The NCOA7 gene product is an estrogen receptor associated protein that is highly similar to the human OXR1 gene product, which functions in oxidation resistance. OXR genes are conserved among all sequenced eukaryotes from yeast to humans. In this study we examine if NCOA7 has an oxidation resistance function similar to that demonstrated for OXR1. We also examine NCOA7 expression in response to oxidative stress and its subcellular localization in human cells, comparing these properties with those of OXR1.
We find that NCOA7, like OXR1 can suppress the oxidative mutator phenotype when expressed in an E. coli strain that exhibits an oxidation specific mutator phenotype. Moreover, NCOA7's oxidation resistance function requires expression of only its carboxyl-terminal domain and is similar in this regard to OXR1. We find that, in human cells, NCOA7 is constitutively expressed and is not induced by oxidative stress and appears to localize to the nucleus following estradiol stimulation. These properties of NCOA7 are in striking contrast to those of OXR1, which is induced by oxidative stress, localizes to mitochondria, and appears to be excluded, or largely absent from nuclei.
NCOA7 most likely arose from duplication. Like its homologue, OXR1, it is capable of reducing the DNA damaging effects of reactive oxygen species when expressed in bacteria, indicating the protein has an activity that can contribute to oxidation resistance. Unlike OXR1, it appears to localize to nuclei and interacts with the estrogen receptor. This raises the possibility that NCOA7 encodes the nuclear counterpart of the mitochondrial OXR1 protein and in mammalian cells it may reduce the oxidative by-products of estrogen metabolite-mediated DNA damage.
OXR1 is an ancient gene, present in all eukaryotes examined so far that confers protection from oxidative stress by an unknown mechanism. The most highly conserved region of the gene is the carboxyl-terminal TLDc domain, which has been shown to be sufficient to prevent oxidative damage.
OXR1 has a complex genomic structure in the mosquito A. gambiae, and we confirm that multiple splice forms are expressed in adult females. Our studies revealed that OXR1 regulates the basal levels of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) expression, two enzymes involved in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, giving new insight into the mechanism of action of OXR1. Gene silencing experiments indicate that the Jun Kinase (JNK) gene acts upstream of OXR1 and also regulates expression of CAT and GPx. Both OXR1 and JNK genes are required for adult female mosquitoes to survive chronic oxidative stress. OXR1 silencing decreases P. berghei oocyst formation. Unexpectedly, JNK silencing has the opposite effect and enhances Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, suggesting that JNK may also mediate some, yet to be defined, antiparasitic response.
The JNK pathway regulates OXR1 expression and OXR1, in turn, regulates expression of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Anopheles gambiae. OXR1 silencing decreases Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, while JNK silencing has the opposite effect and enhances infection.
Oxidative stress is a common etiological feature of neurological disorders, although the pathways that govern defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurodegeneration remain unclear. We have identified the role of oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1) as a vital protein that controls the sensitivity of neuronal cells to oxidative stress; mice lacking Oxr1 display cerebellar neurodegeneration, and neurons are less susceptible to exogenous stress when the gene is over-expressed. A conserved short isoform of Oxr1 is also sufficient to confer this neuroprotective property both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, biochemical assays indicate that Oxr1 itself is susceptible to cysteine-mediated oxidation. Finally we show up-regulation of Oxr1 in both human and pre-symptomatic mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicating that Oxr1 is potentially a novel neuroprotective factor in neurodegenerative disease.
Oxygen is vital for life, but it can also cause damage to cells. Consequently, protective proteins (antioxidants) are utilised to maintain the fine balance between oxygen metabolism and the production of potentially toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). If this balance is not maintained, oxidative stress occurs and excess ROS are generated, causing damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. The brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and ROS–induced damage is a common feature of all major neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms of ROS defence in neurons are still under investigation. Here we describe the characterisation of oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1), a gene previously shown to be induced under oxidative stress. We show both in mice and in cells that loss of Oxr1 causes cell death and that increasing protein levels can protect against ROS. In addition, Oxr1 is over-expressed in the spinal cord in ALS patients, as well as in a pre-symptomatic ALS mouse model. These data demonstrate for the first time that Oxr1 is vital for the protection of neuronal cells against oxidative stress and that induction of Oxr1 may be relevant to neurodegenerative pathways in disease.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical molecules produced as a consequence of aerobic respiration. It is essential for cells to control the production and activity of such molecules in order to protect the genome and regulate cellular processes such as stress response and apoptosis. Mitochondria are the major source of ROS within the cell, and as a result, numerous proteins have evolved to prevent or repair oxidative damage in this organelle. The recently discovered OXR1 gene family represents a set of conserved eukaryotic genes. Previous studies of the yeast OXR1 gene indicate that it functions to protect cells from oxidative damage. In this report, we show that human and yeast OXR1 genes are induced by heat and oxidative stress and that their proteins localize to the mitochondria and function to protect against oxidative damage. We also demonstrate that mitochondrial localization is required for Oxr1 protein to prevent oxidative damage.
