and prognosis of patients with MCL. Clinical data of 30 patients with MCL treated in our hospital between April 2006 and July 2011 were analyzed. Eighteen patients were treated with CHOP plus rituximab (R-CHOP) regimen, 12 underwent conventional chemotherapy. The median age of the 30 patients was 58 years, 23 were men, all patients had Cyclin D1 overexpression, 29 (96.7%) had advanced disease, 11 (36.7%) had bone marrow involvement, 9 (30.0%) had gastrointestinal involvement, and 15 (50.0%) had splenomegaly. The complete response (CR) rate and overall response rate (ORR) were significantly higher in patients undergoing R-CHOP immunochemotherapy than in those undergoing conventional chemotherapy (38.9% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.187; 72.2% vs. 41.4%, P = 0.098). The difference of 2-year overall survival rate between the two groups was not significant (P = 0.807) due to the short follow-up time. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was higher in R-CHOP group than in conventional chemotherapy group (53% vs. 25%, P = 0.083), and was higher in patients with a lower mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index (MIPI) (51% for MIPI 0-3, 33% for MIPI 4-5, and 0% for MIPI 6-11, P = 0.059). Most patients with MCL were elderly; in an advanced stage; showed a male predominance; and usually had bone marrow involvement, gastrointestinal involvement, or splenomegaly. R-CHOP regimen could improve the CR rate and ORR of MCL patients. MIPI can be a new prognostic index for predicting the prognosis of advanced MCL.
doi:10.5732/cjc.011.10469
PMCID: PMC3777499  PMID: 22704490
Mantle cell lymphoma; clinical features; therapeutic efficacy; prognosis
5.  Addition of rituximab to the CHOP regimen has no benefit in patients with primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2011;46(2):103-110.
Background
The addition of rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy (R-CHOP) has significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, new predictors of patient response to R-CHOP have not been established. We aimed to evaluate the impact of R-CHOP compared with CHOP in patients with DLBCL and to establish clinical predictors of better outcomes in these patients.
Methods
We retrospectively identified 177 patients diagnosed with CD20-positive DLBCL and treated with CHOP (N=82) or R-CHOP (N=95). The response rate, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were compared between the 2 treatment groups. All patients were classified into primary extranodal lymphoma (PENL) or nodal lymphoma (NL) subgroups, and the clinical parameters of each subgroup were analyzed.
Results
The overall response rate was higher in R-CHOP group (95% vs. 84%, P=0.07). The 3-year EFS rate was significantly higher in R-CHOP group (71% vs. 52%, P=0.013), but the OS rate was comparable between the 2 groups (79% vs. 69%, P=0.23). A significant survival benefit was seen with R-CHOP compared to CHOP therapy in NL patients (P=0.002 for EFS and 0.04 for OS). Multivariate analyses confirmed that R-CHOP therapy is an independent prognostic factor for EFS (hazard ratio of 0.32 [0.17-0.62], P=0.001) and OS (hazard ratio of 0.4 [0.18-0.87], P=0.02) in NL patients.
Conclusion
Patients in the PENL group did not benefit from R-CHOP chemotherapy.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.2.103
PMCID: PMC3128890  PMID: 21747882
CHOP; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Rituximab; Primary extranodal lymphoma
6.  Rituximab Maintenance Treatment of Relapsed/Resistant Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Long-Term Outcome of the EORTC 20981 Phase III Randomized Intergroup Study 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(17):2853-2858.
Purpose
In 2006, we published the results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial EORTC 20981 on the role of rituximab in remission induction and maintenance treatment of relapsed/resistant follicular lymphoma (FL). At that time, the median follow-up for the maintenance phase was 33 months. Now, we report the long-term outcome of maintenance treatment, with a median follow-up of 6 years.
Patients and Methods
Overall, 465 patients were randomly assigned to induction with either six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP). Those in complete remission or partial remission after induction (n = 334) were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment with rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously once every 3 months) or observation.
Results
Rituximab maintenance significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with observation (median, 3.7 years v 1.3 years; P < .001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.55), both after CHOP induction (P < .001; HR, 0.37) and R-CHOP (P = .003; HR, 0.69). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 74% in the rituximab maintenance arm, and it was 64% in the observation arm (P = .07). After progression, a rituximab-containing salvage therapy was given to 59% of patients treated with CHOP followed by observation, compared with 26% after R-CHOP followed by rituximab maintenance. Rituximab maintenance was associated with a significant increase in grades 3 to 4 infections: 9.7% v 2.4% (P = .01).
Conclusion
With long-term follow-up, we confirm the superior PFS with rituximab maintenance in relapsed/resistant FL. The improvement of OS did not reach statistical significance, possibly because of the unbalanced use of rituximab in post-protocol salvage treatment.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.26.5827
PMCID: PMC2903319  PMID: 20439641
7.  NHL (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) 
Clinical Evidence  2010;2010:2401.
