OBJECTIVE— Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) contribute to metabolic homeostasis in part via gene regulation. This study's objective was to identify novel LCFA target genes in human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— In vitro methods included culture and treatment of human myotubes and C2C12 cells, gene array analysis, real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference. Human subjects (two cohorts) were characterized by oral glucose tolerance test, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, and standard blood analyses (glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and plasma lipids).
RESULTS— We show here that ANGPTL4 (encoding angiopoietin-like protein 4) represents a prominent LCFA-responsive gene in human myotubes. LCFA activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, but not PPAR-α or -γ, and pharmacological activation of PPAR-δ markedly induced ANGPTL4 production and secretion. In C2C12 myocytes, knockdown of PPARD, but not of PPARG, blocked LCFA-mediated ANGPTL4 induction, and LCFA treatment resulted in PPAR-δ recruitment to the ANGPTL4 gene. In addition, pharmacological PPAR-δ activation induced LIPE (encoding hormone-sensitive lipase), and this response crucially depended on ANGPTL4, as revealed by ANGPTL4 knockdown. In a human cohort of 108 thoroughly phenotyped subjects, plasma ANGPTL4 positively correlated with fasting nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.0036) and adipose tissue lipolysis (P = 0.0012). Moreover, in 38 myotube donors, plasma ANGPTL4 levels and adipose tissue lipolysis in vivo were reflected by basal myotube ANGPTL4 expression in vitro (P = 0.02, both).
CONCLUSIONS— ANGPTL4 is produced by human myotubes in response to LCFA via PPAR-δ, and muscle-derived ANGPTL4 seems to be of systemic relevance in humans.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins and makes fatty acids available for tissue metabolism. The activity of the enzyme is modulated in a tissue specific manner by interaction with other proteins. We have studied how feeding/fasting and some related perturbations affect the expression, in rat adipose tissue, of three such proteins, LMF1, an ER protein necessary for folding of LPL into its active dimeric form, the endogenous LPL inhibitor ANGPTL4, and GPIHBP1, that transfers LPL across the endothelium.
The system underwent moderate circadian oscillations, for LPL in phase with food intake, for ANGPTL4 and GPIHBP1 in the opposite direction. Studies with cycloheximide showed that whereas LPL protein turns over rapidly, ANGPTL4 protein turns over more slowly. Studies with the transcription blocker Actinomycin D showed that transcripts for ANGPTL4 and GPIHBP1, but not LMF1 or LPL, turn over rapidly. When food was withdrawn the expression of ANGPTL4 and GPIHBP1 increased rapidly, and LPL activity decreased. On re-feeding and after injection of insulin the expression of ANGPTL4 and GPIHBP1 decreased rapidly, and LPL activity increased. In ANGPTL4−/− mice adipose tissue LPL activity did not show these responses. In old, obese rats that showed signs of insulin resistance, the responses of ANGPTL4 and GPIHBP1 mRNA and of LPL activity were severely blunted (at 26 weeks of age) or almost abolished (at 52 weeks of age).
This study demonstrates directly that ANGPTL4 is necessary for rapid modulation of LPL activity in adipose tissue. ANGPTL4 message levels responded very rapidly to changes in the nutritional state. LPL activity always changed in the opposite direction. This did not happen in Angptl4−/− mice. GPIHBP1 message levels also changed rapidly and in the same direction as ANGPTL4, i.e. increased on fasting when LPL activity decreased. This was unexpected because GPIHBP1 is known to stabilize LPL. The plasticity of the LPL system is severely blunted or completely lost in insulin resistant rats.
Gene expression; Insulin; Gene inactivation; Cycloheximide; Actinomycin D; Transcription; Translation; Posttranslational
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key regulator of circulating triglyceride rich lipoprotein hydrolysis. In brain LPL regulates appetite and energy expenditure. Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) is a secreted protein that inhibits LPL activity and, thereby, triglyceride metabolism, but the impact of Angptl4 on central lipid metabolism is unknown.
We induced type 1 diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) in whole-body Angptl4 knockout mice (Angptl4-/-) and their wildtype littermates to study the role of Angptl4 in central lipid metabolism.
In type 1 (streptozotocin, STZ) and type 2 (ob/ob) diabetic mice, there is a ~2-fold increase of Angptl4 in the hypothalamus and skeletal muscle. Intracerebroventricular insulin injection into STZ mice at levels which have no effect on plasma glucose restores Angptl4 expression in hypothalamus. Isolation of cells from the brain reveals that Angptl4 is produced in glia, whereas LPL is present in both glia and neurons. Consistent with the in vivo experiment, in vitro insulin treatment of glial cells causes a 50% reduction of Angptl4 and significantly increases LPL activity with no change in LPL expression. In Angptl4-/- mice, LPL activity in skeletal muscle is increased 3-fold, and this is further increased by STZ-induced diabetes. By contrast, Angptl4-/- mice show no significant difference in LPL activity in hypothalamus or brain independent of diabetic and nutritional status.
