Aurora A and Aurora B have nonredundant functions during mitosis in chromosome segregation and anaphase microtubule dynamics.
We established a conditional deletion of Aurora A kinase (AurA) in Cdk1 analogue-sensitive DT40 cells to analyze AurA knockout phenotypes after Cdk1 activation. In the absence of AurA, cells form bipolar spindles but fail to properly align their chromosomes and exit mitosis with segregation errors. The resulting daughter cells exhibit a variety of phenotypes and are highly aneuploid. Aurora B kinase (AurB)–inhibited cells show a similar chromosome alignment problem and cytokinesis defects, resulting in binucleate daughter cells. Conversely, cells lacking AurA and AurB activity exit mitosis without anaphase, forming polyploid daughter cells with a single nucleus. Strikingly, inhibition of both AurA and AurB results in a failure to depolymerize spindle microtubules (MTs) in anaphase after Cdk1 inactivation. These results suggest an essential combined function of AurA and AurB in chromosome segregation and anaphase MT dynamics.
Aurora A is abnormally expressed and activated in cells lining cysts associated with polycystic kidney disease and can phosphorylate and inactivate polycystin 2.
Most studies of Aurora A (AurA) describe it as a mitotic centrosomal kinase. However, we and others have recently identified AurA functions as diverse as control of ciliary resorption, cell differentiation, and cell polarity control in interphase cells. In these activities, AurA is transiently activated by noncanonical signals, including Ca2+-dependent calmodulin binding. These and other observations suggested that AurA might be involved in pathological conditions, such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In this paper, we show that AurA is abundant in normal kidney tissue but is also abnormally expressed and activated in cells lining PKD-associated renal cysts. PKD arises from mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, encoding polycystins 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2). AurA binds, phosphorylates, and reduces the activity of PC2, a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel and, thus, limits the amplitude of Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. These and other findings suggest AurA may be a relevant new biomarker or target in the therapy of PKD.
Aurora kinases possess a conserved catalytic domain (CD) and a N-terminal domain (ND) that varies in size and sequence. We have previously reported that the N-terminal domain of AuroraA (AurA) participates in the localization of the kinase to the centrosome in interphase. AuroraB (AurB) is a chromosome passenger protein and its N-terminal domain is not necessary for its localization or function during mitosis. Using various combinations of GFP-AurA and AurB protein domains we show that in interphase, AurB N-terminal domain is required for nuclear localization in Xenopus XL2 cells. In human cells, however, we found both AurA and AurB kinases in the nucleus, AurA being mainly cytoplasmic and AurB mainly nuclear. Both proteins are actively excluded from the nucleus by a CRM1 dependent pathway. Interestingly, at a functional level, in interphase, every combination of Aurora kinase domains (ND-CD) rescues histone H3 Serine10 phosphorylation defect induced by AurB knockdown. This clearly indicates the presence of a functional AurA in the nucleus. Additionally, the chimera ND-AurA/CD-AurB was much more efficient than the ND-AurB/CD-AurA to rescue multinucleation also induced by AurB knockdown. This indicates that the catalytic domain of AurB is required to fulfill specific functions during mitosis that cannot be fulfilled by the catalytic domain of AurA, probably for localization reasons during mitosis.
Animals; Cell Nucleus; metabolism; Cells, Cultured; Centrosome; metabolism; Green Fluorescent Proteins; genetics; metabolism; HeLa Cells; Humans; Interphase; physiology; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; analysis; chemistry; metabolism; Transfection; Xenopus
Aurora A, which is known to be activated by autophosphorylation at Thr288, is also locally activated during centrosomal maturation by nucleophosmin-mediated phosphorylation at Ser89.
