Laribacter hongkongensis is a Gram-negative, urease-positive bacillus associated with invasive bacteremic infections in liver cirrhosis patients and fish-borne community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler’s diarrhea. Its mechanisms of adaptation to various environmental niches and host defense evasion are largely unknown. During the process of analyzing the L. hongkongensis genome, a complete urease cassette and two adjacent arc gene cassettes were found. We hypothesize that the urease cassette and/or the arc gene cassettes are important for L. hongkongensis to survive in acidic environment and macrophages. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by constructing single, double and triple non-polar deletion mutants of the urease and two arc gene cassettes of L. hongkongensis using the conjugation-mediated gene deletion system and examining their effects in acidic environment in vitro, in macrophages and in a mouse model.
HLHK9∆ureA, HLHK9∆ureC, HLHK9∆ureD and HLHK9∆ureE all exhibited no urease activity. HLHK9∆arcA1 and HLHK9∆arcA2 both exhibited arginine deiminase (ADI) activities, but HLHK9∆arcA1/arcA2 double deletion mutant exhibited no ADI activity. At pH 2 and 3, survival of HLHK9∆arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9∆ureA/arcA1/arcA2 were markedly decreased (p < 0.001) but that of HLHK9∆ureA was slightly decreased (p < 0.05), compared to wild type L. hongkongensis HLHK9. Survival of HLHK9∆ureA/arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9∆arcA1/arcA2 in macrophages were also markedly decreased (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 respectively) but that of HLHK9∆ureA was slightly decreased (p < 0.05), compared to HLHK9, although expression of arcA1, arcA2 and ureA genes were all upregulated. Using a mouse model, HLHK9∆ureA exhibited similar survival compared to HLHK9 after passing through the murine stomach, but survival of HLHK9∆arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9∆ureA/arcA1/arcA2 were markedly reduced (p < 0.01).
In contrast to other important gastrointestinal tract pathogens, ADI pathway is far more important than urease for acid resistance and intracellular survival in L. hongkongensis. The gene duplication of the arc gene cassettes could be a result of their functional importance in L. hongkongensis.
Laribacter hongkongensis; Acid resistance; Arginine deiminase pathway; Microbe-host interaction
Klebsiella pneumoniae causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly amongst hospitalized individuals. The principle mechanism for pathogenesis in hospital environments involves the formation of biofilms, primarily on implanted medical devices. In this study, we constructed a transposon mutant library in a clinical isolate, K. pneumoniae AJ218, to identify the genes and pathways implicated in biofilm formation. Three mutants severely defective in biofilm formation contained insertions within the mrkABCDF genes encoding the main structural subunit and assembly machinery for type 3 fimbriae. Two other mutants carried insertions within the yfiN and mrkJ genes, which encode GGDEF domain- and EAL domain-containing c-di-GMP turnover enzymes, respectively. The remaining two isolates contained insertions that inactivated the mrkH and mrkI genes, which encode for novel proteins with a c-di-GMP-binding PilZ domain and a LuxR-type transcriptional regulator, respectively. Biochemical and functional assays indicated that the effects of these factors on biofilm formation accompany concomitant changes in type 3 fimbriae expression. We mapped the transcriptional start site of mrkA, demonstrated that MrkH directly activates transcription of the mrkA promoter and showed that MrkH binds strongly to the mrkA regulatory region only in the presence of c-di-GMP. Furthermore, a point mutation in the putative c-di-GMP-binding domain of MrkH completely abolished its function as a transcriptional activator. In vivo analysis of the yfiN and mrkJ genes strongly indicated their c-di-GMP-specific function as diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase, respectively. In addition, in vitro assays showed that purified MrkJ protein has strong c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. These results demonstrate for the first time that c-di-GMP can function as an effector to stimulate the activity of a transcriptional activator, and explain how type 3 fimbriae expression is coordinated with other gene expression programs in K. pneumoniae to promote biofilm formation to implanted medical devices.
Biofilms are surface-associated communities of microorganisms. Biofilm-associated bacteria are protected from host defenses and antibiotics and are the cause of many infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae is primarily a hospital-acquired bacterial pathogen that causes pneumonia, urinary tract infections and septicemia. Its success is related to its ability to form biofilms on medical devices, such as catheters. In K. pneumoniae, biofilm formation is mediated by type 3 fimbriae – hair-like, protein appendages extending out from the cell surface that adhere to surfaces. This study investigated how K. pneumoniae regulates the expression of these fimbriae. We identified a protein, MrkH, which behaves as a “biofilm switch” that turns on the expression of genes responsible for producing type 3 fimbriae. MrkH works by binding to regulatory regions of DNA nearby to these genes and initiates their expression. Importantly, MrkH binds to DNA strongly only when the protein is stimulated by a small molecule, c-di-GMP. Furthermore, we identified bacterial enzymes that either produce or break down c-di-GMP to control its concentration within the cell, and thus modulate MrkH activity. Understanding the molecular basis for these processes may lead to the development of therapeutic compounds, possibly for incorporation into medical device materials to inhibit biofilm formation and pathogenesis.
Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 together with a Lactobacillus-free mouse model, provides a system with which the molecular traits underpinning bacterial commensalism in vertebrates can be studied. A polysaccharide was extracted from sucrose-containing liquid cultures of strain 100-23. Chemical analysis showed that this exopolysaccharide was a levan (β-2, 6-linked fructan). Mutation of the fructosyl transferase (ftf) gene resulted in loss of exopolysaccharide production. The ftf mutant was able to colonise the murine gastrointestinal tract in the absence of competition, but colonisation was impaired in competition with the wild type. Biofilm formation by the mutant on the forestomach epithelial surface was not impaired and the matrix between cells was indistinguishable from that of the wild type in electron micrographs. Colonisation of the mouse gut by the wild-type strain led to increased proportions of regulatory T cells (Foxp3+) in the spleen, whereas colonisation by the ftf mutant did not. Survival of the mutant in sucrose-containing medium was markedly reduced relative to the wild type. Comparison of the genomic ftf loci of strain 100-23 with other L. reuteri strains suggested that the ftf gene was acquired by lateral gene transfer early in the evolution of the species and subsequently diversified at accelerated rates. Levan production by L. reuteri 100-23 may represent a function acquired by the bacterial species for life in moderate to high-sucrose extra-gastrointestinal environments that has subsequently been diverted to novel uses, including immunomodulation, that aid in colonisation of the murine gut.
Lactobacillus reuteri; exopolysaccharide; survival; regulatory T cells; evolution
The nasopharyngeal commensal bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae is also a frequent cause of serious infections. Nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. pneumoniae inhibits subsequent re-colonisation by inducing Th17-cell adaptive responses, whereas vaccination prevents invasive infections by inducing antibodies to S. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides. In contrast, protection against invasive infection after nasopharyngeal colonisation with mutant S. pneumoniae strains was associated with antibody responses to protein antigens. The role of colonisation-induced Th17-cell responses during subsequent invasive infections is unknown. Using mouse models, we show that previous colonisation with S. pneumoniae protects against subsequent lethal pneumonia mainly by preventing bacteraemia with a more modest effect on local control of infection within the lung. Previous colonisation resulted in CD4-dependent increased levels of Th17-cell cytokines during subsequent infectious challenge. However, mice depleted of CD4 cells prior to challenge remained protected against bacteraemia, whereas no protection was seen in antibody deficient mice and similar protection could be achieved through passive transfer of serum. Serum from colonised mice but not antibody deficient mice promoted phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae, and previously colonised mice were able to rapidly clear S. pneumoniae from the blood after intravenous inoculation. Thus, despite priming for a Th17-cell response during subsequent infection, the protective effects of prior colonisation in this model was not dependent on CD4 cells but on rapid clearance of bacteria from the blood by antibody-mediated phagocytosis. These data suggest that whilst nasopharyngeal colonisation induces a range of immune responses, the effective protective responses depend upon the site of subsequent infection.
Despite the importance of maintaining redox homeostasis for cellular viability, how cells control redox balance globally is poorly understood. Here we provide new mechanistic insight into how the balance between reduced and oxidized electron carriers is regulated at the level of gene expression by mapping the regulon of the response regulator ArcA from Escherichia coli, which responds to the quinone/quinol redox couple via its membrane-bound sensor kinase, ArcB. Our genome-wide analysis reveals that ArcA reprograms metabolism under anaerobic conditions such that carbon oxidation pathways that recycle redox carriers via respiration are transcriptionally repressed by ArcA. We propose that this strategy favors use of catabolic pathways that recycle redox carriers via fermentation akin to lactate production in mammalian cells. Unexpectedly, bioinformatic analysis of the sequences bound by ArcA in ChIP-seq revealed that most ArcA binding sites contain additional direct repeat elements beyond the two required for binding an ArcA dimer. DNase I footprinting assays suggest that non-canonical arrangements of cis-regulatory modules dictate both the length and concentration-sensitive occupancy of DNA sites. We propose that this plasticity in ArcA binding site architecture provides both an efficient means of encoding binding sites for ArcA, σ70-RNAP and perhaps other transcription factors within the same narrow sequence space and an effective mechanism for global control of carbon metabolism to maintain redox homeostasis.
The cofactor NAD+ plays a central role in energy conservation pathways, shuttling electrons from the oxidation of growth substrates to respiratory or fermentative pathways. To sustain catabolism and cellular ATP demand, an appropriate balance between the reduced and oxidized forms of NAD+ must be maintained. Our genome-scale analysis of the transcription factor ArcA provides insight into how this process is transcriptionally regulated in E. coli in the absence of O2. We found that ArcA mediates a previously unrealized comprehensive transcriptional repression of genes encoding proteins associated with oxidation of non-fermentable carbon sources. Through the repression of these pathways, oxidized NAD+ is effectively preserved for fermentation pathways, facilitating energy conservation and preserving a balance between the oxidized and reduced forms of NAD+ in the absence of aerobic respiration. In addition, we found that the majority of ArcA binding sites contain additional sequence elements beyond that required for binding of an ArcA dimer, providing novel insight into how ArcA and other members of the largest class of two component system-response regulators (OmpR/PhoB family) may achieve global regulation of gene expression.