Thus, Angptl4 in brain is produced in glia and regulated by insulin. However, in contrast to the periphery, central Angptl4 does not regulate LPL activity, but appears to participate in the metabolic crosstalk between glia and neurons.
Angptl4; Lipid metabolism; Lipoprotein lipase; AgRP, agouti-related protein; Angptl4, angiopoietin-like 4; ARC, arcuate nucleus; CART, cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated transcript; CNS, central nervous system; FFA, free fatty acid; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; NPY, neuropeptide-Y; POMC, pro-opiomelanocortin; STZ, streptozotocin; TG, triglyceride
Homozygosity of loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like protein 3)-gene results in FHBL2 (familial combined hypolipidaemia, OMIM #605019) characterized by the reduction of all major plasma lipoprotein classes, which includes VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and low circulating NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids), glucose and insulin levels. Thus complete lack of ANGPTL3 in humans not only affects lipid metabolism, but also affects whole-body insulin and glucose balance. We used wild-type and ANGPTL3-silenced IHHs (human immortalized hepatocytes) to investigate the effect of ANGPTL3 silencing on hepatocyte-specific VLDL secretion and glucose uptake. We demonstrate that both insulin and PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) agonist rosiglitazone down-regulate the secretion of ANGPTL3 and TAG (triacylglycerol)-enriched VLDL1-type particles in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of ANGPTL3 improved glucose uptake in hepatocytes by 20–50% and influenced down-regulation of gluconeogenic genes, suggesting that silencing of ANGPTL3 improves insulin sensitivity. We further show that ANGPTL3-silenced cells display a more pronounced shift from the secretion of TAG-enriched VLDL1-type particles to secretion of lipid poor VLDL2-type particles during insulin stimulation. These data suggest liver-specific mechanisms involved in the reported insulin-sensitive phenotype of ANGPTL3-deficient humans, featuring lower plasma insulin and glucose levels.
We show that silencing of ANGPTL3 in human hepatocytes in addition to reducing secretion of TAG-enriched VLDL upon insulin stimulation enhances glucose uptake and improves insulin response. Thus, our data provide insight into the lower insulin and glucose levels observed in humans with ANGPTL3 loss-of-function mutation.
ANGPTL3 silencing; hypolipidaemia; insulin signalling; liver; rosiglitazone; VLDL; ANGPTL, angiopoietin-like protein; CCD, coiled coil domain; FHBL2, familial combined hypolipidaemia; GLUT2, glucose transporter 2; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IHH, immortalized human hepatocyte; IR, insulin receptor; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; NEFA, non-esterified fatty acid; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; PGC1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1-α; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PL, phospholipid; PPAR, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor; QPCR, quantitative PCR; shRNA, small hairpin RNA; TAG, triacylglycerol; TRB3, tribbles homologue 3; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein
The relative activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in different tissues controls the
partitioning of lipoprotein-derived fatty acids between sites of fat storage (adipose
tissue) and oxidation (heart and skeletal muscle). Here we used a reverse genetic
strategy to test the hypothesis that 4 angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL3, -4, -5,
and -6) play key roles in triglyceride (TG) metabolism in humans. We re-sequenced the
coding regions of the genes encoding these proteins and identified multiple rare
nonsynonymous (NS) sequence variations that were associated with low plasma TG levels
but not with other metabolic phenotypes. Functional studies revealed that all mutant
alleles of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 that were associated
with low plasma TG levels interfered either with the synthesis or secretion of the
protein or with the ability of the ANGPTL protein to inhibit LPL. A total of 1% of
the Dallas Heart Study population and 4% of those participants with a plasma TG in
the lowest quartile had a rare loss-of-function mutation in ANGPTL3,
ANGPTL4, or ANGPTL5. Thus, ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and
ANGPTL5, but not ANGPTL6, play nonredundant roles in TG metabolism, and multiple
alleles at these loci cumulatively contribute to variability in plasma TG levels in
Cardiac hypertrophy is characterised by an imbalance between lipid uptake and fatty acid β-oxidation leading to an accumulation of lipids, particularly triacylglycerol (TAG). It is unclear whether uptake mechanisms such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) can be attenuated to diminish this uptake. Rats were cold acclimated to induce cardiac hypertrophy and increase cardiac LPL. Lipid uptake and metabolism were altered by feeding a ‘Western-style’ high fat diet (WSD) or feeding oxfenicine (2 g/L) in the drinking water. Diastolic stiffness (increased volume change/unit pressure change) was induced in hypertrophied hearts for rats fed WSD (P < 0.05) or WSD + oxfenicine (P < 0.01), although absolute performance of cardiac muscle, estimated from stress–strain calculations was unchanged. Cold acclimation increased cardiac endothelial LPL (P < 0.05) but this was diminished following oxfenicine. Following WSD LPL was further decreased below WSD-fed control hearts (P < 0.05) with no further decrease by oxfenicine supplementation. A negative correlation was noted between plasma TAG and endothelial LPL (correlation coefficient = − 0.654; P < 0.001) but not cardiac TAG concentration. Transcript levels of angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL4) were increased 6-fold by WSD (P < 0.05) and increased 15-fold following WSD + oxfenicine (P < 0.001). For CA-hearts fed WSD or WSD + oxfenicine ANGPTL4 mRNA levels were preserved at chow-fed levels. VLDLR protein levels were increased 10-fold (P < 0.01) by CA. ANGPTL4 protein levels were increased 2-fold (P < 0.05) by WSD, but restored following oxfenicine. For CA-hearts WSD increased ANGPTL4 protein levels 3-fold (P < 0.01) with WSD + oxfenicine increasing ANGPTL4 protein 4-fold (P < 0.01). These data suggest that endothelial LPL levels in the heart are altered to maintain FA flux and may exploit ANGPTL4.
