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1.  Effects of Petroleum Ether Extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Tuber on Central Nervous System in Mice 
The central nervous system activity of the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber was examined in mice, fed normal as well as healthy conditions. The petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber at the doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg showed significant central nervous system activity in mice.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.59547
PMCID: PMC2846470  PMID: 20376218
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius; locomotor activity; muscle relaxant activity; central nervous system depressant activity
3.  Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15 
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis.
doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.01.004
PMCID: PMC4250507  PMID: 25473360
Amorphophallus campanulatus; Colon cancer; MTT; DAPI; JC-1; Annexin-V
4.  Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2014;8(15):45-51.
Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125530
PMCID: PMC3931200  PMID: 24600195
Pharmacology; saponin; tribulus terrestris
5.  Development of microsatellite markers by transcriptome sequencing in two species of Amorphophallus (Araceae) 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:490.
Background
Amorphophallus is a genus of perennial plants widely distributed in the tropics or subtropics of West Africa and South Asia. Its corms contain a high level of water-soluble glucomannan; therefore, it has long been used as a medicinal herb and food source. Genetic studies of Amorphophallus have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers. A large number of molecular markers are required for genetic diversity study and improving disease resistance in Amorphophallus. Here, we report large scale of transcriptome sequencing of two species: Amorphophallus konjac and Amorphophallus bulbifer using deep sequencing technology, and microsatellite (SSR) markers were identified based on these transcriptome sequences.
Results
cDNAs of A. konjac and A. bulbifer were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 135,822 non-redundant unigenes were assembled from about 9.66 gigabases, and 19,596 SSRs were identified in 16,027 non-redundant unigenes. Di-nucleotide SSRs were the most abundant motif (61.6%), followed by tri- (30.3%), tetra- (5.6%), penta- (1.5%), and hexa-nucleotides (1%) repeats. The top di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs included AG/CT (45.2%) and AGG/CCT (7.1%), respectively. A total of 10,754 primer pairs were designed for marker development. Of these, 320 primers were synthesized and used for validation of amplification and assessment of polymorphisms in 25 individual plants. The total of 275 primer pairs yielded PCR amplification products, of which 205 were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 14 and the polymorphism information content valued ranged from 0.10 to 0.90. Genetic diversity analysis was done using 177 highly polymorphic SSR markers. A phenogram based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients was constructed, which showed a distinct cluster of 25 Amorphophallus individuals.
Conclusion
A total of 10,754 SSR markers have been identified in Amorphophallus using transcriptome sequencing. One hundred and seventy-seven polymorphic markers were successfully validated in 25 individuals. The large number of genetic markers developed in the present study should contribute greatly to research into genetic diversity and germplasm characterization in Amorphophallus.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-490
PMCID: PMC3737116  PMID: 23870214
Amorphophallus; Microsatellite marker; Transcriptome; Genetic diversity
6.  Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review 
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.76790
PMCID: PMC3059449  PMID: 21455454
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.; asteraceae; eudesmenolides; psychotropic activity
7.  A current update on the phytopharmacological aspects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2014;8(15):22-35.
The present review is an attempt to put an insight into a medicinal plant Houttuynia cordata Thunb, which is indigenous to North-East India and China. It is an aromatic medicinal herb belonging to family Saururaceae and is restricted to specialized moist habitats. The review provides detailed information regarding the morphology, distribution, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacological uses and also describes various pharmacological activities reported on the plant H. cordata. The review describes therapeutic efficacy of the whole plant and its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds in different diseased condition. Among the important pharmacological activities reported includes, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, adjuvanticity, anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, anti-leukemic, chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps activities. Thus, the present review will act as a source of referential information to researchers to perform clinical studies on isolated compounds that may serve the society and will help in improving human health care system.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125525
PMCID: PMC3931198  PMID: 24600193
Anti-viral; aristolactams; Houttuynia cordata; Saururaceae
8.  A review on phyto-pharmacological potentials of Euphorbia thymifolia L. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):165-172.
Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a small branched, hispidly pubescent, prostate annual herb, commonly known as laghududhika or choti-dudhi. The leaves, seeds and fresh juice of whole plant are used in worm infections, as stimulant, astringent. It is also used in bowel complaints and in many more diseases therapeutically. The present work is an extensive review of published literature concerning phytochemical and pharmacological potential of E. thymifolia. Data was searched and designed using various review modalities manually and using electronic search engines with reference to all aspects of E. thymifolia and was arranged chronologically. Complete information of the plant has been collected from the various books and journals since the last 32 years, internet databases, etc., were searched. Compiled data reflects the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the plant. This will be helpful for researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be explored and in scientific use of the plant for its wide variety of traditional therapeutic claims and also as to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional activities.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123001
PMCID: PMC3902538  PMID: 24501446
Anti-herpes simplex virus; antihyperglycemic; anti-inflammatory; antinociceptive; phytochemical
9.  Phytopharmacology of Ficus religiosa 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2010;4(8):195-199.
Herbs have always been the principal form of medicine in India. Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substances of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Ficus religiosa (L.), commonly known as pepal belonging to the family Moraceae, is used traditionally as antiulcer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, in the treatment of gonorrhea and skin diseases. F. religiosa is a Bo tree, which sheltered the Buddha as he divined the “Truths.” The present review aims to update information on its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.70918
PMCID: PMC3249921  PMID: 22228961
Antibacterial; antidiabetic; antiulcer; ficus religiosa (L.); pharmacological activities; phytochemistry
10.  Phytopharmacologic aspects of Canscora decussata Roem and Schult 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2010;4(7):49-57.
Nature is an inexhaustible source of secondary metabolites–different types of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and other classes of organic compounds. In the process of isolation, purification and determination of the structures of lead, with their biological effectiveness, every type of experimental tool and strategy, known too and developed over the years by various practitioners. The present review is an attempt to compile information on various aspects of Canscora decussata, “Shankhpushpi” of Indian traditional system of medicine. The phytoconstituents, such as phenolic compounds, xanthones, and triterpenoids were isolated from different parts of the plant. The plant possesses immunomodulatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antiinflammatory, spermicidal, central nervous system–depressive, and cardiostimulant properties. Clinical trials of marketed formulation showed very encouraging results.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.65326
PMCID: PMC3249902  PMID: 22228941
Shankhpushpi; phenolic compounds; xanthones; triterpenoids
11.  Deep sequencing of voodoo lily (Amorphophallus konjac): an approach to identify relevant genes involved in the synthesis of the hemicellulose glucomannan 
Planta  2011;234(3):515-526.
A Roche 454 cDNA deep sequencing experiment was performed on a developing corm of Amorphophallus konjac—also known as voodoo lily. The dominant storage polymer in the corm of this plant is the polysaccharide glucomannan, a hemicellulose known to exist in the cell walls of higher plants and a major component of plant biomass derived from softwoods. A total of 246 mega base pairs of sequence data was obtained from which 4,513 distinct contigs were assembled. Within this voodoo lily expressed sequence tag collection genes representing the carbohydrate related pathway of glucomannan biosynthesis were identified, including sucrose metabolism, nucleotide sugar conversion pathways for the formation of activated precursors as well as a putative glucomannan synthase. In vivo expression of the putative glucomannan synthase and subsequent in vitro activity assays unambiguously demonstrate that the enzyme has indeed glucomannan mannosyl- and glucosyl transferase activities. Based on the expressed sequence tag analysis hitherto unknown pathways for the synthesis of GDP-glucose, a necessary precursor for glucomannan biosynthesis, could be proposed. Moreover, the results highlight transcriptional bottlenecks for the synthesis of this hemicellulose.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00425-011-1422-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00425-011-1422-z
PMCID: PMC3162142  PMID: 21538106
Glucomannan; 454 deep sequencing; Cellulose synthase-like family A (CSLA); Amorphophallus konjac
12.  Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line 
Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5’,6,6’ tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC4314875  PMID: 25657798
Amorphophallus campanulatus; PLC/PRF/5; Liver cancer; DAPI; JC-1; Annexin-V
13.  Unusual Metaxylem Tracheids in Petioles of Amorphophallus (Araceae) Giant Leaves 
Annals of Botany  2005;96(3):407-412.