Introduction
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is the sixth most common cancer in the UK; 9443 new cases were diagnosed in the UK in 2002, and it caused 4418 UK deaths in 2003. Incidence rates show distinct geographical variation, with age-standardised incidence rates ranging from 17 per 100,000 in northern America to 4 per 100,000 in south-central Asia. NHL occurs more commonly in males than in females, and the age-standardised UK incidence increased by 10.3% between 1993 and 2002.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line treatments for aggressive, or for relapsed aggressive, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogeneic stem-cell support, chemotherapy (conventional dose salvage, high-dose plus autologous transplant stem-cell support, conventional dose in people with chemosensitive disease), CHOP 14, CHOP 21, CHOP 21 with radiotherapy, CHOP 21 with rituximab, ACVBP, MACOP-B, m-BACOD, PACEBOM, and ProMACE-CytaBOM.
Key Points
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is the sixth most common cancer in the UK, with a 10% increase in incidence between 1993 and 2002. Risk factors include immunosuppression, certain viral and bacterial infections, and exposure to drugs and other chemicals.Overall 5-year survival is around 55%. The main risk factors for a poor prognosis are older age, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and severity of disease.
CHOP 21 has been shown to be superior or equivalent to all other combination chemotherapy regimens in terms of overall survival or toxicity in adults older or younger than 60 years. Adding radiotherapy to a short CHOP 21 schedule (3 cycles) increases 5-year survival, while reducing the risks of congestive heart failure, compared with longer schedules of CHOP 21 alone.Adding rituximab to CHOP 21 increases response rates and 5-year survival compared with CHOP 21 alone. CHOP 14 may increase 5-year survival compared with CHOP 21 in people aged over 60 years, but effects are less clear in younger adults. Toxicity is similar for the two regimens.
Consensus is that conventional-dose salvage chemotherapy should be used in people with relapsed NHL. Phase II studies report similar response rates with a number of different chemotherapy regimens. Adding rituximab to salvage chemotherapy may improve initial response rates, but no more than 10% of people remain disease-free after 3 to 5 years.
High-dose salvage chemotherapy plus autologous bone-marrow transplantation may increase 5-year event-free survival and overall survival compared with conventional-dose chemotherapy in people with relapsed chemotherapy-sensitive disease, but it increases the risk of severe adverse effects. We don't know whether allogenic bone-marrow transplantation improves survival. Retrospective studies suggest that it increases the risk of graft-versus-host disease and complications of immunosuppression.
PMCID: PMC3217796  PMID: 21406125
8.  Reassessment of the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Index and the revised International Prognostic Index in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A multicentre study 
The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is a widely accepted model that is used to predict the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are treated using chemotherapy. However, the prognostic value of the IPI has been a focal point of debate in the immunochemotherapy era. The aim of this study was to reassess the value of the IPI and revised IPI (R-IPI) in a Chinese population. A multicentre retrospective analysis of DLBCL patients who were treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP)-like chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus rituximab (R-CHOP-like) was performed. The prognostic values of IPI and R-IPI at the time of diagnosis with respect to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated. Among the 438 patients in the study, 241 received a CHOP-like regimen and 197 patients received an R-CHOP-like regimen. Although the IPI remained predictive for the CHOP-like group, it failed to distinguish between the various prognostic categories in the R-CHOP-like group. Notably, redistribution of the IPI factors into R-IPI factors identified three discrete prognostic groups with significantly different outcomes in both the CHOP-like and R-CHOP-like groups. In the R-CHOP-like group, these three risk groups, very good, good and poor, had distinctly different 3-year PFS rates of 96, 84.3 and 67.5% (P=0.001), and 3-year OS rates of 96, 87.6 and 71.1% (P=0.003), respectively. Our study demonstrates the power of the R-IPI as a simplified and more clinically relevant predictor of disease outcome than the standard IPI in DLBCL populations in the rituximab era. Therefore, the R-IPI merits further study in a larger population-based prospective study.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.607
PMCID: PMC3503699  PMID: 23181121
International Prognostic Index; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; rituximab
9.  NHL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) 
Clinical Evidence  2008;2008:2401.
Introduction
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is the sixth most common cancer in the UK; 9443 new cases were diagnosed in the UK in 2002, and it caused 4418 UK deaths in 2003. Incidence rates show distinct geographical variation, with age-standardised incidence rates ranging from 17 per 100,000 in Northern America to 4 per 100,000 in south-central Asia. NHL occurs more commonly in males than in females, and the age-standardized UK incidence increased by 10.3% between 1993 and 2002.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line treatments for aggressive, or for relapsed aggressive, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (diffuse large B cell lymphoma)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to April 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 33 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogeneic stem cell support, chemotherapy (conventional dose salvage, high-dose plus autologous transplant stem cell support, conventional dose in people with chemosensitive disease), CHOP 14, CHOP 21, CHOP 21 with radiotherapy, CHOP 21 with rituximab, MACOP-B, m-BACOD, PACEBOM, and ProMACE-CytaBOM.
