We describe long-term disease-free survival after unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in 118 patients aged ≤18 years. Forty-six patients had refractory cytopenia (RC), 55, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and 17, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-t). Transplant-related mortality was higher after mismatched BMT (relative risk [RR] 3.29, p=0.002). Disease recurrence was more likely with advanced stages of MDS at the time of BMT: RAEB (RR 6.50, p=0.01) or RAEB-t (RR 11.00, p=0.004). Treatment failure (recurrent disease or death from any cause; inverse of disease-free survival [DFS]) occurred in 68 patients. Treatment failure was higher after mismatched BMT (RR 2.79, p=0.001) and in those with RAEB-t (RR 2.38, p=0.02). Secondary MDS or chemotherapy prior to BMT was not associated with recurrence or treatment failure. Similarly, cytogenetic abnormalities were not associated with transplant outcomes. Eight-year DFS for patients with RC after matched and mismatched unrelated donor BMT was 65% and 40%, respectively. Corresponding DFS for patients with RAEB and RAEB-t was 48% and 28%, respectively. When a matched adult unrelated donor is available, BMT should be offered as first-line therapy and children with RC can be expected to have the best outcome.
pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome; unrelated donor; bone marrow transplantation
Sideroblastic anemia is characterized by anemia with the emergence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. There are two forms of sideroblastic anemia, i.e., congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) and acquired sideroblastic anemia. In order to clarify the pathophysiology of sideroblastic anemia, a nationwide survey consisting of clinical and molecular genetic analysis was performed in Japan. As of January 31, 2012, data of 137 cases of sideroblastic anemia, including 72 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)–refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), 47 cases of MDS–refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS), and 18 cases of CSA, have been collected. Hemoglobin and MCV level in CSA are significantly lower than those of MDS, whereas serum iron level in CSA is significantly higher than those of MDS. Of 14 CSA for which DNA was available for genetic analysis, 10 cases were diagnosed as X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to ALAS2 gene mutation. The mutation of SF3B1 gene, which was frequently mutated in MDS-RS, was not detected in CSA patients. Together with the difference of clinical data, it is suggested that genetic background, which is responsible for the development of CSA, is different from that of MDS-RS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00277-012-1564-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Congenital sideroblastic anemia; Myelodysplastic syndrome; ALAS2
The myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell diseases characterized by cytopenia(s), dysplasia in one or more of the major myeloid cell lines, ineffective hematopoiesis, and increased risk of development of acute myeloid leukemia. The classification and the diagnostic criteria have been redefined by the recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors – International Agency for Research on Cancer for Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. The myelodysplastic syndromes are now classified into the following categories – refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with excess blasts, myelodysplastic syndrome associated with isolated del (5q), myelodysplastic syndrome – unclassifiable, and childhood myelodysplastic syndrome. The clinicopathologic features, morphology, differential diagnosis, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, prognosis and predictive factors are presented in the light of recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors – International Agency for Research on Cancer.
myelodysplastic syndromes; leukemia
Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) is a subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which belongs to oncohematological diseases, occurring particularly in elderly patients, and represents a heterogeneous group of bone marrow diseases. The goal of this study was to look for plasma proteins that changed quantitatively or qualitatively in RCMD patients.
A total of 46 plasma samples were depleted, proteins were separated by 2D SDS-PAGE (pI 4-7), and proteomes were compared using Progenesis SameSpots statistical software. Proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Sixty-one unique, significantly (p < 0.05, ANOVA) different spots were found; proteins in 59 spots were successfully identified and corresponded to 57 different proteins. Protein fragmentation was observed in several proteins: complement C4-A, complement C4-B, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, and endorepellin.
This study describes proteins, which change quantitatively or qualitatively in RCMD patients, and represents the first report on significant alterations in C4-A and C4-B complement proteins and ITIH4 fragments in patients with MDS-RCMD.
myelodysplastic syndrome; refractory cytopenia; dysplasia; proteome
The functional mechanisms involved in angiogenesis and the potential role of endoglin (ENG), recently described as a new marker for this process, have not been explored in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). In order to gain insight in MDS angiogenesis a combined analysis in bone marrow (BM) of gene expression levels, angiogenesis-related soluble factors and functional angiogenesis-related studies was carried out. Ninety-seven MDS patients and forty-two normal BM samples were studied. The morphology of the capillary-like structures originated by two endothelial cells lines in the BM environment of patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) was different from those of the remaining MDS. In addition, the BM mononuclear cells from RCMD patients displayed over-expression of VEGF, HIF and FN1 while they showed reduced expression of ENG in contrast to the normal ENG expression of the remaining low-risk MDS and the high expression of ENG in high-risk MDS subtype. Moreover, higher soluble ENG and soluble FLT-1 levels in BM microenvironment were observed in RCMD cases, which distinguished them from other individuals. Therefore, the present study suggests that the patterns of angiogenesis are different between the MDS subtypes. The differences in angiogenesis observed in RCMD patients could be related to ENG abnormalities.
