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1.  Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseased patients attending a dermatologic clinic: a cross-sectional study in Sudan 
BMC Oral Health  2011;11:24.
So far there have been no studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML) in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is noteworthy as skin lesions are strongly associated with oral lesions and could easily be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and socio-behavioural correlates of OML in skin diseased patients attending outpatient's facility of Khartoum Teaching Hospital - Dermatology Clinic, Sudan.
A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in Khartoum from October 2008 to January 2009. A total of 588 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 16 years, 50.3% females) completed an oral examination and a personal interview of which 544 patients (mean age 37.1 ± 15.9 years, 50% females) with confirmed skin disease diagnosis were included for further analyses. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria (WHO). Biopsy and smear were used as adjuvant techniques for confirmation. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 15.0.1). Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher's exact test were used.
A total of 438 OML were registered in 315 (57.9%, males: 54.6% versus females: 45.6%, p < 0.05) skin diseased patients. Thus, a certain number of patients had more than one type of OML. Tongue lesions were the most frequently diagnosed OML (23.3%), followed in descending order by white lesions (19.1%), red and blue lesions (11%) and vesiculobullous diseases (6%). OML in various skin diseases were; vesiculobullous reaction pattern (72.2%), lichenoid reaction pattern (60.5%), infectious lesions (56.5%), psoriasiform reaction pattern (56.7%), and spongiotic reaction pattern (46.8%). Presence of OML in skin diseased patients was most frequent in older age groups (62.4% older versus 52.7% younger, p < 0.05), in males (63.2% males versus 52.6% females, p < 0.05), patients with a systemic disease (65.2% with systemic versus 51.9% without systemic disease, p < 0.05) and among current users of smokeless tobacco (toombak) (77% current use versus 54.8% no use, p < 0.00).
OML were frequently diagnosed in skin diseased patients and varied systematically with age, gender, systemic condition and use of toombak. The high prevalence of OML emphasizes the importance of routine examination of oral mucosa in a dermatology clinic.
PMCID: PMC3187735  PMID: 21929814
2.  The prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in Thai primary school children 
Traditional methods of measuring oral health mainly use clinical dental indices and have been complemented by oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures. Most OHRQoL studies have been on adults and elderly populations. There are no systematic OHRQoL studies of a population-based sample of children. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in primary school children.
Cross-sectional study of all 1126 children aged 11–12 years in a municipal area of Suphanburi province, Thailand. An OHRQoL measure, Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (Child-OIDP) was used to assess oral impacts. Children were also clinically examined and completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographic information and oral behaviours.
89.8% of children had one or more oral impacts. The median impact score was 7.6 and mean score was 8.8. Nearly half (47.0%) of the children with impacts had impacts at very little or little levels of intensity. Most (84.8%) of those with impacts had 1–4 daily performances affected (out of 8 performances). Eating was the most common performance affected (72.9%). The severity of impacts was high for eating and smiling and low for study and social contact performances. The main clinical causes of impacts were sensitive tooth (27.9%), oral ulcers (25.8%), toothache (25.1%) and an exfoliating primary tooth (23.4%).
The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life in Thai primary school children. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating and smiling. Toothache, oral ulcers and natural processes contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.
PMCID: PMC529463  PMID: 15476561
oral impacts; quality of life; children
3.  Discriminative ability of the generic and condition-specific Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH) Project: A cross-sectional study 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:45.
Generic and condition-specific (CS) oral-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general oral conditions and specific oral diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, this study compared the discriminative ability of the generic Child OIDP with respect to dental caries and periodontal problems across the study sites. Secondly, the discriminative ability of the generic-and the CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries, periodontal problems and malocclusion was compared with respect to various oral conditions as part of a construct validation.
In Arusha, 1077 school children (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-17 years) and 1601 school children in Dar es Salaam (mean age 13.0 years, range 12-14 years) underwent oral clinical examinations and completed the Kiswahili version of the generic and CS Child-OIDP inventories. The discriminative ability was assessed as differences in overall mean and prevalence scores between groups, corresponding effect sizes and odd ratios, OR.
The differences in the prevalence scores and the overall mean generic Child-OIDP scores were significant between the groups with (DMFT > 0) and without (DMFT = 0) caries experience and with (simplified oral hygiene index [OHI-S] > 1) and without periodontal problems (OHI-S ≤ 1) in Arusha and Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, differences in the generic and CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without dental caries, differences in the generic Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without periodontal problems, and differences in the CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between malocclusion groups. The adjusted OR for the association between dental caries and the CS Child-OIDP score attributed to dental caries was 5.4. The adjusted OR for the association between malocclusion and CS Child-OIDP attributed to malocclusion varied from 8.8 to 2.5.