Key Points
NHL is the sixth most common cancer in the UK, with a 10% increase in incidence between 1993 and 2002. Risk factors include immunosuppression, certain viral and bacterial infections, and exposure to drugs and other chemicals.Overall 5-year survival is around 55%. The main risk factors for a poor prognosis are older age, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and severity of disease.
CHOP 21 has been shown to be superior or equivalent to all other combination chemotherapy regimens in terms of overall survival or toxicity in adults older or younger than 60 years. Adding radiotherapy to a short CHOP 21 schedule (3 cycles) increases 5-year survival, while reducing the risks of congestive heart failure, compared with longer schedules of CHOP 21 alone.Adding rituximab to CHOP 21 increases response rates and 5-year survival compared with CHOP 21 alone. CHOP 14 may increase 5-year survival compared with CHOP 21 in people aged over 60, but remains unproven in younger adults. Toxicity is similar for the two regimens.
Consensus is that conventional-dose salvage chemotherapy should be used in people with relapsed NHL. Phase II studies report similar response rates with a number of different chemotherapy regimens. Adding rituximab to salvage chemotherapy may improve initial response rates, but no more than 10% of people remain disease-free after 3-5 years.
High-dose salvage chemotherapy plus autologous bone-marrow transplantation may increase 5-year event-free survival compared with conventional-dose chemotherapy in people with relapsed chemotherapy-sensitive disease, but it increases the risk of severe adverse effects. We don't know whether allogenic bone-marrow transplantation improves survival. Retrospective studies suggest that it increases the risk of graft versus host disease, and complications of immunosuppression.
PMCID: PMC2907930  PMID: 19450335
10.  Expression of p21 Protein Predicts Clinical Outcome in DLBCL Patients Over Age 60 Treated with R-CHOP but not CHOP: A prospective ECOG and SWOG correlative study of E4494 
Purpose
To prospectively investigate the prognostic significance of p21 and p53 expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the context of the US Intergroup trial comparing conventional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy to rituximab (R)-CHOP induction, with or without maintenance rituximab (MR).
Experimental Design
Immunohistochemical staining of 197 paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens was scored by an independent panel of experts.
Results
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, was expressed in 55% of cases examined. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for International Prognostic Index score and BCL2 status, p21 expression was a significant, independent, favorable predictive factor for failure free survival and overall survival (FFS: relative risk 0.3; P = 0.001; OS: relative risk 0.3; P = 0.003) for patients treated with R-CHOP. Expression of p21 was not predictive of outcome for CHOP-treated patients.
Only p21-positive cases benefited from the addition of rituximab to CHOP. Among p21-positive patients, treatment with R-CHOP was associated with a higher FFS rate at 5 years compared to CHOP (61% versus 24%; P = 0.01). In contrast, no significant differences were detected in FFS according to treatment arm for p21-negative patients. Expression of p53, alone or in combination with p21, did not predict for outcome in uni- or multivariable analyses.
Conclusions
In this study, p21 protein expression emerged as an important independent predictor of a favorable clinical outcome when rituximab was added to CHOP therapy. These data suggest that rituximab-related effects on lymphoma survival pathways may be functionally linked to p21 activity.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1219
PMCID: PMC2865202  PMID: 20371683
11.  Risk-Adapted Dose-Dense Immunochemotherapy Determined by Interim FDG-PET in Advanced-Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(11):1896-1903.
Purpose
In studies of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) performed after two to four cycles of chemotherapy has demonstrated prognostic significance. However, some patients treated with immunochemotherapy experience a favorable long-term outcome despite a positive interim FDG-PET scan. To clarify the significance of interim FDG-PET scans, we prospectively studied interim FDG-positive disease within a risk-adapted sequential immunochemotherapy program.
Patients and Methods
From March 2002 to November 2006, 98 patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center received induction therapy with four cycles of accelerated R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) followed by an interim FDG-PET scan. If the FDG-PET scan was negative, patients received three cycles of ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) consolidation therapy. If residual FDG-positive disease was seen, patients underwent biopsy; if the biopsy was negative, they also received three cycles of ICE. Patients with a positive biopsy received ICE followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation.
Results
At a median follow-up of 44 months, overall and progression-free survival were 90% and 79%, respectively. Ninety-seven patients underwent interim FDG-PET scans; 59 had a negative scan, 51 of whom are progression free. Thirty-eight patients with FDG-PET–positive disease underwent repeat biopsy; 33 were negative, and 26 remain progression free after ICE consolidation therapy. Progression-free survival of interim FDG-PET–positive/biopsy-negative patients was identical to that in patients with a negative interim FDG-PET scan (P = .27).
