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1.  Direct Analysis in Real Time by Mass Spectrometric Technique for Determining the Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm Genotypes 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:549265.
Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals present in leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Ten genotypes were assessed for the presence of different phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols. These constituents vary in the different genotypes of Cinnamomum tamala. Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART data of these Cinnamomum genotypes. The result shows that the genotype of Cinnamomum tamala could be differentiated using DART MS data. The active components present in Cinnamomum tamala may be contributing significantly to high amount of antioxidant property of leaves and, in turn, conditional effects for diabetic patients.
doi:10.1100/2012/549265
PMCID: PMC3373138  PMID: 22701361
2.  In Vivo Assessment of Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activity from Oil of Seeds of Brassica Nigra in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats 
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin  2013;3(2):359-365.
Purpose: This study was made to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of oil of seeds of Brassica nigra (BNO) in streptozotocin -nicotinamide (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: BNO was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic study. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results: Administration of BNO at a dose 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight p.o. to STZ diabetic rats showed reduction in blood glucose level from 335 mg/dl to 280 mg/dl at 4th h and from 330 mg/dl to 265 mg/dl respectively which was found significant (p<0.01) as compared with diabetic control. BNO (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin in test groups as compared to control group. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat’s revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH). Conclusion: Thus the results showed that the oil of seeds of Brassica nigra has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.
doi:10.5681/apb.2013.058
PMCID: PMC3848242  PMID: 24312861
Brassica nigra; Seeds; Streptozotocin; Essential oil; MDA
3.  Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(5):582-585.
Objective:
To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally) for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed before starting the experiment and blood glucose level was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences [SPSS] version 10.0) and student's ‘t’- test (Sigma Plot version 8.0). The values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
Results:
Treatment of diabetic animals with Cinnamomum tamala extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level, and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters towards near normal range.
Conclusion:
The extract exhibited antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effect. Further, chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of this extract and to isolate the active principles responsible for these effects.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.84977
PMCID: PMC3195132  PMID: 22022005
Cinnamomum tamala; diabetes mellitus; dyslipidemia
4.  Macro-microscopic examination of leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burm. f.) Blume sold as Tamalapatra 
Ayu  2013;34(2):193-199.
Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae) commonly known as ‘Tamalapatra’ is a highly reputed commodity in drug and spice trade. Its adulteration with other leaf species belonging to genus Cinnamomum is found to be a common practice in India and other parts of the world. Thorough macroscopic and microscopic investigations are essential to differentiate them. Survey of South Indian crude drug markets revealed that in place of C. tamala some other leaves of Cinnamomum species are sold. Fresh leaves of various Cinnamomum species, including C. tamala, growing in south India were collected and studied to establish their correct identity. Leaves sold in markets of S. India under the name of Tamalapatra were subjected for detailed macro-microscopic evaluation including maceration and powder microscopy. Leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum showed many distinguishing macro-microscopic characters, which will serve as markers to differentiate them from C. tamala the official source of Tamalapatra. Though macroscopy will serve the purpose of identification of the entire drug, microscopy had revealed the identity of the commercial substitute even in fragmented and powdered form. Macro-microscopic identity of C. malabatrum is established in comparison with the official drug, further chemical and biological studies may be confirmative in deciding the leaves as a substitute or adulterant.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119677
PMCID: PMC3821250  PMID: 24250130
Cinnamomum tamala; Cinnamomum malabatrum; maceration; micrometry; powder microscopy; quantitative microscopy
5.  Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract against renal oxidative stress in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(4):414-418.
Aim and Objectives:
In the present study, we have evaluated the antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAEt) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
PAAEt was administered at 200 mg/kg body weight/day to normal treated (NT-group) and STZ-induced diabetic treated rats (DT-group) by gavage for eight weeks. During the experimental period, blood was collected from fasted rats at 10 days intervals and plasma glucose level was estimated. The plasma lipid profile was estimated at the end of experimental period. After the treatment, period kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated and antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also assayed.
Results:
The significant decrease in the body weight, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats (D-group) were rectified with PAAEt treatment in diabetic treated group (DT-group). D-group rats showed increased renal oxidative stress with increased LPO and protein oxidation. DT-group showed a significant decrease in renal LPO, protein oxidation and a significant increase in GSH content and GR, GPx and GST activities when compared with D-group. The activities of SOD and CAT decreased significantly in D-group, but were normalized in DT-group. Normal rats treated with PAAEt (NT-rats) showed a significant decrease in lipid profile, renal LPO and protein oxidation, with significant increase in renal GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to normal rats (N-group).