The generic Child-OIDP discriminated equally well between children with and without dental caries and periodontal problems across socio-culturally different study sites. Compared with its generic form, the CS Child-OIDP discriminated most strongly between children with and without dental caries and malocclusion. The CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries and malocclusion seems to be better suited to support clinical indicators when estimating oral health needs among school children in Tanzania.
PMCID: PMC3118891  PMID: 21615892
4.  How to make a link between Oral Health-Related Quality of Life and dentin hypersensitivity in the dental office? 
Clinical Oral Investigations  2012;17(Suppl 1):41-44.
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) can be considered as the scientific expression of that part of a person’s well-being that is affected by his/her oral health. The aim of this paper was to evaluate how to use the data available in the field of research to make a link between OHRQoL and dentin hypersensitivity (DHS) in the dental office.
Materials and methods
Research papers in the field of OHRQoL and DHS and reviews and research papers about OHRQoL were used for analysis in this short review, with a particular insight on the instruments used to evaluate OHRQoL.
Various psychometric instruments have been used to measure OHRQoL that are more or less patient- or expert-centred. Some are generic, others are adapted to specific conditions/domains or populations. The impact of DHS or exposed cervical dentin (ECD) on OHRQoL has been assessed in very few studies. It is therefore of the upmost importance that the use of the OHRQoL as a quality control tool be established in robust clinical studies.
Conclusions/clinical relevance
Future studies evaluating the impact of the DHS/ECD on OHQoL or evaluating the efficacy of desensitising agents should respect some key points, including study design (randomization, placebo/control group, etc.), validated specific questionnaires and trained calibrated practitioners.
PMCID: PMC3585693  PMID: 23262836
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life; Dentin hypersensitivity; Exposed cervical dentin
5.  Comparison of the discriminative ability of a generic and a condition-specific OHRQoL measure in adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment 
At present, there is no evidence on whether using condition-specific Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) measures provides more reliable information than generic measures for needs assessment. Therefore, the objective was to assess the discriminative ability of one generic and one condition-specific OHRQoL measure, namely, respectively, the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the Condition-Specific form of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (CS-OIDP) attributed to malocclusion, between adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment.
200 16–17-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from 957 schoolchildren attending a Sixth Form College in London, United Kingdom. The impact of their oral conditions on quality of life during the last 6 months was assessed using two OHRQoL measures; OHIP-14 and OIDP. Adolescents were also examined for normative orthodontic treatment need using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Discriminative ability was assessed comparing the overall scores and prevalence of oral impacts, calculated using each OHRQoL measure, between adolescents with and without normative need. Using the prevalence of oral impacts allowed adjusting for covariates.
There were significant differences in overall scores for CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion between adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment when IOTN or DAI were used to define need (p = 0.029 or 0.011 respectively), and in overall scores for OHIP-14 when DAI, but not IOTN was used to define need (p = 0.029 and 0.080 respectively). For the prevalence of impacts, only the prevalence of CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion differed significantly between adolescents with and without normative need, even after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.017 and 0.049 using IOTN and DAI to define need).
CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion was better able than OHIP-14 to discriminate between adolescents with and without normative needs for orthodontic treatment.
PMCID: PMC2533301  PMID: 18718004
6.  Health promoting schools and children’s oral health related quality of life 
The study objective was to compare children’s oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in schools with 6 years of implementation of a health promoting school model in Malaysia, i.e. the Doktor Muda Programme (DMP) and in schools without the DMP.
This report was part of a larger study to evaluate the DMP impact on schoolchildren’s oral health knowledge, attitudes, behaviour, caries progression and OHRQoL. It was conducted in Negri Sembilan state. The sample comprised 3455, Year 6 (11–12 year old) children; 1282 from DMP (intervention) and 2173 from non-DMP (control) schools. The Malay Child-OIDP index was used to evaluate children’s levels of oral impacts on 8 daily performances after 6 years of DMP implementation (2006–2011). Prevalence, score, impact intensity, causes and extent of impacts were compared. Chi-square and Mann–Whitney tests were used in the data analysis.
Overall response rate was 95.1%. Prevalence of overall impacts was 57.8% and 60.8% (mean total impact score was 7.10 and 7.77) in the intervention and control group, respectively. The three most frequently affected performances in both groups were eating, cleaning teeth and emotional stability. Significantly less DMP children had oral impact on cleaning teeth (p = 0.034). The majority of children with impacts in both groups reported ‘very little’ to ‘moderate’ levels of impact intensity. Significantly more DMP children reported having ‘very little’ and ‘little’ levels of impact intensity on cleaning teeth (p = 0.037) and emotional stability (p = 0.020), respectively. Significantly less DMP children reported having ‘very severe’ level of impact intensity on speaking (p = 0.038). The most prevalent cause of impacts in both groups was toothache. Significantly less DMP children reported bleeding gums (p = 0.016) and presence of plaque/calculus as causes of impacts (p = 0.032). About 75% of children with impacts in both groups reported having up to four daily performances affected.
