To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally) for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed before starting the experiment and blood glucose level was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences [SPSS] version 10.0) and student's ‘t’- test (Sigma Plot version 8.0). The values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
Treatment of diabetic animals with Cinnamomum tamala extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level, and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters towards near normal range.
The extract exhibited antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effect. Further, chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of this extract and to isolate the active principles responsible for these effects.
Cinnamomum tamala; diabetes mellitus; dyslipidemia
Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals present in leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Ten genotypes were assessed for the presence of different phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols. These constituents vary in the different genotypes of Cinnamomum tamala. Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART data of these Cinnamomum genotypes. The result shows that the genotype of Cinnamomum tamala could be differentiated using DART MS data. The active components present in Cinnamomum tamala may be contributing significantly to high amount of antioxidant property of leaves and, in turn, conditional effects for diabetic patients.
Aim and Objectives:
In the present study, we have evaluated the antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAEt) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
PAAEt was administered at 200 mg/kg body weight/day to normal treated (NT-group) and STZ-induced diabetic treated rats (DT-group) by gavage for eight weeks. During the experimental period, blood was collected from fasted rats at 10 days intervals and plasma glucose level was estimated. The plasma lipid profile was estimated at the end of experimental period. After the treatment, period kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated and antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also assayed.
The significant decrease in the body weight, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats (D-group) were rectified with PAAEt treatment in diabetic treated group (DT-group). D-group rats showed increased renal oxidative stress with increased LPO and protein oxidation. DT-group showed a significant decrease in renal LPO, protein oxidation and a significant increase in GSH content and GR, GPx and GST activities when compared with D-group. The activities of SOD and CAT decreased significantly in D-group, but were normalized in DT-group. Normal rats treated with PAAEt (NT-rats) showed a significant decrease in lipid profile, renal LPO and protein oxidation, with significant increase in renal GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to normal rats (N-group).
Our results demonstrated that PAAEt with its antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes and renal problems.
Antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress; Phyllanthus amarus; STZ-induced diabetes
To evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (EAG) in experimental animals.
Materials and Methods:
The hypoglycemic activity of the EGA was evaluated in normoglycemic rats by single dose at three graded dose levels, viz. 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight. Antihyperglycemic activity of the extract was also evaluated at the same dose levels in streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabetic rats during a 30-day treatment period. Metformin (500 mg/kg) was used as the reference drug. Fasting blood glucose and lipid parameters, viz. triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels were measured. Acute oral toxicity of the EGA extract was carried out in Swiss albino mice.
In normoglycemic rats, EGA showed a significant (P < 0.01) hypoglycemic effect at 2 h. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the EGA treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner during the 30 days of treatment period. EGA modulated lipid profile changes in STZ-diabetic rats in a dose-dependant manner. In the acute oral toxicity study, EGA showed no mortality till the 5 g/kg dose in mice.
The present investigation shows that EAG seeds has potential antidiabetic effects.
Antihyperglycemic; diabetes; Elaeocarpus ganitrus; streptozotocin
Stephania hernandifolia (Menispermaceae) is a medicinal plant, used by herbalists for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus, in Darjeeling. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the powdered corm of Stephania hernandifolia. This was tested in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, using oral administration of ethanol and an aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) of Stephania hernandifolia corm. After the oral administration of water and ethanol extracts at doses of 400 mg/kg body weight, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals and it was found that they were significant lowered. Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg. The experimental data revealed that both extracts has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity in Streptozotocin-induced rats compared to the standard drug. The antioxidant activity in vitro was measured by means of the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Superoxide-free radical scavenging assay. Ascorbic acid, a natural antioxidant, was used as a control. The extracts of ethanol and aqueous were strongly scavenged DPPH radicals, with IC50 being 265.33 and 217.90 µg/ml, respectively. Although the extracts of ethanol and aqueous were moderately scavenged, the superoxide radical were with IC50 values of 526.87 and 440.89 µg/ml. The study revealed that the ethanolic extract exhibited more significant antidiabetic and antioxidant activity then the aqueous extract.
Antidiabetic; antioxidant; glibenclamide; lipid profile; Stephania hernandifolia; Streptozotocin
Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii.
Antibacterial; antioxidant; Cinnamomum burmanni; essential oil; Lauraceae
To investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis was evaluated by using normal and STZ induced diabetic rats at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by mouth per day for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight was monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed. The statistical data indicated a significant increase in the body weight, decrease in the blood glucose, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides after treatment with MEAV. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was significantly increased when treated with extract. Histologically, focal necrosis was observed in the diabetic rat pancreas; however, was less obvious in treated groups. The MEAV has beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level and body weight changes, and improves the lipid profile of STZ induced rats.
