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1.  Purification of proteins fused to glutathione S-tranferase 
This chapter describes the use of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene fusion proteins as a method for inducible, high-level protein expression and purification from bacterial cell lysates. The protein is expressed in a pGEX vector, with the GST moiety located at the N-terminus followed by the target protein. The use of GST as a fusion tag is desirable because it can act as a chaperone to facilitate protein folding, and frequently the fusion protein can be expressed as a soluble protein rather than in inclusion bodies. Additionally, the GST fusion protein can be affinity purified facilely without denaturation or use of mild detergents. The fusion protein is captured by immobilized glutathione and impurities are washed away. The fusion protein then is eluted under mild, non-denaturing conditions using reduced glutathione. If desired, the removal of the GST affinity tag is accomplished by using a site-specific protease recognition sequence located between the GST moiety and the target protein. Purified proteins have been used successfully in immunological studies, structure determinations, vaccine production, protein-protein, and protein-DNA interaction studies and other biochemical analysis.
doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-913-0_14
PMCID: PMC3584333  PMID: 20978970
Glutathione S-transferase (GST); pGEX; protein expression; protein purification; thrombin; factor Xa; fusion tags
2.  An automated method for high-throughput protein purification applied to a comparison of His-tag and GST-tag affinity chromatography 
BMC Biotechnology  2003;3:12.
Background
Functional Genomics, the systematic characterisation of the functions of an organism's genes, includes the study of the gene products, the proteins. Such studies require methods to express and purify these proteins in a parallel, time and cost effective manner.
Results
We developed a method for parallel expression and purification of recombinant proteins with a hexahistidine tag (His-tag) or glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tag from bacterial expression systems. Proteins are expressed in 96-well microplates and are purified by a fully automated procedure on a pipetting robot. Up to 90 microgram purified protein can be obtained from 1 ml microplate cultures. The procedure is readily reproducible and 96 proteins can be purified in approximately three hours. It avoids clearing of crude cellular lysates and the use of magnetic affinity beads and is therefore less expensive than comparable commercial systems.
We have used this method to compare purification of a set of human proteins via His-tag or GST-tag. Proteins were expressed as fusions to an N-terminal tandem His- and GST-tag and were purified by metal chelating or glutathione affinity chromatography. The purity of the obtained protein samples was similar, yet His-tag purification resulted in higher yields for some proteins.
Conclusion
A fully automated, robust and cost effective method was developed for the purification of proteins that can be used to quickly characterise expression clones in high throughput and to produce large numbers of proteins for functional studies.
His-tag affinity purification was found to be more efficient than purification via GST-tag for some proteins.
doi:10.1186/1472-6750-3-12
PMCID: PMC183854  PMID: 12885298
3.  16S rRNA Is Bound to Era of Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(17):5242-5249.
Era is an essential membrane-associated GTPase that is present in bacteria and mycoplasmas. Era appears to play an important role in the regulation of the bacterial cell cycle. In this study, we expressed the native and glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion forms of Streptococcus pneumoniae Era in Escherichia coli and purified both proteins to homogeneity. We showed that RNA was copurified with the GST-Era protein of S. pneumoniae during affinity purification and remained associated with the protein after removal of the GST tag by thrombin cleavage. The thrombin-treated and untreated GST-Era proteins could bind and hydrolyze GTP and exhibited similar kinetic properties (dissociation constant [kD], Km, and Vmax). However, the native Era protein purified by using different chromatographic columns had a much lower GTPase activity than did GST-Era, although it had a similar kD. In addition, RNA was not associated with the protein. Purified GST-Era protein was shown to be present as high (600-kDa)- and low (120-kDa)-molecular-mass forms. The high-molecular-mass form of GST-Era was associated with RNA and exhibited a very high GTPase activity. Approximately 40% of purified GST-Era protein was associated with RNA, and removal of the RNA resulted in a significant reduction in GTPase activity. The RNA associated with GST-Era was shown to be predominantly 16S rRNA. The native Era protein isolated directly from S. pneumoniae was also present as a high-molecular-mass species (600 kDa) complexed with RNA. Together, our results suggest that 16S rRNA is associated with Era and might stimulate its GTPase activity.
PMCID: PMC94028  PMID: 10464193
4.  Plasmid Vectors for Proteomic Analyses in Giardia: Purification of Virulence Factors and Analysis of the Proteasome 
Eukaryotic Cell  2012;11(7):864-873.