Aurora A (AurA) is a major mitotic protein kinase involved in centrosome maturation and spindle assembly. Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) is a pleiotropic nucleolar protein involved in a variety of cellular processes including centrosome maturation. In the present study, we report that NPM is a strong activator of AurA kinase activity. NPM and AurA coimmunoprecipitate and colocalize to centrosomes in G2 phase, where AurA becomes active. In contrast with previously characterized AurA activators, NPM does not trigger autophosphorylation of AurA on threonine 288. NPM induces phosphorylation of AurA on serine 89, and this phosphorylation is necessary for activation of AurA. These data were confirmed in vivo, as depletion of NPM by ribonucleic acid interference eliminated phosphorylation of CDC25B on S353 at the centrosome, indicating a local loss of AurA activity. Our data demonstrate that NPM is a strong activator of AurA kinase activity at the centrosome and support a novel mechanism of activation for AurA.
A human Aurora A kinase engineered to be specifically inhibited by the ATP analog 1-Na-PP1 allows dissection of a novel role for this protein in central spindle assembly.
Knowledge of Aurora A kinase functions is limited to premetaphase events, particularly centrosome maturation, G2/M transition, and mitotic spindle assembly. The involvement of Aurora A in events after metaphase has only been suggested because appropriate experiments are technically difficult. We report here the design of the first human Aurora A kinase (as-AurA) engineered by chemical genetics techniques. This kinase is fully functional biochemically and in cells, and is rapidly and specifically inhibited by the ATP analogue 1-Naphthyl-PP1 (1-Na-PP1). By treating cells exclusively expressing the as-AurA with 1-Na-PP1, we discovered that Aurora A is required for central spindle assembly in anaphase through phosphorylation of Ser 19 of P150Glued. This paper thus describes a new Aurora A function that takes place after the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and a new powerful tool to search for and study new Aurora A functions.
Oncogenic hyperactivation of the mitotic kinase Aurora-A (AurA) in cancer is associated with genomic instability. Increasing evidence indicates that AurA also regulates critical processes in normal interphase cells, but the source of such activity has been obscure. We report here that multiple stimuli causing release of Ca2+ from intracellular endoplasmic reticulum stores rapidly and transiently activate AurA, without requirement for second messengers. This activation is mediated by direct Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) binding to multiple motifs on AurA. On the basis of structure–function analysis and molecular modelling, we map two primary regions of CaM-AurA interaction to unfolded sequences in the AurA N- and C-termini. This unexpected mechanism for AurA activation provides a new context for evaluating the function of AurA and its inhibitors in normal and cancerous cells.
Aurora-A kinase localizes to centrosomes, is involved in the progression through mitosis and is overexpressed in certain cancers. Here, calcium is shown to induce Aurora-A auto-phosphorylation in a calmodulin-dependent manner, suggesting a novel role for Aurora-A in non-mitotic cells.
The serine/threonine kinase Aurora-A (Aur-A) is a proto-oncoprotein overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers. Overexpression of Aur-A is thought to be caused by gene amplification or mRNA overexpression. However, recent evidence revealed that the discrepancies between amplification of Aur-A and overexpression rates of Aur-A mRNA were observed in breast cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ovarian cancer. We found that aggressive head and neck cancers exhibited overexpression and stabilization of Aur-A protein without gene amplification or mRNA overexpression. Here we tested the hypothesis that aberration of the protein destruction system induces accumulation and consequently overexpression of Aur-A in cancer.
Aur-A protein was ubiquitinylated by APCCdh1 and consequently degraded when cells exited mitosis, and phosphorylation of Aur-A on Ser51 was observed during mitosis. Phosphorylation of Aur-A on Ser51 inhibited its APCCdh1-mediated ubiquitylation and consequent degradation. Interestingly, constitutive phosphorylation on Ser51 was observed in head and neck cancer cells with protein overexpression and stabilization. Indeed, phosphorylation on Ser51 was observed in head and neck cancer tissues with Aur-A protein overexpression. Moreover, an Aur-A Ser51 phospho-mimetic mutant displayed stabilization of protein during cell cycle progression and enhanced ability to cell transformation.
Broadly, this study identifies a new mode of Aur-A overexpression in cancer through phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of its proteolysis in addition to gene amplification and mRNA overexpression. We suggest that the inhibition of Aur-A phosphorylation can represent a novel way to decrease Aur-A levels in cancer therapy.