The spectrum of DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species
includes a wide variety of modifications of purine and pyrimidine
bases. Among these modified bases, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is
an important mutagenic lesion. Base excision repair is a critical
mechanism for preventing mutations by removing the oxidative lesion
from the DNA. That the spontaneous mutation frequency of the Escherichia
coli mutT mutant is much higher than that
of the mutM or mutY mutant indicates
a significant potential for mutation due to 8-oxoG incorporation
opposite A and G during DNA replication. In fact, the removal of
A and G in such a situation by MutY protein would fix rather than
prevent mutation. This suggests the need for differential removal
of 8-oxoG when incorporated into DNA, versus being generated in
situ. In this study we demonstrate that E.coli Nth protein
(endonuclease III) has an 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase/AP lyase
activity which removes 8-oxoG preferentially from 8-oxoG/G
mispairs. The MutM and Nei proteins are also capable of removing
8-oxoG from mispairs. The frequency of spontaneous G:C→C:G
transversions was significantly increased in E.coli CC103mutMnthnei mutants compared with wild-type, mutM, nth, nei, mutMnei, mutMnth and nthnei strains. From
these results it is concluded that Nth protein, together with the
MutM and Nei proteins, is involved in the repair of 8-oxoG when
it is incorporated opposite G. Furthermore, we found that human hNTH1
protein, a homolog of E.coli Nth protein, has similar
DNA glycosylase/AP lyase activity that removes 8-oxoG from
The mutM (fpg) gene, which encodes a DNA glycosylase that excises an oxidatively damaged form of guanine, was cloned from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus HB8. Its nucleotide sequence encoded a 266 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of approximately 30 kDa. Its predicted amino acid sequence showed 42% identity with the Escherichia coli protein. The amino acid residues Cys, Asn, Gln and Met, known to be chemically unstable at high temperatures, were decreased in number in T.thermophilus MutM protein compared to those of the E.coli one, whereas the number of Pro residues, considered to increase protein stability, was increased. The T.thermophilus mutM gene complemented the mutability of the E.coli mutM mutY double mutant, suggesting that T. thermophilus MutM protein was active in E.coli. The T.thermophilus MutM protein was overproduced in E.coli and then purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that T. thermophilus MutM protein exists as a more compact monomer than the E.coli MutM protein in solution. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that the alpha-helical content of the protein was approximately 30%. Thermus thermophilus MutM protein was stable up to 75 degrees C at neutral pH, and between pH 5 and 11 and in the presence of up to 4 M urea at 25 degrees C. Denaturation analysis of T.thermophilus MutM protein in the presence of urea suggested that the protein had at least two domains, with estimated stabilities of 8.6 and 16.2 kcal/mol-1, respectively. Thermus thermophilus MutM protein showed 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase activity in vitro at both low and high temperatures.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to participate in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and are involved in multiple pathogenic processes. Here, we identified miRNA expression changes in the retinas of Akita mice, a genetic model of type 1 diabetes, and investigated the potential role of miRNA in diabetic retinopathy.
Visual function of Akita and control mice was evaluated by electroretinography. MiRNA expression changes in the retinas of Akita mice were identified by miRNA-specific microarray and confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The potential downstream targets of identified miRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic analysis using web-based applications and confirmed by dual luciferase assay. The mRNA and protein changes of identified downstream targets were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis.
