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1.  Better Treatment Strategies for Patients with Acute Cholecystitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification 3 or Greater 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(4):540-545.
Purpose
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment choice for acute cholecystitis. However, it still carries high conversion and mortality rates. The purpose of this study was to find out better treatment strategies for high surgical risk patients with acute cholecystitis.
Materials and Methods
Between January 2002 and June 2008, we performed percutaneous cholecystostomy instead of emergency cholecystectomy in 44 patients with acute cholecystitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification 3 or greater. This was performed in 31 patients as a bridge procedure before elective cholecystectomy (bridge group) and as a palliative procedure in 11 patients (palliation group).
Results
The mean age of patients was 71.6 years (range 52-86 years). The mean ASA classifications before and after percutaneous cholecystostomy were 3.3 ± 0.5 and 2.5 ± 0.6, respectively, in the bridge group, and 3.6 ± 0.7 and 3.1 ± 1.0, in the palliation group, respectively. Percutaneous cholecystostomy was technically successful in all patients. There were two deaths after percutaneous cholecystostomy in the palliation group due to underlying ischemic heart disease and multiple organ failure. Resumption of oral intake was possible 2.9 ± 1.8 days in the bridge group and 3.9 ± 3.5 days in the palliation group after percutaneous cholecystostomy. We attempted 17 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and experienced one failure due to bile duct injury (success rate: 94.1%). The postoperative course of all cholecystectomy patients was uneventful.
Conclusion
Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective bridge procedure before cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis and ASA classification 3 or greater.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.4.540
PMCID: PMC2880266  PMID: 20499419
Percutaneous cholecystectomy; acute cholecystitis; American Society of Anesthesiologists classification
2.  Comparison of Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis: Experience from A Single Center 
Background:
Cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones is mainly performed after the acute cholecystitis episode settles because of the fear of higher morbidity and conversion from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy during acute cholecystitis.
Aims:
To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and to compare the results with delayed cholecystectomy.
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective and randomized study. For patients assigned to early group, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed as soon as possible within 72 hours of admission. Patients in the delayed group were treated conservatively and discharged as soon as the acute attack subsided. They were subsequently readmitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy 6-12 weeks later.
Results:
There was no significant difference in the conversion rates, postoperative analgesia requirements, or postoperative complications. However, the early group had significantly more blood loss, more operating time, and shorter hospital stay.
Conclusion:
Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 hours of onset of symptoms has both medical as well as socioeconomic benefits and should be the preferred approach for patients managed by surgeons with adequate experience in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.115783
PMCID: PMC3759068  PMID: 24020050
Acute cholecystitis; Cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic
3.  Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in the Elderly 
Objective:
To evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients at a single institution.
Methods:
A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients ≥65 years of age who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 5-year period (January 1995 to December 1999). Four-trocar site laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the open Hasson technique were performed in all patients. The demographic data (age, sex), associated comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologist's (ASA) score, postoperative morbidity, mortality, and length of stay were recorded for each patient. Statistical analysis was done using Fisher's exact test and chi-square analysis. Statistical significance was defined as P≤0.05.
Results:
The patient cohort included 46 patients with a median age of 71 years (range, 65 to 87). Seventeen (37%) patients were ≤70 years of age, and twenty-nine (63%) patients were ≥70 years of age. Twenty-two (48%) patients had ASA scores of ≥3. Patients ≥70 had significantly higher ASA scores. Eighteen patients ≥70 years had ASA ≥3 compared with 4 patients ≤70 with ASA≥3 (P<0.05). Twenty-two patients ≥70 and 8 patients ≤70 required urgent surgery P<0.05). Fifteen (33%) patients presented with acute cholecystitis, and 31 (67%) patients presented with a greater number of chronic symptoms. Four (9%) patients had pancreatitis on presentation, and 6 patients underwent preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Two of these 6 patients also underwent sphincterotomy. Urgent surgery was performed in 30 (65%) patients. The mean operative time was 103±37(SD) minutes. One (2%) conversion to open cholecystectomy was required. The mean postoperative stay was 7 days (range, 1 to 46). Fourteen (30%) patients had only a 1-night postoperative stay. Patients ≥70 had significantly longer postoperative stays. Nine patients ≥70 and only 1 patient ≤70 stayed in the hospital for more than 7 days. Postoperative complications were noted in 6 (13%) patients, most of which were chest infections. Five patients ≥70 and only 1 patient ≤70 developed postoperative complications. No mortalities occurred.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and feasible in elderly patients. Patients ≥70 years seem to have a longer postoperative stay and slightly more postoperative complications. Age alone should not be a contraindication to laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the elderly patient.