A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level. We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature (treated with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which multiple C. jejuni strains can colonise a single host, with the dominant strains being replaced as a consequence of strain-specific immune responses. This model represents a new understanding of C. jejuni epidemiology, with future implications for the development of novel intervention strategies.
Pathogenic bacteria that can be transferred from animals to humans represent a highly potent human health hazard. Understanding the ecology of these pathogens in the animal host is of fundamental importance. A major analytical challenge, however, is the fact that individual animal hosts can be colonised by multiple strains of a given pathogen. We have addressed this challenge by developing a novel high-throughput approach for analyses of mixed strain infections. We chose Campylobacter jejuni colonisation of the chicken gastrointestinal (GI) tract as a model. C. jejuni is a major cause of food-borne disease in humans, and chickens are considered a main reservoir from which this bacterium may enter the food chain. We analysed the co-colonisation of seven C. jejuni strains in two groups of chickens with very different background GI microfloras. We found that mainly two of the C. jejuni strains colonised the chickens, with a shift in the dominant coloniser during the infection period. The C. jejuni colonisation pattern, however, was little affected by the dominating GI microflora. We propose a model where the chicken immune response is the important determinant for C. jejuni colonisation, and suggest that multiple strain colonisation could be a way of maintaining stable infections in the animal host. This new knowledge is very important for future development of novel intervention strategies to prevent C. jejuni from entering the human food chain.
Community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) complicated with meningitis and endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging infectious disease. To investigate the mechanisms and effects of biofilm formation of K. pneumoniae causing PLA, microtiter plate assays were used to determine the levels of biofilm formed by K. pneumoniae clinical isolates and to screen for biofilm-altered mutants from a transposon mutant library of a K. pneumoniae PLA-associated strain.
The biofilm formation of K. pneumoniae was examined by microtiter plate assay. Higher levels of biofilm formation were demonstrated by K. pneumoniae strains associated with PLA. A total of 23 biofilm-decreased mutants and 4 biofilm-increased mutants were identified. Among these mutants, a biofilm-decreased treC mutant displayed less mucoviscosity and produced less capsular polysaccharide (CPS), whereas a biofilm-increased sugE mutant displayed higher mucoviscosity and produced more CPS. The biofilm phenotypes of treC and sugE mutants also were confirmed by glass slide culture. Deletion of treC, which encodes trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase, impaired bacterial trehalose utilization. Addition of glucose to the culture medium restored the capsule production and biofilm formation in the treC mutant. Transcriptional profile analysis suggested that the increase of CPS production in ΔsugE may reflect elevated cps gene expression (upregulated through rmpA) in combination with increased treC expression. In vivo competition assays demonstrated that the treC mutant strain was attenuated in competitiveness during intragastric infection in mice.
Genes important for biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae PLA strain were identified using an in vitro assay. Among the identified genes, treC and sugE affect biofilm formation by modulating CPS production. The importance of treC in gastrointestinal tract colonization suggests that biofilm formation contributes to the establishment and persistence of K. pneumoniae infection.
Gastric colonisation with intestinal flora (IF) has been shown to promote Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-associated gastric cancer. However, it is unknown if the mechanism involves colonisation with specific or diverse microbiota secondary to gastric atrophy.
Gastric colonisation with Altered Schaedler’s flora (ASF) and Hp were correlated with pathology, immune responses and mRNA expression for proinflammatory and cancer-related genes in germ-free (GF), Hp monoassociated (mHp), restricted ASF (rASF; 3 species), and specific pathogen-free (complex IF), hypergastrinemic INS-GAS mice 7 months postinfection.
Male mice cocolonised with rASFHp or IFHp developed the most severe pathology. IFHp males had the highest inflammatory responses, and 40% developed invasive gastrointestinal intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN). Notably, rASFHp colonisation was highest in males and 23% developed invasive GIN with elevated expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Lesions were less severe in females and none developed GIN. Gastritis in male rASFHp mice was accompanied by decreased Clostridum species ASF356 and Bacteroides species ASF519 colonisation and an overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus ASF361, supporting that inflammation-driven atrophy alters the gastric niche for GI commensals. Hp colonisation also elevated expression of IL-11 and cancer-related genes, Ptger4 and Tgf-β, further supporting that Hp infection accelerates gastric cancer development in INS-GAS mice.
rASFHp colonisation was sufficient for GIN development in males, and lower GIN incidence in females was associated with lower inflammatory responses and gastric commensal and Hp colonisation. Colonisation efficiency of commensals appears more important than microbial diversity and lessens the probability that specific gastrointestinal pathogens are contributing to cancer risk.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important gram-negative opportunistic pathogen causing primarily urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and bacteraemia. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on medical devices, e.g. catheters, has a major role in development of many nosocomial infections. Most clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express two types of fimbrial adhesins, type 1 fimbriae and type 3 fimbriae. In this study, we characterized the role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in K. pneumoniae biofilm formation.