Conclusion
Interim or post-treatment FDG-PET evaluation did not predict outcome with this dose-dense, sequential immunochemotherapy program. Outside of a clinical trial, we recommend biopsy confirmation of an abnormal interim FDG-PET scan before changing therapy.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.26.5942
PMCID: PMC3651601  PMID: 20212248
12.  Long-term follow-up of localized, primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab and CHOP 
The addition of rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone [CHOP (i.e., R-CHOP)] is considered to be the standard regimen for treating localized, primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PG-DLBCL). However, few studies have reported the long-term efficacy of R-CHOP therapy in the management of localized PG-DLBCL. In the present study, we performed a retrospective analysis of 11 patients with localized PG-DLBCL, who were treated with R-CHOP at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital and Kasukabe Municipal Hospital (Japan) from 2001 to 2008. Limited stage cancer was defined as stage I/II according to the Lugano staging system for gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas. The relative dose intensity (RDI) of CHOP therapy was calculated for each patient. The median age of the patients was 68 years (range, 48–82). Gastralgia and anemia were common symptoms at initial presentation. All patients except 1 received 6 cycles of R-CHOP treatment without consolidative radiation therapy or prior surgery. RDI was maintained at over 80% in 9 out of 11 patients. All patients achieved complete remission and the estimated overall survival with a median follow-up of 54 months (range, 39–103) was 100%, without relapse or significant GI adverse effects, such as perforation or bleeding during R-CHOP treatment. No long-term adverse effects of rituximab were recorded during the observation period. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed in 72.7% (8 cases) of the patients, but was eradicated in a limited number of patients. Our data suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of the addition of rituximab to conventional CHOP therapy in the management of localized PG-DLBCL.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.387
PMCID: PMC3438714  PMID: 22969886
primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; relative dose intensity; Helicobacter pylori; R-CHOP
13.  Immunochemotherapy and Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation for Untreated Patients With Mantle-Cell Lymphoma: CALGB 59909 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(36):6101-6108.
Purpose
Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a poor prognosis. We explored the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of an aggressive immunochemotherapy treatment program that included autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) for patients up to age 69 years with newly diagnosed MCL.
Patients and Methods
The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). A successful trial would yield a 2-year PFS of at least 50% and an event rate (early progression plus nonrelapse mortality) less than 20% at day +100 following ASCT. Seventy-eight patients were treated with two or three cycles of rituximab combined with methotrexate and augmented CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). This treatment was followed by intensification with high doses of cytarabine and etoposide combined with rituximab and filgrastim to mobilize autologous peripheral-blood stem cells. Patients then received high doses of carmustine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide followed by ASCT and two doses of rituximab.
Results
There were two nonrelapse mortalities, neither during ASCT. With a median follow-up of 4.7 years, the 2-year PFS was 76% (95% CI, 64% to 85%), and the 5-year PFS was 56% (95% CI, 43% to 68%). The 5-year overall survival was 64% (95% CI, 50% to 75%). The event rate by day +100 of ASCT was 5.1%.
Conclusion
The Cancer and Leukemia Group B 59909 regimen is feasible, safe, and effective in patients with newly diagnosed MCL. The incorporation of rituximab with aggressive chemotherapy and ASCT may be responsible for the encouraging outcomes demonstrated in this study, which produced results comparable to similar treatment regimens.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.22.2554
PMCID: PMC2793032  PMID: 19917845
14.  Single arm NCRI phase II study of CHOP in combination with Ofatumumab in induction and maintenance for patients with newly diagnosed Richter’s syndrome 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:52.
Background
Transformation of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (Richter’s syndrome (RS)) is a rare (2-15% of patients) but catastrophic complication of B-CLL. Dose-intense chemotherapy regimens investigated in small single institution trials, but with the exception of bone marrow transplantation for a minority of patients, little has improved the median overall survival of patients with RS beyond eight months. Patients are often elderly, immunosuppressed, possess co-morbidities and have a deteriorating performance status. TP53 disruption is a common molecular abnormality noted in RS and contributes to the tumour’s chemotherapy resistance. Ofatumumab is a fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal IgG1κ antibody that targets a unique epitope on B lymphocytes. It has displayed increased binding affinity and a longer dissociation time when compared to rituximab resulting in improved complement dependent cellular cytotoxicity (CDCC); a mechanism with the potential to overcome apoptosis-resistance in TP53 disruption. Given the prevalence of TP53 disruption in RS, Ofatumumab was considered a relatively non-toxic agent with a sound rationale to test in a prospective multicentre trial as an adjunct to CHOP induction and subsequent ofatumumab maintenance therapy in responding patients.