This study showed that the health promoting school model, i.e. the Doktor Muda Programme for primary schools in Malaysia had some positive impacts on 11–12 year old children’s oral health related quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3895750  PMID: 24325653
Evaluation; Health promoting school; Oral health promotion; Oral health related quality of life; Schoolchildren
7.  Child-OIDP index in Brazil: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation 
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures are being increasingly used to introduce dimensions excluded by normative measures. Consequently, there is a need for an index which evaluates children's OHRQoL validated for Brazilian population, useful for oral health needs assessments and for the evaluation of oral health programs, services and technologies. The aim of this study was to do a cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) index, and assess its reliability and validity for application among Brazilian children between the ages of eleven and fourteen.
For cross-cultural adaptation, a translation/back-translation method integrated with expert panel reviews was applied. A total of 342 students from four public schools took part of the study.
Overall, 80.7% of the sample reported at least one oral impact in the last three months. Cronbach's alpha was 0.63, the weighted kappa 0.76, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.79. The index had a significant association with self-reported health measurements (self-rated oral health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived dental treatment needs, self-rated general health; all p < 0.01).
It was concluded that the Child-OIDP index is a measure of oral health-related quality of life that can be applied to Brazilian children.
PMCID: PMC2553067  PMID: 18793433
8.  Performance and cross-cultural comparison of the short-form version of the CPQ11-14 in New Zealand, Brunei and Brazil 
The Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) is a self-report instrument developed to measure oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in 11-14-year-olds. Earlier reports confirm that the 16-item short-form version performs adequately, but there is a need to determine the measure's validity and properties in larger and more diverse samples and settings.
The objective of this study was to examine the performance of the 16-item short-form impact version of the CPQ11-14 in different communities and cultures with diverse caries experience.
Cross-sectional epidemiological surveys of child oral health were conducted in two regions of New Zealand, one region in Brunei, and one in Brazil. Children were examined for dental caries (following WHO guidelines), and OHRQoL was measured using the 16-item short-form item-impact version of the CPQ11-14, along with two global questions on OHRQoL. Children in the 20% with the greatest caries experience (DMF score) were categorised as the highest caries quintile. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the mean scale scores across the categories of caries experience; correlational construct validity was assessed by comparing mean scores and children's global ratings of oral health and well-being.
There were substantial variations in caries experience among the different communities (from 1.8 in Otago to 4.9 in Northland) and in mean CPQ11-14 scores (from 11.5 in Northland to 16.8 in Brunei). In all samples, those in the most severe caries experience quintile had higher mean CPQ11-14 scores than those who were caries-free (P < 0.05). There were also greater CPQ scores in those with worse self-rated oral health, with the Otago sample presenting the most marked gradient across the response categories for self-rated oral health, from 'Excellent' to 'Fair/Poor' (9.6 to 19.7 respectively).
The findings suggest that the 16-item short-form item impact version of the CPQ11-14 performs well across diverse cultures and levels of caries experience. Reasons for the differences in mean CPQ scores among the communities are unclear and may reflect subtle socio-cultural differences in subjective oral health among these populations, but elucidating these requires further exploration of the face and content validity of the measure in different populations.
PMCID: PMC3130632  PMID: 21649928
Adolescents; caries experience; quality of life; validity; short-form CPQ11-14
9.  Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain) 
Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the oral health status and the factors associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people aged 65 and older institutionalized in Barcelona in 2009. Study Desing: Cross sectional study in 194 elderly. The dependent variable was poor OHRQoL, according to the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The independent variables were socio-demographic data, last dental visit, subjective and objective oral health status. Robust Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL as well as the strengths of association (Prevalence Ratios with respective confidence intervals at 95%). Results: According to GOHAI, 94 women (68.1%) and 36 men (64.3%) had poor OHRQoL. The average DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 22.8, with mean 10.2 remaining teeth. According to the Community Periodontal Index only 1.9% were healthy. 33.8% of the sample (35.5% of women and 30.4% of men) presented edentulism, 54.2% needed upper dental prostheses (51.1% of women and 60.7% of men) and 64.7% needed lower ones (61.6% of women and 71.4% of men). Only 7.2% had visited a dentist in the past year (8.8% of women and 3.6% of men). After fitting several multivariate adjusted robust Poisson regression models, poor OHRQoL was found to be associated to self-reporting problems with teeth or gums, self-reporting poor opinion about teeth/gums/denture and also associated to functional edentulism, needing upper denture, but not to socio-demographic factors or time since last dental visit. Conclusions: The study population has poor objective oral health. A high percentage has poor OHRQoL associated to subjective and objective oral health conditions. Dental care is required and these services should be included in the Spanish National Health System.