Aurora kinases (Aurora-A, B and C) belong to a family of conserved serine/threonine kinases which are key regulators of cell cycle progression. Aurora-A and Aurora-B are expressed in somatic cells and involved in cell cycle regulation while aurora-C is meiotic chromosome passenger protein. As Aurora kinase C is rarely expressed in normal somatic cells and has been found over expressed in many cancer lines. It is suggested that Aurora-C-T191D is not hyperactive mutant.
Aurora-C-T191D variant form was investigated and compared with wild type. The overexpression of Aurora-C-T191D was observed that it behaves like Aurora-C wild type (aurC-WT). Both Aurora-C-T191D and aurC-WT induce abnormal cell division resulting in centrosome amplification and multinucleation in transiently transfected cells as well as in stable cell lines. Similarly, Aurora-C-T191D and aurC-WT formed foci of colonies when grown on soft agar, indicating that a gain of Aurora-C activity is sufficient to transform cells. Furthermore, we reported that NIH-3 T3 stable cell lines overexpressing Aurora-C-T191D and its wild type partner induced tumour formation when injected into nude mice, demonstrating the oncogenic activity of enzymatically active Aurora kinase C. Interestingly enough tumour aggressiveness was positively correlated with the rate of kinase activity, making Aurora-C a potential anti-cancer therapeutic target.
These findings proved that Aurora C-T191D is not hyperactive but is constitutively active mutant.
Aurora-C; Oncogene; Centrosome; Multinucleation; Tumour
Although HEF1 has a well-defined role in integrin-dependent attachment signaling at focal adhesions, it relocalizes to the spindle asters at mitosis. We report here that overexpression of HEF1 causes increase in centrosome numbers and multipolar spindles, resembling defects induced by manipulation of the mitotic regulatory kinase Aurora A (AurA). We show that HEF1 associates with and controls activation of AurA. We also show HEF1 depletion causes centrosomal splitting, monoastral spindles, and hyperactivation of Nek2, implying additional action earlier in cell cycle. These results provide new insights into the role of an adhesion protein in coordination of cell attachment and division.
HEF1; centrosome; spindle; mitosis; Aurora-A; Nek2
The trichoplein–AurA pathway must suppress primary cilia assembly in order for cells to exit G1.
The primary cilium is an antenna-like organelle that modulates differentiation, sensory functions, and signal transduction. After cilia are disassembled at the G0/G1 transition, formation of cilia is strictly inhibited in proliferating cells. However, the mechanisms of this inhibition are unknown. In this paper, we show that trichoplein disappeared from the basal body in quiescent cells, whereas it localized to mother and daughter centrioles in proliferating cells. Exogenous expression of trichoplein inhibited primary cilia assembly in serum-starved cells, whereas ribonucleic acid interference–mediated depletion induced primary cilia assembly upon cultivation with serum. Trichoplein controlled Aurora A (AurA) activation at the centrioles predominantly in G1 phase. In vitro analyses confirmed that trichoplein bound and activated AurA directly. Using trichoplein mutants, we demonstrate that the suppression of primary cilia assembly by trichoplein required its ability not only to localize to centrioles but also to bind and activate AurA. Trichoplein or AurA knockdown also induced G0/G1 arrest, but this phenotype was reversed when cilia formation was prevented by simultaneous knockdown of IFT-20. These data suggest that the trichoplein–AurA pathway is required for G1 progression through a key role in the continuous suppression of primary cilia assembly.