MiRNA-specific microarray and qRT-PCR showed that miR-200b was upregulated significantly in the Akita mouse retina. Sequence analysis and luciferase assay identified oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1) as a downstream target gene regulated by miR-200b. In a human Müller cell line, MIO-M1, transfection of a miR-200b mimic downregulated Oxr1 expression. Conversely, transfection of MIO-M1 with a miR-200b inhibitor resulted in upregulated Oxr1. Furthermore, overexpression of recombinant Oxr1 attenuated oxidative stress marker, nitration of cellular proteins, and ameliorated apoptosis induced by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), an oxidative stressor. Similarly, transfection of a miR-200b inhibitor decreased, whereas transfection of miR-200b mimic increased the number of apoptotic cells following 4-HNE treatment.
These results suggested that miR-200b–regulated Oxr1 potentially has a protective role in diabetic retinopathy.
This study demonstrated that miR-200b was upregulated in the Akita retina, and miR-200b downregulates the expression of Oxr1, which potentially has a protective role in diabetic retinopathy.
Escherichia coli MutY and MutS increase replication fidelity by removing adenines that were misincorporated opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanines (8-oxoG), G, or C. MutY DNA glycosylase removes adenines from these mismatches through a short-patch base excision repair pathway and thus prevents G:C-to-T:A and A:T-to-G:C mutations. MutS binds to the mismatches and initiates the long-patch mismatch repair on daughter DNA strands. We have previously reported that the human MutY homolog (hMYH) physically and functionally interacts with the human MutS homolog, hMutSα (Y. Gu et al., J. Biol. Chem. 277:11135-11142, 2002). Here, we show that a similar relationship between MutY and MutS exists in E. coli. The interaction of MutY and MutS involves the Fe-S domain of MutY and the ATPase domain of MutS. MutS, in eightfold molar excess over MutY, can enhance the binding activity of MutY with an A/8-oxoG mismatch by eightfold. The MutY expression level and activity in mutS mutant strains are sixfold and twofold greater, respectively, than those for the wild-type cells. The frequency of A:T-to-G:C mutations is reduced by two- to threefold in a mutS mutY mutant compared to a mutS mutant. Our results suggest that MutY base excision repair and mismatch repair defend against the mutagenic effect of 8-oxoG lesions in a cooperative manner.
Hypermutation may accelerate bacterial evolution in the short-term. In the long-term, however, hypermutators (cells with an increased rate of mutation) can be expected to be at a disadvantage due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Therefore, in theory, hypermutators are doomed to extinction unless they compensate the elevated mutational burden (deleterious load). Different mechanisms capable of restoring a low mutation rate to hypermutators have been proposed. By choosing an 8-oxoguanine-repair-deficient (GO-deficient) Escherichia coli strain as a hypermutator model, we investigated the existence of genes able to rescue the hypermutable phenotype by multicopy suppression. Using an in vivo-generated mini-MudII4042 genomic library and a mutator screen, we obtained chromosomal fragments that decrease the rate of mutation in a mutT-deficient strain. Analysis of a selected clone showed that the expression of NorM is responsible for the decreased mutation rate in 8-oxoguanine-repair-deficient (mutT, mutY, and mutM mutY) strains. NorM is a member of the multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) family of efflux pumps whose role in E. coli cell physiology remains unknown. Our results indicate that NorM may act as a GO-system backup decreasing AT to CG and GC to TA transversions. In addition, the ability of NorM to reduce the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a GO-deficient strain and protect the cell from oxidative stress, including protein carbonylation, suggests that it can extrude specific molecules—byproducts of bacterial metabolism—that oxidize the guanine present in both DNA and nucleotide pools. Altogether, our results indicate that NorM protects the cell from specific ROS when the GO system cannot cope with the damage.
Some bacteria and eukaryotic cells produce a higher-than-normal number of mutations (so-called “mutators”). Because some of the mutations produced can be favorable (such as antibiotic resistance in bacteria or resistance to anticancer drugs in human tumor cells), the high mutation rate may provide a short-term advantage. However, the production of huge numbers of mutations may compromise the future of these cells because they also accumulate disadvantageous mutations. Consequently, cells may contain backup mechanisms to reduce the accumulation of mutations. We have found that some types of hypermutable mutants can escape this fate by increasing the expression of an efflux pump predicted to export specific oxidative substances, the precursors of many mutations, and consequently reducing their number. Amazingly, this over-expression may confer several advantageous phenotypes simultaneously, such as antibiotic resistance, protection against reactive oxygen species and antimutability.