• Background and Aims Petioles of huge solitary leaves of mature plants of Amorphophallus resemble tree trunks supporting an umbrella-like crown. Since they may be 4 m tall, adaptations to water transport in the petioles are as important as adaptations to mechanical support of lamina. The petiole is a cylindrical shell composed of compact unlignified tissue with a honeycomb aerenchymatous core. In both parts numerous vascular bundles occur, which are unique because of the scarcity of lignified elements. In the xylemic part of each bundle there is a characteristic canal with unlignified walls. The xylem pecularities are described and interpreted.
• Material Vascular bundles in mature petioles of Amorphophallus titanum and A. gigas plants were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy.
• Key Results The xylemic canal represents a file of huge metaxylem tracheids (diameter 55–200 µm, length >30 mm) with unlignified lateral walls surrounded by turgid parenchyma cells. Only their end walls, orientated steeply, have lignified secondary thickenings. The file is accompanied by a strand of narrow tracheids with lignified bar-type secondary walls, which come into direct contact with the wide tracheid in many places along its length.
• Conclusions The metaxylem tracheids in A. petioles are probably the longest and widest tracheids known. Only their end walls have lignified secondary thickenings. Tracheids are long due to enormous intercalary elongation and wide due to a transverse growth mechanism similar to that underlying formation of aerenchyma cavities. The lack of lignin in lateral walls shifts the function of ‘pipe walls’ to the turgid parenchyma paving the tracheid. The analogy to carinal canals of Equisetum, as well as other protoxylem lacunas is discussed. The stiff partitions between the long and wide tracheids are interpreted as structures similar to the end walls in vessels.
doi:10.1093/aob/mci198
PMCID: PMC4246780  PMID: 15987695
Apoplasm; Amorphophallus titanum; A. gigas; cohesion-tension theory; lignification; metaxylem; petiole; protoxylem lacuna; tracheid length
14.  On the thermogenesis of the Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2009;4(11):1096-1098.
The Titan arum (Araceae) produces the largest bloom of all flowering plants. Its flowering period of two days is divided into a female flowering phase in the first night and a male flowering phase in the second night. Recently, we have documented thermogenesis in the spadix of the Titan arum during the female flowering phase. Here, we document a second thermogenic phase in which the male florets are heated during the male flowering phase. Obviously the two nocturnal thermogenic phases are linked with the two flowering periods. These observations now allow a more detailed understanding of the flowering behavior of the Titan arum.
PMCID: PMC2819525  PMID: 19838070
Amorphophallus titanum; araceae; thermogenesis; infrared thermography; pollination
15.  Cellular Ultrastructure and Crystal Development in Amorphophallus (Araceae) 
Annals of Botany  2008;101(7):983-995.
Background and Aims
Species of Araceae accumulate calcium oxalate in the form of characteristically grooved needle-shaped raphide crystals and multi-crystal druses. This study focuses on the distribution and development of raphides and druses during leaf growth in ten species of Amorphophallus (Araceae) in order to determine the crystal macropatterns and the underlying ultrastructural features associated with formation of the unusual raphide groove.
Methods
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and both bright-field and polarized-light microscopy were used to study a range of developmental stages.
Key Results
Raphide crystals are initiated very early in plant development. They are consistently present in most species and have a fairly uniform distribution within mature tissues. Individual raphides may be formed by calcium oxalate deposition within individual crystal chambers in the vacuole of an idioblast. Druse crystals form later in the true leaves, and are absent from some species. Distribution of druses within leaves is more variable. Druses initially develop at leaf tips and then increase basipetally as the leaf ages. Druse development may also be initiated in crystal chambers.
Conclusions
The unusual grooved raphides in Amorphophallus species probably result from an unusual crystal chamber morphology. There are multiple systems of transport and biomineralization of calcium into the vacuole of the idioblast. Differences between raphide and druse idioblasts indicate different levels of cellular regulation. The relatively early development of raphides provides a defensive function in soft, growing tissues, and restricts build-up of dangerously high levels of calcium in tissues that lack the ability to adequately regulate calcium. The later development of druses could be primarily for calcium sequestration.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcn022
PMCID: PMC2710233  PMID: 18285357
Amorphophallus; Araceae; calcium oxalate; crystals; development; druses; raphides; ultrastructure
16.  De Novo Transcriptome and Small RNA Analyses of Two Amorphophallus Species 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95428.