The molecular pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and its progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) remain to be explored. Somatic C-CBL mutations were recently described in MDS. Our study aimed to determine the role of C-CBL mutations in the progression of MDS to sAML and sought to correlate with clinicohematological features and outcome. Bone marrow samples from 51 patients with high-risk MDS (13 with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, 19 with refractory anemia with excess blast 1, and 19 with refractory anemia with excess blast 2) were analyzed for C-CBL mutations at both diagnosis and sAML in the same individuals. Mutational analysis was performed for exons 7 to 9 of C-CBL gene. Of the 51 paired samples, C-CBL mutations were identified in 6 patients at the sAML phase. One patient retained the identical C-CBL mutation (G415S) at sAML evolution and exhibited clonal expansion. The other five patients acquired C-CBL mutations (Y371S, F418S, L370_Y371 ins L, L399V, and C416W) during sAML evolution. Three of the six patients harboring C-CBL mutations at sAML had additional gene mutations including JAK2V617F, PTPN11, or N-RAS. There was no significant difference in clinicohematological features and overall survival with respect to C-CBL mutation status. Our results show that C-CBL mutation is very rare (0.6%) in MDS, but acquisition and/or expansion of C-CBL mutant clones occur in 11.8% of patients during sAML transformation. The findings suggest that C-CBL mutations play a role at least in part in a subset of MDS patients during sAML transformation.
The haematological features of 118 cases of primary myelodysplastic syndromes (PMDS) were reviewed to see how these could be related and classified according to the recent FAB proposals. A majority of the cases were elderly who presented with a macrocytic or normocytic anaemia and reticulocytopenia. Cases of acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia (AISA) usually had normal leucocyte and platelet counts, erythroid hyperplasia, marked dyserythropoiesis and more than 20% ringed sideroblasts. Cases of refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) had frequent neutropenia and thrombopenia usually with prominent dysgranulopoiesis and dysthrombopoiesis. Refractory anaemia or refractory cytopenia appeared morphologically to be a heterogeneous group. Leukaemic transformation did not occur in any of these 16 cases of AISA whereas six of the 34 cases of RAEB transformed into acute leukaemia. It appears that the cases of PMDS present with well defined haematological features which permit recognition of different groups; these latter groups appear to be morphologically and prognostically distinct.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are often accompanied by autoimmune phenomena. The underlying mechanisms for these associations remain uncertain, although T cell activation seems to be important. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) has been detected in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, mostly in regions of the world which are endemic for the virus, and where association of HTLV-1 with rheumatological manifestation is not rare. We present here the case of a 58 year old man who presented with cytopenias, leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin and glomerulopathy, and was diagnosed as MDS (refractory anemia with excess blasts - RAEB 1). The patient also tested positive for HTLV-1 by PCR. After 8 monthly cycles of 5-azacytidine he achieved a complete hematologic remission. Following treatment, a second PCR for HTLV-1 was carried out and found to be negative. This is the first report in the literature of a HTLV-1-positive MDS with severe autoimmune manifestations, which was treated with the hypomethylating factor 5-azacitidine, achieving cytogenetic remission with concomitant resolution of the autoimmune manifestations, as well as HTLV-1-PCR negativity. HTLV-1-PCR negativity may be due to either immune mediated clearance of the virus, or a potential antiretroviral effect of 5-azacytidine. 5-azacytidine is known for its antiretroviral effects, although there is no proof of its activity against HTLV-1 infection in vivo.
