Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients of
Atibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. ‘Bala compound” was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of ‘Bala compoumd”
It is increasingly being realized that many of today's diseases are due to “oxidative stress” that results from an imbalance between formation and neutralization of free radicals. Rasayana Chikitsa is a unique branch of Ayurveda. The word Rasayana means the way for attaining excellent Rasadi Dhatus. Several medicinal plants have been described as Rasayanas in Ayurveda. Ashwagandha and Guduchi are the best among the Rasayanas described by Charaka.
To study the efficacy of Ashwagandha and Guduchi in oxidative stress in healthy volunteers.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers after obtaining written informed consent. They were randomly distributed in three groups. Each group was treated with three different colored capsules containing Ashwagandha, Guduchi and placebo in the dose of 1 capsule (500 mg) twice a day for 6 months. The parameters such as hemoglobin%, Erythorcyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Super-Oxide Dismutase (SOD) level, etc., were assessed before and after treatment. The Student's t-test was applied to assess significant variations in all of the studied parameters.
In this study, there was a significant increase in SOD level and decrease in MDA level in Ashwagandha and Guduchi groups.
Ashwagandha and Guduchi may be helpful in preventing the oxidative stress and premature aging.
Ashwagandha; Guduchi; malondialdehyde; oxidative stress; Rasayana; super-oxide dismutase
It has been estimated that about 6 laks infant and young children die from RSV annually, and if bacterial co infections are included this number may approach 10 laks deaths annually. More than 2 million deaths are estimated to result each year the world over as a consequence of diarrheal disease in children of under five years. This statistic shows that children are more vulnerable to infection because their immune system is less or under developed. At this age any intervention which could motivate their immune system, may prove boon to them. Ayurveda with its concept of Rasayana is holding various medicinal plants which are excellent immunomodulator and capable to reduce the morbidity status.
Peer review journals were searched to list all medicinal plants with immunomodulator activities, particularly acting on recurrent respiratory infection and recurrent diarrhoeal episodes. Only full texts in English were accepted for the present study.
Out of all researches Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Ashwagandha(Withania somnifera), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) were found more potent to reduce morbidity rate. In which Amalaki is very cost effective, easily available, easily cultivated with highest immunomodulator properties.
Recurrent respiratory tract infection and recurrent diarrhoeal episodes are major part of morbidity and Amalaki is a best option to reduce it.
Excellent memory, extraordinary intelligence, great academic achievement, and successful career are the dreams of every individual in this era of competition and professionalism. A good memory power acts as a catalyst in all walks of life, be it academic success or maintenance of personal relationships. It is observed that an average man uses only 10% of his natural memory. Remaining 90% is left unused in a haphazard manner. As per the American psychologist Carl Emil Seashore, if one is alert and makes systematic attempts to awaken and use the natural memory properly, his/her natural memory would be activated creatively and would offer benefits of higher order. A comparative study was conducted comprising 90 subjects to know the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in short-term memory of school-going children. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. It was an open, prospective, and randomized clinical study. The subjects of group A formed the control group and they were observed silently for 3 months without any intervention. The subjects in group B were administered with Choorna (powder) of four Medhya Rasayanas, Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. and Thoms.], and Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy), at a dose of 2 g twice daily with milk. Subjects belonging to group C were advocated regular Yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayama, and Dhyana. Further study revealed that among the three groups, group B treated with Medhya Rasayana showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to objective parameters in the tests, i.e. (1) short-term memory test pictures and (2) serial recall effects test using memory scope. Among the three groups, group C treated with Yogic practices showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to subjective and objective parameters in mini mental status scale i.e. test 3. The treatment is cost effective and devoid of side effects, which can be beneficial for the community. Mean increase after first follow-up in group B was higher as compared to group C. This shows that Medhya Rasayanas are quick in action and bring about improvement in memory faster when compared with Yogic practices. So, on the whole, group B can be considered to be the most efficient among the three groups.
Medhya Rasayana; school children; short term memory; Yogic practices
Sandhigatavata is described under vatavyadhi in all ayurvedic classical texts. Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disorder which begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Here Matra Vasti (therapeutic enema) was given with Bala taila as Vasti is the best treatment for vatavyadhies. It has vatashamaka and rasayana properties. Indigenous compound drug containing Guggulu, Shallaki, Yastimadhu, Pippali, Guduchi, Nirgundi, Kupilu and Godanti was given in one group along with Matra Vasti. In this study, 33 patients of Sandhigatavata completed the treatment. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixteen patients in Group-A (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana + matravasti) and 17 patients in Group-B (sarvanga Abhyanga–swedana+ matravasti + indigenous compound drug). The results of the study indicate that the patients of both the groups obtained highly significant relief in almost all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigatavata.