In recent years, proteomics has come of age with the development of efficient tools for purification, identification, and characterization of gene products predicted by genome projects. The intestinal protozoan Giardia intestinalis can be transfected, but there is only a limited set of vectors available, and most of them are not user friendly. This work delineates the construction of a suite of cassette-based expression vectors for use in Giardia. Expression is provided by the strong constitutive ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) promoter, and tagging is possible in both N- and C-terminal configurations. Taken together, the vectors are capable of providing protein localization and production of recombinant proteins, followed by efficient purification by a novel affinity tag combination, streptavidin binding peptide–glutathione S-transferase (SBP-GST). The option of removing the tags from purified proteins was provided by the inclusion of a PreScission protease site. The efficiency and feasibility of producing and purifying endogenous recombinant Giardia proteins with the developed vectors was demonstrated by the purification of active recombinant arginine deiminase (ADI) and OCT from stably transfected trophozoites. Moreover, we describe the tagging, purification by StrepTactin affinity chromatography, and compositional analysis by mass spectrometry of the G. intestinalis 26S proteasome by employing the Strep II-FLAG–tandem affinity purification (SF-TAP) tag. This is the first report of efficient production and purification of recombinant proteins in and from Giardia, which will allow the study of specific parasite proteins and protein complexes.
doi:10.1128/EC.00092-12
PMCID: PMC3416501  PMID: 22611020
5.  Expression, purification, and properties of recombinant encephalomyocarditis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. 
Journal of Virology  1991;65(6):2993-3000.
Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), which allowed easy purification of the fusion protein by affinity chromatography on immobilized glutathione. Inclusion of a thrombin cleavage site between the GST carrier and the viral enzyme facilitated the release of purified mature EMC virus RNA polymerase from the GST carrier by proteolysis with thrombin. The purified recombinant enzyme has a molecular mass of about 52 kDa and is recognized by polyclonal immune serum raised against a peptide sequence corresponding to the C-terminal region of the protein. The recombinant enzyme comigrates with immunoprecipitated EMC virus RNA polymerase from infected mouse L929 cell extracts when run in parallel lanes on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. The enzyme exhibits rifampin-resistant, poly(A)-dependent poly(U) polymerase activity and RNA polymerase activity, which are both oligo(U) dependent. Template-size products are synthesized in in vitro reactions with EMC virus genomic RNA or globin mRNA. The availability of recombinant EMC virus RNA polymerase in a purified form will allow biochemical analysis of its role in the replication of the virus as well as structure-function studies of this unique class of enzyme.
Images
PMCID: PMC240947  PMID: 1851868
6.  Expression, purification, and bioactivity of GST-fused v-Src from a bacterial expression system*  
v-Src is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in many signal transduction pathways and closely related to the activation and development of cancers. We present here the expression, purification, and bioactivity of a GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fused v-Src from a bacterial expression system. Different culture conditions were examined in an isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-regulated expression, and the fused protein was purified using GSH (glutathione) affinity chromatography. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was employed to determine the phosphorylation kinase activity of the GST-fused v-Src. This strategy seems to be more promising than the insect cell system or other eukaryotic systems employed in earlier Src expression.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2006.B0013
PMCID: PMC1361754  PMID: 16365920
v-Src; GST-fusion; Inclusion body; Orthogonalization; Protein tyrosine kinase
7.  Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene*  
A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and β-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Yβ and Yδ in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or β-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Yδ of π class was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of α class and Yβ of μ class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene stress.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2005.B0759
PMCID: PMC1389857  PMID: 16052709
Glutathione transferases; Testis; Brain; Phenobarbitol; β-Methylcholanthrene
8.  An 80-Kilodalton Protein That Binds to the Pre-S1 Domain of Hepatitis B Virus 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(1):110-116.