Antihyperglycemia; hypolipidemic; Amaranthus viridis; streptozotocin; type-2 diabetes; pancreas
Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. roseus leaf powder suspension in 2 ml distilled water, orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day/60 days). In diabetic rats (D-group) the plasma glucose was increased and the plasma insulin was decreased gradually. In the diabetic-treated group lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed after 15 days and by the end of the experimental period the plasma glucose had almost reached the normal level, but insulin had not. The significant enhancement in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of diabetic rats were normalized in diabetic-treated rats. Decreased hepatic and muscle glycogen content and alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), as observed in the diabetic control rats, were prevented with C. roseus administration. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes.
Anti Catharanthus roseus; plasma insulin; plasma lipids; STZ-induced diabetes
To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200 mg/kg). Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200 mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.
35 patients of Maturity onset diabetes mellitus having the complaints of polyurea polydypsia and polyphagia etc. have been selected. For the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus the fasting and 1st hour and 2nd hour post parandial blood sugar were estimated. Patients were classified into two groups. 20 patients were treated with powder of C. Tamal leaves in the dose of 2 TSF T. D. S. and 15 patients were treated with Inula racemosa in the dose of 1 TSF T. D. S. for the period of three months. The response was estimated on the parameter of Joslin's Clinica in C. Tamal group 50% cases were in good control. 33.33% were in fair control and 16.67% cases were in poor control.
Inula racemosa treated group 100% cases were in good control. Thus it can be inferred that both of the drugs are useful in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus of Maturity onset. However, the response of Inula racemosa is better as compared to C. Tamala.
The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT.
During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property.
From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources for the isolation of new oral anti hypoglycemic agent(s).
Antihypeglycemic; Antihyperlipidemic; Diabetes mellitus; Piper longum; Streptozotocin
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpASet” at a dose of 600mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that “TpASet” has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from “TpASet”.
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats, which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of ethanolic seed extract ofTephrosia purpurea (TpEt) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose 6 phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpEt” at a dose of 300mg/kg bw showed significant antihyperglcemic and antilipidperoxidative effects as well as increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of non enzymatic antioxidants. We also noticed that the antihyperglycemic effect of plant drug (TpEt) was comparable to that of the reference drug glibenclamide. Our results clearly indicate that “TpEt” has potent antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive antidiabetic principles from “TpEt”.
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
In the present study, powdered suspension of ‘Glyoherb’- sugar control granules, a polyherbal formulation (manufactured by Dhanvantri Guj. herb., Valasan, Anand, Gujarat, India) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects against normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Type I diabetes was induced when streptozotocin 70 mg/kg was administered as a single i.p. injection. After five days of streptozotocin injection, animals showing glycosuria (fasting blood sugar level >200 mg/dl) were considered as diabetic. Daily oral administration of ‘Glyoherb’ suspension in 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses for 28 days produced a dose-dependant decrease in blood glucose levels. It also produced a significant decrease in elevated serum triglyceride, cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, atherogenic index, serum urea, and creatinine and in antioxidant parameters in a dose dependant manner. Results were analyzed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. No significant changes were noticed in blood glucose, serum lipid levels and kidney parameters in normal rats treated with ‘Glyoherb’ suspension alone. The efficacy of ‘Glyoherb’ suspension as an antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant agent in streptozotocin-induced diabetes was comparable to that of the standard drug Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg).
Diabetes mellitus; glyoherb; hyperlipidemia; streptozotocin
This study focuses on the effect of ‘Diashis’, a polyherbal formulation composed of eight medicinal plants for the management of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. As oxidative stress is one of the consequences of diabetes, the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and metabolic enzymes were evaluated. Treatment with ‘Diashis’ in STZ-induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) recovery in the activities of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphatase along with correction in the levels of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. The oxidative stress status in the liver was corrected by ‘Diashis’ which was highlighted by the recovery in the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase along with the correction in the quantity of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated diene. ‘Diashis’ was not found to have any metabolic toxicity. The antidiabetic effects of ‘Diashis’ were compared with those of the antidiabetic drug, ‘Glibenclamide’.
Antihyperglycemic; antioxidative; Diashis
The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200 mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100 mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers.
Ficus racemosa (Moraceae family) is used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of several disorders including diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Ficus racemosa bark (FrEBet) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A total number of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups of six each. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared solution of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg bw) dissolved in physiological saline in overnight fasted wistar rats. Dose dependent studies for FrEBet (100–500mg/kg bw) was carried out to find out the effective pharmacological dose (antidiabetic and hypolipidemic) to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in plasma, erythrocyte membranes, liver and kidney were determined by specific colorimetric methods. An increase in blood glucose was accompanied by an increase in total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, FFA and decrease in HDL choleterol in diabetic rats. Oral administration of FrEBet (300mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats restrored the status of blood glucose, lipids and lipoproteins to near normal range. Our investigation thus shows that FrEBet has potent antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and these effects were much comparable to that of the standard reference drug, glibenclamide.