Methods/Design
The CHOP-OR study is a prospective phase II study to evaluate the safety, feasibility and activity of a CHOP chemotherapy in combination with ofatumumab in induction and subsequent maintenance for patients with newly diagnosed RS. The primary objective will be the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with RS after six cycles of CHOP-O. The secondary objectives include feasibility of recruitment, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The study will be accompanied by exploratory analysis of the genomic landscape of RS in newly diagnosed patients.
Discussion
The CHOP-OR trial evaluates the safety, feasibility and activity of CHOP plus Ofatumumab induction and Ofatumumab maintenance in new RS patients. The study is currently recruiting and has met the interim analysis criteria, with more than 7 of the first 25 participants achieving a CR or PR after six cycles of CHOP-O. The study has the potential to identify predictive biomarkers for this treatment modality.
Trial registration
NCT01171378.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1048-9
PMCID: PMC4329650
Ofatumumab; CHOP; TP53; Richter’s syndrome; Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Phase II; Rare cancers
15.  Rituximab and CHOP Chemotherapy Plus GM-CSF for Previously Untreated Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Elderly: A Wisconsin Oncology Network Study 
Purpose
Human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may potentiate rituximab activity by upregulating CD20 expression and activating effector cells necessary for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. GM-CSF was combined with standard rituximab + CHOP (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone) chemotherapy (R-CHOP) in the treatment of elderly patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
Patients and Methods
Thirty-eight patients over the age of 60 years with newly diagnosed DLBCL were treated with R-CHOP every 21 days for 6–8 cycles and GM-CSF 250 μg/m2 per day on days 3–10. Patients were evaluated for response after cycles 4, 6, and 8. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete response, and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival, and overall survival (OS).
Results
Thirty-eight patients were enrolled, with a median age of 72 years, and 29% of patients having high-risk disease (International Prognostic Index [IPI] score ≥ 4). A complete or unconfirmed complete response (CR) was achieved in 53% of patients. After a median follow-up of 51.1 months, the 3-year PFS and OS were 78% and 84%. Twenty-one percent of patients discontinued protocol treatment because of chemotherapy-related toxicity and 16% because of GM-CSF toxicity. Dose intensity for planned chemotherapy cycles was 81.1%.
Conclusion
These data suggest that survival outcomes may be modestly improved when GM-CSF is combined with R-CHOP in the treatment of elderly DLBCL. GM-CSF had toxicity precluding planned administration in 16% of patients, which may limit usefulness of this agent. Further investigation of GM-CSF in combination with rituximab-containing chemotherapy is warranted.
doi:10.3816/CLML.2010.n.071
PMCID: PMC3360541  PMID: 21030351
DLBCL; Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; Sargramostim; Toxicity
16.  Additional rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) versus involved-field radiotherapy after a brief course of R-CHOP in limited, non-bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a retrospective analysis 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(4):253-259.
Background
Standard treatment for stage I or non-bulky stage II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been either a brief course of chemotherapy plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) or prolonged cycles of chemotherapy. The introduction of rituximab has necessitated re-evaluation of the treatment for limited disease (LD) DLBCL.
Methods
Thirty-nine LD DLBCL patients (median age, 52 years; range, 24-85) treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment outcomes were evaluated, and toxicity, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the treatment and risk factors.
Results
The median follow-up duration was 34.6 months (range, 9.1-65.4). The 3-year EFS and OS were 76.0% and 86.0%, respectively. Among the 36 patients who underwent either 3-4 cycles of R-CHOP followed by IFRT (N=22) or 6-8 cycles of R-CHOP (N=14), there was no difference in the 3-year EFS (79.4% vs. 71.6%, P=0.638) and 3-year OS (85.7% vs. 92.9%, P=0.732). Severe neutropenia and neutropenic fever were more frequent in patients treated with R-CHOP alone, with 1 treatment-related mortality. Among the IFRT patients, 1 required hospital admission for IFRT-related complications. No events or deaths were reported among patients without adverse risk factors.
Conclusion
The difference in outcomes between the 2 treatment options was not significant. Analysis of treatment outcomes suggested that baseline characteristics and expected toxicities should be considered in LD DLBCL treatment. Further studies are needed to define the optimal treatment in the rituximab era.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.4.253
PMCID: PMC3023051  PMID: 21253427
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Rituximab
17.  Fludarabine-based versus CHOP-like regimens with or without rituximab in patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of safety and efficacy 
OncoTargets and therapy  2013;6:1385-1392.