► Cardiac endothelial LPL inversely correlates with plasma triacylglycerol. ► Heart TAG levels do not relate to tissue LPL levels. ► Cardiac ANGPTL4 protein levels increased in response to high plasma lipids. ► LPL in the heart may be controlled to maintain fatty acid flux.
Lipoprotein lipase; Very-low-density lipoprotein; Cardiac hypertrophy; ANGPTL4
Angiopoietin‐like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) may regulate lipoprotein lipase‐dependent plasma clearance of triacylglycerol from skeletal muscle during exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the importance of muscle in regulating ANGPTL4 in response to exercise. We sampled muscle biopsies and serum before, immediately after, and 2 h after 45 min of ergometer cycling. Sampling was done before and after a 12‐week training intervention in controls and dysglycemic subjects. Moreover, fat biopsies were taken before and after the training intervention. The regulation of ANGPTL4 was also investigated in several tissues of exercising mice, and in cultured myotubes. ANGPTL4 levels in serum and expression in muscle were highest 2 h after exercise in both groups. Whereas ANGPTL4 was higher in muscle of exercising controls as compared to dysglycemic subjects, the opposite was observed in serum. In exercising mice, Angptl4 mRNA showed both higher basal expression and induction in liver compared to muscle. Angptl4 mRNA was much higher in adipose tissue than muscle and was also induced by exercise. We observed two mRNA isoforms of ANGPTL4 in muscle and fat in humans. Both were induced by exercise in muscle; one isoform was expressed 5‐ to 10‐fold higher than the other. Studies in mice and cultured myotubes showed that both fatty acids and cortisol have the potential to increase ANGPTL4 expression in muscle during exercise. In conclusion, ANGPTL4 is markedly induced in muscle in response to exercise. However, liver and adipose tissue may contribute more than muscle to the exercise‐induced increase in circulating ANGPTL4.
The Production of ANGPTL4 is markedly induced in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. However, liver and adipose tissue may contribute more than skeletal muscle to the exercise‐induced increase in circulatory ANGPTL4.
Adipose tissue; ANGPTL4; exercise; skeletal muscle
The molecular link between proteinuria and hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome is not known. We show in the present study that plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) links proteinuria with hypertriglyceridemia through two negative feedback loops. In previous studies in a rat model that mimics human minimal change disease, we observed localized secretion by podocytes of hyposialylated Angptl4, a pro-proteinuric form of the protein. But in this study we noted high serum levels of Angptl4 (presumably normosialylated based on a neutral isoelectric point) in other glomerular diseases as well. Circulating Angptl4 was secreted by extrarenal organs in response to an elevated plasma ratio of free fatty acids (FFAs) to albumin when proteinuria reached nephrotic range. In a systemic feedback loop, these circulating pools of Angptl4 reduced proteinuria by interacting with glomerular endothelial αvβ5 integrin. Blocking the Angptl4–β5 integrin interaction or global knockout of Angptl4 or β5 integrin delayed recovery from peak proteinuria in animal models. But at the same time, in a local feedback loop, the elevated extrarenal pools of Angptl4 reduced tissue FFA uptake in skeletal muscle, heart and adipose tissue, subsequently resulting in hypertriglyceridemia, by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides to FFAs. Injecting recombinant human ANGPTL4 modified at a key LPL interacting site into nephrotic Buffalo Mna and Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats reduced proteinuria through the systemic loop but, by bypassing the local loop, without increasing plasma triglyceride levels. These data show that increases in circulating Angptl4 in response to nephrotic-range proteinuria reduces the degree of this pathology, but at the cost of inducing hypertriglyceridemia, while also suggesting a possible therapy to treat these linked pathologies.