Aurora-A kinase (Aur-A), a member of a family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases, is known to be amplified in epithelial malignancies. In this study, we focused our investigation on Aur-A expression and its prognostic significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Immunohistochemical staining for Aur-A was performed on the paraffin sections of 208 patients with NPC. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with respect to clinicopathological variables, overall survival and disease-free survival. An immunohistochemical analysis showed that Aur-A was highly expressed in 132 (63.5%) of the 208 NPC tissues examined. Aur-A expression was significantly correlated with T classification (P=0.012), clinical stage (P=0.003) and skull base invasion (P=0.003). Statistical analysis showed that Aur-A expression was inversely correlated with the 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates of NPC patients. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that Aur-A expression was an independent prognostic indicator for patient survival. More significantly, Aur-A was found to be a marker for poor survival, which was mainly attributed to its high expression in the subgroup of T4 tumor classification with aggressive local invasion. These results indicated that Aur-A expression is inversely correlated with survival and directly correlated with the malignant status of NPC. Therefore, Aur-A may serve as a potential biological marker for poor prognosis in the T4 subgroup of patients.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Aurora-A; prognosis; T4 subgroup patients
Aurora B (Aur-B) plays multiple roles in mitosis, of which the best known are to ensure bi-orientation of sister chromatids by destabilizing incorrectly attached kinetochore microtubules and to participate in cytokinesis. Studies in Xenopus egg extracts, however, have indicated that Aur-B and the chromosome passenger complex play an important role in stabilizing chromosome-associated spindle microtubules. Aur-B stabilizes spindle microtubules in the egg extracts by inhibiting the catastrophe kinesin MCAK. Whether or not Aur-B plays a similar role in intact oocytes remains unknown. Here we have employed a dominant-negative Aur-B mutant (Aur-B122R, in which the ATP-binding lysine122 is replaced with arginine) to investigate the function of Aur-B in spindle assembly in Xenopus oocytes undergoing meiosis. Overexpression of Aur-B122R results in short bipolar spindles or monopolar spindles, with higher concentrations of Aur-B122R producing mostly the latter. Simultaneous inhibition of MCAK translation in oocytes overexpressing Aur-B122R results in suppression of monopolar phenotype, suggesting that Aur-B regulates spindle bipolarity by inhibiting MCAK. Furthermore, recombinant MCAK-4A protein, which lacks all four Aur-B phosphoryaltion sites and is therefore insensitive to Aur-B inhibition but not wild-type MCAK, recapitulated the monopolar phenotype in the oocytes. These results suggest that in vertebrate oocytes that lack centrosomes, one major function of Aur-B is to stabilize chromosome-associated spindle microtubules to ensure spindle bipolarity.
Aur-B; MCAK; Xenopus; meiosis; monopolar spindle
Aurora kinase ensures accurate chromosome segregation during cell cycle, maintaining genetic integrity in cell division. VX-680, a small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor, interferes with mitotic entry and formation of bipolar spindles. Here, we evaluated VX-680 as a potential agent for treatment of all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA)-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in vitro.
CD11b expression was utilized to assess cell differentiation by flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence staining was conducted to analyze formation of cell monopolar spindle. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Sub-G1 population and Annexin V/PI staining were used to measure cell apoptosis. Hoechst 33342 staining was applied for identifying morphological changes in nucleus of apoptotic cell. Aurora-A (Aur-A) activation and the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis were detected by Western blot. JC-1 probe was employed to measure mitochondrial depolarization.
VX-680 inhibited Aur-A by reducing autophosphorylation at the activation site, Thr288, accompanied by producing monopolar mitotic spindles in APL cell line NB4-R2 that was resistant to ATRA. In addition, we found that VX-680 inhibited cell proliferation as assessed by MTT assay. Flow cytometry showed that VX-680 led to apoptotic cell death in both dose- and time-dependent manners by either Sub-G1 or Annexin V/PI analysis. Hoechst 33342 staining represented typical apoptotic cells with nuclear fragmentation in VX-680 treated cells. Importantly, VX-680 inhibition of Aurora kinase suppressed Akt-1 activation and induced mitochondrial depolarization, which eventually resulted in apoptosis by activation of caspase pathway, as indicated by increasing proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) in NB4-R2 cells.
Our study suggested potential clinical use of mitotic Aurora kinase inhibitor in targeting ATRA-resistant leukemic cells.
Disruption of the function of the A-type Aurora kinase of Drosophila by mutation or RNAi leads to a reduction in the length of astral microtubules in syncytial embryos, larval neuroblasts, and cultured S2 cells. In neuroblasts, it can also lead to loss of an organized centrosome and its associated aster from one of the spindle poles, whereas the centrosome at the other pole has multiple centrioles. When centrosomes are present at the poles of aurA mutants or aurA RNAi spindles, they retain many antigens but are missing the Drosophila counterpart of mammalian transforming acidic coiled coil (TACC) proteins, D-TACC. We show that a subpopulation of the total Aurora A is present in a complex with D-TACC, which is a substrate for the kinase. We propose that one of the functions of Aurora A kinase is to direct centrosomal organization such that D-TACC complexed to the MSPS/XMAP215 microtubule-associated protein may be recruited, and thus modulate the behavior of astral microtubules.