PMCID: PMC3015645  PMID: 16381355
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Elderly; Outcomes
4.  Intra-operative change of gastric pH during laparotomic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia: A prospective case-control study 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;56(1):40-43.
Background:
Gastric decompression by suctioning often shows greenish/greenish-yellow-coloured gastric aspirates following cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia (GA). Possible intraoperative regurgitation of duodenal contents into stomach because of surgical manipulation may be the reason for such alteration in colour of the gastric secretions.
Aim:
We conducted this study to determine whether there were any pH changes of gastric secretions during laparotomic cholecystectomy operation to confirm our hypothesis of regurgitation of duodenal contents into the stomach.
Settings and Designs:
Prospective observational controlled study in the Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care in a tertiary care university teaching hospital.
Methods:
Fifty adult ASA I and II patients scheduled for open cholecystectomy operation under GA were included in the study group and another 50 non-abdominal surgical patients without any gall bladder disease were taken as controls. Three to five milliliters of gastric secretions were aspirated just after intubation and also before reversal of residual neuromuscular blockade for analysis of pH.
Statistical Analysis:
Analysis of variance test and Chi-square test with Fisher's exact correction were used for statistical analysis. Differences were significant when the P value was <0.05.
Results:
Post-operative values of pH in the study group were significantly higher than their pre-operative values (2.40±1.10 vs. 4.04±1.6, P≤0.001). Forty-nine patients (98%) in the study group had altered coloured post-operative gastric aspirations, while no patient in the control group had such changes (P<0.001).
Conclusions:
A significant change in gastric pH takes place during laparotomic cholecystectomy due to reflux of duodenal content into the stomach.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.93342
PMCID: PMC3327069  PMID: 22529418
Anaesthesia; cholecystectomy; gastric pH; post operative nausea and vomiting
5.  Outcome of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy at a Secondary Level of Care in Saudi Arabia 
Background/Aim:
The first option for gallbladder surgery is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this study is to analyze the outcomes for all patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a secondary level of care.
Patients and Methods:
Between 2005 and 2008, 968 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at King Fahad Hospital. We collected and analyzed data including age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2), the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, mode of admission (elective or emergency), indication for LC (chronic or acute cholecystitis [AC]), co-morbid disease, previous abdominal surgery, conversion to open cholecystectomy, complications, operation time, and length of postoperative hospital stay.
Results:
Nine hundred and sixty-eight patients had laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the center. There were 824 females and 144 males; the age range was 15-64 (mean 32.9± 12.7 years). The operating time was 45 to 180 min (median 85 min); the complication rate was 4.03% (39 patients).
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy could be performed safely in the majority of patients with cholelithiasis, by an experienced surgical team at a secondary level of care.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.74484
PMCID: PMC3099081  PMID: 21196653
Complications; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; morbidity
6.  Laparoscopic, three-port and SILS cholecystectomy: a retrospective study 
Il Giornale di Chirurgia  2013;34(9-10):249-253.
Summary
Introduction
The aim of this study was to compare the results of classic laparoscopic, three-port and SILS cholecystectomy.
Materials and methods
We conducted a retrospective study of data collected between January 2010 and December 2012 pertaining to 159 selected patients with symptomatic gallstones. 57 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 51 three-port cholecystectomy and 48 SILS cholecystectomy. We then compared the groups with respect to mean operating time, intraoperative complications, postoperative pain, duration of hospitalization and final aesthetic result.
Results
The mean operating time was significantly higher in the SILS cholecystectomy group (93 minutes) than in the other two groups. There were no intraoperative complications. There were no significant differences in the duration of hospitalization among the three groups. Patients in the SILS cholecystectomy group reported significantly less pain 3, 6 and 12 hours after surgery. The aesthetic results at 1 and 6 months’ follow-up were also decidedly better.
Conclusions
On the basis of this study, SILS cholecystectomy is a feasible, safe procedure. In any case, it should be used in selected patients only and carried out by a dedicated team with strong experience in laparoscopy. The main advantages of this technique are a reduction in post-operative pain and improved aesthetic result, at the price, however, of its greater technical difficulty and longer operating times. Future studies are in any case necessary to evaluate any other benefits of this method.