We have generated mutator strains of Bacillus anthracis Sterne by using directed gene knockouts to investigate the effect of deleting genes involved in mismatch repair, oxidative repair, and maintaining triphosphate pools. The single-knockout strains are deleted for mutS, mutY, mutM, or ndk. We also made double-knockout strains that are mutS ndk or mutY mutM. We have measured the levels of mutations in the rpoB gene that lead to the Rifr phenotype and have examined the mutational specificity. In addition, we examined the mutational specificity of two mutagens, 5-azacytidine and N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine. The mutY and mutM single knockouts are weak mutators by themselves, but the combination of mutY mutM results in very high mutation rates, all due to G:C → T:A transversions. The situation parallels that seen in Escherichia coli. Also, mutS knockouts are strong mutators and even stronger in the presence of a deletion of ndk. The number of sites in rpoB that can result in the Rifr phenotype by single-base substitution is more limited than in certain other bacteria, such as E. coli and Deinococcus radiodurans, although the average mutation rate per mutational site is roughly comparable. Hotspots at sites with virtually identical surrounding sequences are organism specific.
MutS homologs, identified in nearly all bacteria and eukaryotes, include the bacterial proteins MutS1 and MutS2 and the eukaryotic MutS homologs 1 to 7, and they often are involved in recognition and repair of mismatched bases and small insertion/deletions, thereby limiting illegitimate recombination and spontaneous mutation. To explore the relationship of MutS2 to other MutS homologs, we examined conserved protein domains. Fundamental differences in structure between MutS2 and other MutS homologs suggest that MutS1 and MutS2 diverged early during evolution, with all eukaryotic homologs arising from a MutS1 ancestor. Data from MutS1 crystal structures, biochemical results from MutS2 analyses, and our phylogenetic studies suggest that MutS2 has functions distinct from other members of the MutS family. A mutS2 mutant was constructed in Helicobacter pylori, which lacks mutS1 and mismatch repair genes mutL and mutH. We show that MutS2 plays no role in mismatch or recombinational repair or deletion between direct DNA repeats. In contrast, MutS2 plays a significant role in limiting intergenomic recombination across a range of donor DNA tested. This phenotypic analysis is consistent with the phylogenetic and biochemical data suggesting that MutS1 and MutS2 have divergent functions.
Low rates of spontaneous G:C-->C:G transversions would be achieved not only by the correction of base mismatches during DNA replication but also by the prevention and removal of oxidative base damage in DNA. Escherichia coli must have several pathways to repair such mismatches and DNA modifications. In this study, we attempted to identify mutator loci leading to G:C-->C:G transversions in E.coli. The strain CC103 carrying a specific mutation in lacZ was mutagenized by random miniTn 10 insertion mutagenesis. In this strain, only the G:C-->C:G change can revert the glutamic acid at codon 461, which is essential for sufficient beta-galactosidase activity to allow growth on lactose. Mutator strains were detected as colonies with significantly increased rates of papillae formation on glucose minimal plates containing P-Gal and X-Gal. We screened approximately 40 000 colonies and selected several mutator strains. The strain GC39 showed the highest mutation rate to Lac+. The gene responsible for the mutator phenotypes, mut39 , was mapped at around 67 min on the E.coli chromosome. The sequencing of the miniTn 10 -flanking DNA region revealed that the mut39 was identical to the mutY gene of E.coli. The plasmid carrying the mutY + gene reduced spontaneous G:C-->T:A and G:C-->C:G mutations in both mutY and mut39 strains. Purified MutY protein bound to the oligonucleotides containing 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG):G and 8-oxoG:A. Furthermore, we found that the MutY protein had a DNA glycosylase activity which removes unmodified guanine from the 8-oxoG:G mispair. These results demonstrate that the MutY protein prevents the generation of G:C-->C:G transversions by removing guanine from the 8-oxoG:G mispair in E.coli.