Isogenic fimbriae mutants of the clinical K. pneumoniae isolate C3091 were constructed, and their ability to form biofilm was investigated in a flow cell system by confocal scanning laser microscopy. The wild type strain was found to form characteristic biofilm and development of K. pneumoniae biofilm occurred primarily by clonal growth, not by recruitment of planktonic cells. Type 1 fimbriae did not influence biofilm formation and the expression of type 1 fimbriae was found to be down-regulated in biofilm forming cells. In contrast, expression of type 3 fimbriae was found to strongly promote biofilm formation.
By use of well defined isogenic mutants we found that type 3 fimbriae, but not type 1 fimbriae, strongly promote biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae C3091. As the vast majority of clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express type 3 fimbriae, this fimbrial adhesin may play a significant role in development of catheter associated K. pneumoniae infections.
Backgrounds and aims
Controversy still exists as to whether gastrointestinal colonisation by Candida albicans contributes to aggravation of atopic dermatitis. We hypothesised that Candida colonisation promotes food allergy, which is known to contribute to a pathogenic response in atopic dermatitis. We tested this using a recently established murine Candida colonisation model.
Candida colonisation in the gastrointestinal tract was established by intragastric inoculation with C albicans in mice fed a synthetic diet. To investigate sensitisation against food antigen, mice were intragastrically administered with ovalbumin every other day for nine weeks, and antiovalbumin antibody titres were measured weekly. To examine gastrointestinal permeation of food antigen, plasma concentrations of ovalbumin were measured following intragastric administration of ovalbumin.
Ovalbumin specific IgG and IgE titres were higher in BALB/c mice with Candida colonisation than in normal mice. Gastrointestinal permeation of ovalbumin was enhanced by colonisation in BALB/c mice. Histological examination showed that colonisation promoted infiltration and degranulation of mast cells. Candida colonisation did not enhance ovalbumin permeation in mast cell deficient W/Wv mice but did in congenic littermate control +/+ mice. Reconstitution of mast cells in W/Wv mice by transplantation of bone marrow derived mast cells restored the ability to increase ovalbumin permeation in response to Candida colonisation.
These results suggest that gastrointestinal Candida colonisation promotes sensitisation against food antigens, at least partly due to mast cell mediated hyperpermeability in the gastrointestinal mucosa of mice.
Candida albicans ; food allergy; atopic dermatitis; mast cells
Streptococcus pneumoniae is auxotrophic for arginine, and molecular analysis of the pneumococcal genome showed that the gene encoding an arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD) is organized in a cluster together with the arcABC genes encoding the arginine deiminase system (ADS) of pneumococci. The ADS consists of the arginine deiminase (AD), the catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase (cOCT), and the carbamate kinase (CK). Pneumococcal genomes contain three ArgR-type regulators (ArgR1, ArgR2, and AhrC) that are supposed to be involved in the regulation of arginine metabolism. Here, we identified ArgR2 of TIGR4 as the regulator of the ADS and ArcD. ArgR2 binds to promoter sequences of the arc operon, and the deficiency of ArgR2 in TIGR4 abrogates expression of the ADS, including the arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD. Intranasal infection of mice and real-time bioimaging revealed that deletion of the arcABCDT genes attenuates TIGR4. However, the acute-pneumonia model and coinfection experiments indicated that the arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD is essential to maintain fitness, while the deficiency of ADS enzymes has a minor impact on pneumococcal fitness under in vivo conditions. Strikingly, argR2 mutant TIGR4 outcompeted the wild type in the respiratory tract, suggesting an increase in fitness and further regulatory functions of ArgR2. In contrast to TIGR4, other pneumococci, such as D39, lacking expression of ArgR2, constitutively express the ADS with a truncated nonfunctional AD. On the basis of these results, we propose that the arginine-ornithine antiporter is essential to maintain pneumococcal fitness and that the genes of the ADS cluster are positively regulated in a strain-specific manner by ArgR2.
Pneumococci are the major etiologic agents of community-acquired pneumonia, causing more than 1.5 million deaths annually worldwide. These versatile pathogens are highly adapted to the nutrients provided by the host niches encountered. Physiological fitness is of major importance for colonization of the nasopharyngeal cavity and dissemination during invasive infections. This work identifies the regulator ArgR2 as the activator of the S. pneumoniae TIGR4 ADS and the arginine-ornithine transporter ArcD, which is needed for uptake of the essential amino acid arginine. Although ArgR2 activates ArcD expression and uptake of arginine is required to maintain pneumococcal fitness, the deficiency of ArgR2 increases TIGR4 virulence under in vivo conditions, suggesting that other factors regulated by ArgR2 counterbalance the reduced uptake of arginine by ArcD. Thus, this work illustrates that the physiological homeostasis of pneumococci is complex and that ArgR2 plays a key role in maintaining bacterial fitness.
