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1.  Pre-treatment before coronary artery bypass surgery improves post-operative outcomes in moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients 
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa  2013;24(5):184-187.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has traditionally been recognised as a predictor of poorer early outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different COPD stages, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria, on the early surgical outcomes in patients undergoing primary isolated non-emergency CABG
Between January 2008 and April 2012, 1 737 consecutive patients underwent isolated CABG in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Gulhane Military Academy of Medicine; 127 patients with the diagnosis of moderate-risk COPD were operated on. Only 104 patients with available pulmonary function tests and no missing data were included in the study. Two different treatment protocols had been used before and after 2010. Before 2010, no treatment was applied to patients with moderate COPD before the CABG procedure. After 2010, a pre-treatment protocol was initiated. Patients who had undergone surgery between 2008 and 2010 were placed in group 1 (no pre-treatment, n = 51) and patients who had undergone surgery between 2010 and 2012 comprised group 2 (pre-treatment group, n = 53). These two groups were compared according to the postoperative morbidity and mortality rates retrospectively, from medical reports.
The mean ages of the patients in both groups were 62.1 ± 7.6 and 64.5 ± 6.4 years, respectively. Thirty-nine of the patients in group 1 and 38 in group 2 were male. There were similar numbers of risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, renal disease (two patients in each group), previous stroke and myocardial infarction in both groups. The mean ejection fractions of the patients were 53.3 ± 11.5% and 50.2 ± 10.8%, respectively. Mean EuroSCOREs of the patients were 5.5 ± 2.3 and 5.9 ± 2.5, respectively in the groups. The average numbers of the grafts were 3.1 ± 1.0 and 2.9 ± 0.9. Mean extubation times were 8.52 ± 1.3 hours in group 1 and 6.34 ± 1.0 hours in group 2. The numbers of patients who needed pharmacological inotropic support were 12 in group 1 and five in group 2. Duration of hospital stay of the patients was shorter in group 2. While there were 14 patients with post-operative atrial fibrillation (PAF) in group 1, the number of patients with PAF in group 2 was five. Whereas there were seven patients who had pleural effusions requiring drainage in group 1, there were only two in group 2. There were three mortalities in group 1, and one in group 2. There were no sternal infections and sternal dehiscences in either group.
Pre-treatment in moderate-risk COPD patients improved post-operative outcomes while decreasing adverse events and complications. Therefore for patients undergoing elective CABG, we recommend the use of medical treatment.
PMCID: PMC3748456  PMID: 24217166
cardiac surgery; complication; EuroSCORE; morbidity; risk factors
2.  Impaired Coronary Flow Reserve Is the Most Important Marker of Viable Myocardium in the Myocardial Segment-Based Analysis of Dual-Isotope Gated Myocardial Perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(2):277-285.
The aim of this study was to investigate the most robust predictor of myocardial viability among stress/rest reversibility (coronary flow reserve [CFR] impairment), 201Tl perfusion status at rest, 201Tl 24 hours redistribution and systolic wall thickening of 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile using a dual isotope gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who were re-vascularized with a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Materials and Methods
A total of 39 patients with CAD was enrolled (34 men and 5 women), aged between 36 and 72 years (mean 58 ± 8 standard in years) who underwent both pre- and 3 months post-CABG myocardial SPECT. We analyzed 17 myocardial segments per patient. Perfusion status and wall motion were semi-quantitatively evaluated using a 4-point grading system. Viable myocardium was defined as dysfunctional myocardium which showed wall motion improvement after CABG.
The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly increased from 37.8 ± 9.0% to 45.5 ± 12.3% (p < 0.001) in 22 patients who had a pre-CABG LVEF lower than 50%. Among 590 myocardial segments in the re-vascularized area, 115 showed abnormal wall motion before CABG and 73.9% (85 of 115) had wall motion improvement after CABG. In the univariate analysis (n = 115 segments), stress/rest reversibility (p < 0.001) and 201Tl rest perfusion status (p = 0.024) were significant predictors of wall motion improvement. However, in multiple logistic regression analysis, stress/rest reversibility alone was a significant predictor for post-CABG wall motion improvement (p < 0.001).
Stress/rest reversibility (impaired CFR) during dual-isotope gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was the single most important predictor of wall motion improvement after CABG.
PMCID: PMC3955796  PMID: 24642696
Myocardium; Tissue viability; Ischemia; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Single-photon emission-computed tomography
3.  Coronary Revascularization Alone or with Mitral Valve Repair 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2009;36(5):416-424.
We sought to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of patients at our hospital who had moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation and who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) alone or with concomitant mitral valve repair (CABG+MVr).
A total of 83 patients had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and moderate mitral regurgitation: 28 patients underwent CABG+MVr, and 55 underwent CABG alone. Changes in mitral regurgitation, functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction were compared in both groups.
The mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 3.6 years (range, 0.1–15.1 yr). Reduction of 2 mitral-regurgitation grades was found in 85% of CABG+MVr patients versus 14% of CABG-only patients (P < 0.0001) at 1 year, and in 56% versus 14% at 5 years, respectively (P = 0.1), as well as improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction and functional class. One- and 5-year survival rates were similar in the CABG+MVr and CABG-only groups: 96% ± 3% versus 96% ± 4%, and 87% ± 5% versus 81% ± 8%, respectively (P = NS). Propensity analysis showed similar results. Recurrent (3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation was found in 22% and 47% at late follow-up, respectively.
In patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation, either surgical approach led to an improvement in functional class. Early and intermediate-term mortality rates were low with either CABG or CABG+MVr. However, an increased rate of late recurrent mitral regurgitation in the CABG+MVr group was observed.