Aurora A; D-TACC; mitosis; centrosomes; microtubule
The mammalian cilium protrudes from the apical/lumenal surface of polarized cells, and acts as a sensor of environmental cues. Numerous developmental disorders and pathological conditions have been shown to arise from defects in cilia-associated signaling proteins. Despite mounting evidence that cilia are essential sites for coordination of cell signaling, little is known about the cellular mechanisms controlling their formation and disassembly. Here we show that define interactions between the pro-metastatic scaffolding protein HEF1/Cas-L/NEDD9 and the oncogenic Aurora A (AurA) kinase at the basal body of cilia causes phosphorylation and activation of HDAC6, a tubulin deacetylase, promoting ciliary disassembly. We show that this pathway is both necessary and sufficient for ciliary resorption, and constitutes an unexpected non-mitotic activity of AurA in vertebrates. Moreover, we demonstrate that small molecule inhibitors of AurA and HDAC6 selectively stabilize cilia from regulated resorption cues, suggesting a novel mode of action for these clinical agents.
We investigated the effects of targeting the mitotic regulators aurora kinase A and B in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aurora protein expression levels in pediatric ALL and AML patient samples were determined by western blot and reverse phase protein array. Both kinases were overexpressed in ALL and AML patients (P<0.0002), especially in E2A-PBX1-translocated ALL cases (P<0.002), compared with normal bone-marrow mononuclear cells. Aurora kinase expression was silenced in leukemic cell lines using short hairpin RNAs and locked nucleic acid-based mRNA antagonists. Aurora B knockdown resulted in proliferation arrest and apoptosis, whereas aurora A knockdown caused no or only minor growth delay. Most tested cell lines were highly sensitive to the AURKB-selective inhibitor barasertib–hydroxyquinazoline–pyrazol–anilide (AZD1152-HQPA) in the nanomolar range, as tested with an MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay. But most importantly, primary ALL cells with a high aurora B protein expression, especially E2A-PBX1-positive cases, were sensitive as well. In adult AML early clinical trials, clear responses are observed with barasertib. Here we show that inhibition of aurora B, more than aurora A, has an antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effect on acute leukemia cells, indicating that particularly targeting aurora B may offer a new strategy to treat pediatric ALL and AML.
aurora kinase; pediatric acute leukemia; AZD1152; LNA-oligonucleotide; gene silencing; targeted therapy
This study identifies zwint-1 as a novel substrate for AurB during mitosis. Phosphorylation is required for outer kinetochore assembly during prometaphase. However, zwint-1 dephosphorylation is required at metaphase for checkpoint silencing.
Aurora B (AurB) is a mitotic kinase responsible for multiple aspects of mitotic progression, including assembly of the outer kinetochore. Cytoplasmic dynein is an abundant kinetochore protein whose recruitment to kinetochores requires phosphorylation. To assess whether AurB regulates recruitment of dynein to kinetochores, we inhibited AurB using ZM447439 or a kinase-dead AurB construct. Inhibition of AurB reduced accumulation of dynein at kinetochores substantially; however, this reflected a loss of dynein-associated proteins rather than a defect in dynein phosphorylation. We determined that AurB inhibition affected recruitment of the ROD, ZW10, zwilch (RZZ) complex to kinetochores but not zwint-1 or more-proximal kinetochore proteins. AurB phosphorylated zwint-1 but not ZW10 in vitro, and three novel phosphorylation sites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Expression of a triple-Ala zwint-1 mutant blocked kinetochore assembly of RZZ-dependent proteins and induced defects in chromosome movement during prometaphase. Expression of a triple-Glu zwint-1 mutant rendered cells resistant to AurB inhibition during prometaphase. However, cells expressing the triple-Glu mutant failed to satisfy the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) at metaphase because poleward streaming of dynein/dynactin/RZZ was inhibited. These studies identify zwint-1 as a novel AurB substrate required for kinetochore assembly and for proper SAC silencing at metaphase.