HTLV-1; 5-azacytidine; Myelodysplastic syndrome; RAEB-1; Leukocytoclastic vasculitis; autoimmunity
AIM: To evaluate the haemopoietic function of bone marrow blood forming cells in human myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) by silver staining of nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs). METHODS: Nucleoli were investigated in bone marrow blast cells and in erythroid, granulocytic, and megakaryocytic cells from 12 haematologically healthy subjects, and from 26 patients with MDS, including 14 with refractory anaemia (RA), nine with RA with excess blasts (RAEB), and three with RAEB in transformation (RAEB-t). The investigation was performed before treatment using a one step silver staining method. In each case 50 to 100 blasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes, immature (pronormoblastic and basophilic normoblastic) and mature (polychromatic normoblastic) erythroid elements, and megakaryocytes were evaluated for the mean numbers of nucleoli and AgNORs per nucleus. Student's t test was used to compare the patient and control groups. Other statistical analyses were carried out by the computer assisted "HEMA" system. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the number of AgNORs in blasts, promyelocytes, immature erythroid elements, and megakaryocytes was decreased, whereas in myelocytes and polychromatic normoblasts it was similar. There was also a difference in the AgNOR scores in blood forming cells from patients with RAEB/ RAEB-t v RA. CONCLUSIONS: The loss of AgNOR sites in cellular series in MDS may result from the decrease of their proliferative potential with disease progression, intrinsic defects in maturation, and extensive apoptosis.
Refractory anemia with excess blasts subtype 1 (RAEB-1) is a subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome. It represents a heterogeneous group of oncohematological bone marrow diseases, which occur particularly in elderly patients. The aim of this proteomic study was to search for plasma protein alterations in RAEB-1 patients.
A total of 24 plasma samples were depleted of fourteen high-abundant plasma proteins, analyzed with 2D SDS-PAGE, compared, and statistically processed with Progenesis SameSpots software. Proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Retinol-binding protein 4 and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein were relatively quantified using mass spectrometry. 56 significantly differing spots were found; and in 52 spots 50 different proteins were successfully identified. Several plasma proteins that changed either in their level or modification have been described herein. The plasma level of retinol-binding protein 4 was decreased, while leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein was modified in RAEB-1 patients. Changes in the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, altered protein fragmentation, or fragments modifications were observed.
This study describes proteins, which change quantitatively or qualitatively in the plasma of RAEB-1 patients. It is the first report on qualitative changes in the leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein in the RAEB-1 subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome. Described changes in the composition or modification of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragments in RAEB-1 are in agreement with those changes observed in previous study of refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, and thus H4 fragments could be a marker specific for myelodysplastic syndrome.
Myelodysplastic syndrome; RAEB-1; Plasma proteome; Refractory anemia
Thirty three patients with refractory myelodysplastic anaemias (RMDA) with marrow hypocellularity were reviewed to see whether they differed from those with normocellular or hypercellular marrows. The median age was 65 years with a male:female ratio of 26:7. There were 11 cases of refractory anaemia (RA), four of refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), and 18 of refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB). All presented with peripheral cytopenias, mostly pancytopenia or bicytopenia dysplasia in one or more cell lineages, and a marrow biopsy specimen with less than normal numbers of nucleated cells for the age. Twenty four patients died, including 14 of the 16 who developed acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL). The results suggest that patients with hypocellular RMDA have a similar prognosis to those with normocellular or hypercellular marrows at presentation.
Data on myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are seldom collected by cancer registries and unbiased findings from population-based studies remain rare. We report detailed information on MDS in a well-defined French population in the period 1980-1990. The crude incidence rate was 3.2 per 100000 per year and no significant change in incidence was noted in the study period. The sex ratio was 1.9 and the male predominance was present in all age groups. We observed a rise in incidence after 60 years of age but no significant change in incidence of MDS as a whole was observed over the period studied. Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) was the most frequent subtype. Overall 5 year transformation rate of MDS was 31% (+/- 4%) but it was 100% in RAEB in transformation. The observed 5 year survival rate was 23% +/- 3% and the corresponding corrected rate was 33%. The prognosis of RAEB in transformation was worse than the prognosis of other subtypes (P < 0.01). Discrepancies with epidemiological data from other European countries are discussed.
Neutrophil function studies have been carried out in a series of 44 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In vitro tests of phagocytosis and killing of Candida guilliermondii and Staphylococcus aureus identified 13 patients with abnormal neutrophil function at presentation and a further 10 who developed abnormalities during the course of their disease. The incidence of defective function in the five disease categories in this series was: refractory cytopenia (RC) 8/17; refractory cytopenia with sideroblastic change (RC + SC) 5/8; acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia (AISA) 2/4; refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) 7/11; chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) 1/4. Eleven of 23 patients with defective neutrophil function experienced severe infective complications; in only three of these patients were neutrophil counts less than 1 X 10(9)/l and susceptibility to infection was considered to reflect, at least partially, qualitative neutrophil abnormalities. There was no correlation between absolute neutrophil count and defective function. Abnormal overall neutrophil microbicidal activity was equally associated with impaired and normal phagocytosis. Some patients with intracellular killing defects had reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and one had reduced hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) activity. In two patients, whose neutrophils showed markedly impaired candidacidal activity, levamisole corrected function when added in vitro at 10(-7) M and also when administered in therapeutic dosage. It is suggested that deranged function, probably reflecting abnormalities in maturation of the granulocyte series, occurs across the myelodysplastic spectrum and that several microbicidal mechanisms may be defective.