Conclusion:
Our results demonstrated that PAAEt with its antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes and renal problems.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.83112
PMCID: PMC3153704  PMID: 21844996
Antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress; Phyllanthus amarus; STZ-induced diabetes
6.  Beneficial Antioxidative and Antiperoxidative Effect of Cinnamaldehyde Protect Streptozotocin-Induced Pancreatic β-Cells Damage in Wistar Rats 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2014;22(1):47-54.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant defense system of cinnamaldehyde in normal, diabetic rats and its possible protection of pancreatic β-cells against its gradual loss under diabetic conditions. In vitro free radical scavenging effect of cinnamaldehyde was determined using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-dipicrylhydrazyl), superoxide radical, and nitric oxide radical. Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were orally administered with cinnamaldehyde at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 days. At the end of the experiment, the levels of plasma lipid peroxides and antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ceruloplasmin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were determined. A significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, vitamin E, ceruloplasmin, and lipid peroxides and significant decrease in the levels of plasma insulin and reduced glutathione were observed in the diabetic rats. Also the activities of pancreatic antioxidant enzymes were altered in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The altered enzyme activities were reverted to near-normal levels after treatment with cinnamaldehyde and glibenclamide. Histopathological studies also revealed a protective effect of cinnamaldehyde on pancreatic β-cells. Cinnamaldehyde enhances the antioxidant defense against reactive oxygen species produced under hyperglycemic conditions and thus protects pancreatic β-cells against their loss and exhibits antidiabetic properties.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2013.100
PMCID: PMC3936432  PMID: 24596621
Cinnamaldehyde; Diabetes; β-Islets; Streptozotocin; Cinnamonum zeylanicum
7.  An evaluation of the antidiabetic effects of Elaeocarpus ganitrus in experimental animals 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(1):56-59.
Objective:
To evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (EAG) in experimental animals.
Materials and Methods:
The hypoglycemic activity of the EGA was evaluated in normoglycemic rats by single dose at three graded dose levels, viz. 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight. Antihyperglycemic activity of the extract was also evaluated at the same dose levels in streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabetic rats during a 30-day treatment period. Metformin (500 mg/kg) was used as the reference drug. Fasting blood glucose and lipid parameters, viz. triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels were measured. Acute oral toxicity of the EGA extract was carried out in Swiss albino mice.
Results:
In normoglycemic rats, EGA showed a significant (P < 0.01) hypoglycemic effect at 2 h. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the EGA treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner during the 30 days of treatment period. EGA modulated lipid profile changes in STZ-diabetic rats in a dose-dependant manner. In the acute oral toxicity study, EGA showed no mortality till the 5 g/kg dose in mice.
Conclusion:
The present investigation shows that EAG seeds has potential antidiabetic effects.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.75671
PMCID: PMC3062122  PMID: 21455423
Antihyperglycemic; diabetes; Elaeocarpus ganitrus; streptozotocin
8.  In vivo Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of Stephania hernandifolia in Streptozotocin-Induced-Diabetic Rats 
Stephania hernandifolia (Menispermaceae) is a medicinal plant, used by herbalists for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus, in Darjeeling. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the powdered corm of Stephania hernandifolia. This was tested in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, using oral administration of ethanol and an aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) of Stephania hernandifolia corm. After the oral administration of water and ethanol extracts at doses of 400 mg/kg body weight, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals and it was found that they were significant lowered. Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg. The experimental data revealed that both extracts has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity in Streptozotocin-induced rats compared to the standard drug. The antioxidant activity in vitro was measured by means of the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Superoxide-free radical scavenging assay. Ascorbic acid, a natural antioxidant, was used as a control. The extracts of ethanol and aqueous were strongly scavenged DPPH radicals, with IC50 being 265.33 and 217.90 µg/ml, respectively. Although the extracts of ethanol and aqueous were moderately scavenged, the superoxide radical were with IC50 values of 526.87 and 440.89 µg/ml. The study revealed that the ethanolic extract exhibited more significant antidiabetic and antioxidant activity then the aqueous extract.
doi:10.4103/0975-1483.66803
PMCID: PMC2964769  PMID: 21042481
Antidiabetic; antioxidant; glibenclamide; lipid profile; Stephania hernandifolia; Streptozotocin
9.  Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2012;6(12):125-131.
Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.99946
PMCID: PMC3459454  PMID: 23055638
Antibacterial; antioxidant; Cinnamomum burmanni; essential oil; Lauraceae
10.  Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis leaves in experimental diabetes 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(4):450-454.
To investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis was evaluated by using normal and STZ induced diabetic rats at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by mouth per day for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight was monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed. The statistical data indicated a significant increase in the body weight, decrease in the blood glucose, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides after treatment with MEAV. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was significantly increased when treated with extract. Histologically, focal necrosis was observed in the diabetic rat pancreas; however, was less obvious in treated groups. The MEAV has beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level and body weight changes, and improves the lipid profile of STZ induced rats.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.83120
PMCID: PMC3153712  PMID: 21845004
Antihyperglycemia; hypolipidemic; Amaranthus viridis; streptozotocin; type-2 diabetes; pancreas
11.  Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata flowers extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Objective
To evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata methanolic flowers extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rat.
Methods
Rats were made diabetic by a single dose of STZ at 60 mg/kg body weight i.p. The blood glucose level was checked before and 72 h after STZ injection to confirm the development of diabetes. The flower extract and glibenclamide were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 21 days.
Results
Daily oral treatment with the extract and standard drug for 21 days significantly reduced blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol level was found to be improved (P<0.01) as compared to diabetic control group.
Conclusions
It is concluded that Kigellia pinnata flowers extract have significant antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60093-8
PMCID: PMC3609338  PMID: 23569967
Antidiabetic; Kigelia pinnata; Streptozotocin
12.  Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(3):195-201.
Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. roseus leaf powder suspension in 2 ml distilled water, orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day/60 days). In diabetic rats (D-group) the plasma glucose was increased and the plasma insulin was decreased gradually. In the diabetic-treated group lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed after 15 days and by the end of the experimental period the plasma glucose had almost reached the normal level, but insulin had not. The significant enhancement in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of diabetic rats were normalized in diabetic-treated rats. Decreased hepatic and muscle glycogen content and alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), as observed in the diabetic control rats, were prevented with C. roseus administration. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.65523
PMCID: PMC3141314  PMID: 21808566
Anti Catharanthus roseus; plasma insulin; plasma lipids; STZ-induced diabetes
13.  Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:413196.
To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200 mg/kg). Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200 mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.
doi:10.1100/2012/413196
PMCID: PMC3349202  PMID: 22593683
14.  Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2013;45(1):18-23.
Objective:
Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been proven to exhibit antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy was unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of AGE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Albino Wistar rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of streptozotocin. Commercially available AGE was supplemented orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Aminoguanidine, which has been proven to be an anti-glycation agent was used as positive control and was supplemented at a dose of 1 g/L in drinking water. The serum and urinary biochemical parameters were analyzed in all the groups and at the end of 12 weeks follow up, the renal histological examination were performed using H & E and PAS staining.
Results:
The diabetic rats showed a significant change in the urine (P < 0.001) and serum (P < 0.01) constituents such as albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and glycated hemoglobin. In addition, the serum lipid profile of the diabetic rats were altered significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control rats. However, the diabetic rats supplemented with aged garlic extract restored all these biochemical changes. The efficacy of the extract was substantiated by the histopathological changes in the kidney.
Conclusion:
From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.106429
PMCID: PMC3608288  PMID: 23543654
Aged garlic extract; anti-glycation; diabetes; diabetic nephropathy; hypolipidemic; renoprotective
15.  Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats 
Background
The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
Methods
Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT.
Results
During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property.
Conclusions
From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources for the isolation of new oral anti hypoglycemic agent(s).
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-37
PMCID: PMC3583796  PMID: 23414307
Antihypeglycemic; Antihyperlipidemic; Diabetes mellitus; Piper longum; Streptozotocin
16.  Investigation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark in diabetic rats 
Objective
To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Methods
Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats.
Results
Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats.