Key words:Oral health, homes for the aged, elderly, self-assessment, quality of life, geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI).
PMCID: PMC3613882  PMID: 23385501
10.  Oral Health-related Quality of Life 
Journal of Dental Research  2011;90(11):1264-1270.
Despite its relatively recent emergence over the past few decades, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) has important implications for the clinical practice of dentistry and dental research. OHRQoL is a multidimensional construct that includes a subjective evaluation of the individual’s oral health, functional well-being, emotional well-being, expectations and satisfaction with care, and sense of self. It has wide-reaching applications in survey and clinical research. OHRQoL is an integral part of general health and well-being. In fact, it is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an important segment of the Global Oral Health Program (2003). This paper identifies the what, why, and how of OHRQoL and presents an oral health theoretical model. The relevance of OHRQoL for dental practitioners and patients in community-based dental practices is presented. Implications for health policy and related oral health disparities are also discussed. A supplemental Appendix contains a Medline and ProQuest literature search regarding OHRQoL research from 1990-2010 by discipline and research design (e.g., descriptive, longitudinal, clinical trial, etc.). The search identified 300 articles with a notable surge in OHRQoL research in pediatrics and orthodontics in recent years.
PMCID: PMC3318061  PMID: 21422477
quality of life; health services research; patient outcomes; evidence-based dentistry/health care; community dentistry; psychosocial factors
11.  Health Disparities Among Children With Cleft 
American Journal of Public Health  2012;102(5):828-830.
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is a multidimensional construct that measures well-being associated with the teeth, mouth, and face. This cross-sectional study examined OHRQoL, demographic data, and clinical indicators in 839 treatment-seeking youths with cleft from 6 geographically diverse cleft treatment centers. Individuals without health insurance and representing ethnic minorities had lower OHRQoL scores on the Child Oral Health Impact Profile and a higher rate of surgical recommendations. These findings imply a risk factor for reduced OHRQoL and unmet needs among vulnerable youths with clefts.
PMCID: PMC3325366  PMID: 22420792
12.  Parental reports of the oral health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:15.
The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies.
Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed.
Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p < 0.05). Considering each domain of the instrument, the severity of the type of CP and its reduction of communication ability showed a negative impact on oral symptoms and functional limitations domains (p < 0.05). Seizures have a negative impact on oral symptoms domain (p = 0.006). The multivariate fitted model showed that the severity of dental caries, communication ability and low family income were negatively associated with the impact on OHRQoL (p = 0.001).
The severity of dental caries, communication ability, and family income are conditions strongly associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL of children with CP.
PMCID: PMC3500272  PMID: 22708973
Cerebral palsy; Children; Oral health related quality of life
13.  Cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11–14 (CPQ11–14) for the Brazilian Portuguese language 
Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments are being used with increasing frequency in oral health surveys. However, these instruments are not available in all countries or all languages. The availability of cross-culturally valid, multi-lingual versions of instruments is important for epidemiological research. The Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11–14 (CPQ11–14) is an OHRQoL instrument that assesses the impact of oral conditions on the quality of life of children and adolescents. The objective of the current study was to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of CPQ11–14 for the Brazilian Portuguese language.
After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the CPQ 11–14 was tested on 160 11-to-14-year-old children who were clinically and radiographically examined for the presence or absence of dental caries. The children were receiving dental care at the Pediatric Dental and Orthodontic clinics of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To test the quality of the translation, 17 children answered the questionnaire. The internal consistency of the instrument was assessed by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient and the test-retest reliability by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
The mean CPQ11–14 score were 24.5 [standard deviation (SD) 18.27] in the group with caries and 12.89 [SD 10.95] in the group without caries. Median scores were 20 and 10 in the groups with and without caries, respectively (p < 0.001). Significant associations were identified between caries status and all CPQ domains (p < 0.05). Internal reliability was confirmed by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.86. Test-retest reliability revealed satisfactory reproducibility (ICC = 0.85). The questionnaire proved to be a valid instrument. Construct validity was satisfactory, demonstrating highly significant correlations with global indicators for the total scale and subscales. The CPQ11–14 score was able to discriminate between different oral conditions (groups without and with untreated caries).