PMCID: PMC2763474  PMID: 19876417
Cardiac surgical procedures; coronary artery bypass; coronary disease/complications/surgery; disease-free survival/trends; matched-pair analysis; mitral valve insufficiency/physiopathology/surgery; multivariate analysis; myocardial ischemia/complications/surgery; myocardial revascularization/methods/statistics & numerical data; postoperative period; recurrence; risk assessment
4.  Electrocardiographic P-wave characteristics in patients with psoriasis vulgaris 
Psoriasis vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders. Patients with psoriasis carry an excessive risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The differences between the maximum (Pmax) and the minimum (Pmin) P-wave duration on ECG are defined as P-wave dispersion (PWD). Prolongation of PWD is an independent risk factor for the development of AF. The aim of this the study was to investigate P-wave duration and PWD in patients with psoriasis.
Sixty-one adult patients with psoriasis vulgaris (group 1) and 58 age and sex-matched healthy individuals (group 2) were included in this study. ECG recordings were obtained, and the P-wave variables were calculated. Results were reported as mean ± standard deviation and percentages. Continuous variables were analysed using Student's t test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Pmax and PWD were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (108.8 ± 21.3 ms versus 93.3 ± 13.0 ms, P < 0.001; 67.4 ± 22.9 ms versus 45.0 ± 19.6 ms, P < 0.001, respectively). Also, Pmin was significantly lower in group 1 (41.3 ± 12.3 ms versus 48.3 ± 14.3 ms, P = 0.04). The psoriasis disease activity score and hsCRP correlated with PWD (P < 0.01).
Atrial conduction of sinus impulses was impaired in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. It was more prominent in patients with severe disease. Physicians caring for patients with psoriasis vulgaris should screen them for AF development.
PMCID: PMC3572669  PMID: 23153368
Atrial fibrillation; psoriasis vulgaris; P-wave dispersion
5.  Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Effects of a Single Bolus of Erythropoietin on Reducing Ischemia-Reperfusion Injuries during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Control Study 
Background: Erythropoietin (EPO) is known as a regulating hormone for the production of red blood cells, called erythropoiesis. Some studies have shown that EPO exerts some non-hematopoietic protective effects on ischemia-reperfusion injuries in myocytes. Using echocardiography, we evaluated the effect of EPO infusion on reducing ischemia-reperfusion injuries and improvement of the cardiac function shortly after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).
Methods: Forty-three patients were recruited in this study and randomly divided into two groups: the EPO group, receiving standard medication and CABG surgery plus EPO (700 IU/kg), and the control group, receiving standard medication and CABG surgery plus normal saline (10 cc) as placebo. The cardiac function was assessed through echocardiography before as well as at 4 and 30 days after CABG.
Results: Echocardiography indicated that the ejection fraction had no differences between the EPO and control groups at 4 days (47.05±6.29 vs. 45.90±4.97; P=0.334) and 30 days after surgery (47.27±28 vs. 46.62±5.7; P=0.69). There were no differences between the EPO and control groups in the wall motion score index at 4 (P=0.83) and 30 days after surgery (P=0.902). In the EPO group, there was a reduction in left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters (LVESD and LVEDD, respectively), as compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that perioperative exogenous EPO infusion could not improve the ventricular function and wall motion index in the immediate post-CABG weeks. Nevertheless, a reduction in LVEDD and LVESD at 4 days and 30 days after CABG in the EPO group, by comparison with the control group, suggested that EPO correlated with a reduction in the remodeling of myocytes and reperfusion injuries early after CABG.
Trial Registration Number: 138809102799N1
PMCID: PMC3957019  PMID: 24644377
Erythropoietin; Ischemia; Reperfusion injury; Coronary artery bypass graft
6.  Electrocardiographic P-wave Indices as a Useful Tool to Predict Successful Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvotomy in Patients with Mitral Stenosis  
Introduction: Patients with hemodynamically significant mitral stenosis (MS) have prolonged P-wave duration and increased P-wave dispersion (PWD) that decrease after successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (PBMV). The purpose of this study was to investigate if the changes in these indices may predict a successful procedure.
Methods: Fifty two patients with MS in sinus rhythm underwent PBMV (90.4% female; mean age 38±10 years). Mitral valve area (MVA), valve score, mean diastolic mitral gradient (mMVG), mitral regurgitation severity, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) were evaluated by echocardiography before PBMV and repeated after one month. P-wave duration (Pmax /Pmin) and PWD were measured before and immediately after PBMV, at discharge, and at the end of the first month after discharge.
Results: Among all procedures, 38 (73.1%) were defined as successful. Mean age, valve score, mMVG, and MVA before PBMV were similar for both groups. MVA was significantly greater in the successful PBMV group (1.65±0.27 vs. 1.41±0.22; P= 0.003). sPAP was reduced after PBMV in all patients and there were no significant differences in the mean sPAP before and after PBMV in both successful and unsuccessful groups. Pmax and PWD were significantly decreased immediately after the procedure (P= 0.035), the next day (P= 0.005) and at one month (P= 0.002) only in patients with successful PBMV. Pmin did not change significantly in either group.
Conclusion: Only is successful PBMV associated with a decrease in Pmax and PWD. These simple electrocardiographic indices may predict the success of the procedure immediately after PBMV.