PMCID: PMC3926476  PMID: 24629808
SILS cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Laparoscopy
7.  The effect of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing postoperative sore throat 
Background
This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat (POST).
Methods
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The study population consisted of 70 patients between 20 and 70 years old who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II and were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in the ketamine group received an intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine just before induction, followed by 10 µg/kg/min throughout the operation. Patients in the control group received intravenous saline instead of ketamine. The patients were interviewed 1, 6, and 24 h after the operation. The incidence and severity of POST were recorded.
Results
No significant differences in the incidence and severity of POST during the 24 h after the operation were found between the two groups (21/31 in the ketamine group vs. 26/34 in the control group, P = 0.398).
Conclusions
Intravenous injection of low dose ketamine was not effective for reducing POST.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.1.22
PMCID: PMC2908222  PMID: 20651994
Complications; Intubation; Ketamine
8.  Oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A comparative evaluation 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;5(2):179-184.
Background:
Hemodynamic responses of laryngoscopy and laparoscopy should be attenuated by the appropriate premedication, smooth induction, and rapid intubation. The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy of oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Methods:
A total of 180 healthy adult consented patients aged 35 to 52 years with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I and II of both gender, who met the inclusion criteria for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomized to receive placebo Group I, pregabalin (150 mg) Group II, or clonidine (200 μg) Group III, given 75 to 90 minutes before surgery as oral premedication. All groups were compared for preoperative sedation and anxiety level along with changes of heart rate and mean arterial pressure prior to premedication, before induction, after laryngoscopy, pneumoperitoneum, release of carbon dioxide, and extubation. Intraoperative analgesic drug requirement and any postoperative complications were also recorded.
Results:
Pregabalin and clonidine proved to have sedative and anxiolytic effects as oral premedicants and decreased the need of intraoperative analgesic drug requirement. Clonidine was superior to pregabalin for attenuation of the hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and laparoscopy, but it increased the incidence of intra-and postoperative bradycardia. No significant differences in the parameters of recovery were observed between the groups. None of the premedicated patient has suffered from any postoperative side effects.
Conclusion:
Oral premedication with pregabalin 150 mg or clonidine 200 μg causes sedation and anxiolysis with hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without prolongation of recovery time and side effects.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.82791
PMCID: PMC3139312  PMID: 21804800
Clonidine; hemodynamic response; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; laryngoscopy; pneumoperitoneum; pregabalin
9.  Anesthesia for ERCP: Impact of Anesthesiologist's Experience on Outcome and Cost 
The present study evaluates the effect of anesthesiologist's experience in providing deep sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) on cost and safety. Methodology. Perioperative records of 1167 patients who underwent ERCP were divided on the basis of anesthesiologist assisting these procedures either on regular basis (Group R) or on ad hoc basis (Group N). Comparisons were made for anesthesia times, complication rates, and airway interventions. Results. Across all American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classes, regular anesthesiologists were more efficient (overall mean anesthesia time in Group R was 24.82 ± 12.96 versus 48.63 ± 21.53 minutes in Group N). Within Group R, anesthesia times across all ASA classes were comparable. In Group N, anesthesia times for higher ASA status patients were significantly longer (ASA IV, 64.62 ± 35.78 versus ASA I, 45.88 ± 11.19 minutes). Intubation rates (0.76% versus 12.8%) and median minimal oxygen saturation (100% versus 97.01%) were significantly higher in Group R. Had Group R anesthesiologists performed all procedures, the hospital could have saved US $ 758536 (based upon operating room time costs). Conclusion. Experience in providing deep sedation improved patient safety and decreased the operating room turnaround time, thereby lowering operating room costs associated with these procedures.
doi:10.1155/2013/570518
PMCID: PMC3679699  PMID: 23781243
10.  Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in an Academic Hospital: Evaluation of Changes in Perioperative Outcomes 
Objective:
Evaluate changes in perioperative outcomes over an 82-month period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single attending surgeon in an academic hospital.
Methods:
A retrospective review of 1025 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from September 1992 to February 1997 was compared to the initial 600 patients from May 1990 to August 1992. Statistical analysis included Chi square with Yates correction and Fischer's exact test.