The present study demonstrated that the CPQ11–14 is applicable to children in Brazil. It has satisfactory psychometric properties, but further research is required to evaluate these properties in a population study.
PMCID: PMC2246108  PMID: 18194552
14.  The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version 
Oral and orofacial problems may cause a profound impact on children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) because of symptoms associated with these conditions that may influence the physical, psychological and social aspects of their daily life. The OHRQoL questionnaires found in the literature are very specific and are not able to measure the impact of oral health on general health domains. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version for Brazilian translation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Oral Health Scale in combination with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales.
The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale was forward-backward translated and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian Portuguese language. In order to assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the instrument, a study was carried out in Belo Horizonte with 208 children and adolescents between 2 and 18 years-of-age and their parents. Clinical evaluation of dental caries, socioeconomic information and the Brazilian versions of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales, Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and CPQ8-10) and Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) were administered. Statistical analysis included feasibility (missing values), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency reliability, and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale.
There were no missing data for both child self-report and parent proxy-report on the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale. The CFA showed that the five items of child self-report and parent proxy-report loaded on a single construct. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for child/adolescent and parent oral health instruments were 0.65 and 0.59, respectively. The test-retest reliability (ICC) for child self-report and parent proxy-report were 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-0.93] and 0.86 (95%CI = 0.81-0.90), respectively. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale demonstrated acceptable construct validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity.
These results supported the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale for child self-report for ages 5–18 years-old and parent proxy-report for ages 2–18 years-old children.
PMCID: PMC3425333  PMID: 22531004
Oral health; PedsQL; Quality of life; Validation; Child; Adolescent
15.  Applicability of an abbreviated version of the Child-OIDP inventory among primary schoolchildren in Tanzania 
There is a need for studies evaluating oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children in developing countries.
to assess the psychometric properties, prevalence and perceived causes of the child version of oral impact on daily performance inventory (Child-OIDP) among school children in two socio-demographically different districts of Tanzania. Socio-behavioral and clinical correlates of children's OHRQoL were also investigated.
One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr, 60.5% girls) attending 16 (urban and rural) primary schools in Kinondoni and Temeke districts completed a survey instrument in face to face interviews and participated in a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child-OIDP frequency score, global oral health indicators and socio-demographic factors.
The Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP inventory preserved the overall concept of the original English version and revealed good reliability in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.77 (Kinondoni: 0.62, Temeke: 0.76). Weighted Kappa scores from a test-retest were 1.0 and 0.8 in Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. Validity was supported in that the OIDP scores varied systematically and in the expected direction with self-reported oral health measures and socio-behavioral indicators. Confirmatory factor analyses, CFA, confirmed three dimensions identified initially by Principle Component Analysis within the OIDP item pool. A total of 28.6% of the participants had at least one oral impact. The area specific rates for Kinondoni and Temeke were 18.5% and 45.5%. The most frequently reported impacts were problems eating and cleaning teeth, and the most frequently reported cause of impacts were toothache, ulcer in mouth and position of teeth.
This study showed that the Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP was applicable for use among schoolchildren in Tanzania.
PMCID: PMC1939836  PMID: 17631038
16.  Oral health-related quality of life in an aging Canadian population 
The purpose of the study is to describe the impact of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on the lives of pre-seniors and seniors living in Nova Scotia, Canada.
This cross-sectional study involved 1461 participants, grouped by age (pre-seniors [45–64] and seniors [65+]) and residential status (long-term care facility [LTC] or community). OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) in a random digit dialing telephone survey (for community residents) or a face-to-face interview (for LTC residents). Intra-oral examinations were performed by one of six dentists calibrated to W.H.O. standards.
Approximately one in four pre-seniors and seniors reported at least one OHRQoL impact ‘fairly/very often’. The most commonly reported impacts were within the dimensions ‘physical pain’ and ‘psychological discomfort’. It was found that 12.2% of LTC residents found it uncomfortable to eat any foods ‘fairly/very’ often compared to 7.7% in the community, and 11.6% of LTC residents reported being self-conscious ‘fairly/very often’ compared to 8.2% in the community. Of those residing in the community, pre-seniors (28.8%) reported significantly more impacts than seniors (22.0%); but there were no significant differences in OHRQoL between pre-seniors (21.2%) and seniors (25.3%) in LTC. Pre-seniors living in the community scored significantly higher than community dwelling seniors on prevalence, extent and severity of OHIP-14 scores. Logistic regression revealed that for the community dwelling sample, individuals living in rural areas in addition to those being born outside of Canada were approximately 2.0 times more likely to report an impact ‘fairly/very often’, whereas among the LTC sample, those having a high school education or less were 2.3 times more likely to report an impact.