It has been suggested that hepatitis B virus (HBV) binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane of human hepatocytes via the pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein as an initial step in HBV infection. However, the nature of the receptor remains controversial. In an attempt to identify a cell surface receptor for HBV, purified recombinant fusion protein of the pre-S1 domain of HBV with glutathione S-transferase (GST), expressed in Escherichia coli, was used as a ligand. The surface of human hepatocytes or HepG2 cells was biotinylated, and the cell lysate (precleared lysate) which did not bind to GST and glutathione-Sepharose beads was used as a source of receptor molecules. The precleared lysate of the biotinylated cells was incubated with the GST–pre-S1 fusion protein, and the bound proteins were visualized by Western blotting and enhanced chemiluminescence. An approximately 80-kDa protein (p80) was shown to bind specifically to the pre-S1 domain of the fusion protein. The receptor binding assay using serially or internally deleted segments of pre-S1 showed that amino acid residues 12 to 20 and 82 to 90 are essential for the binding of pre-S1 to p80. p80 also bound specifically to the pre-S1 of native HBV particles. Analysis of the tissue and species specificity of p80 expression in several available human primary cultures and cell lines of different tissue origin showed that p80 expression is not restricted to human hepatocytes. Taken together the results suggest that p80 may be a component of the viral entry machinery.
PMCID: PMC111519  PMID: 10590097
9.  Expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of two glutathione S-transferase-like proteins from Shewanella oneidensis  
The production and purification of recombinant SoGST3 and SoGST6, two GST-like proteins from S. oneidensis, are reported and preliminary crystallographic studies of crystals of the recombinant enzymes are presented.
Genome analysis of Shewanella oneidensis, a Gram-negative bacterium with an unusual repertoire of respiratory and redox capabilities, revealed the presence of six glutathione S-transferase-like genes (sogst1–sogst6). Glutathione S-­transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) are found in all kingdoms of life and are involved in phase II detoxification processes by catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of reduced glutathione on diverse electrophilic substrates, thereby decreasing their reactivity. Structure–function studies of prokaryotic GST-like proteins are surprisingly underrepresented in the scientific literature when compared with eukaryotic GSTs. Here, the production and purification of recombinant SoGST3 (SO_1576) and SoGST6 (SO_4697), two of the six GST-like proteins in S. oneidensis, are reported and preliminary crystallographic studies of crystals of the recombinant enzymes are presented. SoGST3 was crystallized in two different crystal forms in the presence of GSH and DTT that diffracted to high resolution: a primitive trigonal form in space group P31 that exhibited merohedral twinning with a high twin fraction and a primitive monoclinic form in space group P21. SoGST6 yielded primitive orthorhombic crystals in space group P212121 from which diffraction data could be collected to medium resolution after application of cryo-annealing protocols. Crystal structures of both SoGST3 and SoGST6 have been determined based on marginal search models by maximum-likelihood molecular replacement as implemented in the program Phaser.
doi:10.1107/S1744309108014589
PMCID: PMC2496851  PMID: 18540073
glutathione S-transferases; Shewanella oneidensis
10.  Characterization of hepatic glutathione S-transferases in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) 
The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of phase II detoxification enzymes which protect against chemical injury. In contrast to mammals, GST expression in fish has not been extensively characterized, especially in the context of detoxifying waterborne pollutants. In the Northwestern United States, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are an important species of Pacific salmon with complex life histories that can include exposure to a variety of compounds including GST substrates. In the present study we characterized the expression of coho hepatic GST to better understand the ability of coho to detoxify chemicals of environmental relevance. Western blotting of coho hepatic GST revealed the presence of multiple GST-like proteins of approximately 24–26 kDa. Reverse phase HPLC subunit analysis of GSH affinity-purified hepatic GST demonstrated six major and at least two minor potential GST isoforms which were characterized by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI MS–MS) and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS analyses. The major hepatic coho GST isoforms consisted of a pi and a rho-class GST, whereas GSTs representing the alpha and mu classes constituted minor isoforms. Catalytic studies demonstrated that coho cytosolic GSTs were active towards the prototypical GST substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as towards ethacrynic acid and nitrobutyl chloride. However, there was no observable cytosolic GST activity towards the pesticides methyl parathion or atrazine, or products of oxidative stress, such as cumene hydroperoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal. Interestingly, coho hepatic cytosolic fractions had a limited ability to bind bilirubin, reflecting a potential role in the sequestering of metabolic by-products. In summary, coho salmon exhibit a complex hepatic GST isoform expression profile consisting of several GST classes, but may have a limited a capacity to conjugate substrates of toxicological significance such as pesticides and endogenous compounds associated with cellular oxidative stress.
doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.11.009
PMCID: PMC3660141  PMID: 17184855
Glutathione S-transferases; Coho salmon; Oncorhynchus kisutch; Pesticides; LC–MS/MS
11.  Proteomic analysis of glutathione S-transferase isoforms in mouse liver mitochondria 
AIM: To survey glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) isoforms in mitochondria and to reveal the isoforms’ biological significance in diabetic mice.