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) has a recognized association with solid organ tumors, but is relatively rare in hematological malignancies. We report a 67-year-old male who developed BP after being diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome and refractory anemia with excess of blast (RAEB). Skin biopsy elucidated sub-epidermal bulla using direct immunofluorescence, revealing linear C3 and IgG deposits along the basement membrane. His BP was recalcitrant to the conventional treatment and only responded to a combination of high dose oral prednisolone and azathioprine. The relative refractory nature of his condition and concurrent RAEB supports a paraneoplastic nature.
Anemia; refractory; with excess blast; Myelodysplastic syndromes; Paraneoplastic syndromes; Pemphigoid; bullous
Iron overload may represent an additional clinical problem in patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS), with recent data suggesting prognostic implications. Beyond red blood cells transfusions, dysregulation of hepcidin, the key iron hormone, may play a role, but studies until now have been hampered by technical problems. Using a recently validated assay, we measured serum hepcidin in 113 patients with different MDS subtypes. Mean hepcidin levels were consistently heterogeneous across different MDS subtypes, with the lowest levels in refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS, 1.43 nM) and the highest in refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB, 11.3 nM) or in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML, 10.04 nM) (P = 0.003 by ANOVA). MDS subtypes remained significant predictors of hepcidin in multivariate analyses adjusted for ferritin and transfusion history. Consistently with current knowledge on hepcidin action/regulation, RARS patients had the highest levels of toxic non-transferrin-bound-iron, while RAEB and CMML patients had substantial elevation of C-Reactive Protein as compared to other MDS subtypes, and showed lost of homeostatic regulation by iron. Growth differentiation factor 15 did not appear as a primary hepcidin regulator in this series. If confirmed, these results may help to calibrate future treatments with chelating agents and/or hepcidin modulators in MDS patients.
Clinical and pathological findings in three cats affected with a myelodysplastic disorder are presented. This hematological disorder resembles that of refractory anemia with excess of blasts as seen in man. The hematological profile in man is one of peripheral cytopenia in one or all of the marrow cell lines which occurs despite a normal to hypercellular bone marrow. Quantitatively, the marrow has a preponderance of blasts (up to 20%). Qualitative abnormalities consist of dysthrombopoiesis and/or dyserythropoiesis and/or dysgranulopoiesis. Myelodysplastic disorders in the cat are a form of marrow failure often associated with infection with feline leukemia virus. The use of the term refractory anemia with excess of blasts appears to be applicable to the cat and should be considered in evaluating dysplastic disorders of the feline bone marrow.
The CALGB evaluated oral topotecan administered at two schedules and doses for MDS.
Patients with previously untreated primary or therapy-related MDS were eligible. Patients with refractory anemia (RA), RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), or refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) were eligible only if red cell transfusion dependent, platelet count < 50,000/ul, or absolute neutrophil count < 1,000/ul with a recent infection requiring antibiotics.
Patients were randomized to receive oral topotecan either at a dose of 1.2 mg/m2 twice daily for 5 days (Arm A) or once daily for 10 days (Arm B), repeated every 21 days for at least 2 cycles. Responding patients continued until progression, or unacceptable toxicity, or two cycles beyond a complete response.
Ninety patients received treatment: 46 on Arm A and 44 on Arm B. Partial responses with improvement in all three cell lines occurred in 6 patients (7%) and hematologic improvement (in 1–2 cell lines) was seen in 21 patients (23%), for an overall response rate of 30%. Response duration was longer on Arm A (23 vs 14 months, p = 0.02). Seven out of fourteen patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia responded. There were 8 treatment-related deaths from infection (6) and bleeding (2). Diarrhea was the most frequent non-hematologic toxicity (Grade 3: 11%; Grade 4: 2%).
Oral topotecan in the dose and schedules evaluated in this trial demonstrated only a modest response rate with a troublesome toxicity profile in the treatment of MDS.