PMCID: PMC3992741  PMID: 24753825
Mitral Stenosis; P-wave Duration; P-wave Dispersion
7.  Predictors and Frequency of Conduction Disturbances After Open-Heart Surgery 
The risk of developing conduction disturbances after coronary bypass grafting (CABG) or valvular surgery has been well established in previous studies, leading to permanent pacemaker implantation in about 2% to 3% of patients, and in 10% of patients undergoing repeat cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the incidence, features and predictors of conduction disorders in the immediate post-operative period of patients subjected to open-heart surgery, and the need for permanent pacemaker implantation.
Material and Method
We prospectively studied 374 consecutive patients who underwent open-heart surgery in our institution: coronary artery bypass (CABG) (n=128), Mitral valve replacement(MVR)(n=18), aortic valve replacement(AVR) (n=21), MVR and AVR(n=56), repair of ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n=51), repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (n=57),CABG and valvular surgery (n=6), others (n=37).
Among 374 patients included in our study (mean age 34.46±25.68; 146 males), 192 developed new conduction disorders: symptomatic sinus bradycardia in 8%, atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response (AF) in 4.5%, first-degree atrioventricular block (AVB)in 6.4%, second-degree AVB in 0.3%, third-degree AVB in 7%, new right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, and new left bundle branch block (LBBB) in 2.1%. In 5.6% patients, a permanent pacemaker was implanted, 47.6% of them underwent valvular surgery. In 44.1% of patients the conduction defects occurred in the first 48 hr. after surgery. In CABG group, 29.7% of patients developed new conduction disturbances; the most common of them was symptomatic sinus bradycardia. After valvular surgery 44.2% of patients developed conduction disturbances, of those the most common was atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response . After VSD and TOF repair, the most common conduction disturbance was new RBBB. Perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in 1.9% of patients. The occurrence conduction disturbance was compared with patient age, sex, occurrence of perioperative MI, ejection fraction (EF), postoperative use of ß-adernergic receptor blocking agents and digitalis and type of cardiac surgery. By regression analysis there was a correlation between type of surgery and new conduction defects, being significant for CABG and TOF repair. Only the occurrence of perioperative MI was related to PPM implantation.
Irreversible AVB requiring a PPM is an uncommon complication after open-heart surgery. Peri-operative MI is a risk factor.
PMCID: PMC2231604  PMID: 18270599
Post operative conduction disturbances; permanent pacemaker
8.  Dependence of P-wave dispersion on mean arterial pressure as an independent hemodynamic variable in school children  
Colombia Médica : CM  null;44(3):178-183.
The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P-wave dispersion (PWD) in the electrocardiogram has been studied for some time. In this regard, echocardiography is emerging as a diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification for mild hypertension.
To determine the dependence of PWD on the electrocardiogram and on echocardiographic variables in a pediatric population.
515 children from three elementary schools were studied from a total of 565 children. Those whose parents did not want them to take part in the study, as well as those with known congenital diseases, were excluded. Tests including 12-lead surface ECGs and 4 blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. Maximum and minimum P-values were measured, and the PWD on the electrocardiogram was calculated. Echocardiography for structural measurements and the pulsed Doppler of mitral flow were also performed.
A significant correlation in statistical variables was found between PWD and mean BP for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive children, i.e., r = 0.32, p <0.01 and r = 0.33, p <0.01, respectively. There was a significant correlation found between PWD and the left atrial area (r = 0.45 and p <0.01).
We highlight the dependency between PWD, the electrocardiogram and mean blood pressure. We also draw attention to the dependence of PWD on the duration of the mitral inflow A-wave. This result provides an explanation for earlier changes in atrial electrophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics in pediatric patients.
PMCID: PMC4002032  PMID: 24892616
P-wave dispersion; mitral A-wave duration; prehypertension; blood hypertension
9.  Preoperative C–reactive protein can predict early clinical outcomes following elective off-pump CABG surgery in patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(4):327-331.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia following elective off-pump coronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery, occurring on the 2nd or 3rd postoperative day. Postoperative atrial fibrillation and early complications may be the cause of long term morbidity and mortality after hospital discharge. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) seems to be most significantly associated with cardiovascular disorders. This study was designed to evaluate whether preoperative hsCRP (≥3 mg/dl) can predict post-elective off-pump CABG, AF, and early complications in patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (Ejection Fraction (EF)<30%).
This study was conducted on 104 patients with severe left ventriclar dysfunction (EF < 30%), undergoing elective off-pump CABG surgery during April to September 2011 at the Afshar Cardiovascular Center in Yazd, Iran. Patients undergoing emergency surgery and those with unstable angina, creatinine higher than 2.0 mg/dl, malignancy, or immunosuppressive disease were excluded from the study. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group I with preoperative increased hsCRP (>3 mg/dl) (n=51) and group N with preoperative normal hsCRP (<3 mg/dl) (n=53). We evaluated post-CABG variables including incidence, duration, and frequency of AF, early morbidity (bleeding, infection, vomiting, renal and respiratory dysfunctions), ICU or hospital stay and early mortality. Data were then analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Chi-square and Fisher exact test for quantitative and qualitative variables.
The average age of the patients was 62.5 years, 75 cases (72.1%) were male, and 39 (37.5%) were female. Postoperative AF occurred in 19 cases (18.2%); 17 cases (33.3%) had hsCRP≥3 mg/dl and 2 cases (3.8%) had hsCRP≤3 mg/dl (P=0.03). Postoperative midsternotomy infection, respiratory dysfunction, and hospital stay were significantly higher in group I compared with group N (P<0.05). No statistical significant differences were identified between the two groups concerning other postoperative complications (bleeding, vomiting, renal dysfunction and ICU stay) (P>0.05).