METHODS: The presence of GSTs in mouse liver mitochondria was systematically screened by two proteomic approaches, namely, GSH affinity chromatography/two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE/MALDI TOF/TOF MS) and SDS-PAGE/LC ESI MS/MS. The proteomic results were further confirmed by Western blotting using monoclonal antibodies against GSTs. To evaluate the liver mitochondrial GSTs quantitatively, calibration curves were generated by the loading amounts of individual recombinant GST protein vs the relative intensities elicited from the Western blotting. An extensive comparison of the liver mitochondrial GSTs was conducted between normal and db/db diabetic mice. Student’s t test was adopted for the estimation of regression and significant difference.
RESULTS: Using GSH affinity/2DE/MALDI TOF/TOF MS, three GSTs, namely, alpha3, mu1 and pi1, were identified; whereas five GSTs, alpha3, mu1, pi1, kappa1 and zeta1, were detected in mouse liver mitochondria using SDS-PAGE/LC ESI MS/MS, of these GSTs, GST kappa1 was reported as a specific mitochondrial GST. The R2 values of regression ranged between values of about 0.86 and 0.98, which were acceptable for the quantification. Based on the measurement of the GST abundances in liver mitochondria of normal and diabetic mice, the four GSTs, alpha3, kappa1, mu1 and zeta1, were found to be almost comparable between the two sets of animals, whereas, lower GST pi1 was detected in the diabetic mice compared with normal ones, the signal of Western blotting in control and db/db diabetic mice liver mitochondria is 134.61 ± 53.84 vs 99.74 ± 46.2, with P < 0.05.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that GSTs exist widely in mitochondria and its abundances of mitochondrial GSTs might be tissue-dependent and disease-related.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i26.3435
PMCID: PMC3396197  PMID: 22807614
Glutathione S-transferase; Mitochondria; Liver; Proteomics; Diabetes
12.  Several Affinity Tags Commonly Used in Chromatographic Purification 
Affinity tags have become powerful tools from basic biological research to structural and functional proteomics. They were widely used to facilitate the purification and detection of proteins of interest, as well as the separation of protein complexes. Here, we mainly discuss the benefits and drawbacks of several affinity or epitope tags frequently used, including hexahistidine tag, FLAG tag, Strep II tag, streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) tag, calmodulin-binding peptide (CBP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), maltose-binding protein (MBP), S-tag, HA tag, and c-Myc tag. In some cases, a large-size affinity tag, such as GST or MBP, can significantly impact on the structure and biological activity of the fusion partner protein. So it is usually necessary to excise the tag by protease. The most commonly used endopeptidases are enterokinase, factor Xa, thrombin, tobacco etch virus, and human rhinovirus 3C protease. The proteolysis features of these proteases are described in order to provide a general guidance on the proteolytic removal of the affinity tags.
doi:10.1155/2013/581093
PMCID: PMC3893739  PMID: 24490106
13.  The effect of the interaction between aquaporin 0 (AQP0) and the filensin tail region on AQP0 water permeability 
Molecular Vision  2011;17:3191-3199.
Purpose
To study the interaction between the lens-specific water channel protein, aquaporin 0 (AQP0) and the lens-specific intermediate filament protein, filensin, and the effect of this interaction on the water permeability of AQP0. The effect of other factors on the interaction was also investigated.
Methods
Expression plasmids were constructed in which glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was fused to the AQP0 COOH-terminal region (GST-AQP0-C), which contains the major phosphorylation sites of the protein. Plasmids for AQP0 COOH-terminal mutants were also constructed in which one, three or five sites were pseudophosphorylated, and the proteins expressed from these GST-fusion plasmids were assayed for their interaction with lens proteins. Expressed recombinant GST-fusion proteins were purified using glutathione beads and incubated with rat lens extract. Western blotting was used to identify the lens proteins that interacted with the GST-fusion proteins. Filensin tail and rod domains were also expressed as GST-fusion proteins and their interactions with AQPO were analyzed. Additionally, the water permeability of AQP0 was calculated by expressing AQP0 with or without the filensin peptide on the cell membrane of Xenopus oocytes by injecting cRNAs for AQP0 and filensin.