The mutY homolog gene (mutYDr) from Deinococcus radiodurans encodes a 39.4-kDa protein consisting of 363 amino acids that displays 35% identity to the Escherichia coli MutY (MutYEc) protein. Expressed MutYDr is able to complement E. coli mutY mutants but not mutM mutants to reduce the mutation frequency. The glycosylase and binding activities of MutYDr with an A/G-containing substrate are more sensitive to high salt and EDTA concentrations than the activities with an A/7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (GO)-containing substrate are. Like the MutYEc protein, purified recombinant MutYDr expressed in E. coli has adenine glycosylase activity with A/G, A/C, and A/GO mismatches and weak guanine glycosylase activity with a G/GO mismatch. However, MutYDr exhibits limited apurinic/apyrimidinic lyase activity and can form only weak covalent protein-DNA complexes in the presence of sodium borohydride. This may be due to an arginine residue that is present in MutYDr at the position corresponding to the position of MutYEc Lys142, which forms the Schiff base with DNA. The kinetic parameters of MutYDr are similar to those of MutYEc. Although MutYDr has similar substrate specificity and a binding preference for an A/GO mismatch over an A/G mismatch, as MutYEc does, the binding affinities for both mismatches are slightly lower for MutYDr than for MutYEc. Thus, MutYDr can protect the cell from GO mutational effects caused by ionizing radiation and oxidative stress.
The MutS protein of Escherichia coli is part of the dam-directed MutHLS mismatch repair pathway which rectifies replication errors and which prevents recombination between related sequences. In order to more fully understand the role of MutS in these processes, dominant negative mutS mutations on a multicopy plasmid were isolated by screening transformed wild-type cells for a mutator phenotype, using a Lac+ papillation assay. Thirty-eight hydroxylamine- and 22 N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced dominant mutations were isolated. Nine of these mutations altered the P-loop motif of the ATP-binding site, resulting in four amino acid substitutions. With one exception, the remaining sequenced mutations all caused substitution of amino acids conserved during evolution. The dominant mutations in the P-loop consensus caused severely reduced repair of heteroduplex DNA in vivo in a mutS mutant host strain. In a wild-type strain, the level of repair was decreased by the dominant mutations to between 12 to 90% of the control value, which is consistent with interference of wild-type MutS function by the mutant proteins. Increasing the wild-type mutS gene dosage resulted in a reversal of the mutator phenotype in about 60% of the mutant strains, indicating that the mutant and wild-type proteins compete. In addition, 20 mutant isolates showed phenotypic reversal by increasing the gene copies of either mutL or mutH. There was a direct correlation between the levels of recombination and mutagenesis in the mutant strains, suggesting that these phenotypes are due to the same function of MutS.
The 5-formyluracil (5-foU), a major mutagenic oxidative damage of thymine, is removed from DNA by Nth, Nei and MutM in Escherichia coli. However, DNA polymerases can also replicate past the 5-foU by incorporating C and G opposite the lesion, although the mechanism of correction of the incorporated bases is still unknown. In this study, using a borohydride-trapping assay, we identified a protein trapped by a 5-foU/C-containing oligonucleotide in an extract from E. coli mutM nth nei mutant. The protein was subsequently purified from the E. coli mutM nth nei mutant and was identified as KsgA, a 16S rRNA adenine methyltransferase. Recombinant KsgA also formed the trapped complex with 5-foU/C- and thymine glycol (Tg)/C-containing oligonucleotides. Furthermore, KsgA excised C opposite 5-foU, Tg and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmU) from duplex oligonucleotides via a β-elimination reaction, whereas it could not remove the damaged base. In contrast, KsgA did not remove C opposite normal bases, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and 2-hydroxyadenine. Finally, the introduction of the ksgA mutation increased spontaneous mutations in E. coli mutM mutY and nth nei mutants. These results demonstrate that KsgA has a novel DNA glycosylase/AP lyase activity for C mispaired with oxidized T that prevents the formation of mutations, which is in addition to its known rRNA adenine methyltransferase activity essential for ribosome biogenesis.
MutY is an adenine glycosylase that has the ability to efficiently remove adenines from adenine/7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G) or adenine/guanine mismatches, and plays an important role in oxidative DNA damage repair. The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has a homolog of the MutY enzyme. To investigate the physiological roles of MutY in H. pylori, we constructed and characterized a mutY mutant. H. pylori mutY mutants incubated at 5% O2 have a 325 fold higher spontaneous mutation rate than its parent. The mutation rate is further increased by exposing the mutant to atmospheric levels of oxygen, an effect that is not seen in an E. coli mutY mutant. Most of the mutations that occurred in H. pylori mutY mutants, as examined by rpoB sequence changes that confer rifampicin resistance, are GC to TA transversions. The H. pylori enzyme has the ability to complement an E. coli mutY mutant, restoring its mutation frequency to the wild-type level. Pure H. pylori MutY has the ability to remove adenines from A/8-oxo-G mismatches, but strikingly no ability to cleave A/G mismatches. This is surprising because E. coli MutY can more rapidly turnover A/G than A/8-oxo-G. Thus, H. pylori MutY is an adenine glycosylase involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage with a specificity for detecting 8-oxo-G. In addition, H. pylori mutY mutants are only 30% as efficient as wild-type in colonizing the stomach of mice, indicating that H. pylori MutY plays a significant role in oxidative DNA damage repair in vivo.