Preoperative hsCRP ≥3 mg/dl can predict incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation and early complications such as midsternotomy infection, respiratory dysfunction, and hospital stay following elective off-pump CABG.
PMCID: PMC3591548  PMID: 23493333
Atrial fibrillation; C-reactive protein; early complications; elective off-pump CABG
10.  Abnormal Motion of the Interventricular Septum after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Comprehensive Evaluation with MR Imaging 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2010;11(6):627-631.
To define the mechanism associated with abnormal septal motion (ASM) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) using comprehensive MR imaging techniques.
Materials and Methods
Eighteen patients (mean age, 58 ± 12 years; 15 males) were studied with comprehensive MR imaging using rest/stress perfusion, rest cine, and delayed enhancement (DE)-MR techniques before and after CABG. Myocardial tagging was also performed following CABG. Septal wall motion was compared in the ASM and non-ASM groups. Preoperative and postoperative results with regard to septal wall motion in the ASM group were also compared. We then analyzed circumferential strain after CABG in both the septal and lateral walls in the ASM group.
All patients had normal septal wall motion and perfusion without evidence of non-viable myocardium prior to surgery. Postoperatively, ASM at rest and/or stress state was documented in 10 patients (56%). However, all of these had normal rest/stress perfusion and DE findings at the septum. Septal wall motion after CABG in the ASM group was significantly lower than that in the non-ASM group (2.1±5.3 mm vs. 14.9±4.7 mm in the non-ASM group; p < 0.001). In the ASM group, the degree of septal wall motion showed a significant decrease after CABG (preoperative vs. postoperative = 15.8±4.5 mm vs. 2.1±5.3 mm; p = 0.007). In the ASM group after CABG, circumferential shortening of the septum was even larger than that of the lateral wall (-20.89±5.41 vs. -15.41±3.7, p < 0.05)
Abnormal septal motion might not be caused by ischemic insult. We suggest that ASM might occur due to an increase in anterior cardiac mobility after incision of the pericardium.
PMCID: PMC2974224  PMID: 21076588
Coronary artery disease; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Magnetic resonance (MR); Abnormal septal motion
11.  Evaluation of Bachmann Bundle Pacing Versus Right Atrial Pacing in Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 
In patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABGS), occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in the postoperative period and is associated with increased morbidity with longer intensive unit care (ICU) and hospital stay. Prevention with antiarrhythmic drugs is of limited success and associated with significant side effects. Therefore alternative approaches, such as Bachmann Bundle pacing, are required.
Methods and Results
154 consecutive patients, mean age 58±8.8 years, including 134 males and 20 females, were randomized to three groups; Group I : No pacing n= 54, Group II : RA pacing n= 52, Group III : Bachmann Bundle pacing n= 48. All the groups were well matched with regard to age, left atrial size, ejection fraction and use of beta blockers. Patients in Groups II and III were continually paced at a rate of 100 beats per minute (bpm) or at 10 bpm more than patients' intrinsic heart rate. All the patients were monitored for 72 hours by telemetry and occurrence of AF was noted. Incidence of AF was 0% (none of 48 patients) in Group III as compared to 16.6% in Group I (9 of 54 patients) (p 0.003) and 12.5% in Group II (5 of 52 patients) (p 0.03). There was a trend towards shorter ICU stay in Group III (3.9 days) as compared to Group II (4.5 days) and Group I (4.1 days). Among the three groups, the reduction in mean P wave duration also was greater in Bachmann bundle paced group.
In patients undergoing CABGS, Bachmann bundle pacing is superior to right atrial / no pacing in the post operative period for preventing occurrence of AF and reducing ICU stay, commensurate with a reduction in mean P wave duration on surface ECG.
PMCID: PMC3034455  PMID: 21358799
atrial fibrillation; pacing; Bachmann bundle
12.  Coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction are associated with stroke in patients affected by persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a case-control study 
Heart International  2009;4(1):e2.
Persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke, and its rate is expected to rise because of the ageing population. The absolute rate of stroke depends on age and comorbidity. Risk stratification for stroke in patients with NVAF derives from populations enrolled in randomized clinical trials. However, participants in clinical trials are often not representative of the general population. Many stroke risk stratification scores have been used, but they do not include transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), pulsate wave Doppler (PWD) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), simple and non- invasive diagnostic tools. The role of TTE, PWD and TDI findings has not been previously determined. Our study goal was to determine the association between TTE and PWD findings and stroke prevalence in a population of NVAF prone outpatients.
Patients were divided into two groups: P for stroke prone and F for stroke free. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning cardiovascular risk factors, age (p=0.2), sex (p=0.2), smoking (p=0.3), diabetes (p=0.1) and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.2); hypertension was statistically significant (p<0.001). There were statistically significant differences concerning coronary artery disease, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (p<0.05) and non- AMI coronaropathy (p<0.04), a higher rate being in the P group. Concerning echo-Doppler findings, a higher statistically significant rate of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (p<0.05) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (p<0.001) was found in the P group and dilated left atrium (p<0.04) in the F group, the difference was not significant for mitral regurgitation (p=0.7). Stroke prone NVAF patients have a higher rate of hypertension, coronary artery disease, with and without AMI, LVH and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not left atrial dilatation. M-B mode echocardiography and PWD examination help to identify high-risk stroke patients among NVAF subjects; therefore, they may help in the selection of appropriate therapy for each patient.
PMCID: PMC3184694  PMID: 21977279
atrial fibrillation; stroke; hypertension; coronary artery disease; left ventricular hypertrophy; left atrial dilatation; echocardiography.
13.  Outcome after redo coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and viable myocardium 
Heart  2006;93(2):221-225.