Results:
Over the 82-month period there were no significant differences in the overall conversion rate to open cholecystectomy (p=0.26), intraoperative complications (p = 0.81), postoperative complications (p = 0.054) or mortality rates (p=0.66). There were 3 (0.5%) bile duct injuries in the initial 600 patients and only 1 (0.1%) in the group of 1025 patients (p=0.065). There was an increase (p<0.001) in laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis and biliary dyskinesia and an increase (p<0.001) in the percentage of cases performed overall and for acute cholecystitis by the surgery residents over the last 54 months. Despite this, the conversion rates to open cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis decreased (p < 0.001) over the last 54 months. Additionally, more patients (p < 0.001) were discharged on the day of surgery in the most recent group.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely by surgery residents under the direct super-vision of an experienced laparoscopist without significant changes in perioperative outcomes. Despite an increased percentage of cases being performed for acute cholecystitis over the last 54 months, conversion rates to open cholecystectomy and biliary tract injury rates have decreased, and the perioperative morbidity has remained the same.
PMCID: PMC3015342  PMID: 10323163
Laparoscopy; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Perioperative outcomes
11.  Consecutive laparoscopic gallbladder and spleen resections in cirrhotic patients 
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) plus splenectomy (LS) in liver cirrhosis patients.
METHODS: From 2003 to 2013, 17 (group 1) patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by hypersplenism and symptomatic gallstones were treated with combined LC and LS, while 58 (group 2) patients with liver cirrhosis and hypersplenism received LS alone. An additional 14 (group 3) patients who received traditional open procedures during the same period were included as controls. Data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in regard to demographic characteristics and preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative features. Differences between the three groups were assessed by statistical analysis.
RESULTS: The three groups showed no significant differences in the demographic characteristics or preoperative status. However, the patients treated with LC and LS required significantly longer operative time, shorter postoperative stay as well as shorter time of return to the first oral intake, and suffered less intraoperative blood loss as well as fewer postoperative surgical infections than the patients treated with traditional open procedures (group 1 vs group 3, P < 0.05 for all). The patients treated with LC and LS showed no significant differences in the intraoperative and postoperative variables from those treated with LS alone (group 1 vs group 2). All patients showed significant improvements in the haematological responses (preoperative period vs postoperative period, P < 0.05 for all). None of the patients treated with LC and LS presented with any gallstone-associated symptoms following discharge, while the patients treated with the traditional open procedures expressed complaints of discomfort related to their surgical incisions.
CONCLUSION: Consecutive LC and LS is an appropriate treatment option for liver cirrhosis patients with gallstones and hypersplenism, especially for those with Child-Pugh A and B.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i2.546
PMCID: PMC3923030  PMID: 24574724
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic splenectomy; Liver cirrhosis; Hypersplenism; Open surgery
12.  Transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy using traditional laparoscopic instruments: a report of thirty-six cases 
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of the operation of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TSPLC) by traditional laparoscopic instruments and summarize the initial experience. Methods: Sixty subjects with cholelithiasis were divided into two groups. One group (36 cases) underwent TSPLC and the control group (24 cases) underwent traditional three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Postoperative complications were observed and operation time, hospital days, visual analogue scale (VAS) after 6 and 24 h of operation, and subject satisfaction score were measured. Results: TSPLC and traditional LC were performed successfully in the two groups. The operation time in the TSPLC group was significantly longer than that in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in hospital stay and VAS between the TSPLC and control groups. The subject satisfaction score in the TSPLC group was 91.2, significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). All subjects recovered from the operation and no postoperative complication occurred during the period of two weeks after operation. Conclusions: TSPLC is a feasible and safe method for cholecystectomy, although it may be more time-consuming. However, it is welcomed by patients who are more concerned with cosmetic outcomes. Future studies are needed to confirm its disadvantages and contraindications.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000384
PMCID: PMC3190102  PMID: 21960350
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Minimally invasive surgery; Traditional laparoscopic instruments
13.  Male Gender is not a Risk Factor for the Outcome of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Single Surgeon Experience 
Background/Aim:
Previous studies regarding the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in men have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted this prospective study to test the hypothesis that the outcome of LC is worse in men than women.
Materials and Methods:
Between 1997 and 2002, a total of 391 consecutive LCs were performed by a single surgeon at King Fahd Hospital of the University. We collected and analyzed data including age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2), the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, mode of admission (elective or emergency), indication for LC (chronic or acute cholecystitis [AC]), comorbid disease, previous abdominal surgery, conversion to open cholecystectomy, complications, operation time, and length of postoperative hospital stay.