Diabetes mellitus; Alloxan; Lipids; Lipoproteins
Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play as a pathogenesis in the development of diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Casearia esculenta root extract on oxidative stress-related parameters in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Antidiabetic treatment with C. esculenta root extract (45 days) significantly (p < .05) decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and remarkably improved tissue antioxidants status such as glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in liver and kidney of STZ-diabetic rats. In diabetics rats, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 220.127.116.11) catalase (CAT, EC 18.104.22.168) were decreased significantly while the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 22.214.171.124) decreased in the liver and increased in the kidney. The treatment of diabetic rats with C. esculenta root extract over a 45-day period returned these levels close to normal. These results suggest that C. esculenta root extracts exhibit antiperoxidative as well as antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of the aqueous and methanolic extracts from Bersama engleriana leaves in streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
Animals were orally treated for 4 consecutive weeks with Bersama engleriana extracts at doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg. The anti-diabetic effect was examined by measuring blood glucose (BG) at 0, 1, 14 and 28 days after STZ-NA treatment and, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) levels at sacrifice (day 29). Glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) was used for comparison.
STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats showed moderate to significant increases in the levels of BG, TG, TC, LDL-C while body weight, HDL-C levels and relative weights of liver and pancreas were decreased compared to controls (non diabetic rats). Administration of the plant extracts to STZ-NA diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in BG, TG, TC and LDL-C and the dose 600 mg/kg of the methanolic extract was the most effective; HDL-C level was markedly increased after four weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. A dose-dependent increase in the relative weights of the diabetogenic organs was observed in the Bersama engleriana groups. It can be also noticed that the methanolic extract, especially the dose 600 mg/kg (p<0.001), produced more effects than glibenclamide and aqueous extract. Rats treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) generally gave lower results compared to groups treated with plant extracts.
Results of the present study showed that Bersama engleriana extracts and especially its methanolic extract possess antidiabetogenic properties and beneficial effects on diabetic hyperlipidemia. All these effects could be due to the bioactive components revealed in the Bersama engleriana extracts such as triterpenes and phenols and which could justify its ethnomedical use.
Bersama engleriana; Diabetes mellitus; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic; Rat
To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N) and diabetic (D) male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10%) prepared with coconut oil (CO) – lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO) – palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO) – control (N and D). Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored.
D rats fed with CO (D + CO) exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO). D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO.
The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.
Antioxidant enzymes; atherogenicity; coconut oil; glucose tolerance; palm oil; saturated fatty acid
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of simvastatin (SMV) against oxidative stress in streptozotocin- (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced experimentally in rats by i.p. injection of STZ in a dose of 60 mg/kg bwt. After 5 weeks of STZ injection, there were apparent reductions in the animal body weight and significant increase in blood glucose, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, and lipid profiles with a concomitant decrease in total hemoglobin, plasma glutathione and vitamin C as compared to the control group. The treatment with SMV at a dose (10 mg/kg, orally) normalized all the above-mentioned biochemical parameters in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
In vitro studies confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of SMV. Therefore, the present results revealed that SMV has a protective effect against STZ-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the free radicals generation and restoring the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems.
Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla (SME) in normal and STZ-diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight [BW]). Rats with glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into 5 groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered, daily with seed extract at a dosage of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and the other group was orally administered 600 μg/kg BW glibenclamide daily.
Graded doses of seed extract and glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and improvement in serum insulin levels. The extract also improved body weight and promoted liver glycogen content. After treatment, hemoglobin (Hb) level increased and glycosylated Hb level significantly decreased in diabetic rats. The activities of the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes showed significant changes in the rats. Of the 3 doses, 100 mg dose showed maximum activity. Histological investigations of pancreas also supported the biochemical findings.
Thus, our findings indicate the folklore use of the seed for diabetes and the mechanism seems to be insulin secretion.
Glucose; insulin; Swietenia macrophylla; strepotozotocin
The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65 mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg kg−1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruit peel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.
Wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san (WHW) is an oriental herbal prescription formulated using 14 herbs and has been used to cure chronic renal failure in Korean oriental medicine. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effect of WHW in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. WHW extract (100 mg/kg) was orally dosed once a day for four weeks. The results were compared with standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide (3 mg/kg, p.o).
Significant decrease in body weight and insulin levels and increase in blood glucose, triglycerides, urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine were detected in STZ-induced diabetic rats with disruption and disappearance of pancreatic and kidney cells and decrease in insulin producing beta cells. However, these diabetic changes were significantly inhibited by treatment with WHW extract. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the extract produced a significant decrease in glycemia 60 minutes after the glucose pulse.
Based on these results, we suggest that WHW extract has favorable effects in protecting the STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage, and beta-cell damage in rats.
Hyperglycemia; streptozotocin; wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san