Results
The GST-AQP0-C construct interacted with the tail region of lens filensin and the GST-filensin-tail construct interacted with lens AQP0, but the GST-filensin-rod construct did not interact with AQP0. GST-AQP0-C also interacted with a purified recombinant filensin-tail peptide after cleavage from GST. The AQP0/filensin-tail interaction was not affected by pseudophosphorylation of the AQP0 COOH-terminal tail, nor was it affected by changes in pH. Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP0 on the plasma membrane showed increased water permeability, which was lowered when the filensin COOH-terminal peptide cRNA was coinjected with the cRNA for AQP0.
Conclusions
The filensin COOH-terminal tail region interacted with the AQP0 COOH-terminal region and the results strongly suggested that the interaction was direct. It appears that interactions between AQP0 and filensin helps to regulate the water permeability of AQP0 and to organize the structure of lens fiber cells, and may also help to maintain the transparency of the lens.
PMCID: PMC3244488  PMID: 22194645
14.  Expression and serologic activity of a soluble recombinant Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(7):2772-2777.
Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP) is a conserved functionally important protein. P. vivax DBP is an asexual blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate because adhesion of P. vivax DBP to its erythrocyte receptor is essential for the parasite to continue development in human blood. We developed a soluble recombinant protein of P. vivax DBP (rDBP) and examined serologic activity to it in residents of a region of high endemicity. This soluble rDBP product contained the cysteine-rich ligand domain and most of the contiguous proline-rich hydrophilic region. rDBP was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and was isolated from GST by thrombin treatment of the purified fusion protein bound on glutathione agarose beads. P. vivax rDBP was immunogenic in rabbits and induced antibodies that reacted with P. vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi merozoites. Human sera from adult residents of a region of Papua New Guinea where malaria is highly endemic or P. vivax-infected North American residents reacted with rDBP in an immunoblot and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The reactivity to reduced, denatured P. vivax rDBP and the cross-reactivity with P. knowlesi indicated the presence of immunogenic conserved linear B-cell epitopes. A more extensive serologic survey of Papua New Guinea residents showed that antibody response to P. vivax DBP is common and increases with age, suggesting a possible boosting of the antibody response in some by repeated exposure to P. vivax. A positive humoral response to P. vivax DBP correlated with a significantly higher response to P. vivax MSP-1(19). The natural immunogenicity of this DBP should strengthen its usefulness as a vaccine.
PMCID: PMC175391  PMID: 9199449
15.  The ARiBo tag: a reliable tool for affinity purification of RNAs under native conditions 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(3):e18.
Although RNA-based biological processes and therapeutics have gained increasing interest, purification of in vitro transcribed RNA generally relies on gel-based methods that are time-consuming, tedious and denature the RNA. Here, we present a reliable procedure for affinity batch purification of RNA, which exploits the high-affinity interaction between the boxB RNA and the N-peptide from bacteriophage λ. The RNA of interest is synthesized with an ARiBo tag, which consists of an activatable ribozyme (the glmS ribozyme) and the λBoxB RNA. This ARiBo-fusion RNA is initially captured on Glutathione-Sepharose resin via a GST/λN-fusion protein, and the RNA of interest is subsequently eluted by ribozyme self-cleavage using glucosamine-6-phosphate. Several GST/λN-fusion proteins and ARiBo tags were tested to optimize RNA yield and purity. The optimized procedure enables one to quickly obtain (3 h) highly pure RNA (>99%) under native conditions and with yields comparable to standard denaturing gel-based protocols. It is widely applicable to a variety of RNAs, including riboswitches, ribozymes and microRNAs. In addition, it can be easily adapted to a wide range of applications that require RNA purification and/or immobilization, including isolation of RNA-associated complexes from living cells and high-throughput applications.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1084
PMCID: PMC3035436  PMID: 21071425
16.  Diurnal Variation of Hepatic Antioxidant Gene Expression in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e44237.
Background
This study was aimed to examine circadian variations of hepatic antioxidant components, including the Nrf2- pathway, the glutathione (GSH) system, antioxidant enzymes and metallothionein in mouse liver.