Hydrogen metabolism in Salmonella typhimurium is differentially regulated by mutations in the two anaerobic regulatory pathways, defined by the fnr (oxrA) and oxrC genes, and is controlled by catabolite repression. The synthesis of the individual hydrogenase isoenzymes is also specifically influenced by fnr and oxrC mutations and by catabolite repression in a manner entirely consistent with the proposed role for each isoenzyme in hydrogen metabolism. Synthesis of hydrogenase isoenzyme 2 was found to be fnr dependent and oxrC independent, consistent with a role in respiration-linked hydrogen uptake which was shown to be similarly regulated. Also in keeping with such a respiratory role was the finding that both hydrogen uptake and the expression of isoenzyme 2 are under catabolite repression. In contrast, formate hydrogenlyase-dependent hydrogen evolution, characteristic of fermentative growth, was reduced in oxrC strains but not in fnr strains. Hydrogenase 3 activity was similarly regulated, consistent with a role in hydrogen evolution. Unlike the expression of hydrogenases 2 and 3, hydrogenase 1 expression was both fnr and oxrC dependent. Hydrogen uptake during fermentative growth was also both fnr and oxrC dependent. This provided good evidence for a distinction between hydrogen uptake during fermentation- and respiration-dependent growth and for a hydrogen-recycling process. The pattern of anaerobic control of hydrogenase activities illustrated the functional diversity of the isoenzymes and, in addition, the physiological distinction between the two anaerobic regulatory pathways, anaerobic respiratory genes being fnr dependent and enzymes required during fermentative growth being oxrC dependent.
Escherichia coli MutY is an adenine and a weak guanine DNA glycosylase involved in reducing mutagenic effects of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG). The C-terminal domain of MutY is required for 8-oxoG recognition and is critical for mutation avoidance of oxidative damage. To determine which residues of this domain are involved in 8-oxoG recognition, we constructed four MutY mutants based on similarities to MutT, which hydrolyzes specifically 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGMP. F294A-MutY has a slightly reduced binding affinity to A/G mismatch but has a severe defect in A/8-oxoG binding at 20°C. The catalytic activity of F294A-MutY is much weaker than that of the wild-type MutY. The DNA binding activity of R249A-MutY is comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme but the catalytic activity is reduced with both A/G and A/8-oxoG mismatches. The biochemical activities of F261A-MutY are nearly similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. The solubility of P262A-MutY was improved as a fusion protein containing streptococcal protein G (GB1 domain) at its N-terminus. The binding of GB1-P262A-MutY with both A/G and A/8-oxoG mismatches are slightly weaker than those of the wild-type protein. The catalytic activity of GB1-P262A-MutY is weaker than that of the wild-type enzyme at lower enzyme concentrations. Importantly, all four mutants can complement mutY mutants in vivo when expressed at high levels; however, F294A, R249A and P262A, but not F261A, are partially defective in vivo when they are expressed at low levels. These results strongly support that the C-terminal domain of MutY is involved not only in 8-oxoG recognition, but also affects the binding and catalytic activities toward A/G mismatches.