Findings indicate that the oral health and OHRQoL of both pre-seniors and seniors in LTC residents is poor. Community dwelling pre-seniors have the highest prevalence rate of oral impacts.
PMCID: PMC3480903  PMID: 22587387
Oral health; Quality of life; Elderly; Aging; Seniors; Pre-seniors; Canada
17.  Oral Health-Related Quality of Life and Life-Space Mobility in Community-Swelling Older Adults 
To quantify the associations between measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and life-space mobility (LSM) in community-dwelling older adults.
Cross-sectional study using a 54-item OHRQoL questionnaire.
Five counties in central Alabama: Jefferson and Tuscaloosa (urban), and Bibb, Hale, and Pickens (rural).
The 288 Dental Study volunteers were recruited from participants in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of mobility in community-dwelling adults age 65 and older.
Participants completed an in-home interview about their OHRQoL and LSM. Life-space was assessed by asking questions about where, how often, and the degree of independence in getting to areas ranging from the home to beyond town. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were used to quantify associations between OHRQoL and LSM. Other factors examined included: age, race, gender, income, education, residence, transportation difficulty, marital status, depressive symptoms, and comorbidity.
Unadjusted and adjusted analyses suggested significant associations between OHRQoL and LSM in these components of oral health: oral functional limitation, oral pain and discomfort, oral disadvantage, and self-rated oral health.
OHRQoL decrements reported by participants were associated with decreased LSM, suggesting that perceptions of oral well-being have a significant impact on mobility and the social participation of older adults.
PMCID: PMC3099470  PMID: 21361883
oral health; quality of life; life-space mobility; geriatric assessment
18.  Oral health-related quality of life in a birth cohort of 32-year olds 
To describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among New Zealand adults and assess the relationship between clinical measures of oral health status and a well-established OHRQoL measure, controlling for sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and use of dental services.
A birth cohort of 924 dentate adults (participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) was systematically examined for dental caries, tooth loss, and periodontal attachment loss (CAL) at age 32 years. OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). The questionnaire also collected data on each study member’s occupation, self-rated oral health and reasons for seeing a dental care provider. SES was determined from each individual’s occupation at age 32 years.
The mean total OHIP-14 score was 8.0 (SD 8.1); 23.4% of the cohort reported one or more OHIP problems ‘fairly often’ or ‘very often’. When the prevalence of impacts ‘fairly/very often’ was modeled using logistic regression, having untreated caries, two or more sites with CAL of 4+ mm and 1 or more teeth missing by age 32 years remained significantly associated with OHRQoL, after adjusting for sex and ‘episodic’ dental care. Multivariate analysis using Poisson regression determined that being in the low SES group was also associated with the mean number of impacts (extent) and the rated severity of impacts.
OHIP-14 scores were significantly associated with clinical oral health status indicators, independently of sex and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The prevalence of impacts (23.4%) in the cohort was significantly greater than age- and sex-standardized estimates from Australia (18.2%) and the UK (15.9%).
PMCID: PMC2288569  PMID: 18650957
adult; dental caries; oral health; Oral Health Impact Profile; periodontal diseases; prevalence; quality of life; tooth loss
19.  Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) 
BMC Oral Health  2011;11:19.
Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social and psychological wellbeing of young children and their families and cause pain/discomfort for the child. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) has emerged as an important health outcome in clinical trials and healthcare research. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is a proxy measure of children's OHRQoL designed to assess the negative impact of oral disorders on the quality of life of preschool children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the ECOHIS (B-ECOHIS).
This investigation was carried out in preliminary and field studies. The preliminary study comprised a cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Petropolis, Brazil. A sample of 150 children from two to five years of age was recruited at a public hospital. In the field study, an epidemiological survey was carried out in public and private preschools of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The B-ECOHIS was answered by 1643 parents/caregivers of five-year-old male and female preschool children. In both phases, oral examinations were performed by a single previously calibrated dentist. Reliability was determined through test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Validity was determined through convergent and discriminant validities. The correlation between the scores obtained on the child and family impact sections was assessed.
In the preliminary (P) and field (F) study, test-retest reliability correlation values were 0.98 and 0.99 for the child impact section and 0.97 and 0.99 for the family impact section, respectively. The B-ECOHIS demonstrated internal consistency: child impact section (P: α = 0.74; F: α = 0.80) and family impact section (P: α = 0.59; F: α = 0.76). The correlation between the scores obtained on the child and family impact sections was statistically significant (P: rs = 0.54; F: rs = 0.62; p ≤ 0.001). In both phases of the study, B-ECOHIS scores were significantly associated with the decayed, missing and filled teeth index, decayed teeth and discolored upper anterior teeth (p < 0.05).
The B-ECOHIS proved reliable and valid for assessing the negative impact of oral disorders on the quality of life of preschool children.
PMCID: PMC3125235  PMID: 21668959
20.  Oral health-related quality of life in complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic background, prosthetic-related factors and clinical condition 
Objectives: To investigate the differences in impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic characteristics, prosthetic-related factors and oral status. Study Design: 51 patients aged 50-90 years treated, from 2005 to 2010, with at least one complete denture at the Department of Buccofacial Prostheses of the Complutense University (Madrid) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All of the participants answered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14sp) questionnaire. The additive scoring method was used. The prevalence of impacts was calculated by using the occasional threshold (OHIP-14sp score≥2). Socio-demographic and prosthetic-related variables were gathered. Patients underwent clinical examination to assess their oral condition. Descriptive probes and Chi-Square tests were run (p≤0.05). Results: The predominant participants’ profile was that of a man with a mean age of 69 years wearing complete dentures in both the maxilla and the mandible. The prevalence of impact was 23.5%, showing an average score of 19±9.8. The most affected domains were “functional limitation” and “physical pain”, followed by “physical disability”. Minor impacts were recorded for the psychological and social subscales (“psychological discomfort”, “psychological disability”, “social disability” and “handicap”). The prosthesis’ location significantly influenced the overall patient satisfaction, the lower dentures being the less comfortable. Having a complete removable denture as antagonist significantly hampered the patient satisfaction. Patients without prosthetic stomatitis and those who need repairing or changing their prostheses, recorded significantly higher OHIP-14sp total scores. Conclusions: The use of conventional complete dentures brings negative impacts in the OHRQoL of elderly patients, mainly in case of lower prostheses that required reparation or substitution, with a removable total denture as antagonist. The prosthetic stomatitis in this study was always associated to other severe illness, which may have influenced the self-perceived discomfort with the prostheses, as those patients were daily medicated with painkillers.
Key words:Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), patient satisfaction, complete denture, elderly patients.
PMCID: PMC3668860  PMID: 23385509
21.  Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) 
Most of the instruments available to measure the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in paediatric populations focus on older children, whereas parental reports are used for very young children. The scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) assesses the OHRQoL of very young children through self-reports and parental proxy reports. We aimed to cross-culturally adapt the SOHO-5 to the Brazilian Portuguese language and to assess its reliability and validity.
We tested the quality of the cross-cultural adaptation in 2 pilot studies with 40 children aged 5–6 years and their parents. The measurement was tested for reliability and validity on 193 children that attended the paediatric dental screening program at the University of São Paulo. The children were also clinically examined for dental caries. The internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.90 for the children’s self-reports and 0.77 for the parental proxy reports. The test-retest reliability results, which were based on repeated administrations on 159 children, were excellent; the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 for parental and 0.92 for child reports. In general, the construct validity was satisfactory and demonstrated consistent and strong associations between the SOHO-5 and different subjective global ratings of oral health, perceived dental treatment need and overall well-being in both the parental and children’s versions (p < 0.001). The SOHO-5 was also able to clearly discriminate between children with and without a history of dental caries (mean scores: 5.8 and 1.1, respectively; p < 0.001).
The present study demonstrated that the SOHO-5 exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties and is applicable to 5- to 6-year-old children in Brazil.
PMCID: PMC3600026  PMID: 23394292
Oral health; Quality of life; Preschool children; Parents; Validation
22.  Oral health of visually impaired schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:33.
Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan.
A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI) (44.6%)]. Two calibrated dentists examined the participants (n=79) using DMFT/dmft, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), dental care index, and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) index. Oral health related quality of life (C-OIDP) was administered to 82 schoolchildren.
Caries experience was 46.8%. Mean DMFT (age≥12, n=33) was 0.4 ± 0.7 (SiC 1.6), mean dmft (age<12, n=46) was 1.9 ±2.8 (SiC 3.4), mean OHIS 1.3 ± 0.9. Care Index was zero. One fifth of the children suffered TDI (19%). Almost one third (29%) of the 11–13 year old children reported an oral impact on their daily performances. A quarter of the schoolchildren (25.3%) required an urgent treatment need. Analysis showed that children with partial visual impairment (PVI) were 6.3 times (adjusted) more likely to be diagnosed with caries compared to children with complete visual impairment (CVI), and children with caries experience were 1.3 times (unadjusted) more likely to report an oral health related impact on quality of life.
Visually impaired schoolchildren are burdened with oral health problems, especially caries. Furthermore, the 11-13 year olds' burden with caries showed a significant impact on their quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3720199  PMID: 23866155
Visually impaired children; Oral health; Oral health-related quality of life
23.  Association between perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life in partially dentate patients 
One of the most immediate and important functional consequences of many oral disorders is a reduction in chewing ability. The ability to chew is not only an important dimension of oral health, but is increasingly recognized as being associated with general health status. Whether perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) are correlated to a similar degree in patient populations has been less investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived chewing ability was related to OHRQoL in partially dentate patients.
Consecutive partially dentate patients (N = 489) without signs or symptoms of acute oral disease at Tokyo Medical and Dental University's Prosthodontic Clinic participated in the study (mean age 63.0 ± 11.5, 71.2% female). A 20-item chewing function questionnaire (score range 0 to 20) was used to assess perceived chewing ability, with higher scores indicating better chewing ability. The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile-Japanese version (OHIP-J14, score range 0 to 56) was used to measure OHRQoL, with higher scores indicating poorer OHRQoL. A Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between the two questionnaire summary scores. A linear regression analysis was used to describe how perceived chewing ability scores were related to OHRQoL scores.
The mean chewing function score was 12.1 ± 4.8 units. The mean OHIP-J14 summary score was 13.0 ± 9.1 units. Perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL were significantly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.52 to -0.38), indicating that higher chewing ability was correlated with lower OHIP-J14 summary scores (p < 0.001), which indicate better OHRQoL. A 1.0-unit increase in chewing function scores was related to a decrease of 0.87 OHIP-J14 units (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.72, p < 0.001). The correlation between perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL was not substantially influenced by age and number of teeth, but by gender, years of schooling, treatment demand and denture status.
Patients' perception of their chewing ability was substantially related to their OHRQoL.
PMCID: PMC2974665  PMID: 20955614
24.  Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the child perceptions questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14) for the peruvian spanish language 
Objectives: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), are broadly used in oral health surveys around the world. However, there is a lack of these instruments in Spanish language limiting the comparison of OHRQoL outcomes among countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt the CPQ11-14 to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. Material and Methods: To test the translation and cross-cultural adaptation, 60 children aged 11-to-14-years answered the CPQ11-14 in two pilot tests. After that, the questionnaire was tested on 200 children of the same age, who were clinically examined for dental caries. The internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the CPQ11-14 on the same 200 children facilitated the test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the CPQ11-14 with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups respectively. Results: The mean (standard deviation) CPQ11-14 score was 20.18(13.07). Internal consistency was confirmed by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC= 0.92). Construct validity was confirmed demonstrating statistically significant associations between total CPQ11-14 score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.035) and overall well-being (p<0.001). The measure was also able to discriminate between children with dental caries experience and those without (mean scores: 26.32 and 12.96 respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions: The Spanish CPQ11-14 has satisfactory psychometric properties and is applicable to children in Peru.
Key words:Oral health, quality of life, children, adolescent, validity, reliability.
PMCID: PMC3854073  PMID: 23722140
25.  The impact of implant treatment on oral health related quality of life in a private dental practice: a prospective cohort study 
Very few studies on the impact of implant therapy on Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in partially edentulous patients have been published.
This study aimed at analysing the improvement of OHRQoL of patients who underwent dental implant treatment using the “functional”, “psychosocial” and “pain and discomfort” categories of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI).
Within a prospective cohort of patients rehabilitated with Straumann dental implants, the OHRQoL of 176 patients (104 women and 72 men) was assessed using the GOHAI questionnaire, at two different times, before and after implant placement. The degree of oral treatment was categorised into three classes: “Single Tooth Implant” (n = 77), “Fixed Partial Denture” (n = 75), “Fixed or Retained Full Prostheses” (n = 24). The participants’ characteristics (gender, age, tobacco habits, periodontal treatment, time between both evaluations) were assessed.
Before treatment, the GOHAI score was lower for participants with fewer teeth (F = 19, P < 0.001). After treatment, no difference was observed between participants; significant improvements were observed in the GOHAI scores obtained (repeated measures, analysis, (F = 177, P < 0.001)) for each of the GOHAI fields studied (functional, psychosocial and pain & discomfort), regardless of the degree of treatment. The best improvement was observed in patients who needed complete treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of preliminary periodontal treatment, tobacco habits, age and gender of the participants did not have a significant impact on OHRQoL. Changing the time between the two evaluations (before and after treatment) had no impact on the changes in the GOHAI score.
Implants enhanced the OHRQoL of participants that needed oral treatment.
PMCID: PMC3842837  PMID: 24229381
Dental implants; Oral Treatment; OHRQoL; Evaluation

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