Previous studies have shown that the gold compounds, gold sodium thiomalate (GST) and auranofin (AUR), which are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inhibit functional activities of a variety of cells, but the biochemical basis of their effect is unknown. In the current studies, human T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production by Jurkat cells were inhibited by GST or AUR at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Because it has been documented that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in T cell activation, the capacity of gold compounds to inhibit PKC partially purified from Jurkat cells was assayed in vitro. GST was found to inhibit PKC in a dose-dependent manner, but AUR caused no significant inhibition of PKC at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The inhibitory effect of GST on PKC was abolished by 2-mercaptoethanol. To investigate the effect of GST on the regulation of PKC in vivo, the levels of PKC activity in Jurkat cells were examined. Cytosolic PKC activity decreased slowly in a concentration- and time-dependent manner as a result of incubation of Jurkat cells with GST. To ascertain whether GST inhibited PKC translocation and down-regulation, PKC activities associated with the membrane and cystosolic fractions were evaluated after phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation of GST incubated Jurkat cells. Translocation of PKC was markedly inhibited by pretreatment of Jurkat cells with GST for 3 d, but the capacity of PMA to down-regulate PKC activity in Jurkat cells was not altered by GST preincubation. The functional impact of GST-mediated downregulation of PKC in Jurkat cells was examined by analyzing PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of CD3. Although GST preincubated Jurkat cells exhibited an increased density of CD3, PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of the gamma chain of CD3 was markedly inhibited. Specificity for the inhibitory effect of GST on PKC was suggested by the finding that GST did not alter the mitogen-induced increases in inositol trisphosphate levels in Jurkat cells. Finally, the mechanism of the GST-induced inhibition of PKC was examined in detail, using purified PKC subspecies from rat brain. GST inhibited type II PKC more effectively than type III PKC, and also inhibited the enzymatic activity of the isolated catalytic fragment of PKC. The inhibitory effect of GST on PKC activity could not be explained by competition with phospholipid or nonspecific interference with the substrate. These data suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of GST may result from its capacity to inhibit PKC activity.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) acquires an unfavorable prognosis, emerging as a major challenge for the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, 122 TNBC patients were subjected to analysis of Aurora-A (Aur-A) expression and survival prognosis. We found that Aur-A high expression was positively associated with initial clinical stage (P = 0.025), the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P = 0.001), and the recurrence rate of TNBC patients (P<0.001). In TNBC patients with Aur-A high expression, the risk of distant recurrence peaked at the first 3 years and declined rapidly thereafter, whereas patients with Aur-A low expression showed a relatively constant risk of recurrence during the entire follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that overexpression of Aur-A predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.002) and progression-free survival (P = 0.012) in TNBC. Furthermore, overexpression of Aur-A, associated with high Ki-67, predicted an inferior prognosis compared with low expression of both Aur-A and Ki-67. Importantly, we further found that Aur-A was overexpressed in TNBC cells, and inhibition of this kinase inhibited cell proliferation and prevented cell migration in TNBC. Our findings demonstrated that Aur-A was a potential therapeutic target for TNBC and inhibition of Aur-A kinase was a promising regimen for TNBC cancer therapy.
Serine/threonine kinase Aurora A is essential for regulating mammalian cell division and is overexpressed in many types of human cancer. However, the role of Aurora A in chemoresistance of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is not well understood. Using the KCL-22 cell culture model we have recently developed for studying mechanisms of CML acquired resistance, we found that Aurora A expression was partially reduced in these cells upon treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, which accompanied the acquisition of BCR-ABL mutation for imatinib resistance. Gene knockdown of BCR-ABL also reduced Aurora A expression, and conversely, Aurora A expression increased in hematopoietic progenitor cells after BCR-ABL expression. Inhibition of Aurora A induced apoptosis of CML cells with or without T315I BCR-ABL mutation and suppressed CML cell growth. Inhibition of Aurora A by gene knockdown or a highly specific small molecule inhibitor sensitized CML cells to imatinib treatment and effectively blocked acquisition of BCR-ABL mutations and KCL-22 cell relapse on imatinib, nilotinib or dasatinib. Our results show that Aurora A plays an important role for facilitating acquisition of BCR-ABL mutation and acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the culture model and suggest that inhibition of Aurora A may provide an alternative strategy to improve CML treatment to overcome resistance.