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase and associates with dyslipidemia. The expression of ANGPTL4 is regulated by free fatty acids (FFA) that activate lipid-sensing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but FFA can also activate pattern recognition receptors including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages.
To assess whether systemic low-grade inflammation is a determinant for plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
We studied 335 male participants: healthy controls (Controls), patients with the MetS without inflammation (MetS−I) and with low-grade inflammation (MetS+I), and patients with T2DM. All patients without diabetes included in the present study were initially matched for waist circumference. In plasma, ANGPTL4, C reactive protein (CRP) and metabolic parameters were determined. Underlying mechanisms were examined using human macrophages in vitro.
As compared with Controls, plasma ANGPTL4 levels were increased in patients with MetS−I, MetS+I, and T2DM. Furthermore, ANGPTL4 was increased in T2DM compared with MetS−I. In fact, plasma CRP correlated positively with plasma ANGPTL4. In vitro studies showed that TLR 3/4 activation largely increased the expression and release of ANGPTL4 by macrophages.
Plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans are predicted by CRP, a marker of inflammation, and ANGPTL4 expression by macrophages is increased by inflammatory stimuli.
Inflammatory Process in Diabetes; Metabolic Syndrome
ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 are secreted proteins that inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro. Genetic variants at the ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 gene loci are significantly associated with plasma lipid traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) concentrations with lipid and metabolic traits in a large community-based sample.
Approach and Results
Plasma ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 levels were measured in 1770 subjects using a validated ELISA assay. A Pearson unadjusted correlation analysis and a linear regression analysis adjusting for age, gender and race were performed. ANGPTL3 levels were significantly positively associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (both P < 2 ×10−5) but not triglycerides. In contrast, ANGPTL4 levels were significantly negatively associated with LDL-C and HDL-C (both P < 2 × 10−5) and positively associated with triglycerides (P=0.003). In addition, ANGPTL4, but not ANGPTL3, levels were significantly positively associated with fasting blood glucose and metabolic syndrome.
Despite having similar biochemical effects in vitro, plasma ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 concentrations have nearly opposite relationships with plasma lipids. ANGPTL4 is strongly negatively associated with LDL-C and HDL-C and positively with multiple features of the metabolic syndrome including triglycerides, whereas ANGPTL3 is positively associated with LDL-C and HDL-C and not with metabolic syndrome traits including triglycerides. While ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 both inhibit LPL in vitro and influence lipoprotein metabolism in vivo, the physiology of these related proteins and their effects on lipoproteins is clearly divergent and complex.
Angiopoietin-Like Protein 3; Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4; lipid metabolism; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; epidemiology; lipids; lipoproteins; metabolic syndrome; diabetes mellitus
Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2), a recently identified pro-inflammatory cytokine, is mainly secreted from the adipose tissue. This study aimed to explore the role of ANGPTL2 in adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage activation in a mouse model of diabetes.
Adenovirus mediated lacZ (Ad-LacZ) or human ANGPTL2 (Ad-ANGPTL2) was delivered via tail vein in diabetic db/db mice. Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment for 2 weeks impaired both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as compared to Ad-LacZ treatment. Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment significantly induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in white adipose tissue. We also isolated stromal vascular fraction from epididymal fat pad and analyzed adipose tissue macrophage and T lymphocyte populations by flow cytometry. Ad-ANGPTL2 treated mice had more adipose tissue macrophages (F4/80+CD11b+) and a larger M1 macrophage subpopulation (F4/80+CD11b+CD11c+). Moreover, Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment increased a CD8-positive T cell population in adipose tissue, which preceded increased macrophage accumulation. Consistent with our in vivo results, recombinant human ANGPTL2 protein treatment increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory gene products and production of TNF-α protein in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1. Furthermore, Ad-ANGPTL2 treatment induced lipid accumulation and increased fatty acid synthesis, lipid metabolism related gene expression in mouse liver.
ANGPTL2 treatment promotes macrophage accumulation and activation. These results suggest potential mechanisms for insulin resistance.
In diabetes, when glucose consumption is restricted, the heart adapts to use fatty acid (FA) exclusively. The majority of FA provided to the heart comes from the breakdown of circulating triglyceride (TG), a process catalyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) located at the vascular lumen. The objective of the current study was to determine the mechanisms behind LPL processing and breakdown after moderate and severe diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
To induce acute hyperglycemia, diazoxide, a selective, ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener was used. For chronic diabetes, streptozotocin, a β-cell–specific toxin was administered at doses of 55 or 100 mg/kg to generate moderate and severe diabetes, respectively. Cardiac LPL processing into active dimers and breakdown at the vascular lumen was investigated.