Repeat coronary artery bypass grafting (redo‐CABG) in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is associated with high perioperative risk and worse long‐term outcome compared with patients undergoing their first CABG.
To assess whether patients with viable myocardium undergoing redo‐CABG have a better outcome.
18 patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy underwent redo‐CABG and 34 underwent their first CABG; all had substantial viability (⩾25% of the left ventricle) on dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart failure symptoms were assessed before and 9–12 months after revascularisation. Cardiac event rate was assessed during the follow‐up period (median 4 years, 25–75th centile 2.8–4.9 years).
The extent of viable myocardium on DSE was comparable in the two groups (11.3 (3.9) segments in patients who underwent redo‐CABG v 12.8 (3.0) in patients who underwent their first CABG; p = NS). LVEF improved from 32% (9%) to 39% (12%); p = 0.01, in patients who underwent redo‐CABG and from 30% (7%) to 36% (7%); p<0.01, in those who underwent their first CABG; New York Heart Association class improved from 2.5 (1.1) to 1.9 (0.8); p = 0.03, and from 2.7 (1.0) to 1.8 (0.70); p<0.01, respectively. In patients who underwent redo‐CABG, the perioperative mortality was 0, post‐surgery inotropic support was needed in 11% of the patients and mid‐term (4‐year) survival was 100%, with a total event rate of 28%. All these variables were not statistically different from patients who underwent their first CABG (p = 0.50, 0.90, 0.08 and 0.81, respectively).
Patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and substantial viability undergoing redo‐CABG benefit from revascularisation in terms of improvement in LVEF, heart failure symptoms, angina and mid‐term prognosis.
PMCID: PMC1861379  PMID: 16905627
14.  The Relationship between the Left Atrial Volume and the Maximum P-wave and P-wave Dispersion in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(5):810-817.
A maximum P-wave duration (Pmax) of ≥ 110 msec and a P-wave dispersion (PWD) ≥ 40 msec are accepted indicators of a disturbance in interatrial conduction and an inhomogeneous propagation of the sinus impulse, respectively. The left atrial (LA) volume has been reported to be strongly associated with a systolic and diastolic dysfunction and is considered to be an index of atrial remodeling. We aimed to investigate the relationship between LA volume and Pmax or PWD in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).
Patients and Methods
Sixty-one patients with CHF were enrolled in this study. The study population was classified into four groups: two groups were divided according to the Pmax (≥ 110 msec or < 110 ms), and the other two groups were formed based on the PWD (≥ 40 msec or < 40 msec). The left atrial volume index (LAVi) was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) transthoracic echocardiography. The Pmax and PWD were measured from a 12-lead electrocardiogram.
There were significant differences in the ejection fraction (EF), diastolic function, and LAVi between patients with a Pmax ≥ 110 ms or a PWD ≥ 40 ms and those with a Pmax < 110 ms or a PWD < 40 ms. The LAVi was independently associated with a disturbance in interatrial conduction and an inhomogeneous propagation of the sinus impulse. The LAVi can be used to identify patients with a disturbance in interatrial conduction and an inhomogeneous propagation of the sinus impulse with reasonably good accuracy.
We concluded that a disturbance in interatrial conduction and an inhomogenous propagation of the sinus impulse in patients with CHF is associated with an increase in the LA volume and a deleterious systolic and diastolic dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC2628148  PMID: 17963339
P-wave duration; P-wave dispersion; heart failure; left atrial volume
15.  Nebivolol And Quinapril Reduce P-Wave Duration And Dispersion In Hypertensive Patients 
We aimed to investigate the effects of nebivolol and quinapril treatments on P-wave duration and dispersion in hypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients who were in sinus rhythm were assigned to the two treatment groups and received either 20 mg quinapril/day or 5 mg nebivolol/day. P-Wave dispersion (PWD) was measured at baseline and after four weeks of treatment and defined as the difference between the maximum (Pmax) and the minimum (Pmin) P-wave duration. The study group consisted of 54 patients (Mean age: 53 ± 9 years, 46% women) with 27 patients in each group. At 4-week follow up both treatment groups showed a significant reduction (p< 0.001) in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Heart rate (HR) reduction was significant in patients receiving nebivolol (P=0.001). Both groups showed a similar (P=0.413 for PWD, p=0.651 for Pmax) but significant reduction in PWD (nebivolol: -16± 14, P< 0.0001 and quinapril: -13± 11, P< 0.0001) and Pmax (nebivolol: -10± 11, P=0.001 and quinapril: -9± 11, P=0.001). A 2 (Time) x 2 (Group) mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that the main effect of Time was significant for Pmax (P=0.002) and PWD (P=0.008) after controlling for changes in SBP, DBP and HR. However, the main effect of Group and Time x Group interaction was not significant for both variables (All p values > 0.05). In conclusion, short-term treatment with nebivolol and quinapril produces a similar but significant reduction in Pmax and PWD in hypertensive patients. This effect is independent of blood pressure and heart rate changes.
PMCID: PMC2683636  PMID: 19471593
P-wave duration; Nebivolol; Quinapril; Hypertension
16.  Efficacy of Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Infusion on Left Ventricular Performance in Type II Diabetic Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Artery Bypass Graft.Dy 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(2):62-68.
Glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) may improve cardiovascular performance after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Our study investigated whether an infusion of GIK during elective CABG surgery in type II diabetic patient improved left ventricular performance.