Fludarabine-based regimens and CHOP (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone)-like regimens with or without rituximab are the most common treatment modalities for indolent lymphoma. However, there is no clear evidence to date about which chemotherapy regimen should be the proper initial treatment of indolent lymphoma. More recently, the use of fludarabine has raised concerns due to its high number of toxicities, especially hematological toxicity and infectious complications. The present study aimed to retrospectively evaluate both the efficacy and the potential toxicities of the two main regimens (fludarabine-based and CHOP-like regimens) in patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoma. Among a total of 107 patients assessed, 54 patients received fludarabine-based regimens (FLU arm) and 53 received CHOP or CHOPE (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, or plus etoposide) regimens (CHOP arm). The results demonstrated that fludarabine-based regimens could induce significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with CHOP-like regimens. However, the FLU arm showed overall survival, complete response, and overall response rates similar to those of the CHOP arm. Grade 3–4 neutropenia occurred in 42.6% of the FLU arm and 7.5% of the CHOP arm (P < 0.000). Moreover, the FLU arm also had a higher occurrence of infection than the CHOP arm (27.8% vs 8.5%; P = 0.034). Multi-factor regression of infection revealed that only age (>60 years) and presentation of grade 3–4 myelosuppression were the independent factors to infection, and the FLU arm had significantly higher myelosuppression. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the use of fludarabine-based regimens could induce high rates of myelosuppression over CHOP-like regimens, in spite of significant increases in PFS.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S47764
PMCID: PMC3797259  PMID: 24143112
indolent lymphoma; toxicity; fludarabine; CHOP; infection
18.  Clinical features and survival outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: analysis of web-based data from the Korean Lymphoma Working Party Registry 
Blood research  2013;48(2):115-120.
Background
This study aimed to survey the clinical spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in terms of epidemiology, pathologic subtypes, stage, and prognostic index as well as treatment outcomes.
Methods
In 2007-2008, 13 university hospitals evenly distributed in the Korean peninsula contributed to the online registry of DLBCL at www.lymphoma.or.kr and filed a total of 1,665 cases of DLBCL recorded since 1990.
Results
Our analysis showed a higher prevalence of DLBCL in male than in female individuals (M:F=958:707), and extranodal disease was more common than primary nodular disease (53% vs. 47%). Among the 1,544 patients who had been treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) therapy with or without radiation, 993 (63.9%) were alive, with 80% free of disease, 417 were dead (26.8%), with 13% free of disease, and 144 (9.3%) were lost to follow-up, with 23% free of disease. Age below 60 years, stage at diagnosis, international prognostic index (IPI) score regardless of age, and addition of rituximab to CHOP therapy in low- and low-intermediate-risk groups according to IPI scores significantly increased survival duration.
Conclusion
The epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and biological behavior of DLBCL in Korea are similar to those observed in Western countries, and the advent of rituximab improved survival.
doi:10.5045/br.2013.48.2.115
PMCID: PMC3698396  PMID: 23826580
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Epidemiology; Survival; Rituximab; CHOP regimen
19.  Unusual presentation of duodenal plasmablastic lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient: A case report and literature review 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(6):2539-2542.
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and recently described entity of large B-cell lymphoma. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior without effective treatment. Recently, sporadic cases describing PBL in extraoral locations of HIV-negative patients have been reported; frequently in patients with underlying immunosuppressive states. To develop the understanding of PBL, the current study reports the unusual presentation of duodenal PBL and reviews the pathogenesis, immunohistochemical features, clinical and differential diagnoses, as well as the treatment of PBL as described in previous studies. The case of a 75-year-old female with duodenal PBL without definite immunosuppression is presented in the current report. The tumor was composed of large B-cell-like cells, and was positive for cluster of differentiation 138 and melanoma ubiquitous mutated-1, with ~80% of the tumor cells positive for Ki-67. The features of the tumor were as follows: Extraoral location, HIV-negative, immunoglobulin M λ-type M protein expression, light chain restriction (monoclonal) and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA-negative, which are considered to be unusual for PBL. These unusual features complicate the differentiation of PBL from other plasma cell diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a case of duodenal PBL in an immunocompetent patient. To date, the standard treatment of PBL remains elusive, however, the most commonly administered chemotherapy treatments are CHOP [intravenous cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2, day 1), intravenous doxorubicin (50 mg/m2, day 1), intravenous vincristine (1.4 mg/m2, day 1) and prednisone (100 mg, days 1–50)]-like regimens. The patient was administered two cycles of CHOP chemotherapy for 56 days, however, ultimately succumbed as a result of disease progression. Therefore, PBL represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. PBL must be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors in daily practice, even in immunocompetent patients. Furthermore, CHOP does not appear to be an optimal treatment regimen and more intensive regimens are required.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2604
PMCID: PMC4214469  PMID: 25364423
plasmablastic lymphoma; immunocompetent; duodenum; Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA-negative
20.  Rituximab retherapy in patients with relapsed aggressive B cell and mantle cell lymphoma 
Annals of Hematology  2009;89(3):283-289.