Refractory anemia and refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts are two myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subgroups linked with anemia. MDS is a group of heterogeneous oncohematological bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, blood cytopenias, and progression of the disease toward acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of this study was to search for plasma proteome changes in MDS patients with refractory anemia and refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts.
A total of 26 patient and healthy donor plasma samples were depleted of fourteen high-abundant plasma proteins, separated with 2D electrophoresis, and statistically processed with Progenesis SameSpots software. 55 significantly differing spots were observed and corresponded to 39 different proteins identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Changes in the fragments of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 protein were observed. Using mass spectrometry-based relative label-free quantification of tryptic peptides, there were differences in alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein peptides, while no differences were observed between the control and patient sample groups for retinol-binding protein 4 peptides.
This study describes plasma proteome changes associated with MDS patients with refractory anemia and refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts. Changes observed in the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragments were in agreement with our previous studies of other MDS subgroups: refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and refractory anemia with excess blasts subtype 1. Mass spectrometry-based relative quantification of retinol-binding protein 4 peptides has shown that there are differences in the modification of this protein between refractory anemia with excess blasts subtype 1 patients and MDS patients with refractory anemia and refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts. Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein seems to be a new potential MDS biomarker candidate.
Myelodysplastic syndrome; Refractory anemia; Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts; Proteome changes; Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein
Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cell and are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with normo- or hyper cellular bone marrow and cytopenia(s).The natural evolution of the disease consists of bone marrow failure (leading to infectious and hemorrhagic episodes or anemia related complications) and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Because MDSs display remarkable clinical, pathologic, and cytogenetic heterogeneity, with variable evolution and survival ranging from months to years, the predictive factors of prognosis have a key role in optimal therapeutic decisions.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze prognostic factors within a group of patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes. The prognostic factors taken into account are: the number and depth of cytopenias, percentage of bone marrow blasts, cytogenetic abnormalities, intensity of anemia and transfusional dependence. These factors are related to overall survival, leukemia free survival, bone marrow failure complications, leukemic evolution, treatment decisions and the response to treatment.
Material and method: The study group comprises of 119 patients diagnosed with de novo MDS, between 2008 and 2011 in the Hematology Department of Coltea Clinical Hospital. In this monitoring period the patients were stratified according to the FAB (French-American-British) morphologic classification.
Results: This study revealed that the outcomes of patients with MDS is influenced by the percentage of bone marrow blasts at diagnosis, the number and severity of hematopoietic lineage affected by cytopenia and by the presence of chromosomal abnormalities.
Conclusions: The studied prognostic factors have predictive value in terms of survival, leukemic transformation, treatment response and development of bone marrow failure-related characteristic complications.
IPSS; risk groups; complications
Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is an uncommon and localized extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. Most GS reported in large series were not associated with overt acute myelogenous leukemia. Gastric perforation occurred during prednisolone therapy in a 72-year-old Japanese male with a four-month history of a myelofibrosis-like state. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed for a suspected gastric ulcer perforation. Gastric histologic, immunohistochemical and cytochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration by sheets of myeloblasts and promyelocytes with scant or moderately abundant cytoplasm including a few eosinophilic myelocytes. Bone marrow study done in one month after the operation disclosed refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB). Leukemic transformation occurred two months later, and a subcutaneous tumor appeared on the forehead. The forehead tumor predominantly consisted of myeloblasts without evidence of maturation. Both the stomach and forehead tumors were examined immunohistochemically with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (LCA, L26, MT1, UCHL1, OPD4, LN-1, LN-2, LN-3, MB1, Leu-M1, PM) and polyclonal antibodies (lysozyme, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, S-100 protein, lactoferrin), as well as naphthol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase staining to investigate and characterize the reliable marks for GS, and the patient was diagnosed as GS. We found that gastric GS may occur in a myelofibrosis-like state followed by RAEB of myelodysplastic syndrome and that naphthol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase staining and immunohistochemical detection of MT1, lysozyme, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were the most reliable markers for confirming the diagnosis of GS.