We measured left ventricular ejection fraction and troponin (Tn), a myofibrillar structural protein. In this research, after ethics committee approval, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were enrolled into a randomized simple sampling, prospective, double-blind clinical trial study. In the case group, 500 cc dextrose water 5% plus 80 IU regular insulin and 40 mEq KCL were infused at the rate of 30 cc/hr. Patients in control group received 5% dextrose solution at the rate of 30cc/hr. Venous blood samples were taken before induction of anesthesia, after removal of the aortic clamp and before discharging from hospital. The Mann-Whitney-test was used to test for differences in troponin concentration between the groups. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a difference in the proportion of patients with a low ejection fraction (<45%) in the case group compared with that in the control group. Changes in potassium and glucose concentrations over time within the groups were examined by ANOVA and paired t-tests. P < 0.05 was regarded as significant level for all tests.
In this study, 50 patients with type 2 DM were evaluated in case and control groups. The mean age ± SD in the case group was 57.7 ± 9.9 years and in the other group was 61.2 ± 8.4 years. The groups were well-matched for age, sex and number of bypass grafts. Randomization did not give an equal distribution of male and female patients. There wasn't any significant difference in ejection fraction between the case and control groups before and after CABG (P > 0.05). Troponin concentration in the case group was 3.3 ± 5.0 and in the control group was 3.9 ± 5.1. There was no significant difference in Tn between the two groups before and after CABG (P > 0.05). There was not any significant difference in hospitalization time between the two groups.
The results suggested that GIK can't improve left ventricular performance in routine CABG surgery.
PMCID: PMC3347817  PMID: 22577416
Cardiovascular surgery; Glucose-Insulin-Potassium; Cardiac troponin
17.  Signal averaged P wave compared with standard electrocardiography or echocardiography for prediction of atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass grafting. 
Heart  1997;77(5):417-422.
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical value of the signal averaged P wave (SAPW) and to compare it with the standard electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and clinical assessment for the prediction of atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass grafting (CABG). DESIGN: Prospective validation cohort study. SETTING: Regional cardiothoracic centre. PATIENTS: 201 unselected patients undergoing first elective CABG were recruited over six months. Patients requiring concomitant valve surgery were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, sex, cardiothoracic ratio, and cardioactive drugs were noted. P wave specific SAPW recordings, ECG, and M mode echocardiograms from which left atrial diameter was measured were performed within 24 hours of surgery. Filtered P wave duration (SAPWD), spatial velocity, and energy were calculated from the SAPW. From the ECG, lead II P wave duration, P terminal force in lead V1, total P wave duration, and isoelectric interval were measured. Patients had Holter monitoring for 48 hours postoperatively and daily ECGs until discharge. RESULTS: Two patients died (1%) and 10 were unsuitable for analysis (5%). Of the remaining 189, 51 (27%) had atrial fibrillation (AF) lasting > 1 hour at a mean of 2 (0.5 to 7) days after CABG. Of the variables examined, only SAPWD (AF group 148 (SD 12), v 142 (14) ms, P = 0.008) and male sex (AF group 96%, v 78%, P < 0.01) were significantly different. A prospectively defined SAPWD of > 141 ms predicted atrial fibrillation with positive and negative predictive accuracies of 34% and 83%. Logistic regression analysis identified both male sex and SAPWD as significant independent predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: Signal averaged P wave duration was a better predictor of atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass grafting than standard electrocardiographic or echocardiographic criteria. The predictive value of this test is such that it is likely to be useful in the design of prospective trials of prophylactic antiarrhythmic treatment but is of limited use using current techniques in the clinical management of individual patients.
PMCID: PMC484762  PMID: 9196410
18.  Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Carvedilol and Metoprolol on Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, a Double-Blind Study 
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a common complication after open heart surgery and is frequently associated with increased hospital stay, complications, and mortality rates. The effect of β-blockers on prevention of supraventricular arrhythmias has been confirmed in several prospective randomized studies.
This clinical trial aimed to compare the preventive effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on occurrence of AF after CABG surgery.
Patients and Methods:
This prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 150 patients (55 females, 95 males; mean age: 59 ± 10 years) who underwent CABG surgery. The patients with no contraindication for β-blocker use were randomly divided into two groups of carvedilol and metoprolol Tartarate (n = 75). Treatment with β-blocker was started on the first postoperative day (metoprolol, 25 mg BD; carvedilol, 6.25 mg, BD) and the dosage was regulated according to the patients’ hemodynamic response. All the patients were monitored 5 days after the surgery and incidence of AF and other complications was recorded in both groups.
AF was detected in 18 patients in the carvedilol group and 21 patients in the metoprolol group (P = 0.577). The results of Fisher Exact test showed no significant relationship between the type of the drug and the occurrence of AF (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, the prevalence of AF was higher in the renal failure group. AF was mostly recorded on the second and third days after the surgery. The results showed an association between old age and higher occurrence of AF. AF was recorded in 11 patients (14%) in the metoprolol group and 9 ones (12%) in the carvedilol group, with Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction (LVEF) being between 35% and 45% (P = 0.587). However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in this regard.
In the patients with sufficient ejection fraction, no difference was observed in using carvedilol or metoprolol in prevention of post-CABG AF. Yet, given the anti-oxidant and anti- inflammatory effects of carvedilol, it might be more beneficial in comparison to metoprolol, particularly in the patients with lower ejection fractions or heart failure.
PMCID: PMC4109035  PMID: 25177674
Atrial Fibrillation; Carvedilol; Metoprolol
19.  Influence of Mitral Regurgitation Repair on Survival in the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure Trial 
Circulation  2012;125(21):2639-2648.
Whether mitral valve repair (MVRep) during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) improves survival in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) remains unknown.