Results:
Bivariate analysis showed that both genders were matched for age, ASA class and mode of admission. The incidences of AC (P = 0.003) and comorbid disease (P = 0.031) were significantly higher in men. Women were significantly more obese than men (P < 0.001) and had a higher incidence of previous abdominal surgery (P = 0.017). There were no statistical differences between genders with regard to rates of conversion (P = 0.372) and complications (P = 0.647) and operation time (P = 0.063). The postoperative stay was significantly longer in men than women (P = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that male gender was not an independent predictor of conversion (Odds ratio [OR] = 0.37 and P = 0.43) or complications (OR = 0.42, P = 0.42). Linear regression analysis showed that male gender was not an independent predictor of the operation time, but was associated with a longer postoperative stay (P = 0.02).
Conclusion:
Male gender is not an independent risk factor for satisfactory outcome of LC in the experience of a single surgeon.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.39622
PMCID: PMC2702894  PMID: 19568504
Acute cholecystitis; complications; conversion; experience; gender; laparoscopic cholecystectomy
14.  Outcomes of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Octogenarians 
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in octogenarians appears to be safe with acceptable morbidity.
Background and Objectives:
Extremely elderly patients usually present with complicated gallstone disease and are less likely to undergo definitive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in octogenarians, with an interest in patients presenting initially with complicated gallstone disease and pancreatitis who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the same hospitalization.
Methods:
Data for 42 patients ≥80 years who underwent an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January 2007 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for the procedure were stratified into 2 groups: Outpatients, who were admitted electively to undergo cholecystectomy, and Inpatients, who came to our Emergency Room due to complicated biliary diseases. Data analysis included age, sex, ASA score, conversion to open surgery, time spent under general anesthesia, and length of hospital stay.
Results:
Mean age was 83.9 years; 19 (45.2%) were men. Thirteen patients (30.9%) were in the outpatient group, and 13 (30.9%) had a preoperative ASA of 3. Fourteen patients (33.3%) needed ICU. Two patients (4.8%) had their surgery converted. There were 7 (16.7%) postoperative complications, all of them classified as Dindo-Clavien I or II. No differences were noted between groups regarding conversion rates or complications. We had no mortalities in this series. There was no difference in hospital length of stay between the groups.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the extremely elderly is safe, with acceptable morbidity. Patients with complicated gallstone disease seem not to have worse postoperative outcomes once the initial diagnosis is properly treated and would benefit from definitive therapy during the same hospitalization.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13427982376428
PMCID: PMC3481239  PMID: 23477177
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Elderly; Gallstone disease; Octogenarians
15.  Intraoperative haloperidol does not improve quality of recovery and postoperative analgesia 
Introduction:
Haloperidol has an established role in nausea and vomiting prophylaxis and possible effects on multiple aspects of postoperative recovery including pain and sedation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose intraoperative intravenous haloperidol on quality of recovery (QoR) and pain control after general anesthesia and surgery.
Methods:
Ninety eight American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II patients undergoing elective general, gynecologic or orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either haloperidol 2 mg or sterile water intravenously after induction of anesthesia. All patients were given elastometric morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump for pain control after the surgery. Post-operative QoR was evaluated within 20 min in the recovery room and 6 h post-operatively. Pain intensity and demand for additional analgesic was measured in the 6th post-operative hour.
Results:
The QoR score in two measurements was not statistically different between the two groups. Haloperidol significantly reduced the nausea in the recovery. The visual analog scale pain score showed that the severity of pain in the haloperidol group was more than the placebo group (4.7 ± 2.4 vs. 3.8 ± 2.5, P = 0.05).
Conclusion:
Intraoperative small-dose IV haloperidol is effective against post-operative nausea and vomiting with no significant effect on overall QoR. It may also attenuate the analgesic effects of morphine PCA.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.122501
PMCID: PMC3908693  PMID: 24524031
Haloperidol; nausea; pain; quality of recovery; randomized clinical trial
16.  Synchronous vs sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystocholedocholithiasis 
AIM: To compare synchronous laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) combined with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and sequential LC combined with EST for treating cholecystocholedocholithiasis.