We describe 70 children with myelodysplastic syndrome [refractory cytopenia (n=31) and refractory anemia with excess blasts (n=30) or blasts in transformation (n=9)] who received umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation with a single UCB unit and a myeloablative conditioning regimen. Approximately 20% of children had secondary myelodysplastic syndrome. Median age at transplantation was 7 years and the median follow-up, 3 years. The day-60 probability of neutrophil recovery was 76%; recovery was faster after transplantation of matched or 1-locus mismatched UCB, irradiation-containing conditioning regimen, cell dose >6 × 107/kg and monosomy 7. Risks of treatment failure (recurrent disease or death) were lower in patients with monosomy 7 and transplantations after 2001. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 50% for transplantations after 2001 compared to 27% for the earlier period (p=0.018). Transplantations after 2001 occurred within 6 months after diagnosis and used UCB units with higher cell dose. DFS was highest in patients with monosomy 7 (61%) compared to other karyotypes (30%), p=0.017. These data suggest transplantation of mismatched UCB graft is an acceptable alternative for children without a matched sibling or suitably matched unrelated adult donor.
myelodysplastic syndrome; cord blood transplantation; monosomy 7
Complete loss or deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 is frequent in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The putative gene(s) deleted and responsible for the pathogenesis of these poor prognosis hematological disorders remain controversial. This study is a comprehensive analysis of previously implicated and novel genes for epigenetic inactivation in AML and MDS. In 146 AML cases, methylation of CTNNA1 was frequent, and more common in AML patients with 5q deletion (31%) than those without 5q deletion (14%), while no methylation of other 5q genes was observed. In 31 MDS cases, CTNNA1 methylation was only found in high risk MDS (≥RAEB2), but not in low risk MDS (
del(5q); monosomy 5; CTNNA1; methylation; myelodysplastic syndrome; acute myelogenous leukemia; methylation; Progressive silencing; AML transformation
TNF-α mediated apoptosis of the hematopoietic cells has been thought to contribute to the ineffective hematopoiesis observed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The combination of pentoxifylline (P) and ciprofloxacin (C) has been shown to reduce the serum levels of TNF-α, and an earlier trial of P and C with dexamethasone (D) provided good palliation for patients with MDS. The purpose of this study is to assess the hematologic response to PCD therapy for patients suffering with MDS. 21 of 25 patients who completed at least of 12 weeks of treatment were evaluable for the treatment efficacy. At baseline, the patient's median age was 60 yr (range: 18-75 yr). The diagnoses according to WHO classification included: RA (n=5), RCMD (n=10), RARS (n=1), RCMD/RS (n=1), RAEB (3), and CMML (n=1). 11 patients (52%) had at least single lineage response. 3 patients (11%) showed improvement of triple lineage cytopenia. There were no differences in the response rates between the FAB subtypes. The median time to response was 4 weeks (range: 2-12 weeks), and it is interesting that 9 of 11 patients who had a response remained without relapse for a median of 177 days (range: 78-634 days). These preliminary results indicate that anti-cytokine therapy with PCD is an effective and well tolerated palliative treatment for patients with MDS.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Apoptosis
Immunosuppressive therapies have proven valuable in treating patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We evaluated the combination of equine anti-thymocyte globulin (ATGAM®) and the soluble TNF receptor etanercept (Enbrel®) in a phase II trial. Twenty-five patients with MDS (4-RA, 2-RARS, 15-RCMD, 3-RCMD-RS, 1-RAEB-1) in IPSS risk groups low (n=11) or intermediate-1 (n=14) were enrolled. All patients were platelet or red cell transfusion dependent. Nineteen patients completed therapy with ATG at 40 mg/kg/day for four consecutive days, followed by etanercept, 25 mg subcutaneous twice a week for 2 weeks, every month for 4 months. Thirteen patients had hematological improvement (HI)-erythroid, 2 HI-neutrophil, and 6 HI-platelet. One patient with a co-existing diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis had a complete remission. The overall response by intent to treat analysis among the 25 patients was 56% (95% CI 35–56%). Four patients did not complete their first course of therapy and one patient did not survive to the 8-week post-treatment assessment. Among patients who completed treatment and survived to the 8-week assessment, 70% had at least hematological responses lasting for at least 5 to more than 36 months. Thus, combination therapy with ATG and etanercept was active and safe in patients with MDS.
MDS; etanercept; ATG; immunosuppressives; hematopoiesis
Myelodysplastic syndrome is a closely related group of acquired bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective and dysplastic hematopoiesis. These clonal disorders frequently progress to acute leukemia. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia is characterized by an increase in abnormal eosinophils in the bone marrow, relatively good clinical course and inv (16) chromosomal abnormality. We experienced one case of refractory anemia with excess blasts which progressed to refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation and finally to acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia showing peculiar chromosomal abnormalities of der (1;7).
Results 1-25 (419134)