Methods and Results
Adult mice were housed in light- and temperature-controlled facilities for 2 weeks, and livers were collected every 4 h during the 24 h period. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Hepatic mRNA levels of Nrf2, Keap1, Nqo1 and Gclc were higher in the light-phase than the dark-phase, and were female-predominant. Hepatic GSH presented marked circadian fluctuations, along with glutathione S-transferases (GST-α1, GST-µ, GST-π) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1). The expressions of GPx1, GST-µ and GST-π mRNA were also higher in females. Antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1), catalase (CAT), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) showed circadian rhythms, with higher expressions of Cox-2 and CAT in females. Metallothionein, a small non-enzymatic antioxidant protein, showed dramatic circadian variation in males, but higher expression in females. The circadian variations of the clock gene Brain and Muscle Arnt-like Protein-1(Bmal1), albumin site D-binding protein (Dbp), nuclear receptor Rev-Erbα (Nr1d1), period protein (Per1 and Per2) and cryptochrome 1(Cry1) were in agreement with the literature. Furthermore, acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is more severe when administered in the afternoon when hepatic GSH was lowest.
Conclusions
Circadian variations and gender differences in transcript levels of antioxidant genes exist in mouse liver, which could affect body responses to oxidative stress at different times of the day.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044237
PMCID: PMC3430632  PMID: 22952936
17.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a glutathione S-transferase from Xylella fastidiosa  
Glutathione S-transferase from X. fastidiosa (xfGST) has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.23 Å.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) form a group of multifunctional isoenzymes that catalyze the glutathione-dependent conjugation and reduction reactions involved in the cellular detoxification of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. GST from Xylella fastidiosa (xfGST) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by conventional affinity chromatography. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of xfGST is described. The purified protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method, producing crystals that belonged to the triclinic space group P1. The unit-cell parameters were a = 47.73, b = 87.73, c = 90.74 Å, α = 63.45, β = 80.66, γ = 94.55°. xfGST crystals diffracted to 2.23 Å resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source.
doi:10.1107/S174430910706825X
PMCID: PMC2374177  PMID: 18259055
glutathione S-transferase; Xylella fastidiosa; cellular detoxification; peroxidase activity
18.  Proteomic Profiling of Cytosolic Glutathione Transferases from Three Bivalve Species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea 
Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs), in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST) were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties) between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism.
doi:10.3390/ijms15021887
PMCID: PMC3958827  PMID: 24473139
glutathione transferases; Corbicula fluminea; Anodonta cygnea; Mytilus galloprovincialis; detoxification; proteomics
19.  Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from pigmented Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures as putative anthocyanin transport proteins 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2008;59(13):3621-3634.
The ligandin activity of specific glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is necessary for the transport of anthocyanins from the cytosol to the plant vacuole. Five GSTs were purified from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux cell suspension cultures by glutathione affinity chromatography. These proteins underwent Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry fingerprinting, with the resultant fragments aligned with predicted GSTs within public databases. The corresponding coding sequences were cloned, with heterologous expression in Escherichia coli used to confirm GST activity. Transcriptional profiling of these candidate GST genes and key anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (PAL, CHS, DFR, and UFGT) in cell suspensions and grape berries against anthocyanin accumulation demonstrated strong positive correlation with two sequences, VvGST1 and VvGST4, respectively. The ability of VvGST1 and VvGST4 to transport anthocyanins was confirmed in the heterologous maize bronze-2 complementation model, providing further evidence for their function as anthocyanin transport proteins in grape cells. Furthermore, the differential induction of VvGST1 and VvGST4 in suspension cells and grape berries suggests functional differences between these two proteins. Further investigation of these candidate ligandins may identify a mechanism for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation in planta and in vitro suspension cells.
doi:10.1093/jxb/ern217
PMCID: PMC2561157  PMID: 18836188
Anthocyanin transport; glutathione S-transferase; ligandin; plant cell culture; Vitis vinifera
20.  Biotinylated-sortase self-cleavage purification (BISOP) method for cell-free produced proteins 
BMC Biotechnology  2010;10:42.
Background
Technology used for the purification of recombinant proteins is a key issue for the biochemical and structural analyses of proteins. In general, affinity tags, such as glutathione-S-transferase or six-histidines, are used to purify recombinant proteins. Since such affinity tags often interfere negatively with the structural and functional analyses of proteins, they are usually removed by treatment with proteases. Previously, Dr. H. Mao reported self-cleavage purification of a target protein by fusing the sortase protein to its N-terminal end, and subsequently obtained tag-free recombinant protein following expression in Escherichia coli. This method, however, is yet to be applied to the cell-free based protein production.