Abhyanga; indigenous compound drug; Matra Vasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; swedana; vatavyadhi; therapeutic enema.
In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety.
Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten); Anti-depressant; anxiolytic; Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn); Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers); Rasayana Ghana
Concept of Saviryta Avadhi (shelf-life) of Ayurvedic dosage forms is well-defined in classics of Ayurveda. Information on this is scattered in initial classics of Ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, but focused well after 13th Century AD in texts such as Vangasena Samhita, Sharangadhara Samhita and Yogaratnakara. Though the concepts have a strong background; considering the pharmaceutical development, a need is felt to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms.
To evaluate shelf-life of two samples of Rasayana Churna.
Materials and Methods:
Raw material was procured from The Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University and authenticated at Pharmacognosy Laboratory. Individual drugs were powdered and blended in specified ratio to obtain Rasayana Churna (RC). RC was levigated with decoction of Amalaki, Guduchi and Gokshura to prepare Bhavita Rasayana Churna (BRC). Both the samples were subjected to accelerated stability studies by following standard guidelines.
Both the samples are bitter and astringent with characteristic odor. RC is creamish brown in colour, while BRC is dark blackish brown. These Organoleptic characters were unchanged till the 6th month of study. On comparision, BRC is found to be more stable than RC.
This signifies that, Bhavana not only incorporates additional therapeutic attributes, but also helpful in increasing shelf-life.
Accelerated stability; Bhavana; Churna; Rasayana; Saviryta Avadhi; shelf-life
Immunomodulators are the herbal drugs that augments or diminishes the immune response. Immunity is of prime concern to paediatric population as they fall prey to most of the infections due to the lowered immunity. This study is directed towards identification and establishment of such herbal drugs that can be use in day–to–day paediatric practice for boosting the immune potential of children.
There is wide range of herbal immunomodulators in Ayurveda. Especially for pediatric age group Amalki, Guduchi, Yashtimadhu, Tulasi, Haridra, Pippali, Shatavari, Ashwagandha, Rason, and Nimba are evident as an important herbal immunomodulators. Efforts are made to justify immunomodulatory potential of above drugs on the basis of extensive search of Ayurvedic literature and the available research article related to these herbal drugs.
Study shows that herbal drugs have therapeutic strategy that enhances the overall resistance to the disease causing agent than directly neutralizing the agent itself.
Immunomodulation with Ayurvedic Herbal Drugs can be safely and effectively prescribed for promotion of health and overall resistance against the diseases in paediatric population.
AIDS is one of the serious global health concerns caused by Human Immuno Deficiency(HIV) virus and is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease. Currently there is no vaccine or cure for AIDS still Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) is successful. It reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but is expensive and inaccessible in many countries. However intense the therapy may be, HIV virus is rarely eliminated, and drug resistance is a major setback during long-term therapy. The development of new drugs and strategies and exploring alternative systems of medicine for antiviral herbs or drugs is the need of the age to improve treatment outcomes. Ayurveda describes many diseases which incorporate HIV like illness e.g. Rajayakshma, Ojo Kshaya, Sannipata jwara etc. HIV infection affects multisystems, chiefly the Immune System which can be correlated to Ojo Kshaya. Rasayana Chikitsa is the frontline therapy employed to treat Ojus disorders. Therefore Shilajatu (Mineral pitch), Centella asiatica (Mandukaparni), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), well known for their Immuno-modulator and antioxidant properties were selected to evaluate their role on immune system. The study was carried on 20 patients from OPD and IPD of Kayachikitsa, S.S.Hospital, IMS, BHU and was randomly allocated into Treated group (Shilajatu+ART) and Control group (ART). Treated Group responded better to ART both clinically and biochemically. The results show that Shilajatu decreases the recurrent resistance of HIV virus to ART and improves the outcome of the therapy
HIV Virus; AIDS; ART; Rasayana; Shilajatu and CD4 count
Rajata Sindura (RS) is a mercurial preparation, known for its properties like Rasayana (rejuvinating), Balya (strengthening), Vrushya (aphrodisiac), Medhya (increasing intellect) and can cure various diseases when used with appropriate adjuvant. It is prepared with Hingulottha Parada (purified mercury), Shuddha Gandhaka (purified sulfur) and Shuddha Rajata (purified silver) in a proportion of 1:1:4. Process standardization and characterization of RS are not reported until date.
Pharmaceutical standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura.