After acute hyperglycemia and moderate diabetes, more LPL is processed into an active dimeric form, which involves the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calnexin. Severe diabetes results in increased conversion of LPL into inactive monomers at the vascular lumen, a process mediated by FA-induced expression of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl-4).
In acute hyperglycemia and moderate diabetes, exaggerated LPL processing to dimeric, catalytically active enzyme increases coronary LPL, delivering more FA to the heart when glucose utilization is compromised. In severe chronic diabetes, to avoid lipid oversupply, FA-induced expression of Angptl-4 leads to conversion of LPL to inactive monomers at the coronary lumen to impede TG hydrolysis. Results from this study advance our understanding of how diabetes changes coronary LPL, which could contribute to cardiovascular complications seen with this disease.
All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs)-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C). However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta) at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones) are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence) suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates). Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants, induced atherosclerotic plaque regression in thoracic and abdominal aorta and improved endothelial function. In addition, bezafibrate has important fibrinogen-related properties and anti-inflammatory effects. In clinical trials bezafibrate was highly effective for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with metabolic syndrome and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The principal differences between bezafibrate and other fibrates are related to effects on glucose level and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Currently statins are the cornerstone of the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases related to atherosclerosis. However, despite the increasing use of statins as monotherapy for low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction, a significant residual cardiovascular risk is still presented in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, which is typical for T2DM and metabolic syndrome. Recently, concerns were raised regarding the development of diabetes in statin-treated patients. Combined bezafibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and residual cardiovascular risk reduction. Based on the beneficial effects of pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate on glucose metabolism and prevention of new-onset diabetes, one could expect a neutralization of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins using the strategy of a combined statin/fibrate therapy.
Atherogenic dyslipidemia; Bezafibrate; Combined fibrate/statin therapy; Metabolic syndrome; PPAR; Prevention; Residual cardiovascular risk; Type 2 diabetes
The intestinal microbiota enhances dietary energy harvest leading to increased fat storage in adipose tissues. This effect is caused in part by the microbial suppression of intestinal epithelial expression of a circulating inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase called Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4/Fiaf). To define the cis-regulatory mechanisms underlying intestine-specific and microbial control of Angptl4 transcription, we utilized the zebrafish system in which host regulatory DNA can be rapidly analyzed in a live, transparent, and gnotobiotic vertebrate. We found that zebrafish angptl4 is transcribed in multiple tissues including the liver, pancreatic islet, and intestinal epithelium, which is similar to its mammalian homologs. Zebrafish angptl4 is also specifically suppressed in the intestinal epithelium upon colonization with a microbiota. In vivo transgenic reporter assays identified discrete tissue-specific regulatory modules within angptl4 intron 3 sufficient to drive expression in the liver, pancreatic islet β-cells, or intestinal enterocytes. Comparative sequence analyses and heterologous functional assays of angptl4 intron 3 sequences from 12 teleost fish species revealed differential evolution of the islet and intestinal regulatory modules. High-resolution functional mapping and site-directed mutagenesis defined the minimal set of regulatory sequences required for intestinal activity. Strikingly, the microbiota suppressed the transcriptional activity of the intestine-specific regulatory module similar to the endogenous angptl4 gene. These results suggest that the microbiota might regulate host intestinal Angptl4 protein expression and peripheral fat storage by suppressing the activity of an intestine-specific transcriptional enhancer. This study provides a useful paradigm for understanding how microbial signals interact with tissue-specific regulatory networks to control the activity and evolution of host gene transcription.
Recent studies have revealed that the community of microorganisms residing in the intestine regulates fat storage. Microbes evoke this response in part by suppressing expression of the Angptl4 gene, which encodes a secreted inhibitor of fat storage. Although Angptl4 is expressed in multiple tissues, microbial suppression occurs only in the intestine. To determine how microbes control fat storage, we must elucidate the mechanisms underlying intestine-specific and microbial regulation of Angptl4 expression. Here, we take advantage of the unique features of the zebrafish model to define the regulatory DNA sequences controlling angptl4 expression. Our results reveal that different DNA regulatory regions within the angptl4 gene mediate expression of angptl4 in the intestine and other tissues. By assessing the evolution of angptl4 regulatory regions and subjecting them to structure-function analyses, we identify discrete DNA sequences that are required for intestinal expression. Strikingly, microbes suppress the activity of the intestine-specific regulatory region similar to the endogenous angptl4 gene. Therefore, intestinal microbes might regulate angptl4 production by suppressing the signaling pathway interpreted by an intestine-specific transcriptional regulatory region. Our results provide new mechanistic insights into how intestinal microbes might influence fat storage and contribute to the development of obesity.
The angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4)/fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf) is known as a regulator of peripheral lipid and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the physiological role of Angptl4 in central regulation of body weight homeostasis.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Hypothalamic Angptl4 expression levels were measured using immunoblot assay during feeding manipulation or after administration of leptin, insulin, and nutrients. The effects of Angptl4 on food intake, body weight, and energy expenditure were determined following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Angptl4 in C57BL/6 mice. Food intake, energy metabolism, and feeding responses to leptin, insulin, and nutrients were compared between Angptl4-null mice and their wild littermates. Finally, the relationship of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Angptl4 was studied.
Hypothalamic Angptl4 expression levels were increased upon food intake or administration of leptin, insulin, and nutrients. Furthermore, central administration of Angptl4 suppressed food intake and body weight gain but enhanced energy expenditure. These effects were mediated via suppression of hypothalamic AMPK activities. Consistently, Angptl4-null mice displayed increased body weight and hypothalamic AMPK activity but reduced energy expenditure. Food intake following a fast was significantly greater in Angptl4-null mice, which was normalized by centrally administered Angptl4. Moreover, anorectic responses to leptin, insulin, and glucose were diminished in Angptl4-null mice. In contrast, Angptl4-null mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity, indicating obesity-promoting effects of Angptl4 under the condition of fat-enriched diet.
We have demonstrated that hypothalamic Angptl4 is regulated by physiological appetite regulators and mediates their anorexigenic effects via inhibition of hypothalamic AMPK activity. Therefore, Angptl4 appears to have an important role in central regulation of energy metabolism.
Background and Objectives
Diabetes is reported to reduce the function or number of progenitor cells. We compared the gene expression patterns of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from diabetic (DM-BMCs) and healthy (non-DM-BMCs) rats and suggested Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) could be a responsible factor for impaired angiogenesis of DM-BMCs.
Subjects and Methods
BMCs were isolated from DM or non-DM rat, and in vitro angiogenesis activity was compared by tube formation assay on Matrigel and complementary deoxyribonucleic acid expression was analyzed by microarray with or without oxytocin treatment. Human BMCs (hBMCs) were treated with high glucose, and were performed polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Angptl4 plasmid DNA and micro ribonucleic acid-132 (miR-132) were transfected to immortalized hBMCs.
In vitro angiogenesis assay showed the impaired tube formation in DM-BMCs, and slightly recovery by oxytocin treatment. Angptl4, an adipokine, was upregulated in DM-BMCs compared to non-DM-BMCs. Oxytocin treatment reduced Angptl4 in DM-BMCs. In hBMCs, overexpression of Angptl4 attenuated the tube formation. In addition to Angptl4, miR-132 was increased by high glucose treatment. Collectively, high glucose resulted in impaired tube formation through miR-132 induction and Angptl4 upregulation in BMCs.
Our results show that the angiogenic activity of BMCs is impaired by high glucose stress, which would be mediated by Angptl4 and miR-132.
Stem cells; Diabetes mellitus; ANGPTL4 protein, rat; MicroRNAs
Ligands of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), such as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), induce expression of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4). Recently ANGPTL4 has been reported to be a mediator of intracellular adipose lipolysis induced by glucocorticoids.
To determine the concentrations of ANGPTL4 in cord serum of neonates born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) and by pre-labor cesarean section (CS) from healthy women, and to relate them to parameters of neonatal lipolytic activity at birth.
In 54 neonates born by SVD and in 56 neonates born by CS, arterial cord blood was drawn to determine insulin, cortisol, triacylglycerols (TAGs), glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), individual fatty acids, ANGPTL4, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and leptin.
Birth weight and neonatal fat mass in SVD and CS showed no difference, but the concentrations of glycerol, adiponectin, RBP4, NEFAs and most individual fatty acids were higher in cord serum of neonates born by SVD compared to CS, indicating a higher adipose tissue breakdown in the SVD group. The concentrations of TAG and cortisol were also higher and that of insulin was lower in cord serum of SVD compared to the CS group. However, the concentration in cord serum of ANGPTL4 did not differ between the two groups and no positive correlation with either NEFA or glycerol concentrations were detected.
ANGPTL4 is known to stimulate lipolysis in adults, but does not appear to mediate the increased activity in SVD, indicating the presence of different regulatory inputs.
Intervention strategies for obesity are global issues that require immediate attention. One approach is to exploit the growing consensus that beneficial gut microbiota could be of use in intervention regimes. Our objective was to determine the mechanism by which the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei F19 (F19) could alter fat storage. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a circulating lipoprotein lipase (LPL) inhibitor that controls triglyceride deposition into adipocytes and has been reported to be regulated by gut microbes.