METHODS: A total of 150 patients were included and retrospectively studied. Among these, 70 were selected for the synchronous operation, in which the scheme was endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography combined with EST during LC. The other 80 patients were selected for the sequential operation, in which the scheme involved first cutting the papillary muscle under endoscopy and then performing LC. The indexes in the two groups, including the operation time, the success rate, the incidence of complications, and the length of the hospital stay, were observed.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the numbers of patients, sex distribution, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, serum bilirubin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, mean diameter of common bile duct stones, and previous medical and surgical history (P = 0.54, P = 0.18, P = 0.52, P = 0.22, P = 0.32, P = 0.42, P = 0.68, P = 0.70, P = 0.47 and P = 0.57). There was no significant difference in the surgical operation time between the two groups (112.1 ± 30.8 min vs 104.9 ± 18.2 min). Compared with the sequential operation group, the incidence of pancreatitis was lower (1.4% vs 6.3%), the incidence of hyperamylasemia (1.4% vs 10.0%, P < 0.05) was significantly reduced, and the length of the hospital stay was significantly shortened in the synchronous operation group (3 d vs 4.5 d, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: For treatment of cholecystocholedocholithiasis, synchronous LC combined with EST reduces incidence of complications, decreases length of hospital stay, simplifies the surgical procedure, and reduces operation time.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i13.2080
PMCID: PMC3623986  PMID: 23599628
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Cholecystolithiasis; Choledocholithiasis
17.  Predictive Factors for Conversion of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;73(6):423-426.
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is the gold standard treatment for gallbladder diseases. However, for various reasons there is a finite chance of conversion to open cholecystectomy in some patients. To assess preoperative factors which might predict the chances of conversion and the intraoperative reason which resulted in the conversion. The SAGAR APOLLO HOSPITAL patient database was searched for patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between July 2003 and November 2006. Sagar Apollo hospital is an urban tertiary care hospital. The records of 526 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed retrospectively. 14 (2.6%) of the 526 patients were converted to open cholecystectomy. Preoperative Alkaline phosphatase values were raised in patients who underwent conversion and were found to be statistically significant. The most common intraoperative reason for conversion was difficulty in delineating the anatomy at the Calot’s triangle. It is difficult to preoperatively predict the factors responsible for conversion.
doi:10.1007/s12262-011-0338-y
PMCID: PMC3236268  PMID: 23204699
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Conversion; Predictive factors
18.  Usefulness of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy with operative cholangiography for severe cholecystitis 
Surgery Today  2013;44:462-465.
Purpose
Cholecystectomy can become hazardous when inflammation develops, leading to anatomical changes in Calot’s triangle. We attempted to study the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC) to decrease the incidence of complications and the rate of conversion to open surgery.
Methods
Patients who underwent LSC between January 2005 and December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. The operations were performed laparoscopically irrespective of the grade of inflammation estimated preoperatively. However, patients with severe inflammation of the gallbladder underwent LSC involving resection of the anterior wall of the gallbladder, removal of all stones and placement of an infrahepatic drainage tube. To prevent intraoperative complications, including bile duct injury, intraoperative cholangiography was performed.
Results
LSC was performed in 26 elective procedures among 26 patients (eight females, 18 males). The median patient age was 69 years (range 43–82 years). The median operative time was 125 min (range 60–215 min) and the median postoperative inpatient stay was 6 days (range 3–21 days). Cholangiography was performed during surgery in 24 patients. One patient underwent postoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy for a retained common bile duct stone that was found on cholangiography during surgery. Neither complications nor conversion to open surgery were encountered in this study.
Conclusions
LSC with the aid of intraoperative cholangiography is a safe and effective treatment for severe cholecystitis.
doi:10.1007/s00595-013-0626-1
PMCID: PMC3923106  PMID: 23736889
Operative cholangiography; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Subtotal cholecystectomy
19.  Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective, randomised study 
CONTEXT:
Spinal anaesthesia has been reported as an alternative to general anaesthesia for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
AIMS:
Study aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia (SA) in comparison to general anaesthesia(GA)
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
A prospective, randomised study conducted over a two year period at an urban, non teaching hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Patients meeting inclusion criteria e randomised into two groups. Group A and Group B received general and spinal anaesthesia by standardised techniques. Both groups underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were secondary outcome measure.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:
The Student t test, Pearson′s chi-square test and Fisher exact test.
RESULTS:
Out of 235 cases enrolled in the study, 114 cases in Group A and 110 in Group B analysed. Mean anaesthesia time appeared to be more in the GA group (49.45 vs. 40.64, P = 0.02) while pneumoperitoneum time and corresponding the total surgery time was slightly longer in the SA group. 27/117 cases who received SA experienced intraoperative events, four significant enough to convert to GA. No postoperative complications noted in either group. Pain relief significantly more in SA group in immediate post operative period (06 and 12 hours) but same as GA group at time of discharge (24 hours). No late postoperative complication or readmission noted in either group.