This study analyzed the type of acute urinary retention (AUR) and evaluated the treatments used, including trial without catheter (TWOC).
Materials and Methods
This study was based on 299 patients who were treated for AUR from January 2007 to August 2009. The patients were classified into the spontaneous AUR group (group S) and the precipitated AUR group (group P), in which AUR was consecutive to triggering events. The treatment modalities including TWOC, the success rate of TWOC, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, the volume of the prostate, and the drained volume at catheterization were analyzed in each group.
Of 299 men with AUR, 160 (54%) had spontaneous AUR and 139 (46%) had precipitated AUR. Compared with group P, patients in group S were more likely to be treated by surgery, either immediately (16.9% vs. 3.6%, p<0.05) or after prolonged catheterization (42.2% vs. 29.1%, p<0.05). The success rate of TWOC was lower in men of older ages (≥70 years) and in those with enlarged prostates (≥50 ml), higher PSA levels (≥3 ng/ml), and a large drained volume at catheterization (≥1,000 ml).
In this group of AUR patients, there were slightly more patients with spontaneous AUR (54%) than with precipitated AUR (46%). The success rate of TWOC was more than 70% regardless of the type of AUR. Although TWOC is recommended primarily in the treatment of AUR, early surgical intervention should be considered if the patient has an enlarged prostate (≥50 ml) or a large drained volume at catheterization (≥1,000 ml).
Prostatic hyperplasia; Urinary catheterization; Urinary retention
We determined the effects of vorinostat [suberoylanalide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] and/or MK-0457 (VX-680), an Aurora kinase inhibitor on the cultured human (HL-60, OCI-AML3 and K562) and primary acute (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as well as on the murine pro-B BaF3 cells with ectopic expression of the unmutated and mutant forms of Bcr-Abl.
Following exposure to MK-047 and/or vorinostat, apoptosis, loss of viability, as well as activity and levels of Aurora kinase and Bcr-Abl proteins were determined.
Treatment with MK-0457 decreased phosphorylation of Aurora kinase substrates including serine (S)10 on histone H3 and survivin, as well as led to aberrant mitosis, DNA endoreduplication and apoptosis of the cultured human acute leukemia HL-60, OCI-AML3 and K562 cells. Combined treatment with vorinostat and MK-0457 resulted in greater attenuation of Aurora and Bcr-Abl (in K562) kinase activity and levels as well as synergistically induced apoptosis of OCI-AML3, HL-60 and K562 cells. MK-0457 plus vorinostat also induced synergistic apoptosis of BaF3 cells with ectopic overexpression of wild-type or mutant Bcr-Abl. Finally, co-treatment with MK-0457 and vorinostat induced more loss of viability of primary AML and imatinib-refractory CML than treatment with either agent alone, but exhibited minimal toxicity to normal CD34+ progenitor cells.
Combined in vitro treatment with MK-0457 and vorinostat is highly active against cultured and primary leukemia cells. These findings merit in vivo testing of the combination against human AML and CML cells, especially against imatinib mesylate-resistant Bcr-AblT315I expressing CML cells.