Methods and Results
Patients with ejection fraction ≤ 35% and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomized at 99 sites worldwide to medical therapy (MED) with or without CABG. The decision to treat the mitral valve during CABG was left to the surgeon. The primary endpoint was mortality. Of 1212 randomized patients, 435 (36%) had none/trace, 554 (46%) mild, 181 (15%) moderate, and 39 (3%) severe MR. In the medical arm, 70 deaths (32%) occurred in patients with none/trace, 114 (44%) with mild and 58 (50%) in moderate-severe MR. In patients with moderate-severe MR, there were 29 deaths (53%) among 55 patients randomized to CABG who did not receive mitral surgery (HR vs. MED 1.20, 95% CI 0.77–1.87) and 21 deaths (43%) among 49 patients who received mitral surgery (HR vs. MED 0.62, 95% CI 0.35–1.08). After adjustment for baseline prognostic variables, the HR for CABG with mitral surgery vs. CABG alone was 0.41 (95%CI 0.22–0.77; p=0.006).
While these observational data suggest that adding MVRep to CABG in patients with LV dysfunction and moderate-severe MR may improve survival compared with CABG alone or MED alone, a prospective randomized trial would be necessary to confirm the validity of these observations.
PMCID: PMC3776601  PMID: 22553307
cardiomyopathy; coronary disease; mitral valve; surgery; trials
20.  Coronary Arteries Bypass Grafting Surgery in Elderly Patients 
The incidence of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in elderly patients has been increasing. There are contradictory reports on the early outcome of elderly coronary artery patients as compared with their young counterparts. We designed this retrospective study to address this issue.
We retrospectively analyzed the results of 1489 on–pump CABG cases performed at our hospital during a 4.5-year period. Perioperative data such as demographic, medical, clinical, operative, and postoperative variables were collected and compared between patients 70 years old or younger (Group A, n = 1164) and patients above 70 years of age (Group B, n = 325). Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for the continuous and the X2 tests for the categorical variables. Significant variables according to the univariate analysis (X2 and t-test) were further analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
The variables of weight (P value < 0.001), preoperative PO2 (P value = 0.005), ejection fraction > 30% (P value = 0.001), body surface area (P value = 0.003), and hypercholesterolemia (P value = 0.007) were higher in Group A, whereas preoperative myocardial infarction (P value < 0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (P value = 0.019), emergent surgery (P value = 0.003), inotropic drug use (P value < 0.001), preoperative heparin use (P value < 0.001), re-exploration for bleeding (P value = 0.015), hospital stay (P value < 0.001), low ejection fraction (≤ 30%) (P value = 0.001), preoperative creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl (P value < 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P value < 0.001), intra-aortic balloon pump use (P value < 0.001), infection (P value < 0.001), pulmonary complications (P value < 0.001), atrial fibrillation (P value < 0.001), postoperative renal complications (P value < 0.001), and death (P value = 0.012) were more frequent in Group B.
CABG in the elderly patients had certain surgical risks such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, preoperative myocardial infarction, emergent surgery, and death. Also, postoperative complications such as pulmonary complications, inotropic drug use, intra-aortic balloon pump use, and infection were more frequent in the elderly than in the younger patients.
PMCID: PMC3740113  PMID: 23967029
Coronary artery bypass; Aged; Treatment outcome
21.  Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial: Mode of Death Results 
JACC. Heart failure  2013;1(5):10.1016/j.jchf.2013.04.012.
To assess the effect of the addition of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to medical therapy on mode of death in heart failure.
While CABG therapy is widely used in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients, there is no prospective clinical trial data on mode of death.
The Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure Trial (STICH) compared the strategy of CABG plus medical therapy to medical therapy alone in 1212 ischemic cardiomyopathy patients with reduced ejection fraction. A clinical events committee adjudicated deaths using pre-specified definitions for mode of death.
In STICH, there were 462 deaths over a median follow-up of 56 months. The addition of CABG therapy tended to reduce cardiovascular deaths (HR 0.83; CI (0.68, 1.03),p=0.09) and significantly reduced the most common modes of death: sudden death (HR 0.73; CI (.54–.99) p=0.041) and fatal pump failure events (HR 0.64; CI (.41–1.00) p=0.05). Time-dependent estimates indicate that the protective effect of CABG principally occurred after 24 months in both categories. Deaths post- cardiovascular procedures were increased in CABG patients (HR 3.11 CI (1.47–6.60), but fatal myocardial infarction deaths were lower (HR 0.07 CI (0.01–0.57). Non- cardiovascular deaths were infrequent and did not differ between groups.
In STICH, the addition of CABG to medical therapy reduced the most common modes of death: sudden death and fatal pump failure events. The beneficial effects were principally seen after 2 years. Post-procedure deaths were increased in patients randomized to CABG while myocardial infarction deaths were decreased.
PMCID: PMC3829618  PMID: 24621972
heart failure; mode of death; surgical
22.  A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Inhibition of Supraventricular Arrhythmias After Cardiac Surgery: The FISH Trial 
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) might have antiarrhythmic properties, but data conflict on whether n3-PUFAs reduce rates of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). We hypothesized that n3-PUFAs would reduce post-CABG AF, and we tested this hypothesis in a well-powered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial.