Konjac is one of the most important glucomannan crops worldwide. The breeding and genomic researches are largely limited by the genetic basis of Amorphophallus. In this study, the transcriptomes of A. konjac and A. bulbifer were constructed using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. All 108,651 unigenes with average lengths of 430 nt in A. konjac and 119,678 unigenes with average lengths of 439 nt were generated from 54,986,020 reads and 52,334,098 reads after filtering and assembly, respectively. A total of 54,453 transcripts in A. konjac and 55,525 in A. bulbifier were annotated by comparison with Nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases after removing exogenous contaminated sequences. A total of 80,332 transcripts differentially expressed between A. konjac and A. bulbifer. The majority of the genes that are associated with konjac glucomannan biosynthetic pathway were identified. Besides, the small RNAs in A. konjac leaves were also obtained by deep sequencing technology. All of 5,499,903 sequences of small RNAs were obtained with the length range between 18 and 30 nt. The potential targets for the miRNAs were also predicted according to the konjac transcripts. Our study provides a systematic overview of the konjac glucomannan biosynthesis genes that are involved in konjac leaves and should facilitate further understanding of the crucial roles of carbohydrate synthesis and other important metabolism pathways in Amorphophallus.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095428
PMCID: PMC3997385  PMID: 24759927
17.  Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots 
Objective
To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia).
Methods
Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard.
Results
Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms.
Conclusions
The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60202-1
PMCID: PMC3819490  PMID: 24144125
Antioxidant; Antimicrobial; Analgesic; DPPH; Phytochemical screening
18.  An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy 
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60240-9
PMCID: PMC3868798  PMID: 25182446
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy; Pharmacognosy; Microscopy; Macroscopy; Phytochemistry; Pharmacology
19.  PA01.82. Ayurvedic museum (dravyaguna) - as a profession: issues & challenges 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S132.
Purpose:
In original Ayurvedic classics viz. in Caraka Samhita & Susruta Samhita, thousands of Medicinal plants and their parts are prescribed in various diseases. Medicinal Plants are not available at one place, rather found at different part of our country i.e. Vatsanabha, Jatamansa, Devadaru, in northen India (Himalaya region); Agara, Paga, in Eastern India; Samudraphala, Kupalu, in southern India and Guggalu, Asvagandha, in western India. These are a few examples; many more can be seen in Ayurvedic texts. It is worthy to mention here that seed, root, root bark, stem, stem bark, tuber, rhizome, leaf, flower, exudate, latex, fruit etc. are the various plant parts which are used to prepare medicine in Ayurveda. Further, those parts are not available in one season and also at one Geographical region of our country. To a physician or to a Ayurvedic scholar, it is not possible to see all plants as they are grown in different regions. For proper knowledge they are required to be kept at one place, where one can see and acquire practical knowledge. Thus Museum is the best place to keep them in best condition. Its also essential as per CCIM norms. So all about brief study of dravya guna museums importance, maintenance and related problems & solution is given.
Method:
Method of glycerin preservation is adopted 50% glycerin + 50% hot water mixed with 1 tab of aspirin and put the plant part for 15 days then dry and mount.
Result:
This type of preservation has long term stability without loosing there normal color elasticity and texture.
Conclusion:
This is new and betters method for making herbarium preservation with lower cost for long time.
PMCID: PMC3800888
20.  Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) – validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies 
T. cordifolia (Guduchi) is a large, glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem found throughout India. It is a widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes, such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Various properties of T. cordifolia, described in ancient texts of Ayurveda, like Rasayana, Sangrahi, Balya, Agnideepana, Tridoshshamaka, Dahnashaka, Mehnashaka, Kasa-swasahara, Pandunashaka, Kamla-Kushta-Vataraktanashaka, Jwarhara, Krimihara, Prameha, Arshnashaka, Kricch-Hridroganashak, etc., are acquiring scientific validity through modern research adopting "reverse pharmacological" approach. Potential medicinal properties reported by scientific research include anti-diabetic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, antimalarial, hepato-protective, immuno-modulatory and anti-neoplastic activities. This review brings together various properties and medicinal uses of T. cordifolia described in Ayurveda, along with phytochemical and pharmacological reports.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.64405
PMCID: PMC2924974  PMID: 20814526
Ayurveda; potential herb; reverse pharmacology; Tinospora cordifolia
21.  Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira root 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;31(4):181-184.