Neither effective salvage regimens nor the outcome and response to retherapy with rituximab containing chemotherapy have been defined for rituximab pre-treated patients with relapsing aggressive lymphoma. We report here a single-centre retrospective outcome analysis of second-line immunochemotherapy with rituximab. In 28 patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphomas, first-line immunochemotherapy had induced objective responses in 18 patients. Nine of 28 patients responded to rituximab containing salvage therapy, leading to a median overall survival of 243 days after start of second immunochemotherapy. Long-term disease free survivors (1,260 and 949 days) were restricted to the group of twelve patients that had received allogeneic stem cell transplantation as consolidation therapy. In 21 patients with relapsed mantle cell lymphomas (MCL), 19 patients had reached remissions with first-line therapy. Of those, 16 patients experienced responses to salvage therapy with a median overall survival of 226 days. Noteworthy, none of patients with initial non-responding disease reached a remission with second immunochemotherapy. Seven patients with MCL stayed free from progression after high-dose therapy with autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation in two and five cases, respectively. In summary, responses to repeated immunotherapy with rituximab were observed in approximately one third and two thirds of initially responding patients with aggressive B cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, respectively, but not in primarily refractory disease. Lasting remissions were achieved only by high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation.
doi:10.1007/s00277-009-0820-9
PMCID: PMC2808532  PMID: 19727725
Lymphoma; Relapse; Rituximab
21.  Tailored Therapy in an Unselected Population of 91 Elderly Patients with DLBCL Prospectively Evaluated Using a Simplified CGA 
The Oncologist  2012;17(5):663-672.
Ninety-one elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were given tailored treatment based on the results of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Treatment was feasible with encouraging outcomes.
Learning Objectives:
After completing this course, the reader will be able to: Demonstrate the proper use of a simplified comprehensive geriatric analysis, including activities of daily living (ADL), Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), Cumulative Illness Rating Scale–Geriatrics (CIRS-G), and geriatric syndromes (multidimensional geriatric assessment [MGA]).Maintaining a tailored anthracycline-based therapy, describe alternative treatment in elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients unfit for the standard chemotherapy.
This article is available for continuing medical education credit at CME.TheOncologist.com
Background.
Elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are a heterogeneous population; clinical trials have evaluated a minority of these patients.
Patients and Methods.
Ninety-one elderly patients with DLBCL received tailored treatment based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Three groups were identified: I, fit patients; II, patients with comorbidities; III, frail patients. Group I received 21-day cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP-21), group II received R-CHOP-21 with liposomal doxorubicin, and group III received 21-day cycles of reduced-dose CHOP. Fifty-four patients (59%) were allocated to group I, 22 (25%) were allocated to group II, and 15 (16%) were allocated to group III.
Results.
The complete response (CR) rates were 81.5% in group I, 64% in group II, and 60% in group III. With a median follow-up of 57 months, 42 patients are alive, with 41 in continuous CR: 31 patients (57%) in group I, seven patients (32%) in group II, and four patients (20%) in group III. The 5-year overall survival, event-free survival, and disease-free survival rates in all patients were 46%, 31%, and 41%, respectively. Multivariate analysis selected group I assignment as the main significant prognostic factor for outcome.
Conclusions.
This approach in an unselected population of elderly DLBCL patients shows that treatment tailored according to a CGA allows the evaluation of elderly patients who are currently excluded from clinical trials.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0355
PMCID: PMC3360906  PMID: 22531362
Elderly patients; DLBCL; CGA; R-CHOP
22.  Long-term disease-free survival of patients with primary cardiac lymphoma treated with systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(4):282-285.
Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare disease entity with only a few reported cases in Korea. In this paper, we report a case of PCL in a 59-year-old man presenting with chest pain. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed through a cardiac catheterization-assisted percutaneous endomyocardial biopsy, and there was no evidence of extracardiac involvement of the lymphoma.The patient had a complete clinical response after systemic chemotherapy with a rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) regimen and additional post-chemotherapeutic radiation therapy. The patient experienced a long-term disease-free survival of over 4 years. However, he received coronary artery bypass graft surgery due to an acute myocardial infarction that occurred 3 years after the completion of the radiation therapy. Although the addition of radiation therapy to the treatment is thought to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with PCL, a careful and thorough consideration of the potential complications of radiation therapy, particularly with respect to cardiac complications, should be considered.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.4.282
PMCID: PMC3023057  PMID: 21253433
Lymphoma; Myocardial infarction; Drug therapy; Radiotherapy
23.  Treatment outcomes and survival in patients with primary central nervous system lymphomas treated between 1995 and 2010 – a single centre report 
Radiology and Oncology  2012;46(4):346-353.
Background.
Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) are rare variants of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that are nowadays primarily treated with high-dose methotrexate or methotrexate-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. The optimal treatment of PCNSL is still unknown and there are differences in clinical practice.