Conclusions
Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60020-3
PMCID: PMC3609298  PMID: 23569911
Hypoglycemic; Streptozotocin; Terminalia paniculata; Hypolipidemic; Antioxidant; Diabetic; Antidiabetic activity; Blood glucose; SGPT; SGOT; Insulin; Haemoglobin; Antioxidant activity
17.  The Antidiabetic Effect of Garlic Oil is Associated with Ameliorated Oxidative Stress but Not Ameliorated Level of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Skeletal Muscle of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats 
Oxidative stress and inflammatory condition has been broadly accepted being associated with the progression of diabetes. On the other hand, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn, bulb of Allium sativum) has been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action in several clinical conditions. Our previous study demonstrated that treatment with garlic oil improves oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance and improves the insulin-stimulated utilization of glucose to synthesize glycogen in skeletal muscle in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic oil (GO) in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes received GO (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil by gavage every other day for 3 weeks. Control rats received corn oil only. GO dose-dependently improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the insulin tolerance test, and oral glucose tolerance. GO significantly elevated total glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and lowered the nitrate/nitrite content in skeletal muscle at 50 and 100 mg/kg and significantly elevated glutathione reductase activity and lowered lipid peroxidation at 100 mg/kg. By contrast, GO did not reverse diabetes-induced elevation of IL-1β and TNF-α in skeletal muscle at any tested dose. On the other hand, GO elevated the expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle along with glycogen content as observed with PAS staining. In conclusion, the antidiabetic effect of garlic oil is associated with ameliorated oxidative stress in skeletal muscle.
PMCID: PMC3942916
Antidiabetic; Antioxidant; Garlic oil; Skeletal muscle; Streptozotocin
18.  The antidiabetic effects of an herbal formula composed of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2013;7(2):103-108.
A folk prescription consisting of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the herb formula extract (HFE) composed of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The HFE was mixed in the food supply of the healthy and STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats, and its effects on the body weight, water and food intake, hyperglycemia, hypolipidemic and islet structure were studied. The treatment of the rats with STZ for 6 weeks resulted in marasmus, polydipsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. In addition, the diabetic rats showed an apparent decrease in the insulin immunoreactivity and the number of β-cells in the pancreas. The addition of the HFE to the rats' food supply significantly lowered the serum glucose and the serum triglycerides level and preserved the normal histological appearance of the pancreatic islets. These results indicate that the HEF have a strong antidiabetic potential along with the significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, which may be applicable in the pharmaceutical industry.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2013.7.2.103
PMCID: PMC3627926  PMID: 23610602
Antidiabetic; hyperglycemia; immunohistochemistry; multi-herbal formula; streptozotocin
19.  Effects of Tephrosia Purpurea Aqueous Seed Extract on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats 
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpASet” at a dose of 600mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that “TpASet” has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from “TpASet”.
PMCID: PMC2816530  PMID: 20162045
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
20.  Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats 
BioMed Research International  2012;2013:162724.
The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats, which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.
doi:10.1155/2013/162724
PMCID: PMC3591163  PMID: 23509685
21.  Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 
Objective
To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Methods
Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment.
Results
H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study.
Conclusions
The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60085-3
PMCID: PMC3614194  PMID: 23569798
Hypericum perforatum; Streptozitocin; Fasting blood glucose; Antidiabetic; Plasma insulin; Carbohydrate metabolism enzymes; Antihyperglycemic effect
22.  Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats  
BioImpacts : BI  2011;1(2):121-128.
Introduction
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Methods
Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8) received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (n=12), received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12) were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg) and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks.
Results
Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS), PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation.
Conclusion
Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.
doi:10.5681/bi.2011.016
PMCID: PMC3648954  PMID: 23678416
Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes; Oxidative Stress; Vitamin E; Selenium; Paraoxonase 1; Oxidized LDL
23.  Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects ofTephrosia purpurea seed extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of ethanolic seed extract ofTephrosia purpurea (TpEt) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose 6 phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpEt” at a dose of 300mg/kg bw showed significant antihyperglcemic and antilipidperoxidative effects as well as increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of non enzymatic antioxidants. We also noticed that the antihyperglycemic effect of plant drug (TpEt) was comparable to that of the reference drug glibenclamide. Our results clearly indicate that “TpEt” has potent antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive antidiabetic principles from “TpEt”.
doi:10.1007/BF02912886
PMCID: PMC3454248  PMID: 23105657
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
24.  Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats 
Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD) and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.
doi:10.1155/2013/601838
PMCID: PMC3671281  PMID: 23762147
25.  Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Background
Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae).
Methods
The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I – normal control, Group II (Vehicle) – diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) – MM I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV – MM II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V – MM III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI – glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia.
Results
The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver, kidney, heart and pancreas.
Conclusion
The antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effect of methanolic extract from Melastoma malabathricum Linn suggests a potential therapeutic treatment to antidiabetic conditions.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-222
PMCID: PMC3847142  PMID: 24010894
Melastoma malabathricum; Streptozotocin; Antidiabetic; Antihyperlipidemic; Glibenclamide

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