Results
The histidine tag-based self-cleavage method for purifying proteins produced by the wheat cell-free protein synthesis system showed high background, low recovery, and unexpected cleavage between the N-terminally fused sortase and target protein during the protein synthesis. Addition of calcium chelator BAPTA to the cell-free reaction inhibited the cleavage. In order to adapt the sortase-based purification method to the cell-free system, we next used biotin as the affinity tag. The biotinylated sortase self-cleavage purification (BISOP) method provided tag-free, highly purified proteins due to improved recovery of proteins from the resin. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the GFP produced by the BISOP method revealed that the cleavage indeed occurred at the right cleavage site. Using this method, we also successfully purified the E2 heterocomplex of USE2N and USE2v1. The c-terminal src kinase (CSK) obtained by the BISOP method showed high activity in phosphorylating the Src protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this method is suitable for automatically synthesizing and purifying proteins using robots.
Conclusion
We demonstrated that the newly developed BISOP method is very useful for obtaining high quality, tag-free recombinant proteins, produced using the cell-free system, for biochemical and structural analyses.
doi:10.1186/1472-6750-10-42
PMCID: PMC2901362  PMID: 20525307
21.  Vibrio harveyi Nitroreductase Is Also a Chromate Reductase 
The chromate reductase purified from Pseudomonas ambigua was found to be homologous with several nitroreductases. Escherichia coli DH5α and Vibrio harveyi KCTC 2720 nitroreductases were chosen for the present study, and their chromate-reducing activities were determined. A fusion between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and E. coli DH5α NfsA (GST-EcNfsA), a fusion between GST and E. coli DH5α NfsB (GST-EcNfsB), and a fusion between GST and V. harveyi KCTC 2720 NfsA (GST-VhNfsA) were prepared for their overproduction and easy purification. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNFsB, and GST-VhNFsA efficiently reduced nitrofurazone and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as their nitro substrates. The Km values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 11.8, 23.5, and 5.4 μM, respectively. The Vmax values for GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA were 3.8, 3.9, and 10.7 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. GST-VhNfsA was the most effective of the three chromate reductases, as determined by each Vmax/Km value. The optimal temperatures of GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA for chromate reduction were 55, 30, and 30°C, respectively. Thus, it is confirmed that nitroreductase can also act as a chromate reductase. Nitroreductases may be used in chromate remediation. GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA have a molecular mass of 50 kDa and exist as a monomer in solution. Thin-layer chromatography showed that GST-EcNfsA, GST-EcNfsB, and GST-VhNfsA contain FMN as a cofactor. GST-VhNfsA reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Cr(III) was much less toxic to E. coli than Cr(VI).
doi:10.1128/AEM.69.8.4390-4395.2003
PMCID: PMC169119  PMID: 12902220
22.  Erythrocyte glutathione synthetase deficiency leads not only to glutathione but also to glutathione-S-transferase deficiency. 
Glutathione synthetase (GSH-S) is one of the two known hereditary causes of glutathione deficiency. We describe a family whose two children have hemolytic anemia. The children's erythrocytes lack GSH and are severely deficient in GSH-S activity. No neurologic findings or 5-oxoprolinuria were present. A concurrent deficiency of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was also detected in the erythrocytes. Residual glutathione could be detected in the erythrocytes using a sensitive cycling assay. The deficiency was found to be most severe in reticulocyte-depleted preparations. The GSH-S activity of the erythrocytes of the parents was one-half normal, while the glutathione S-transferase activity was normal. We conclude that the primary defect is one of GSH-S. Glutathione stabilizes GST in vitro, and it is assumed that the deficiency of GST in the erythrocytes of the patients is due to the instability of this enzyme in the absence of adequate intracellular GSH levels.
PMCID: PMC423305  PMID: 3944259
23.  Identification of a minimal hydrophobic domain in the herpes simplex virus type 1 scaffolding protein which is required for interaction with the major capsid protein. 
Journal of Virology  1996;70(1):533-540.