Materials and Methods:
Purified mercury and silver were triturated to form amalgam, followed by the addition of purified sulfur to prepare Kajjali and lavigated with Vatankura (leaf buds of Ficus benghalensis Linn.) swarasa (juice). This Kajjali was processed by Kupipakwa method.
Results and Conclusion:
RS was prepared in 33 h with 20.25% yield. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis has shown Mercury 86.21%, sulfur 13.27% as major elements; iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and silver were other detected minor elements. X-ray diffraction report revealed the chemical nature of RS as HgS compound, having cubic crystal structure.
Kupipakwa Rasayana; Rajata Sindura; X-ray diffraction
The clinical study was conducted at the Out Patient Department of State TB Training and Demonstration Centre, S.R. Nagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during June 2003 to December 2004. A group of 60 patients of PTB were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups. Both the groups were on the Directly Observed Treatment Short – course chemotherapy (DOTS) regime. The test group was given DOTS + Bhringarajasava (30 ml thrice a day) and the control group was only on DOTS. The study was to evaluate whether the addition of Bhringarajasava as Naimittika Rasayana (complementary drug) is beneficial in providing faster and better relief or not. Both subjective and objective parameters were considered for the assessment of results. Among the specific symptomatology, Amsaparsabitapah (pain in costal and scapular region), Kasa (cough), Jwara (pyrexia), Swasa (dyspnoea) and Bhaktadwesha (anorexia) were the symptoms manifested by all the patients. Results of the present study indicate that better, safer, and faster relief provided by the addition of Bhringarajasava to DOTS. This is an effort to utilize drugs from the vast Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia as safe adjuvant to DOTS regime so that toxicity and associated side effects of the DOTS can be ameliorated. This process of using therapies from two disparate systems of medicine could potentially lead to further enhancements in the field of complementary medicine and create a symbiosis between the different systems, which may lead to Rasayana DOTS (R-DOTS) in future.
Ayurveda; Bhringarajasava; pulmonary tuberculosis; Rajayakshma; Rasayana
Mandip and Chandola reported that administration of Rasayana (Guduchi and Bhringaraja) after Koshtha Shuddhi with Aragvadha Hima and simultaneous giving of Shirishadi decoction orally and applying of Snuhyadi Lepa externally provided complete remission to 22.6% patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) and checked the recurrences of the disease in the 89.5% patients. As in this group, cure rate was not up to the expectation; therefore, it was thought desirable to see whether performing of Virechana Karma instead of Koshtha Shuddhi prior to the administration of the above drugs enhances the cure rate for the Vicharchika (Eczema) patients. For the present study, 39 patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) were registered, of which 32 patients completed the full course of the treatment. These patients were given Virechana after preparing with the proper internal Snehana, Abhyanga, and Svedana as per classical method. After the Samsarjana Krama, they were administered the Shirishadi decoction and Guduchi-Bhringraja Rasayana powder orally with simultaneous local application of Snuhyadi Lepa on the eczematous lesions. The results of this study showed that when Virechana Karma was performed prior to the administration of Guduchi-Bhringaraja Rasayana and Shirishadi decoction orally and SnuhyadiLepa externally, it not only increased the cure rate to 81.3% in the patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) but also checked the recurrences to great extent as only negligible number of the patients reported the recurrence.
Eczema; Koshtha Shuddhi; Rasayana; Vicharchika; Virechana Karma
Amavata is described as a difficult to cure (Krichhrasadhya) disease in Ayurveda. Pain in joints with swelling is a cardinal feature of this disease. It can be correlated with rheumatoid arthritis described in modern medical science. In conventional medical science, steroids and some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for its management, but they cause certain dangerous side effects in the patients. Ayurveda promises an excellent therapy for it. The present clinical trial was conducted with the same objective to provide a safe, economical and effective therapy to the patients of Amavata. The present study was conducted in 73 patients having classical symptoms of Amavata. The patients were given Vardhamana Pippali Rasayana for 15 days. Patients with any other acute or chronic systemic illness or infection were excluded from the study. The observations and results obtained were analyzed statistically applying the “t” test. All the patients experienced up to 50% relief from the signs and symptoms of Amavata after the therapy. The drug might have produced its beneficial effects in the patients of Amavata due to its Agnideepana, Amapachana, Vatashamaka and Rasayana effects in the body. A significant decrease in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in all the patients was also noticed. All the results obtained were highly significant statistically. Thus, it can be implicated that the Vardhamana Pippali Rasayana has a lot of beneficial effects in the patients of Amavata.
Amavata; Rasayana; Rheumatoid arthritis; Vardhamana Pippali
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke, one of the best-known species within this genus, is commonly known as costus. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. costus and its constituents it will have an appropriate place in various systems of medicines all over the globe.