CONCLUSION:
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups in developing countries where cost factor is a major factor.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.110965
PMCID: PMC3673576  PMID: 23741111
General anaesthesia; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; spinal anaesthesia
20.  Comparison of Total Intravenous Anaesthesia Using Propofol With or Without Sufentanil in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(4):467-474.
Summary
Sufentanil is an excellent adjuvant in total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA). The present study evaluates effectiveness of different concentrations of Sufentanil mixed in propofol for TIVA in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Sixty adult patients of ASA physical status I or II (randomly divided into 3 groups of twenty each) undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this randomised control study. At induction, patients in all groups received i.v. bolus of Sufentanil 1 μg kg−1 and continuous infusion of 100 μg kg−1 min−1. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion titrated in a range of 75 to 125 μg kg−1 min−1. Groups S1 and S2 received propofol with Sufentanil added at 1 μg ml−1 and 2 μg ml−1 concentrations respectively, while group Preceived propofol without Sufentanil. Additional Sufentanil boluses (10 μg) were given to patients in all groups when there was an increase in the heart rate by more than 20 beats per minute or mean arterial pressure by more than 15% above baseline. Perioperative haemodynamic parameters, recovery times and postoperative analgesia were compared across the three groups of patients. Haemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures) were not significantly different across the three groups of patients in the perioperative period. Fewer Group S2 patients required additional Sufentanil boluses to maintain adequate depth of anaesthesia compared to other two groups. Group S2 patients had better post-operative analgesia (p=0.01) but prolonged recovery time (p=0.001) compared to the other two groups. Sufentanil mixed with propofol provides better haemodynamic stability in laparoscopic cholecystectomies, with lesser requirement for additional Sufentanil boluses, and good postoperative analgesia.
PMCID: PMC2894501  PMID: 20640210
21.  Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients with Cardiac Dysfunction 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;73(2):90-95.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains the standard treatment for cholelithiasis. Ever increasing number of patients with myriad of medical illness is being treated by this technique. However, significant concern prevails among the surgical community regarding its safety in patients with cardiac co-morbidity. Patients with significant cardiac dysfunction and multiple co-morbidities were prospectively evaluated. Patients were assessed by cardiologists and anesthesiologists and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Patient demographics, details of peri-operative management and post-operative complications were studied. Between March 2005 and January 2009, 28 patients (M:F = 21:7) with mean age of 60 years (range 26–78) and having significant cardiac dysfunction had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Of these, 24 patients were in NYHA class-II, while 4 belonged to class-III. Left ventricular ejection fraction, as recorded by transthoracic echocardiography, was 20–30% in 13 (46%) patients and 30–40% in the rest 15 (54%). In addition, 13 (46%) patients had regional wall motion abnormalities, 11 (39%) patients had cardiomyopathy, 2 (7%) patients had valvular heart disease while 12 (43%) patients had prior cardiac interventions. Following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, hypertension (3), tachyarrhythmia (4) and bradycardia (1) were the commonest events encountered. One patient required laparotomy to deal with peritonitis in the immediate postoperative period and succumbed to myocardial infarction, but all other patients made an uneventful recovery. With appropriate cardiological support, laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be safely performed in patients with significant cardiac dysfunction.
doi:10.1007/s12262-010-0175-4
PMCID: PMC3077169  PMID: 22468055
Laparoscopy; Cholecystectomy; Cardiac dysfunction
22.  Comparison between lornoxicam quick-release and parecoxib for post-operative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective randomized, placebo-controlled trial 
Background:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are valuable for post-operative pain as they reduce the use of opioids. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional NSAIDs can be used. This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to study the efficacy and the safety of the oral administration of lornoxicam quick release tablets versus intravenously administered parecoxib for the management of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and eight patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, were randomized to either group A (n = 36): Lornoxicam quick-release 8 mg PO, group B (n = 36): Parecoxib 40 mg intravenous (IV) or group C (n = 36) placebo, for post-operative analgesia, 30 min before the operation and 12 and 24 h post-operatively. All patients received a standard dose of meperidine 1 mg/kg intramuscularly before the incision and post-operatively as rescue analgesia, when visual analog scale (VAS) pain score was <4. Pain at rest and on movement was assessed at 20 min, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h post-operatively. Total meperidine administration and adverse events were also recorded.