A novel in vivo expression technology (IVET) was performed to identify Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43 genes that are specifically expressed during infection of BALB/c mice. The IVET employed a UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase (galU)-deficient mutant of K. pneumoniae which is incapable of utilizing galactose and synthesizing capsular polysaccharide, as demonstrated by its low virulence to BALB/c mice and a white nonmucoid colony morphology on MacConkey-galactose agar. By using a functional galU gene as the reporter, an IVE promoter could render the galU mutant virulent while maintaining the white nonmucoid colony phenotype. A total of 20 distinct sequences were obtained through the in vivo selection. Five of them have been identified previously as virulence-associated genes in other pathogens, while another five with characterized functions are involved in regulation and transportation of nutrient uptake, biosynthesis of isoprenoids, and protein folding. No known functions have been attributed to the other 10 sequences. We have also demonstrated that 2 of the 20 IVE genes turn on under iron deprivation, whereas the expression of another five genes was found to be activated in the presence of paraquat, a superoxide generator.
The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative organism that relies on glycolytic metabolism to obtain energy. In the human nasopharynx S. pneumoniae encounters glycoconjugates composed of a variety of monosaccharides, which can potentially be used as nutrients once depolymerized by glycosidases. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesise that the pneumococcus would rely on these glycan-derived sugars to grow. Here, we identified the sugar-specific catabolic pathways used by S. pneumoniae during growth on mucin. Transcriptome analysis of cells grown on mucin showed specific upregulation of genes likely to be involved in deglycosylation, transport and catabolism of galactose, mannose and N acetylglucosamine. In contrast to growth on mannose and N-acetylglucosamine, S. pneumoniae grown on galactose re-route their metabolic pathway from homolactic fermentation to a truly mixed acid fermentation regime. By measuring intracellular metabolites, enzymatic activities and mutant analysis, we provide an accurate map of the biochemical pathways for galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine catabolism in S. pneumoniae. Intranasal mouse infection models of pneumococcal colonisation and disease showed that only mutants in galactose catabolic genes were attenuated. Our data pinpoint galactose as a key nutrient for growth in the respiratory tract and highlights the importance of central carbon metabolism for pneumococcal pathogenesis.
Infectious challenge of the human nasal mucosa elicits immune responses that determine the fate of the host-bacterial interaction; leading either to clearance, colonisation and/or disease. Persistent antigenic exposure from pneumococcal colonisation can induce both humoral and cellular defences that are protective against carriage and disease. We challenged healthy adults intra-nasally with live 23F or 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae in two sequential cohorts and collected nasal wash, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood before and 6 weeks after challenge. We hypothesised that both cohorts would successfully become colonised but this did not occur except for one volunteer. The effect of bacterial challenge without colonisation in healthy adults has not been previously assessed. We measured the antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in challenged but not colonised volunteers by ELISA and Flow Cytometry. Antigen-specific responses were seen in each compartment both before and after bacterial challenge for both cohorts. Antigen-specific IgG and IgA levels were significantly elevated in nasal wash 6 weeks after challenge compared to baseline. Immunoglobulin responses to pneumococci were directed towards various protein targets but not capsular polysaccharide. 23F but not 6B challenge elevated IgG anti-PspA in BAL. Serum immunoglobulins did not increase in response to challenge. In neither challenge cohort was there any alteration in the frequencies of TNF, IL-17 or IFNγ producing CD4 T cells before or after challenge in BAL or blood. We show that simple, low dose mucosal exposure with pneumococci may immunise mucosal surfaces by augmenting anti-protein immunoglobulin responses; but not capsular or cellular responses. We hypothesise that mucosal exposure alone may not replicate the systemic immunising effect of experimental or natural carriage in humans.
Exposure to respiratory pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a frequent event that can result in immediate clearance, nasal colonisation or disease for the host. Human and mouse studies have shown that natural colonisation is an immunising event. Colonisation is prevalent in children but rare in human adults (<10%), suggesting that despite high pneumococcal exposure adult mucosal defences are sufficient to prevent colonisation. We exposed healthy adults to pneumococci in the nose in order to achieve colonisation and mimic a natural colonisation event. In most volunteers, however, we were not able to obtain colonisation using this protocol. In exposed but not colonised volunteers we measured antibody and cellular responses in nose, lung and blood samples. The mucosal defences elicited during acute pneumococcal exposure are poorly described but these data will shed light on the mechanisms that prevent colonisation in healthy adults and inform future vaccine design. Live bacterial exposure increases specific antibody and innate responses at mucosal surfaces such as the nose and lung. Systemic responses were not increased. These data suggest that acute bacterial exposure per se augments mucosal but not systemic defences. Natural or experimental colonisation may be required for systemic immunisation.
Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n = 10/232) and cow (n = 35/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance.
K. pneumoniae; Buffalo and cow mastitis; Virulence genes; Antibiotic susceptibility
Several strain-specific Klebsiella pneumoniae virulence determinants have been described, though these have almost exclusively been linked with hypervirulent liver abscess-associated strains. Through PCR interrogation of integration hotspots, chromosome walking, island-tagging and fosmid-based marker rescue we captured and sequenced KpGI-5, a novel genomic island integrated into the met56 tRNA gene of K. pneumoniae KR116, a bloodstream isolate from a patient with pneumonia and neutropenic sepsis.