The main aim is to study the volatile constituents of S costus cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas.
Material and Methods:
The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).
A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecaterinal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), γ-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent in our samples.
S. costus volatile oil constituents are superior in terms of total identified constituents. Where relative area quantum is higher in Uttarakhand Himalayas samples, when compared with those originated to China and Korea.
C.B. Clarke; essential oil; GC-MS; Saussurea costus
Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed in blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. Herbs and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before; however, herbs that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. This study's aim was to investigate whether herbal preparations (aqueous extract) possess thrombolytic activity or not.
An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six aqueous herbal extracts viz., Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control.
Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn showed 19.3%, 14.5%, 20.3%, 17.8%, 75.6% and 41.8% clot lysis respectively . Among the herbs studied Fagonia arabica showed significant % of clot lysis (75.6%) with reference to Streptokinase (86.2%).
Through our study it was found that Dhamasa possesses thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of Dhamasa for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. Once found Dhamasa could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent for the improvement of patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.
Cancer is the most dreadful disease affecting mankind. The available treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy have cytotoxic effects, which are hazardous to the normal cells of the patient, causing many unnecessary effects. This further leads to complications of the therapy, impaired health, and deterioration of quality of life, resulting in mandatory stoppage of the treatment. In the present study, the efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation, Rasayana Avaleha, has been evaluated as an adjuvant medication to modern radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A total of 36 cancer patients were registered in this trial and were divided into two groups, group A and group B. In group A, the patients were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy along with adjuvant Rasayana Avaleha (RT + CT + RA), while in group B only radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT + CT) were given, as the control group. After assessing the results, it was observed that Rasayana Avaleha gave better results in controlling the adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in comparison with the control group. Therefore, Rasayana Avaleha has proved to be an effective adjuvant therapy in protecting patients from the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Cancer; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Adverse Effects; Ayurveda; Rasayana Avaleha
Generally, skin diseases run a chronic course and the recurrence is very common. Mandip and Chandola (2009) reported that Shirishadi Decoction administered orally and simultaneously Snuhyadi Lepa applied externally to the patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) provided complete remission to 18.2% patients, marked improvement to 42.4% patients and moderate improvement to 36.4% patients but the recurrence rate was very high i.e. 80%. Charaka, in the context of the treatment of Apasmara mentions that in all the chronic diseases, Rasayana drugs should be prescribed. As eczema is a chronic disease and its recurrences are very common, therefore, it was thought desirable to evaluate the role of the Rasayana drugs in the cure and prevention of the recurrence of Vicharchika (Eczema). In this study, total 38 patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) were registered, among which 31 patients completed the full course of treatment. These patients were first subjected to Koshtha Shuddhi done with Aragvadha (Cassia fistula) Hima administered orally at bedtime for initial eight days. Thereafter 30 ml of Shirishadi Decoction and 6 gm of Guduchi (Tinospora cardifolia) and Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) powder was given with Ghrita. Both the drugs were given twice daily after meals orally. Simultaneously, Snuhyadi Lepa was applied on the eczematous lesions. Results of the study showed that addition of Rasayana drugs provided complete remission to 22.6% and checked the recurrence of the disease in the 89.5% patients of Vicharchika (Eczema).
Vicharchika; Rasayana; Koshtha Shuddhi; Shirishadi Decoction; Snuhyadi Lepa; Guduchi- Bhringaraja Rasayana; Eczema; Recurrence
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their “active” components as is done in most current studies.
We tested two different categories of formulations, a Rasayana (Amalaki Rasayana or AR, an herbal derivative) and a Bhasma (Rasa-Sindoor or RS, an organo-metallic derivative of mercury), for effects on longevity, development, fecundity, stress-tolerance, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) levels of Drosophila melanogaster using at least 200 larvae or flies for each assay.
A 0.5% (weight/volume) supplement of AR or RS affected life-history and other physiological traits in distinct ways. While the size of salivary glands, hnRNP levels in larval tissues, and thermotolerance of larvae/adult flies improved significantly following feeding either of the two formulations, the median life span and starvation resistance improved only with AR. Feeding on AR or RS supplemented food improved fecundity differently. Feeding of larvae and adults with AR increased the fecundity while the same with RS had opposite effect. On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity. RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.
The present study with two Ayurvedic formulations reveals formulation-specific effects on several parameters of the fly's life, which seem to generally agree with their recommended human usages in Ayurvedic practices. Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.
During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India.
Ashwagandha; medicinal plant; pest management; Tetranychidae
The plants selected for the study were traditionally used in siddha system of medicine in neurological disorders.
The aim of the following study isto screen the plant species for both acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE) inhibition by in-vitro Ellman's method and a thin layer chromatography bioautographic assay for newer drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Materials and Methods:
Ellman's colorimetric method was performed in a 96 well micro plate for cholinesterases inhibition using galantamine as standard drug.
Present studies confirmed that out of all the tested extracts Hemidesmus indicus R.Br (HI) showed considerable IC50 values for AchE (28.40 ± 0.92 μg/mL) and BuchE (43.47 ± 0.64 μg/mL) inhibition which indicates that HI extract has considerable specificity toward AchE and BuchE compared with all the tested extracts and the activity was followed by Vernonia anthelmintica (VA) Willd and Saussurea lappa Clarke (SL). The bioautograms also confirmed the activity potent extracts.
Besides various bioactivities HI, VA and SL exhibited considerable cholinesterases inhibition making it to consider these species for further investigation of new compounds.
Acetyl cholinesterase; Alzheimer's disease; butyrylcholinesterase; Hemidesmus indicus R.Br; siddha system of medicine
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS), a “rasayana” drug, is recommended for balavardhan and mamsavardhan. The study was intended to evaluate dose-related tolerability, safety, and activity of WS formulation in normal individuals. The design was prospective, open-labeled, variable doses in volunteers. Eighteen apparently healthy volunteers (12M:6F, age:18-30 years, and BMI: 19-30) were enrolled. After baseline investigations, they received WS capsules (Rx) (aqueous extract, 8:1) daily in two divided doses with increase in daily dosage every 10 days for 30 days (750 mg/day ×10 days, 1 000 mg/day × 10 days, 1 250 mg/day × 10 days). Volunteers were assessed for symptoms/signs, vital functions, hematological and biochemical organ function tests. Muscle activity was measured by hand grip strength, quadriceps strength, and back extensor force. Exercise tolerance was determined using cycle ergometry. Lean body weight and fat% were computed from skin fold thickness measurement. Adverse events were recorded, as volunteered by the subjects. Repeated measures ANOVA, McNemar's test, and paired t test were employed. All but one volunteer tolerated WS without any adverse event. One volunteer showed increased appetite, libido, and hallucinogenic effects with vertigo at the lowest dose and was withdrawn from study. In six subjects, improvement in quality of sleep was found. Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia.
Ayurvedic plant drug; exercise tolerance; muscle activity; muscle strength; Rasayana drug; Withania somnifera
The present study deals with antimicrobial activity of ayurvedic drugs containing single herb (Amalaki Choorna and Yastimadhu Choorna) and combination of herbs (DN-90 and Asanadi Kwatha Choorna). Disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial activity and antifungal activity was tested using Poison food technique. Absence of bacterial growth around the discs impregnated with the aqueous extracts of drugs and reduction of fungal growth in poisoned plates indicated antimicrobial activity. Further, the results of antibacterial activity of Amalaki choorna were comparable with standard drug Streptomycin. Asanadi Kwatha Choorna inhibited bacteria to more extent than Yastimadhu choorna and DN-90. Among fungi tested, more antifungal activity was observed against Mucor sp. The antimicrobial activity of drugs tested could be due to active principles present in them.
Ayurvedic drugs; antimicrobial activity; inhibition zone; Disc diffusion method; Poison food technique
The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study.
Abheshaja; Adverse drug reaction; Pippali; Piper longum Linn.; Kaphaja Kasa
Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by proximal dysphasia and wheeze due to increased resistance to the flow of air through the narrowed bronchi. Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in the world and epidemiological studies suggest that its prevalence, severity and mortality are rising at a time when mortality from other common treatable conditions is falling. The reasons for the above statistics are environmental factors such as increased exposure to allergens and atmospheric pollutants. Antiasthmatic treatment includes corticosteroids, which are very effective in the treatment of asthma. But corticosteroids are costly and if given systemically, have many severe adverse effects. Hence, the present research work involves the use of a herbal compound formulation Pentapala -04 prepared from five medicinal plants namely, Adhatoda vasica Need, Ocimum sanctum Linn, Coleus aromaticus Benth, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn and Alpiania galangal Sw.
The effect of “Pentapala-04” on ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats was investigated. The rats were divided into three groups of four animals each. Group I, II and III serves as control, toxic and post treatment group respectively. Our results showed that their was increased level of lipid peroxidation and secreased level of antioxidants in toxic group animals. But the levels of antioxidant enzymes were restored in post-treated groups of animals, which might be due to the ability of “ability of “Pentapala-04 to scavenge the reactive oxygen species.
Ova albumin; alumininum hydroxide; Pentapala-04