Fumarate reductase (encoded by frd) and succinate dehydrogenase (encoded by sdh) of Escherichia coli are both known to catalyze the interconversion of fumarate and succinate. Fumarate reductase, however, is not inducible aerobically and therefore cannot participate in the dehydrogenation of succinate. Three classes of suppressor mutants, classified as frd oxygen-resistant [frd(Oxr)], constitutive [frd(Con)], and gene amplification [frd(Amp)] mutants, were selected from an sdh strain as pseudorevertants that regained the partial ability to grow aerobically on succinate. All contained increased aerobic levels of fumarate reductase activity. In frd(Oxr) mutants expression of the operon showed increased resistance to aerobic repression. Under anaerobic conditions expression of the operon became less dependent on the fnr+ gene product, a pleiotropic activator protein for genes encoding anaerobic respiratory enzymes. Exogenous fumarate, however, was still required for full induction, and repression by nitrate was undiminished. Thus, aerobic repression and anaerobic nitrate repression appear to involve separate mechanisms. In frd(Con) mutants expression of the operon became highly resistant to aerobic repression. Under anaerobic conditions expression of the operon no longer required the fnr+ gene product or exogenous fumarate and became immune to nitrate repression. In partial diploids bearing an frd(Oxr) or an frd(Con) allele and phi(frd+-lac) there was no mutual regulatory influence between the two genetic loci. Thus, the frd mutations act in cis and hence are probably in the promoter region. In frd(Amp) mutants the frd locus was amplified without significant alteration in the pattern of regulation.
In Escherichia coli, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate can be oxidized by two different flavo-dehydrogenases, an anaerobic enzyme encoded by the glpACB operon and an aerobic enzyme encoded by the glpD operon. These two operons belong to the glp regulon specifying the utilization of glycerol, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, and glycerophosphodiesters. In glpR mutant cells grown under conditions of low catabolite repression, the glpA operon is best expressed anaerobically with fumarate as the exogenous electron acceptor, whereas the glpD operon is best expressed aerobically. Increased anaerobic expression of glpA is dependent on the fnr product, a pleiotropic activator of genes involved in anaerobic respiration. In this study we found that the expression of a glpA1(Oxr) (oxygen-resistant) mutant operon, selected for increased aerobic expression, became less dependent on the FNR protein but more dependent on the cyclic AMP-catabolite gene activator protein complex mediating catabolite repression. Despite the increased aerobic expression of glpA1(Oxr), a twofold aerobic repressibility persisted. Moreover, anaerobic repression by nitrate respiration remained normal. Thus, there seems to exist a redox control apart from the FNR-mediated one. We also showed that the anaerobic repression of the glpD operon was fully relieved by mutations in either arcA (encoding a presumptive DNA recognition protein) or arcB (encoding a presumptive redox sensor protein). The arc system is known to mediate pleiotropic control of genes of aerobic function.
Inactivation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutM, mutY, or mutT gene conferred a 2.4-, 17.2-, or 38.1-fold increase in spontaneous mutation frequency, respectively. Importantly, the mutY and mutT strains each displayed a robust H2O2-induced mutation frequency. In addition, the mutM, mutY, and mutT mutations severely sensitized P. aeruginosa to killing by H2O2, suggesting that these gene products act to repair one or more cytotoxic lesions in P. aeruginosa. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a fragment of the rpoB gene from rifampicin resistant mutM-, mutY-, and, mutT-deficient strains was consistent with this conclusion. These findings are discussed in terms of possible roles for mutM, mutY, and mutT in contributing to survival and mutagenesis of P. aeruginosa colonizing the airways of cystic fibrosis patients.
Base excision repair; DNA damage; mutations; reactive oxygen species; pathogenesis
Genome alterations due to horizontal gene transfer and stress constantly generate strain on the gene pool of Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal (MC) disease. The DNA glycosylase MutY of the base excision repair pathway is involved in the protection against oxidative stress. MC MutY expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited base excision activity towards DNA substrates containing A:7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine and A:C mismatches. Expression in E. coli fully suppressed the elevated spontaneous mutation rate found in the E. coli mutY mutant. An assessment of MutY activity in lysates of neisserial wild-type and mutY mutant strains showed that both MC and gonococcal (GC) MutY is expressed and active in vivo. Strikingly, MC and GC mutY mutants exhibited 60- to 140-fold and 20-fold increases in mutation rates, respectively, compared to the wild-type strains. Moreover, the differences in transitions and transversions in rpoB conferring rifampin resistance observed with the wild type and mutants demonstrated that the neisserial MutY enzyme works in preventing GC→AT transversions. These findings are important in the context of models linking mutator phenotypes of disease isolates to microbial fitness.