A diet intervention study of mice fed high-fat chow supplemented with F19 was carried out to study potential mechanistic effects on fat storage. Mice given F19 displayed significantly less body fat, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and a changed lipoprotein profile. Given that previous studies on fat storage have identified ANGPTL4 as an effector, we also investigated circulating levels of ANGPTL4, which proved to be higher in the F19-treated group. This increase, together with total body fat and triglyceride levels told a story of inhibited LPL action through ANGPTL4 leading to decreased fat storage. Co-culture experiments of colonic cell lines and F19 were set up in order to monitor any ensuing alterations in ANGPTL4 expression by qPCR. We observed that potentially secreted factors from F19 can induce ANGPTL4 gene expression, acting in part through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors alpha and gamma. To prove validity of in vitro findings, germ-free mice were monocolonized with F19. Here we again found changes in serum triglycerides as well as ANGPTL4 in response to F19.
Our results provide an interesting mechanism whereby modifying ANGPTL4, a central player in fat storage regulation, through manipulating gut flora could be an important gateway upon which intervention trials of weight management can be based.
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secreted protein that modulates
the disposition of circulating triglycerides (TG) by inhibiting lipoprotein
lipase (LPL). Here we examine the steps involved in the synthesis and
post-translational processing of ANGPTL4, and the effects of a naturally
occurring sequence variant (E40K) that is associated with lower plasma TG
levels in humans. Expression of the wild-type and mutant proteins in HEK-293A
cells indicated that ANGPTL4 formed dimers and tetramers in cells prior to
secretion and cleavage of the protein. After cleavage at a canonical
proprotein convertase cleavage site (161RRKR164), the
oligomeric structure of the N-terminal domain was retained whereas the
C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain dissociated into monomers. Inhibition of
cleavage did not interfere with oligomerization of ANGPTL4 or with its ability
to inhibit LPL, whereas mutations that prevented oligomerization severely
compromised the capacity of the protein to inhibit LPL. ANGPTL4 containing the
E40K substitution was synthesized and processed normally, but no monomers or
oligomers of the N-terminal fragments accumulated in the medium; medium from
these cells failed to inhibit LPL activity. Parallel experiments performed in
mice recapitulated these results. Our findings indicate that oligomerization,
but not cleavage, of ANGPTL4 is required for LPL inhibition, and that the E40K
substitution destabilizes the protein after secretion, preventing the
extracellular accumulation of oligomers and abolishing the ability of the
protein to inhibit LPL activity.
Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) is a secreted protein modulating triacylglycerol homeostasis. Its transcription is induced by glucocorticoids, which act to elevate circulating Angptl4 levels during fasting. In investigating the role of Angptl4 in glucocorticoid action, we identified that in addition to its known ability to inhibit lipoprotein lipase, Angptl4 stimulates intracellular adipocyte lipolysis. Fatty acid release by murine adipocytes following fasting or treatment with glucocorticoids or catecholamines is highly Angptl4-dependent. In fact, Angptl4 can directly stimulate cAMP-dependent PKA signaling and lipolysis when added to adipocytes. Here, we detail this novel Angptl4-dependent lipolytic regulatory mechanism and discuss its physiological and therapeutic implications.
Angptl4; adipocyte; cAMP; catecholamine; fasting; glucocorticoids; lipolysis
In the present study, the association between angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) and aldolase A (ALDOA) in human melanoma cell invasion and survival was investigated. Overexpression and knockdown of ANGPTL4 were respectively performed in WM-115 and WM-266-4 cells. ALDOA expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels as well as the ALDOA gene promoter activities were increased and decreased in parallel with overexpression and knockdown of ANGPTL4 in the melanoma cells, which was blocked by selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and restored by PKC agonist, respectively. ANGPTL4 overexpression significantly increased cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and decreased cell apoptosis against cisplatin in WM-115 cells, which was reversed by knocking down ALDOA. In WM-266-4 cells, knockdown of ANGPTL4 decreased cell invasion and MMP-2 expression and increased cell apoptosis against cisplatin, which was reversed by overexpression of ALDOA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ANGPTL4 upregulates ALDOA expression in human melanoma cells at the ALDOA gene promoter/transcriptional level through a PKC-dependent mechanism, and that ALDOA is a critical mediator of the promoting effect of ANGPTL4 on melanoma cell invasion, likely through upregulating the MMP-2 expression. Additionally, our results suggest that ALDOA plays an important role in ANGPTL4-enhanced melanoma cell survival against apoptotic stress, which implicates ANGPTL4 and ALDOA in the development of melanoma chemoresistance.
angiopoietin-like 4; aldolase A; melanoma; cell invasion; cell survival; protein kinase C; matrix metalloproteinase-2
Dietary triglycerides are hydrolyzed in the small intestine principally by pancreatic lipase. Following uptake by enterocytes and secretion as chylomicrons, dietary lipids are cleared from the bloodstream via lipoprotein lipase. Whereas lipoprotein lipase is inhibited by several proteins including Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4), no endogenous regulator of pancreatic lipase has yet been identified. Here we present evidence that Angptl4 is an endogenous inhibitor of dietary lipid digestion. Angptl4−/− mice were heavier compared to their wild-type counterparts without any difference in food intake, energy expenditure or locomotor activity. However, Angptl4−/− mice showed decreased lipid content in the stools and increased accumulation of dietary triglycerides in the small intestine, which coincided with elevated luminal lipase activity in Angptl4−/− mice. Furthermore, recombinant Angptl4 reduced the activity of pancreatic lipase as well as the lipase activity in human ileostomy output. In conclusion, our data suggest that Angptl4 is an endogenous inhibitor of intestinal lipase activity.