The 14.0 kb KpGI-5 island exhibited a genome-anomalous G + C content, possessed near-perfect 46 bp direct repeats, encoded a γ1-chaperone/usher fimbrial cluster (fim2) and harboured seven other predicted genes of unknown function. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated expression of three fim2 genes, and suggested that the fim2A-fim2K cluster comprised an operon. As fimbrial systems are frequently implicated in pathogenesis, we examined the role of fim2 by analysing KR2107, a streptomycin-resistant derivative of KR116, and three isogenic mutants (Δfim, Δfim2 and ΔfimΔfim2) using biofilm assays, human cell adhesion assays and pair-wise competition-based murine models of intestinal colonization, lung infection and ascending urinary tract infection. Although no statistically significant role for fim2 was demonstrable, liver and kidney CFU counts for lung and urinary tract infection models, respectively, hinted at an ordered gradation of virulence: KR2107 (most virulent), KR2107∆fim2, KR2107∆fim and KR2107∆fim∆fim2 (least virulent). Thus, despite lack of statistical evidence there was a suggestion that fim and fim2 contribute additively to virulence in these murine infection models. However, further studies would be necessary to substantiate this hypothesis.
Although fim2 was present in 13% of Klebsiella spp. strains investigated, no obvious in vitro or in vivo role for the locus was identified, although there were subtle hints of involvement in urovirulence and bacterial dissemination from the respiratory tract. Based on our findings and on parallels with other fimbrial systems, we propose that fim2 has the potential to contribute beneficially to pathogenesis and/or environmental persistence of Klebsiella strains, at least under specific yet-to-be identified conditions.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a pathogen of increasing concern because of multidrug resistance, especially due to K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs). K. pneumoniae must acquire iron to replicate, and it utilizes iron-scavenging siderophores, such as enterobactin (Ent). The innate immune protein lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is able to specifically bind Ent and disrupt iron acquisition. To determine whether K. pneumoniae must produce Lcn2-resistant siderophores to cause disease, we examined siderophore production by clinical isolates (n = 129) from respiratory, urine, blood, and stool samples and by defined siderophore mutants through genotyping and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three categories of K. pneumoniae isolates were identified: enterobactin positive (Ent+) (81%), enterobactin and yersiniabactin positive (Ent+ Ybt+) (17%), and enterobactin and salmochelin (glycosylated Ent) positive (Ent+ gly-Ent+) with or without Ybt (2%). Ent+ Ybt+ strains were significantly overrepresented among respiratory tract isolates (P = 0.0068) and β-lactam-resistant isolates (P = 0.0019), including the epidemic KPC-producing clone multilocus sequence type 258 (ST258). In ex vivo growth assays, gly-Ent but not Ybt allowed evasion of Lcn2 in human serum, whereas siderophores were dispensable for growth in human urine. In a murine pneumonia model, an Ent+ strain was an opportunistic pathogen that was completely inhibited by Lcn2 but caused severe, disseminated disease in Lcn2−/− mice. In contrast, an Ent+ Ybt+ strain was a frank respiratory pathogen, causing pneumonia despite Lcn2. However, Lcn2 retained partial protection against disseminated disease. In summary, Ybt is a virulence factor that is prevalent among KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and promotes respiratory tract infections through evasion of Lcn2.
In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.
Lactobacillus sake can use arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway. We designed degenerate primers based on an alignment of known sequences of ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC)-encoding genes in order to amplify the L. sake counterpart sequences by PCR. Screening a genomic library of L. sake in λEMBL3 allowed us to isolate a clone containing a 10-kb L. sake genomic DNA insert. Sequence analysis revealed that the genes involved in arginine catabolism were clustered and encoded ADI (arcA), OTC (arcB), carbamate kinase (arcC), and a putative carrier with high similarity to the arginine/ornithine antiporter of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (arcD). Additionally, a putative transaminase-encoding gene (arcT) was located in this region. The genes followed the order arcA arcB arcC arcT arcD, which differs from that found in other microorganisms. arcA, arcB, arcC, and arcD mutants were constructed, and the ADI pathway was impaired in all of them. Transcriptional studies indicated that arcA gene is subject to catabolite repression, and under the conditions used, several transcripts could be detected, suggesting the existence of different initiation sites or processing of a larger mRNA.