Recent biochemical and genetic studies have demonstrated that an essential step of the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid assembly pathway involves the interaction of the major capsid protein (VP5) with either the C terminus of the scaffolding protein (VP22a, ICP35) or that of the protease (Pra, product of UL26). To better understand the nature of the interaction and to further map the sequence motif, we expressed the C-terminal 30-amino-acid peptide of ICP35 in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (GST/CT). Purified GST/CT fusion proteins were then incubated with 35S-labeled herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cell lysates containing VP5. The interaction between GST/CT and VP5 was determined by coprecipitation of the two proteins with glutathione Sepharose beads. Our results revealed that the GST/CT fusion protein specifically interacts with VP5, suggesting that the C-terminal domain alone is sufficient for interaction with VP5. Deletion analysis of the GST/CT binding domain mapped the interaction to a minimal 12-amino-acid motif. Substitution mutations further revealed that the replacement of hydrophobic residues with charged residues in the core region of the motif abolished the interaction, suggesting that the interaction is a hydrophobic one. A chaotropic detergent, 0.1% Nonidet P-40, also abolished the interaction, further supporting the hydrophobic nature of the interaction. Computer analysis predicted that the minimal binding motif could form a strong alpha-helix structure. Most interestingly, the alpha-helix model maximizes the hydropathicity of the minimal domain so that all of the hydrophobic residues are centered around a Phe residue on one side of the alpha-helix. Mutation analysis revealed that the Phe residue is absolutely critical for the binding, since changes to Ala, Tyr, or Trp abrogated the interaction. Finally, in a peptide competition experiment, the C-terminal 25-amino-acid peptide, as well as a minimal peptide derived from the binding motif, competed with GST/CT for interaction with VP5. In addition, a cyclic analog of the minimal peptide which is designed to stabilize an alpha-helical structure competed more efficiently than the minimal peptide. The evidence suggests that the C-terminal end of ICP35 forms an alpha-helical secondary structure, which may bind specifically to a hydrophobic pocket in VP5.
PMCID: PMC189841  PMID: 8523566
24.  Biochemical Characterization and Vaccine Potential of a Heme-Binding Glutathione Transferase from the Adult Hookworm Ancylostoma caninum  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(10):6903-6911.
We report the cloning and expression of Ac-GST-1, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, and its possible role in parasite blood feeding and as a vaccine target. The predicted Ac-GST-1 open reading frame contains 207 amino acids (mass, 24 kDa) and exhibited up to 65% amino acid identity with other nematode GSTs. mRNA encoding Ac-GST-1 was detected in adults, eggs, and larval stages, but the protein was detected only in adult hookworm somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products. Using antiserum to the recombinant protein, Ac-GST-1 was immunolocalized to the parasite hypodermis and muscle tissue and weakly to the intestine. Recombinant Ac-GST-1 was enzymatically active, as determined by conjugation of glutathione to a model substrate, and exhibited a novel high-affinity binding site for hematin. The possible role of Ac-GST-1 in parasite heme detoxification during hemoglobin digestion or heme uptake prompted interest in evaluating it as a potential vaccine antigen. Vaccination of dogs with Ac-GST-1 resulted in a 39.4% reduction in the mean worm burden and 32.3% reduction in egg counts compared to control dogs following larval challenge, although the reductions were not statistically significant. However, hamsters vaccinated with Ac-GST-1 exhibited statistically significant worm reduction (53.7%) following challenge with heterologous Necator americanus larvae. These studies suggest that Ac-GST-1 is a possible drug and vaccine target for hookworm infection.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.10.6903-6911.2005
PMCID: PMC1230892  PMID: 16177370
25.  Inhibition of p53 DNA binding by human papillomavirus E6 proteins. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(7):4262-4273.
Transformation by the human papillomavirus (HPV) early gene products, E6 and E7, involves their interaction with cellular proteins p53 and Rb. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins, we found that HPV E6 bound human p53 and that the relative efficiency of binding varied such that the GST-HPV type 16 E6 (16E6) protein bound p53 with highest affinity, followed by GST-31E6, GST-18E6, and GST-11E6. The GST-E6 fusion proteins were sufficient for binding p53 purified from a baculovirus expression system as well as in vitro translation sources, while no association was observed with GST-18E7 or a GST-16E6 mutant bearing a five-amino-acid deletion in E6. When the site-specific DNA binding activity of p53 was examined in the presence of GST-E6 proteins, an inhibition of DNA binding was observed. The degree of inhibition correlated with the relative affinity of different E6 proteins for p53; thus, GST-16E6 was the most potent inhibitor of p53 DNA binding activity, and GST-11E6 was the least effective. Prevention of p53 DNA binding is likely to play a role in the abrogation of the transcriptional activity of p53 by HPV E6 and provides a further mechanism for E6 disruption of p53 growth suppressor function in addition to its role in directing specific degradation of p53 through the ubiquitin-mediated pathway. The variation in inhibition of DNA binding seen with the various E6 proteins may thus contribute to the differences in oncogenic potential seen among the HPV types.
Images
PMCID: PMC236349  PMID: 8207801

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