Results:
There were significantly lower VAS pain scores at 20 min, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at rest or with movement in the lornoxicam quick release and parecoxib groups compared with the placebo group. The number of patients requiring rescue analgesia (meperidine) was significantly higher in the placebo group (P = 0.001). The average dose of meperidine administered was significantly higher in the placebo group, both at 20 min (P = 0.013/0.007) and 24 h (P = 0.037/0.023) post-operatively. VAS scores and meperidine requirements were similar in patients who received lornoxicam or parecoxib.
Conclusions:
Parecoxib 40 mg IV and lornoxicam quick-release 8 mg PO every 12 h are equivalent adjuvant analgesics with a greater efficacy than placebo for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing LC.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.119144
PMCID: PMC3819842  PMID: 24249985
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; lornoxicam; parecoxib; post-operative analgesia
23.  Mini-Incision Versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy 
HPB Surgery  1997;10(5):338-340.
Background: We report a prospective randomised comparison between laparoscopic and small-incision cholecystectomy in 200 patients which was designed to eliminate bias for or against either technique.
Methods: Patients were randomised in the operating theatre and anaesthetic technique and pain-control methods were standardised. Four experienced surgeons did both types of procedure. Identical wound dressings were applied in both groups so that carers could be kept blind to the type of operation.
Findings: There was no significant difference between the groups for age, sex, body mass index, and American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy took significantly longer than small-incision cholecystectomy (median 65 [range 27-140] min vs 40 [18-142] min, p<0.001). The operating time included operative cholangiography which was attempted in all patients. We found no significant difference between the groups for hospital stay (postoperative nights in hospital, median 3.0 [1-17] nights for laparoscopic vs 3.0 [1-14] nights for small-incision, p=0.74), time back to work for employed persons (median 5.0 weeks vs 4.0 weeks; p=0.39), and time to full activity (median 3.0 weeks vs 3.0 weeks; p=0.15).
Interpretation: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy takes longer to do than small-incision cholecystectomy and does not have any significant advantages in terms of hostital stay or 13 ostoperative recovery.
doi:10.1155/1997/27210
PMCID: PMC2423893  PMID: 9298392
24.  Effect of implanting fibrin sealant with ropivacaine on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of implanting fibrin sealant with sustained-release ropivacaine in the gallbladder bed for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
METHODS: Sixty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status was I or II and underwent LC) were randomly divided into three equal groups: group A (implantation of fibrin sealant in the gallbladder bed), group B (implantation of fibrin sealant carrying ropivacaine in the gallbladder bed), and group C (normal saline in the gallbladder bed). Postoperative pain was evaluated, and pain relief was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) scoring.
RESULTS: The findings showed that 81.7% of patients had visceral pain, 50% experienced parietal, and 26.7% reported shoulder pain after LC. Visceral pain was significantly less in group B patients than in the other groups (P < 0.05), and only one patient in this group experienced shoulder pain. The mean VAS score in group B patients was lower than that in the other groups.
CONCLUSION: Visceral pain is prominent after LC and can be effectively controlled by implanting fibrin sealant combined with ropivacaine in the gallbladder bed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.5851
PMCID: PMC2791280  PMID: 19998508
Analgesia; Fibrin sealant; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Pain; Ropivacaine
25.  A comparison of hemodynamic changes after endotracheal intubation by the Optiscope™ and the conventional laryngoscope 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;63(2):130-135.
Background
Optiscope™ is a newly developed video stylet device. This study evaluated and compared the hemodynamic changes observed after endotracheal intubation with video stylet and after conventional laryngoscopic endotracheal intubation.
Methods
Fifty-eight adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class 1 or 2, undergoing general anesthesia, were randomized into two groups: one group of patients were intubated using video stylet (n = 29) and the other group were intubated using direct laryngoscope (n = 29). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), POGO (percentage of glottic opening) score, time for intubation and degree of sore throat were recorded.
Results
There were no significant differences in the SBP, MAP, DBP, HR, and the sore throat incidence between the two groups. Optiscope™ produced better POGO scores, but time for intubation was longer than with conventional laryngoscope.
Conclusions
Optiscope™, when compared with conventional laryngoscope for intubation, does not modify the hemodynamic response, but it provides a better view of the vocal cords.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.63.2.130
PMCID: PMC3427805  PMID: 22949980
Bronchoscopes; Endotracheal intubation; Fiberoptics; Hemodynamics; Laryngoscope; Video recording

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