A total of 191 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of human clinical, bovine mastitis, and a wide variety of environmental sources were tested for fecal coliform (FC) response with the membrane filtration and most probable number techniques. Twenty-seven Escherichia coli cultures of human clinical and environmental origins were also tested. Eighty-five percent (49/58) of known pathogenic K. pneumoniae were FC positive, compared with 16% (19/120) of the environmental strains. E. coli results indicated 93% (13/14) of the clinical and 85% (11/13) of the environmental strains as FC positive. There was no significant difference in the incidence of FC-positive cultures between pathogenic Klebsiella and E. coli. pH measurements of K. pneumoniae and E. coli cultures growing in m-FC broth at 44.5°C revealed three distinct pH ranges correlating with colony morphology. β-Galactosidase assays of Klebsiella and E. coli cultures at 44.5°C indicated all were able to hydrolyze lactose, even if they were FC negative by the membrane filtration or most probable number techniques. The FC response pattern appears stable in K. pneumoniae. Three pathogenic cultures showed no change in FC responses after 270 generations of growth in sterile pulp mill effluent. Since K. pneumoniae is carried in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and 85% of the tested pathogenic strains were FC positive, the isolation of FC-positive Klebsiella organisms from the environment would indicate their fecal or clinical origin or both. The added fact that K. pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing importance makes the occurrence of FC-positive environmental Klebsiella, particularly in large numbers, a potential human and animal health hazard.
The upper respiratory tract mucosa is the location for commensal Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae colonization and therefore represents a major site of contact between host and bacteria. The CD4+ T cell response to pneumococcus is increasingly recognised as an important mediator of immunity that protects against invasive disease, with data suggesting a critical role for Th17 cells in mucosal clearance. By assessing CD4 T cell proliferative responses we demonstrate age-related sequestration of Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cells reactive to pneumococcal protein antigens within mucosal lymphoid tissue. CD25hi T cell depletion and utilisation of pneumococcal specific MHCII tetramers revealed the presence of antigen specific Tregs that utilised CTLA-4 and PDL-1 surface molecules to suppress these responses. The balance between mucosal effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell immunity is likely to be critical to pneumococcal commensalism and the prevention of unwanted pathology associated with carriage. However, if dysregulated, such responses may render the host more susceptible to invasive pneumococcal infection and adversely affect the successful implementation of both polysaccharide-conjugate and novel protein-based pneumococcal vaccines.
The S. pneumoniae bacteria is a major cause of disease (e.g. pneumonia and meningitis) particularly affecting infants. In most cases bacteria can colonise the nose without causing harm, however colonisation is thought to be a prerequisite of disease. With increasing age colonization and disease, rates gradually decrease which is likely due to the development of immunity to the pneumococcus with age. The CD4 T cells of the immune system may contribute to the defence against bacterial colonisation by producing factors that promote pneumococcal killing. Herein, we show that CD4 T cells reactive to pneumococci are found in greater numbers at the site of colonisation and gradually increase in their levels from infancy. However, at the peak of CD4 T cell responses from late teens, we detected the presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which suppressed anti-pneumococci CD4 T cell activity greatly. Our finding shows that pneumococcal reactive CD4 T cells selectively populate colonisation sites and increase with age as a result of ongoing bacterial exposure throughout life, inversely correlating with colonisation and disease rates. As factors that utilise CD4 T cells become increasingly advocated as potential preventative strategies against pneumococcal carriage and disease, the observed effect of Tregs must be considered.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control) helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium.
We compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type (WT) strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic arcA mutant grown under anaerobic conditions. We found that ArcA directly or indirectly regulates 392 genes (8.5% of the genome); of these, 138 genes are poorly characterized. Regulation by ArcA in S. Typhimurium is similar, but distinct from that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in core metabolic pathways (e.g., succinyl-CoA, fatty acid degradation, cytochrome oxidase complexes, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis) were regulated similarly in the two organisms. However, genes/operons present in both organisms, but regulated differently by ArcA in S. Typhimurium included those coding for ethanolamine utilization, lactate transport and metabolism, and succinate dehydrogenases. Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by ArcA included those required for propanediol utilization, flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV), Gifsy-1 prophage genes, and three SPI-3 genes (mgtBC, slsA, STM3784). In agreement with our microarray data, the arcA mutant was non-motile, lacked flagella, and was as virulent in mice as the WT. Additionally, we identified a set of 120 genes whose regulation was shared with the anaerobic redox regulator, Fnr.
We have identified the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Our results demonstrated that in S. Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella biosynthesis, and motility. Furthermore, ArcA and Fnr share in the regulation of 120 S. Typhimurium genes.
Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonises the anterior nares, but the host and bacterial factors that facilitate colonisation remain incompletely understood. The S. aureus surface protein ClfB has been shown to mediate adherence to squamous epithelial cells in vitro and to promote nasal colonisation in both mice and humans. Here, we demonstrate that the squamous epithelial cell envelope protein loricrin represents the major target ligand for ClfB during S. aureus nasal colonisation. In vitro adherence assays indicated that bacteria expressing ClfB bound loricrin most likely by the “dock, lock and latch” mechanism. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that ClfB bound cytokeratin 10 (K10), a structural protein of squamous epithelial cells, and loricrin with similar affinities that were in the low µM range. Loricrin is composed of three separate regions comprising GS-rich omega loops. Each loop was expressed separately and found to bind ClfB, However region 2 bound with highest affinity. To investigate if the specific interaction between ClfB and loricrin was sufficient to facilitate S. aureus nasal colonisation, we compared the ability of ClfB+
S. aureus to colonise the nares of wild-type and loricrin-deficient (Lor−/−) mice. In the absence of loricrin, S. aureus nasal colonisation was significantly impaired. Furthermore a ClfB− mutant colonised wild-type mice less efficiently than the parental ClfB+ strain whereas a similar lower level of colonisation was observed with both the parental strain and the ClfB− mutant in the Lor−/− mice. The ability of ClfB to support nasal colonisation by binding loricrin in vivo was confirmed by the ability of Lactococcus lactis expressing ClfB to be retained in the nares of WT mice but not in the Lor−/− mice. By combining in vitro biochemical analysis with animal model studies we have identified the squamous epithelial cell envelope protein loricrin as the target ligand for ClfB during nasal colonisation by S. aureus.