Aurora kinase; MK-0457; vorinostat
Acute urinary retention (AUR) is one of the most significant, uncomfortable and inconvenient event in the natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The immediate treatment is bladder decompression using urethral or suprapubic catheterization. Several factors have been identified that are associated with or precipitate AUR. It is useful to classify AUR as BPH-related or not, than spontaneous or precipitated when the initial management is considered. Use of prophylactic 5 a-reductase inhibitors can prevent AUR in men with BPH having moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms and large prostate size. Alpha blockers can prevent AUR in symptomatic BPH patients and also facilitate catheter removal following episodes of spontaneous AUR. Anticholinergics can be safely combined with alpha blockers in symptomatic BPH patients without increasing the risk of AUR. Surgical treatment carries a higher rate of morbidity and mortality in men presenting with AUR compared to those presenting with symptoms alone. Urgent prostatic surgery after AUR is associated with greater morbidity and mortality than delayed prostatectomy. Alpha blockers mainly help to delay the surgery and may avoid surgery altogether in a subgroup of patients. TURP remains the “gold standard” if a trial without catheter fails. Alternative minimally invasive procedures can be considered in poor-risk patients, but its value is yet to be established.
Acute urinary retention; benign prostatic hyperplasia
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a life-threatening stem cell disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and accumulation of myeloblasts. Using an advanced RNAi screen-approach in an AML mouse model we have recently identified the epigenetic ‘reader’ BRD4 as a promising target in AML. In the current study, we asked whether inhibition of BRD4 by a small-molecule inhibitor, JQ1, leads to growth-inhibition and apoptosis in primary human AML stem- and progenitor cells. Primary cell samples were obtained from 37 patients with freshly diagnosed AML (n=23) or refractory AML (n=14). BRD4 was found to be expressed at the mRNA and protein level in unfractionated AML cells as well as in highly enriched CD34+/CD38− and CD34+/CD38+ stem- and progenitor cells in all patients examined. In unfractionated leukemic cells, submicromolar concentrations of JQ1 induced major growth-inhibitory effects (IC50 0.05-0.5 μM) in most samples, including cells derived from relapsed or refractory patients. In addition, JQ1 was found to induce apoptosis in CD34+/CD38− and CD34+/CD38+ stem- and progenitor cells in all donors examined as evidenced by combined surface/Annexin-V staining. Moreover, we were able to show that JQ1 synergizes with ARA-C in inducing growth inhibition in AML cells. Together, the BRD4-targeting drug JQ1 exerts major anti-leukemic effects in a broad range of human AML subtypes, including relapsed and refractory patients and all relevant stem- and progenitor cell compartments, including CD34+/CD38− and CD34+/CD38+ AML cells. These results characterize BRD4-inhibition as a promising new therapeutic approach in AML which should be further investigated in clinical trials.
AML; leukemic stem cells; BRD4; JQ1; targeted therapy
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disorder with aberrant regulation of a variety of signal pathways. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of two or even more deregulated signal transduction pathways is needed to overcome drug resistance. Previously, it was reported that SNS-032, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is an effective agent for treatment of AML; however, the molecular mechanisms of SNS-032-induced cell death of AML cells are not yet fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effects in vitro of SNS-032, used alone and in combination with an Akt inhibitor perifosine, against AML cells and to identify the mechanism involved.
SNS-032 significantly induced cytotoxicity in human AML cell lines and blasts from patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed AML. However, Kasumi-1 cells and some of leukemic samples (14.9%) from AML patients were resistant to SNS-032-mediated cell death. Western blot analysis showed that SNS-032 strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on Ser 2448 and Ser2481, and that removal of SNS-032 resulted in partial recovery of cell death and reactivation of phosphorylation of mTOR. Moreover, exogenous insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) did not reverse SNS-032-induced cell growth inhibition and downregualtion of phosphor-mTOR at Ser2448 and Ser2481 although slight suppression of IGF-1R expression was triggered by the agent. Furthermore, SNS-032 at a lower concentration (60–80 nM) enhanced AML cell cytotoxicity induced by perifosine, an Akt inhibitor. Importantly, SNS-032 treatment reduced colony formation ability of AML cells, which was significantly increased when two agents were combined. This combination therapy led to almost complete inhibition of Akt activity.
We conclude that SNS-032 might directly target mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)/mTORC2. Our results further provide a rationale for combining SNS-032 with perifosine for the treatment of AML.
SNS-032; mTORC1; mTORC2; Cyclin-dependent kinases; Perifosine; Akt; Acute myeloid leukemia