Patients and methods.
With a retrospective research we evaluated our series of patients with PCNSL in regards to the patient’s characteristics, treatment results, disease specific survival and overall survival. Fifty nine patients who attended the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between 1995 and 2010 were treated according to the protocol that was valid at the time of the patient’s admission. Between 1995 and 1999, the systemic treatment was classical CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, steroids) chemotherapy, and later on high-dose methotrexate either alone or in combination with other agents. From 1999 onwards, radiation therapy was applied according to the patient’s age and response to chemotherapy, prior to that all patients treated with CHOP were also irradiated. Patients ineligible for the systemic treatment were treated with sole radiation therapy.
Results.
There was a strong female predominance in our series and the median age at diagnosis was 59.8 years. Patients had predominantly aggressive B cell lymphomas (69.5%), one patient had marginal cell lymphoma and two patients T cell lymphoma. In total, 20.3% of patients were treated just with chemotherapy, 33.9% with combined therapy and 42.4% with sole radiation therapy. The overall response rate to the primary treatment in patients treated with sole chemotherapy was 33.3%, in patients treated with combined therapy 65% and in patients treated only with radiation therapy 56%, respectively. In terms of response duration, significantly better results were achieved with combined therapy or radiation therapy alone compared to sole chemotherapy (p<0.0006). The median overall survival of the whole cohort was 11 months and the overall survival was significantly affected by the patient’s age. The longest overall survival was observed in patients treated with combined therapy (median survival of 39 months). Patients treated just with radiation therapy had a median overall survival of 9 months and those treated with sole chemotherapy of 4.5 months, respectively.
Conclusions.
The treatment outcomes in ordinary clinical practice are definitely inferior to the ones reported in clinical trials. The now standard treatment with high-dose methotrexate with or without radiation therapy is sometimes too aggressive and, therefore, a careful selection on the basis of patient’s age, performance status and concomitant diseases of those eligible for such treatment is mandatory. According to our results from a retrospective study, radiation therapy should not be excluded from the primary treatment.
doi:10.2478/v10019-012-0048-5
PMCID: PMC3572884  PMID: 23411571
primary central nervous system lymphomas; treatment outcomes; survival
24.  Severe Pulmonary Adverse Effects in Lymphoma Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone (CHOP) Regimen Plus Rituximab 
Background/Aims
The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and clinical features of severe pulmonary complications in patients receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) as the initial treatment for lymphoma.
Methods
A retrospective analysis of pulmonary infection and drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis (DIIP) was performed using lymphoma registry data. R-CHOP was administered in 71 patients and CHOP in 29 patients.
Results
The severe pulmonary adverse events tended to occur more frequently with R-CHOP (18.3%) than CHOP alone (13.8%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.771). DIIP occurred in five patients in the R-CHOP arm (7%) and in one in the CHOP arm (3%). The continuous use of steroids for conditions other than lymphoma significantly increased the risk of pulmonary infection including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (p = 0.036) in the multivariate analysis. International prognostic index, tumor stage, smoking, previous tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lymphoma involvement of lung parenchyma were not related to pulmonary adverse events. Patients who experienced severe pulmonary events showed shorter survival when compared to those without complications (p = 0.002).
Conclusions
Our experiences with serial cases with DIIP during chemotherapy and the correlation of continuous steroid use with pulmonary infection suggest that the incidence of pulmonary complications might be high during lymphoma treatment, and careful monitoring should be performed.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2010.25.1.86
PMCID: PMC2829422  PMID: 20195409
Rituximab; Drug therapy; Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; Adverse effects; Lung diseases, interstitial
25.  A Case of Cutaneous Plasmablastic Lymphoma in HIV/AIDS with Disseminated Cryptococcus 
We present a case of a patient with HIV/AIDS who presented with a tender left lower extremity cutaneous mass over a site of previous cryptococcal infection and was found to have plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). The incidence of PBL is estimated to account for less than 5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in HIV-positive individuals. In fact, there were only two reports of extraoral PBL at the time of a 2003 review. PBL in HIV-positive individuals is an aggressive malignancy that tends to occur in middle-aged males with low CD4 counts, high viral loads, and chronic HIV infection. The definitive diagnosis can be made with biopsy which typically shows malignant lymphoid cells that stain positive for plasma cell markers and negative for B-cell markers. The most common treatment is chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like regimens, but the overall survival rate is poor despite its relative responsiveness to chemotherapy. This case highlights the challenges that remain in improving clinical outcomes, the importance of antiretroviral therapy and HIV disease control, and a potential association between a chronic inflammatory state caused by disseminated Cryptococcus and tumorigenesis in individuals with PBL.
doi:10.1155/2013/862585
PMCID: PMC3859204  PMID: 24371535

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