Methods and Results
Patients undergoing CABG were randomized to pharmaceutical-grade n3-PUFAs 2 g orally twice daily (minimum of 6 g) or a matched placebo ≥24 hours before surgery. Gas chromatography was used to assess plasma fatty acid composition of samples collected on the day of screening, day of surgery, and postoperative day 4. Treatment continued either until the primary end point, clinically significant AF requiring treatment, occurred or for a maximum of 2 weeks after surgery. Two hundred sixty patients were enrolled and randomized. Before surgery, n3-PUFA dosing increased plasma n3-PUFA levels from 2.9% to 4% and reduced the n6:n3-PUFA ratio from 9.1 to 6.4 (both P<0.001). Similar changes were noted on postoperative day 4. There were no lipid changes in the placebo group. The rate of post-CABG AF was similar in both groups (30% n3-PUFAs versus 33% placebo, P=0.67). The post-CABG AF odds ratio for n3-PUFAs relative to placebo was 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.52–1.53). There were no differences in any secondary end points.
Oral n3-PUFA supplementation begun 2 days before CABG did not reduce AF or other complications after surgery.
Clinical Trial Registration
url: Unique identifier: NCT00446966. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000547 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.111.000547.)
PMCID: PMC3487324  PMID: 23130134
fatty acids; coronary artery bypass graft surgery; atrial fibrillation
23.  Short-Term Complications and Resource Utilization in Matched Subjects After On-Pump or Off-Pump Primary Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass 
Studies suggest that patients who undergo off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) have fewer short-term complications and use fewer inpatient resources than do patients who undergo standard coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with extracorporeal circulation. However, dissimilarity between groups in risk factors for complications has hindered interpretation of results.
To compare the prevalence of selected complications (atrial fibrillation, stroke, reoperation, and bleeding) and inpatient resource utilization (length of stay, discharge disposition, total charges) between subjects undergoing primary isolated CABG or OPCABG who were matched with respect to key risk factors.
Retrospective, causal-comparative survey conducted in 1 center for 18 months. Patients who underwent primary isolated CABG or OPCABG were matched for sex, age (within 2 years), left ventricular ejection fraction (within 0.05), and graft-patient ratio (exact match) and compared for prevalence of new-onset atrial fibrillation, stroke, reoperation within 24 hours, and bleeding. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and t tests for paired comparisons.
The sample (107 matched pairs) was 63% male, with a mean age of 66 (SD 9.5) years, a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.51 (SD 0.13), and a mean graft-patient ratio of 3.41 (SD 0.74). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in New York Heart Association class (P=.43), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score (P=.22), postoperative β-blocker use (P=.73), or comorbid conditions. None of the complications examined differed significantly between pairs.
Patients with comparable risk profiles have similar prevalences of selected complications after CABG and OPCABG.
PMCID: PMC3655795  PMID: 15568655
24.  P Wave Duration And Dispersion In Patients With Hyperthyroidism And The Short-term Effects Of Antithyroid Treatment 
Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD) have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF).
Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment.
Maximum P wave duration (Pmax) (97.4±14.6 vs. 84.2±9.5 msec, p<0.001), PWD (42.9±10.7 vs. 31.0±6.2 msec, p<0.001), deceleration (DT) (190.7±22.6 vs. 177.0±10.2 msec, p=0.013) and isovolumetric relaxation times (IVRT) (90.9±11.2 vs. 79.6±10.5 msec, p<0.001) were significantly higher in hyperthyroid patients compared to control group. Pmax and PWD were significantly correlated with the presence of hyperthyroidism. Pmax (97.4±14.6 to 84.3±8.6 msec, p<0,001) Pmin (54.1±8.6 to 48.1±8.5 msec, p=0.002), PWD (42.9±10.7 to 35.9±8.1 msec, p=0.002) and DT (190.7±22.6 to 185.5±18.3, p=0.036) were significantly decreased after achievement of euthyroid state in patients with hyperthyroidism. Diastolic dyfunction was seen in 5 patients at hyperthroid state but only in one patient at euthyroid state.
Hyperthyroidism is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. Achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment results in shortening of P wave variables. Diastolic function may have a partial effect for the increased Pmax and PWD. Shortening of Pmax and PWD may be a marker for the prevention of AF with the anti-thyroid treatment.
PMCID: PMC2735157  PMID: 19763193
Hyperthyroidism; P wave dispersion; atrial fibrillation; propylthiouracil
25.  Postoperative Functional Outcome After Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using Gated Myocardial SPECT: A Comparison by Propensity Score Analysis 
We evaluated the short-term and mid-term differences in perfusion and function after off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography.
Materials and Methods
A total of 70 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent CABG were included based on the propensity score matching results from 165 patients. Thirty-five patients underwent off-pump and 35 patients on-pump CABG. Rest 201Tl/dipyridamole stress 99 mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile gated single photon emission computed tomographies were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at short-term (103 ± 23 days after surgery) and mid-term follow-up (502 ± 111 days after surgery). Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, end systolic volume, stress and rest segmental perfusion, and segmental wall thickening were compared between the two groups. The segments with preoperative rest 201Tl uptake under 60% of maximum uptake were included in the segmental analysis.
Left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.001) and end systolic volume (P = 0.008) showed significant improvement in both groups. There were no significant short-term and mid-term differences between the two groups in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.309) and end systolic volume (P = 0.938). Likewise, segmental rest (P = 0.178) and stress perfusion (P = 0.071), and systolic wall thickening (P = 0.241) showed significant improvement in both groups with similar time courses.
Off-pump CABG resulted in significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction, end systolic volume, and regional myocardial perfusion and function that are comparable to on-pump CABG at short-term and mid-term. Gated myocardial SPECT successfully revealed that off-pump CABG is as good as on-pump CABG from the viewpoint of myocardial perfusion and function.
PMCID: PMC4079778  PMID: 25013522
Gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography; Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Coronary artery disease

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