Expression of the tripeptide permease gene tppB is anaerobically induced. This induction is independent of the fnr (oxrA) gene product, which is known to be required for the anaerobic induction of several respiratory enzymes. We isolated, characterized, and mapped mutations in two genes, oxrC and tppR, which prevent the anaerobic induction of tppB expression. Mutations in oxrC were highly pleiotropic, preventing the anaerobic expression of the formate dehydrogenase component of formate hydrogen lyase (fhl), a tripeptidase (pepT), and two of the three known hydrogenase isoenzymes (hydrogenases 1 and 3). On the other hand, expression of nitrate reductase, fumarate reductase, and a number of other fnr (oxrA)-dependent enzymes was not affected by mutations in oxrC. Thus, there appeared to be at least two distinct classes of anaerobically induced genes, those which required fnr for their expression and those which required oxrC. It seems that fnr-dependent enzymes perform primarily respiratory functions, whereas oxrC-dependent enzymes served fermentative or biosynthetic roles. We found the primary defect of oxrC mutants to be a deficiency in phosphoglucose isomerase activity, implying that a product of glycolysis functions as an anaerobic regulatory signal. Mutations in tppR were specific for tppB and did not affect expression of other oxrC-dependent genes. However, tppR did exhibit phenotypes other than the regulation of tppB. Both oxrC and tppR mutants were hypersensitive to the toxic NAD analog 6-aminonicotinic acid. This suggests that oxrC and tppR may play a role in the regulation of NAD biosynthesis or, alternatively, that NAD or a related nucleotide serves as the anaerobic signal for oxrC-dependent enzymes.
Adenine paired with 8-hydroxyguanine (oh8G), a major component of oxidative DNA damage, is excised by MYH base excision repair protein in human cells. Since repair activity of MYH protein on an A:G mismatch has also been reported, we compared the repair activity of His6-tagged MYH proteins, expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells, on A:oh8G and A:G mismatches by DNA cleavage assay and gel mobility shift assay. We also compared the repair ability of type 1 mitochondrial protein with type 2 nuclear protein, as well as of polymorphic type 1-Q324 and 2-Q310 proteins with type 1-H324 and 2-H310 proteins by DNA cleavage assay and complementation assay of an Escherichia coli mutM mutY strain. In a reaction buffer with a low salt (0–50 mM) concentration, adenine DNA glycosylase activity of type 2 protein was detected on both A:oh8G and A:G substrates. However, in a reaction buffer with a 150 mM salt concentration, similar to physiological conditions, the glycosylase activity on A:G, but not on A:oh8G, was extremely reduced and the binding activity of type 2 protein for A:G, but not for A:oh8G, was proportionally reduced. The glycosylase activity on A:oh8G and the ability to suppress spontaneous mutagenesis were greater for type 2 than type 1 enzyme. There was apparently no difference in the repair activities between the two types of polymorphic MYH proteins. These results indicate that human MYH protein specifically catalyzes the glycosylase reaction on A:oh8G under physiological salt concentrations.
Orexin G protein-coupled receptors (OxRs) and their cognate agonists have been implicated in a number of disorders since their recent discovery, ranging from narcolepsy to formation of addictive behavior. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays of agonist-occupied OxRs provided evidence for a strong dose-dependent interaction with both trafficking proteins β-arrestin 1 and 2 that required unusually high agonist concentrations compared with inositol phosphate signaling. This appears to be reflected in functional differences in potency with respect to orexin A (OxA) and OxR2-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation after 90 min compared with 2 min, potentially consistent with β-arrestin-mediated versus G protein-mediated signaling, respectively. Furthermore, extended bioluminescence resonance energy transfer kinetic data monitoring OxA-dependent receptor-β-arrestin and β-arrestin-ubiquitin proximity suggested subtype-specific differences in receptor trafficking, with OxR2 activation resulting in more sustained receptor-β-arrestin-ubiquitin complex formation than elicited by OxR1 activation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data also revealed that OxR1 underwent significantly more rapid recycling compared with OxR2. Finally, we have observed sustained OxA-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the presence of OxR2 compared with OxR1. Although both OxR subtypes could be classified as class B receptors for β-arrestin usage based on the initial strength of interaction with both β-arrestins, our temporal profiling revealed tangible differences between OxR subtypes. Consequently, OxR1 appears to fit uneasily into the commonly used β-arrestin classification scheme. More importantly, it is hoped that this improved profiling capability, enabling the subtleties of protein complex formation, stability, and duration to be assessed in live cells, will help unlock the therapeutic potential of targeting these receptors.
G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR); Receptor Desensitization; Receptor Endocytosis; Receptor Recycling; Receptor Regulation