Angptl4; Pancreatic lipase; Intestine; Obesity
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that strongly influence molecular events in normal and cancer cells. PPAR-beta/delta overexpression suppresses the activity of PPAR-gamma and -alpha. This interaction has been questioned, however, by studies with synthetic ligands of PPARs in PPAR-beta/delta–null cells, and it is not known whether an interaction between PPAR-beta/delta and -gamma exists, especially in relation to the signaling by natural PPAR ligands. Oxidative metabolites of linoleic and arachidonic acids are natural ligands of PPARs. 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-S-HODE), the main product of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) metabolism of linoleic acid, downregulates PPAR-beta/delta. We tested (a) whether PPAR-beta/delta expression modulates PPAR-gamma activity in experimental models of the loss and gain of PPAR-beta/delta function in colon cancer cells and (b) whether 15-LOX-1 formation of 13-S-HODE influences the interaction between PPAR-beta/delta and PPAR-gamma. We found that (a) 15-LOX-1 formation of 13-S-HODE promoted PPAR-gamma activity, (b) PPAR-beta/delta expression suppressed PPAR-gamma activity in models of both loss and gain of PPAR-beta/delta function, (c) 15-LOX-1 activated PPAR-gamma by downregulating PPAR-beta/delta , and (d) 15-LOX-1 expression induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells via modulating PPAR-beta/delta suppression of PPAR-gamma. These findings elucidate a novel mechanism of the signaling by natural ligands of PPARs, which involves modulating the interaction between PPAR-beta/delta and PPAR-gamma.
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4/FIAF) has been proposed as a circulating mediator between the gut microbiota and fat storage. Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA induce ANGPTL4 by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), as demonstrated using PPARγ antagonist, PPARγ knockdown, and transactivation assays, which show activation of PPARγ but not PPARα and PPARδ by SCFA. At concentrations required for PPARγ activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPARγ in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. Consistent with the notion that fermentation leads to PPAR activation in vivo, feeding mice a diet rich in inulin induced PPAR target genes and pathways in the colon. We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPARγ. Our data point to activation of PPARs as a novel mechanism of gene regulation by SCFA in the colon, in addition to other mechanisms of action of SCFA.
To develop new therapies against ocular neovascularization (NV), we tested the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPAR-β/δ) agonism and antagonism on angiogenic behaviors and in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) and on preretinal NV in rat oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR).
HRMECs were treated with the PPAR-β/δ agonist GW0742 and the antagonist GSK0660. Messenger RNA levels of a PPAR-β/δ target gene, angiopoietin-like-4 (angptl4) were assayed by qRT-PCR. HRMEC proliferation and tube formation were assayed according to standard protocols. OIR was induced in newborn rats by exposing them to alternating 24-hour episodes of 50% and 10% oxygen for 14 days. OIR rats were treated with GW0742 or GSK0660. Angptl4 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and preretinal NV was quantified by adenosine diphosphatase staining.
GW0742 significantly increased angptl4 mRNA, and GSK0660 significantly decreased angptl4 mRNA. GW0742 had no effect on HRMEC proliferation, but caused a significant and dose-responsive increase in tube formation. GSK0660 significantly reduced serum-induced HRMEC proliferation and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. Intravitreal injection of GW0742 significantly increased total retinal Angptl4 protein, but intravitreal injection of GSK0660 had no effect. Intravitreal injection of GW0742 significantly increased retinal NV, as did GW0742 administered by oral gavage. Conversely, both intravitreal injection and intraperitoneal injection of GSK0660 significantly reduced retinal NV.
PPAR-β/δ activation exacerbates, and its inhibition reduces, preretinal NV. PPAR-β/δ may regulate preretinal NV through a prodifferentiation/maturation mechanism that depends on Angptl4. Pharmacologic inhibition of PPAR-β/δ may provide a rational basis for therapeutic targeting of ocular NV.
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of pharmacologic manipulation of PPAR-β/δ on retinal angiogenesis. We found that inhibition of PPAR-β/δ reduces neovascularization in the rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy.
retinopathy of prematurity; nuclear transcription factor; angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor