Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide. The present clinical study deals with the effect of Makandi (Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.) Ghana vati and tablets of its powder in hypertension found in the geriatric age group (50-80 years). A total of 49 hypertensive patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were registered in two groups-Group I (Ghana vati) and Group II (Churna tablet). Out of 27 enrolled patients of group I, 21 patients completed the treatment. In Group II, out of 22 registered patients, a total of 20 patients completed the treatment. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the basis of changes in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, in both sitting and supine positions; with Manasa Bhava Pariksha, Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha, symptomatology, geriatric signs and symptoms, and a brief psychiatric rating scale. Analysis of the results showed that the treatment in both the groups had been found to be good. It can be stated that Makandi, either in Ghana vati form or in churna tablet form, is an effective remedy for the treatment of hypertension. On analyzing the overall effect, 76.19% patients in Group I and 75.00% patients in Group II were mildly improved. Comparatively the overall treatment with group I was found to be better.
Makandi; Coleus forskohlii; forskolin; Ghana vati; geriatric hypertension
This clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Shirodhara and that of Sarpagandha Vati in essential hypertension. A total 47 patients were selected for study, out of which 40 patients (20 in each group) completed the course of treatment. Study subjects were randomly allotted into two groups, with one group being treated with Shirodhara and the other with Sarpagandha Vati. Specialized Ayurvedic rating scales like Manasa Pariksha Bhava as well as the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were adopted to assess the effect of therapy. The effects of treatment on the chief complaints and the associated complaints were also evaluated. The results in the Shirodhara group were better than that in the Sarpagandha group. Although both Sarpagandha Vati and Shirodhara helped in reducing systolic and diastolic pressures, the effect of Shirodhara was more marked.
Essential hypertension; Manasika Bhava; Psychic factors; Shirodhara; Sarpagandha Vati
Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder prevalent all over the world. Virechana is the Shodhana procedure that is specific for the elimination of vitiated Pitta and Kapha doshas. Thus, in the present study, the Virechana process has been selected prior to the administration of Shamana drug. Nyagrodhadi churna is mentioned in Chakradatta, which is modified into Ghana form for easy administration and dose maintenance. The present study was conducted in two groups: Group A, Nyogrodhadi Ghana vati (Shamana therapy) and Group B, Virechana and Nyogrodhadi Ghana vati (combined therapy). A total of 42 patients were registered for the present study, in which 34 patients completed the and eight patients were dropouts. After evaluating the total effect of the therapies, it was observed that the Virechana and Nyagrodhadi Ghanavati (combined therapy) provided better relief in the patients of Madhumeha in comparison with Nyagrodhadi Ghanavati (Shamana therapy) alone.
Madhumeha; Prameha; Diabetes mellitus; Shodhana; Virechana; Shamana
The present study was aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati and Simhanada Guggulu along with Rasona Rasnadi Lepa in Amavata, and to compare the effect of these two therapies in the treatment. Total 101 patients of Amavata were registered for the present study and were randomly divided into two groups. In group A- Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati 2 Vati thrice/day was given for 3 months, while in group B- Simhanada Guggulu 2 Vati thrice a day for 3 months was adminstered. Along with this, Rasona Rasnadi Lepa was applied locally over affected joints twice daily in both groups. The effects of therapy in both groups were assessed by a specially prepared proforma. The results of the study showed that both the groups showed significant relief in symptoms; however, compared to Simhanada Guggulu, Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati showed better result in the management of Amavata. Simhanada Guggulu or Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati along with Rasona Rasnadi Lepa can be used as an effective ayurvedic intervention in the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
Ama; Amavata; Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati; Rheumatoid arthritis; Simhanada Guggulu; Vata
Low levels of detection, treatment and control of hypertension have repeatedly been reported from sub Saharan Africa, potentially increasing the likelihood of target organ damage.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1015 urban civil servants aged≥25 years from seven central government ministries in Accra, Ghana. Participants diagnosed to have hypertension were examined for target organ involvement. Hypertensive target organ damage was defined as the detection of any of the following: left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram, reduction in glomerular filtration rate, the presence of hypertensive retinopathy or a history of a stroke.
Of the 219 hypertensive participants examined, 104 (47.5%) had evidence of target organ damage. The presence of target organ damage was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The odds of developing hypertensive target organ damage was five to six times higher in participants with blood pressure (BP)≥180/110 mmHg compared to those with BP<140/90 mmHg, and there was a trend to higher odds of target organ damage with increasing BP (p = 0.001). Women had about lower odds of developing target organ damage compared to men.
The high prevalence of target organ damage in this working population associated with increasing blood pressure, emphasises the need for hypertension control programs aimed at improving the detection of hypertension, and importantly addressing the issues inhibiting the effective treatment and control of people with hypertension in the population.
Future hypertension research will include not only fundamental pathophysiology and new methods of drug therapy but also research into which groups require special treatment. Hypertension is most common in the elderly, but after age 70 is only weakly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, mainly in females, and more related to systolic hypertension than diastolic. Hypotensive therapy has not yet proven to be of benefit in this age group. Trials of therapy, perhaps especially in systolic hypertension, in women and in previous stroke victims could well be carried out cooperatively by family physicians. The effectiveness of salt reduction and weight reduction in lowering blood pressure is controversial, but could be tested in cooperative trials, especially for borderline hypertensives and possibly for children of hypertensive parents.
Hypertension; age groups; research
A study has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati in Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer Dyspepsia). Randomized single blind, placebo controlled study was conducted in 138 patients attending O.P.D. of department of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, and grouped into two. Both the groups consumed two tablets of either Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati or placebo, twice daily after food for a period of eight weeks. The patients were followed upto four weeks, 110 patients had completed the treatment and no adverse effects were reported during the treatment. Both groups had improved in the clinical symptoms and overall statistical significance was observed in the differences of scores between the two groups.
Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati; non-ulcer dyspepsia; Urdhwaga Amlapitta
To examine the effect of “DeepaniyaVati”, a herbal formulation in the management of hyperlipidemia, a randomized group pre-test post-test study trial was carried out on fifty male (30 to 70 yrs) hyperlipidemic volunteers who were asked to follow their normal routine diet and activity pattern throughout the investigation period. The formulation, prepared by mixing nine plant products in equal proportion, when given in a daily dose of 2g, twice a day for a period of one month, brought about an observable improvement in all the lipid parameters by significantly reducing total cholesterol (10%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (12.76%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.4%), triglycerides (34.7%) and bringing these values much nearer to the normal levels. In control group, no such effect was noticed. A concomitant significant increase in the HDL-C levels suggests the possible utility of “Deepaniya Vati” in the management of hyperlipidemia and the need for further detailed study.
Hyperlipidemia; herbal formulation; lipoproteins; cholesterol; triglycerides
In type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance is the main problem that is associated with a cluster of conditions such as obesity and hyperlipidemia. The present study was designed with the objective to evaluate the role of Mehamudgara vati (MMV), which was expected to work at the level of Medodhatwagni due to its Medohara properties, to have an effective control on type 2 diabetes. To fulfill the objective, known patients of type 2 diabetes attending the OPD and IPD of Kayachikitsa Department, IPGT and RA, were selected and were divided in two groups. In Group A, MMV was given 3 tab. thrice a day with lukewarm water for 3 months and in Group B, the patients who were already taking modern antidiabetic treatment, although their blood sugar level was not well under control, were additionally given MMV in the same manner. The formulation has shown a highly significant decrease in the fasting and post-prandial blood sugar level. The formulation has also shown a synergistic action when combined with the modern antidiabetic drugs due to its known hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycemic, antistress, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.
Agni; antihyperglycemic; antihyperlipidemic; dosha; dushya; stress; type 2 diabetes
Systemic arterial hypertension in children has traditionally been thought to be secondary in origin. Increased incidence of risk factors like obesity, sedentary life-styles, and faulty dietary habits has led to increased prevalence of the primary arterial hypertension (PAH), particularly in adolescent age children. PAH has become a global epidemic worldwide imposing huge economic constraint on health care. Sudden acute increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure can lead to hypertensive crisis. While it generally pertains to secondary hypertension, occurrence of hypertensive crisis in PAH is however rare in children. Hypertensive crisis has been further subclassified depending on presence or absence of end-organ damage into hypertensive emergency or urgency. Both hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are known to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Increasing awareness among the physicians, targeted at investigation of the pathophysiology of hypertension and its complications, better screening methods, generation, and implementation of novel treatment modalities will impact overall outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and management of hypertensive crisis in children. An extensive database search using keywords was done to obtain the information.
Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor of coronary heart disease. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Arogyavardhini vati, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation has been used for liver disorders. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Arogyavardhini vati in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.
Anti-hyperlipidemic activity evaluation of Arogyavardhini vati against Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Overnight fasted male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were randomly divided into normal control group [4% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), i.p.], positive control group (Triton WR-1339 in 4% DMSO, 400 mg/kg, i.p.), standard drug treated (fenofibrate 65 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia) and Arogyavardhini vati treated (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia). Rat doses were calculated by extrapolating the equivalent human dose (therapeutic dose, sub-maximum, and maximum dose). Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein HDL, liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated at end of experiments.
Arogyavardhini vati significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and significantly increased serum HDL in a dose-dependent manner. Decreased MDA and increased GSH levels in liver were observed at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and fenofibrate-treated groups when compared with Triton-treated group. Atherogenic Index (AI) level was significantly decreased in fenofibrate and Arogyavardhini vati (200 mg/kg) treated rats when compared with normal control.
Arogyavardhini vati, a traditionally used Ayurvedic medicine may be a useful therapy for hypercholesterolemia through reducing oxidative stress (decreasing MDA and increasing GSH) and lipid levels.
Arogyavardhini vati; atherogenic index; hypolipidemia; oxidative stress; Triton WR-1339
The present study was conducted on 30 clinically diagnosed and confirmed patients of Coronary Artery Disease (C.A.D.). Patients having C.A.D. with specific conditions were not registered. The study was conducted with an objective of evaluating the role of Prabhakara Vati and Lekhana Basti in the management of C.A.D. on various scientific parameters.
30 patients were randomly divided into three groups. It was a randomised, comparative, open ended, pre and post design, clinical trial. Out of the three groups, 10 patients were administered Tab. Dilzem 30 mg TDS for one month, 10 patients of second group were administered Prabhakara Vati 500 mg (two tablets) bd for one month and 10 patients were administered Lekhana Basti (for 15 days) along with Prabhakara Vati 500 mg (two tablets) bd for one month.
During present trial it was observed that there was significant improvement in clinical manifestations of stable angina after the therapy with Prabhakara Vati and Lekhana Basti. The level of S. Cholesterol, L.D.L., V.L.D.L. and Serum Triglycerides decreased and the level of H.D.L. increased considerably after the therapy.
Prabhakara Vati and Lekhana Basti possesses potent antianginal and cardio protective activities and it can be used effectively in the management/to slow down the progress of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis leading to various Hridrogas (C.A.D.) specially stable angina.
Prevention and control of hypertension are critical in reducing morbidity and mortality attributable to cardiovascular diseases. Awareness of hypertension is a pre-condition for control and prevention. This study estimated the proportion of adults who were hypertensive, were aware of their hypertension and those that achieved adequate control.
We conducted a community based cross sectional survey among people≥15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda. People had their blood pressure measured and were interviewed about their social-demographic characteristics. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or previous diagnosis of hypertension. Participants were classified as hypertensive aware if they reported that they had previously been informed by a health professional that they had hypertension. Control of hypertension among those aware was if systolic blood pressure was <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was <90 mmHg.
The age standardized prevalence of hypertension was 27.2% (95% CI 25.9–28.5) similar among females (27.7%) and males (26.4%). Prevalence increased linearly with age, and age effect was more marked among females. Among the hypertensive participants, awareness was 28.2% (95% CI 25.4–31.0) higher among females (37.0%) compared to males (12.4%). Only 9.4% (95% CI 7.5–11.1) of all hypertensive participants were controlled. Control was higher among females (13.2%) compared to males (2.5%).
More than a quarter of the adult population had hypertension but awareness and control was very low. Measures are needed to enhance control, awareness and prevention of hypertension.
Klaibya (Male Sexual Dysfunction = MSD) is common among men of all ages, it has been recently estimated that more than 152 million men worldwide experienced sexual dysfunction in 1995, and that this number will rise by 170 million, to approximately 322 million by the year 2025. In the past years, it has been reported that most of the hypertensive patients having disability to perform sexual acts and comes under the MSD. To keep these facts in mind the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Gokshuradi Vati in the management of Klaibya with or without hypertension.
The patients identified and classified as suffering from klaibya with or without hypertension participated in the clinical trial in three groups. The trial drug Gokshuradi Vati (Su.) 2 tabs of 500 mg with anupana of GOKSURADI KWATHA 10 ml. was be administered to all the patients for 1 month. All the Patients were assessed on the basis of subjective and objective criteria.
The results showed statistically significant improvement in high blood pressure. Beside these, highly significant improvement was found in sperm count, serum testosterone level and IIEF-15 variables.
On the basis of the results this study concluded that hypertension and klaibya are having a strong relation in each other's pathogenesis. On the basis of our study, we can say that every patient of hypertension should be examined for Klaibya.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the clinical benefits of treating hypertension in elderly patients and to derive practical guidelines regarding indications, goals, and forms of treatment. DESIGN--Review of six published randomised trials. RESULTS--Active treatment of hypertension in elderly patients was associated with significant improvements in several indices of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly the incidence of fatal and non-fatal strokes. On the basis of the trial data, combined systolic and diastolic hypertension was defined as a sustained systolic pressure greater than 160 mmHg and diastolic pressure greater than 90 mmHg. There is convincing evidence that efforts should be made to reduce both systolic and diastolic pressures to below these levels in patients up to the age of 80 years. Isolated systolic hypertension was defined as a systolic pressure greater than 160 mmHg in the presence of a diastolic pressure less than 90 mmHg. Two trials reported benefit from the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in patients up to the age of 80, and further trials are underway to support or refute this recommendation. Diuretics have an established role in the management of hypertension in elderly patients; beta adrenoceptor antagonists have given variable results, and the benefits are less impressive than with diuretic based regimens. Newer agents show promise in the treatment of elderly patients, particularly in the presence of coexisting disease, but their effects on morbidity and mortality have not been evaluated in large randomised trials. CONCLUSIONS--Diuretics rather than beta blockers are the treatment of choice for patients with uncomplicated hypertension, but combinations of drugs may be required in as many as 50% of patients.
The prevalence of major chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors has increased over time and contributes significantly to the Ghana's disease burden. Conditions like hypertension, stroke and diabetes affect young and old, urban and rural, and wealthy and poor communities. The high cost of care drives the poor further into poverty. Lay awareness and knowledge are limited, health systems (biomedical, ethnomedical and complementary) are weak, and there are no chronic disease policies. These factors contribute to increasing risk, morbidity and mortality. As a result chronic diseases constitute a public health and a developmental problem that should be of urgent concern not only for the Ministry of Health, but also for the Government of Ghana. New directions in research, practice and policy are urgently needed. They should be supported by active partnerships between researchers, policymakers, industry, patient groups, civil society, government and development partners.
chronic non-communicable diseases; health systems; policy; research; Ghana
The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 250 African-American and Latino seniors, 60 years and older with uncontrolled hypertension, who attend senior centers. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effect of a therapeutic lifestyle intervention delivered via group classes and individual motivational interviewing sessions versus health education, on blood pressure reduction. The primary outcome is change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are blood pressure control at 12 months; changes in levels of physical activity; body weight; and number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables from baseline to 12 months. The intervention group will receive 12 weekly group classes followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions. The health education group will receive an individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and standard hypertension education materials. Findings from this study will provide needed information on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions delivered in senior centers. Such information is crucial in order to develop implementation strategies for translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions to senior centers, where many minority elders spend their time, making the centers a salient point of dissemination.
Hypertension; Minority Elders; Senior Centers; Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes
To compare the effect of shodhan purvak shaman & shaman chikitsa in management of aamvata.
Above study was planned in two parts conceptual & clinical For clinical part 40 patients having disease aamvata were randomly selected from opd & ipd & were divided in two groups. In shodhan purvak shaman group shodhan basti & shaman vati were given. Which was selected from classic text of ayurveda. In Shaman group only shaman yog vati was administered to the patients. Total duration of treatment in both groups was of 8 weeks.
Shodhan purvak shaman therapy has given complete remission in 6 patients, major improvement was found in 9 patients, 4 patients in minor improvement category and one in un improved category. In shaman therapy complete relief was found in 3 patients, major improvement in 12 patients, in minor improved category there were 5 patients no patient was found in unimproved category.
The results thus obtained were subjected to analytical statistical techniques to compare both modes of treatments. Critical assessment of total effect of therapies on individual patient reflects that shodhan therapy along with shaman vati was more effective in pacifying the symptoms of disease aamvata & bringing down the level of disease activity also as compared to shaman therapy alone. Mode of action of drug is discussed. No side effects were seen.
The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) was established in 1999 as a response to the result of a national survey that showed that a high percentage of Canadians were unaware of having hypertension with only 13% of those treated for hypertension having their blood pressure controlled. The CHEP formulates yearly recommendations based on published evidence. A repeat survey in 2006 showed that the percentage of treated hypertensive patients with the blood pressure controlled had risen to 65.7%. Over the first decade of the existence of the CHEP, the number of prescriptions for antihypertensive medications had increased by 84.4% associated with a significant greater decline in the yearly mortality from stroke, heart failure and myocardial infarction and a significant decrease in the hospitalization for stroke and heart failure. Therefore, the introduction of the CHEP and the yearly issue of updated recommendations resulted in a significant increase in the awareness, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension and in a significant reduction in stroke and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The CHEP model could serve as a template for its adoption to other regions or countries.
Diabetic nephropathy is a specific form of renal disease. It is a major cause of renal insufficiency and ultimately of death. The present study has been carried out to prove the efficacy of Ayurvedic drugs in the management of diabetic nephropathy, which can be helpful in reducing the need of dialysis and avoiding or delaying renal transplantation. A total of 130 patients of this disease were treated in IPD (Group A) and OPD (Group B). Ayurvedic formulations including Gokshuradi Guggulu, Bhumyamalaki, Vasa and Shilajatvadi Vati were given to all the patients for 2 months. Group A patients were given special planned food. Results were analyzed statistically using “t” test. In group A patients, highly significant reduction was found in the values of serum creatinine, blood urea and urinary excretion of albumin. Marked improvement was found in the patients’ general physical well-being, together with reduction in symptoms, in group A patients. This shows the importance of Pathyapathya in Ayurvedic management of the disease. This management may bring some new hope to the patients of diabetic nephropathy, which usually terminates to chronic renal failure and ultimately to death. Further studies are being carried out in this regard.
Ayurveda; diabetic nephropathy; albuminuria
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a burning senile problem of elderly men and no definitive conservative cure is available. The present available surgical and minimal invasive methods have their own limitations. Hence, to find out a suitable Ayurvedic approach, an effort has been made towards the management of BPH, In this study, 32 selected patients of Mootraghata at par to BPH were divided into three groups randomly and treated accordingly. In group A, Gokshuradi compound (GC) Vati (GV) 500 mg was given three times a day with luke-warm water after food; while in group B, Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita (DGG) as Matra Basti (MB) of 60 ml, once in a day, just after lunch and combined therapy of both formulations in group C was administered. Out of 32 patients, total 30 patients (10 in each group) were completed the treatment course of 21 days. In results, 54.09% improvement was seen in group C, 45.67% in group A and 47.99% in group B. The size of prostate gland was found reduced highly significant in group C. Hence, it is concluded that combined therapy of GV and DGG MB is beneficial without developing any adverse drug reactions and can be prescribed safely for Mootraghata (BPH).
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita; Gokshuradi Vati; Matra Basti; Mootraghata
Data were collected on a cohort of 435 black medical students whose attendance at Meharry Medical College fell within the period 1958 to 1965, providing baseline measurements on multiple possible hypertension precursors. Relevant family history, sociodemographic, and clinical characteristics were obtained. Fifty percent of the students had at least one of the following possible precursors of hypertension: systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure >80 mmHg; pulse >80 beats/min; and relative body weight >120 percent of ideal body weight. Contrary to expectations, students from professional families were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressures. Students whose parents had a positive history of hypertension or stroke were likely to have higher diastolic blood pressures. Of the 24 students found to be hypertensive on survey (1981), 73 percent had a positive parental history of hypertension or stroke compared with only 40 percent of a control group matched by age and sex. A 17-year follow-up is currently underway to develop a risk profile for hypertension among black professionals.
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations.
To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives.
Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey.
Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure.
Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension prevalence and result in health care cost savings in Canada.
Blood pressure; Cost-benefit analysis; Diet; Hypertension; Population health; Prevention; Sodium
The clinical behaviour and mean peak serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) values of 106 patients admitted to a coronary care unit with acute myocardial infarction who displayed acute systolic hypertension were studied. Another 106 normotensive patients with acute myocardial infarction acted as controls. Neither group had established hypertension. The mortality rate, incidence of cardiac failure, major arrhythmias, and mean peak SGOT were significantly greater in the hypertensive group, within which the duration of hypertension was correlated with mean peak SGOT levels--through there was no definite relation between the height of systolic or diastolic pressure and SGOT. Transient systolic hypertension after acute myocardial infarction was therefore associated with a relatively poor prognosis, but our observations suggest that patients with a systolic blood pressure of at least 170 mm Hg might benefit from early hypotensive treatment.
Hypertension is becoming a common health problem worldwide with increasing life expectancy and increasing prevalence of risk factors. Epidemiological data on hypertension in Ghana is necessary to guide policy and develop effective interventions.
A review of population-based studies on hypertension in Ghana was conducted by a search of the PUBMED database, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and through the Ghana Medical Journal. A single reviewer extracted data using standard data collection forms.
Eleven studies published on hypertension with surveys conducted between 1973 and 2009 were identified. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in urban than rural areas in studies that covered both types of area and increased with increasing age (prevalence ranging from 19.3% in rural to 54.6% in urban areas). Factors associated with high blood pressure included increasing body mass index, increased salt consumption, family history of hypertension and excessive alcohol intake. The levels of hypertension detection, treatment and control were generally low (control rates ranged from 1.7% to 12.7%).
An increased burden of hypertension should be expected in Ghana as life expectancy increases and with rapid urbanisation. Without adequate detection and control, this will translate into a higher incidence of stroke and other adverse health outcomes for which hypertension is an established risk factor. Prevention and control of hypertension in Ghana is thus imperative and any delays in instituting preventive measures would most likely pose a greater challenge on the already overburdened health system.
hypertension; salt consumption; alcohol intake; urbanization; Ghana