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human commensal, present permanently in the noses of about 20% of the population and representing a significant risk factor for infection. The host and bacterial factors that facilitate nasal colonisation remain to be fully characterised. S. aureus adheres to the squamous epithelial cells found in the nose. Proteins expressed on the surface of S. aureus, including clumping factor B (ClfB), are responsible for this interaction. We demonstrate that loricrin, a major component of the squamous epithelial cell envelope, represents the primary ligand for ClfB and that the interaction between ClfB and loricrin is required for efficient nasal colonisation by S. aureus. Using purified proteins we have demonstrated that ClfB binds loricrin and propose a mechanism by which this binding occurs. We have established a murine model of S. aureus nasal colonisation and have demonstrated reduced colonisation in loricrin-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice which is dependent upon ClfB. Using Lactococcus lactis as a surrogate host expressing ClfB, we could show that the interaction between ClfB and loricrin in the nares is sufficient to support nasal colonisation. Cumulatively, these data show that the ClfB-loricrin interaction is crucial for nasal colonisation by S. aureus.
pneumonia (VAP) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is
usually preceded by colonisation of the respiratory tract. During
outbreaks, colonisation with P aeruginosa is mainly derived from exogenous sources. The relative importance of different pathways of colonisation of P aeruginosa has rarely been
determined in non-epidemic settings.
METHODS—In order to determine the
importance of exogenous colonisation, all isolates of P
aeruginosa obtained by surveillance and clinical cultures from
two identical intensive care units (ICUs) were genotyped with pulsed
field gel electrophoresis.
RESULTS—A total of 100 patients were
studied, 44 in ICU 1 and 56 in ICU 2. Twenty three patients were
colonised with P aeruginosa, seven at the start of the
study or on admission and 16 of the remaining 93 patients became
colonised during the study. Eight patients developed VAP due to P
aeruginosa. The incidence of respiratory tract colonisation and
VAP with P aeruginosa in our ICU was similar to that
before and after the study period, and therefore represents an endemic
situation. Genotyping of 118 isolates yielded 11 strain types: eight in
one patient each, two in three patients each, and one type in eight
patients. Based on chronological evaluation and genotypical identity of
isolates, eight cases of cross-colonisation were identified. Eight
(50%) of 16 episodes of acquired colonisation and two (25%) of eight
cases of VAP due to P aeruginosa seemed to be the result
CONCLUSIONS—Even in non-epidemic settings
cross-colonisation seems to play an important part in the epidemiology
of colonisation and infection with P aeruginosa.
Antibiotic-resistant infections caused by gram-negative bacteria are a major healthcare concern. Repurposing drugs circumvents the time and money limitations associated with developing new antimicrobial agents needed to combat these antibiotic-resistant infections. Here we identified the off-patent antifungal agent, ciclopirox, as a candidate to repurpose for antibiotic use. To test the efficacy of ciclopirox against antibiotic-resistant pathogens, we used a curated collection of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates that are representative of known antibiotic resistance phenotypes. We found that ciclopirox, at 5–15 µg/ml concentrations, inhibited bacterial growth regardless of the antibiotic resistance status. At these same concentrations, ciclopirox reduced growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates, but some of these pathogens required higher ciclopirox concentrations to completely block growth. To determine how ciclopirox inhibits bacterial growth, we performed an overexpression screen in E. coli. This screen revealed that galE, which encodes UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, rescued bacterial growth at otherwise restrictive ciclopirox concentrations. We found that ciclopirox does not inhibit epimerization of UDP-galactose by purified E. coli GalE; however, ΔgalU, ΔgalE, ΔrfaI, or ΔrfaB mutant strains all have lower ciclopirox minimum inhibitory concentrations than the parent strain. The galU, galE, rfaI, and rfaB genes all encode enzymes that use UDP-galactose or UDP-glucose for galactose metabolism and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Indeed, we found that ciclopirox altered LPS composition of an E. coli clinical isolate. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ciclopirox affects galactose metabolism and LPS biosynthesis, two pathways important for bacterial growth and virulence. The lack of any reported fungal resistance to ciclopirox in over twenty years of use in the clinic, its excellent safety profiles, novel target(s), and efficacy, make ciclopirox a promising potential antimicrobial agent to use against multidrug-resistant problematic gram-negative pathogens.