Background:
In ethno-medicinal practices, the roots of Cissampelos pareira(Patha) are used in the treatment of various ailments related to urinary problems and skin infections, and in tumorinhibitor activity, antibacterial, antimalarial, diuretic activity,anticonvulsant activity etc., The main problem encountered in standardization of Ayurvedic drugs is proper identification of the source plant.
Materials and Methods:
The macroscopic features of each anatomical component have been observed by a high-resolution camera. The moisture content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water—alcohol and ether extractive values of the powdered sampleswere determined by the method as per WHO guidelines. The phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira root was performed by the standard chemical ltests and by TLC on silica gel G using solvent systems proposed by Harborne.
Result:
The microscopic characteristics showed the wavy epidermis with unicellular trichomes. Lignified xylem vessels, radial medullary rays, and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals had also been found. Phytochemical screening revealed that the Cissampelos pareira root extract contains terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. Alkaloids and essential oil were detected in TLC of the Cissampelos pareira root extract developed using blends of methanol:concentrated ammonia (200:3) and n-butanol:acetone:water (3:1:1) and benzene:ethyl acetate:formic acid(9:7:4) as solvent systems for alkaloid whereas chloroform(100%), benzene (100%), chloroform:benzene(1:1),and ether:benzene(1:1) as solvent systems for essential oil.
Conclusion:
These findings will be useful toward establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity,quality, and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.107352
PMCID: PMC3644755  PMID: 23661865
Cissampelos pareira; pharmacognostic standards; pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation
22.  Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):15-21.
Background:
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures.
Materials and Methods:
Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed.
Results:
Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin.
Conclusion:
Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134561
PMCID: PMC4140016  PMID: 25161325
Cardiospermum halicacabum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
23.  A critical review on two types of Laghupanchamula 
Ayu  2012;33(3):343-347.
A group of five roots of small plants i.e., Shalaparni, Prshniparni, Brhati, Kantakari and Gokshura or Eranda is known as Laghupanchamula under Mishraka Varga (group of drugs). It is used as such or with Mahat Panchamula i.e., Bilva, Gambhari, Shyonaka, Agnimantha and Patala, constituting Dashamula, a well recognized and popular Ayurvedic preparation or as an ingredient of different dosage forms. Classical texts of Ayurveda differs regarding components of this Mishraka Varga. Four out of five drugs of Laghupanchamula are similar in all the Ayurvedic texts, but either Gokshura or Eranda is considered as the fifth drug. So a comphrenesive review of Veda, Samhita Grantha, Cikitsa Grantha and Nighantus, with regards to synonyms, contents, Guna- Karma, origin of variation in contents and possible thought behind two kinds of Laghupanchamula, to throw light for rational use of either Eranda or Gokshura under Laghupanchamula was conducted. It was observed that both the traditions were in practice however Acharya Kashyapa and Ravigupta were in view of Eranda as a fifth drug of Laghupanchamula where as Acharya Charaka, Sushruta, Vagabhatta, Yogaratnakara and Chakradatta are in favour of Gokshura. Infact, the variation in content depends on the need i.e Dosha, Dushya and Vyadhi.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108820
PMCID: PMC3665092  PMID: 23723639
Brihatpanchamula; Eranda; Gokshura; Laghupanchamula
24.  PA01.34. Catagorical interpretation in Microsoft excel of jangam dravya database from Bruhat-Trayi & Laghu-Trayi 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S84.
Purpose:
Not a single drug in Ayurveda has been termed as non-medicinal. This means every Dravya has medicinal value in this world. Jangam dravya is an animal sourced medicine. In samhita Jangam Dravya are described first. So as per Krama Varnan Vichar, Jangam Dravyas are significant in this type. In Ayurvedic literature there is more literature on Audbhid & Parthiva Dravyas. I Total available nighantu: more than 25. Total available Rasa Grantha: about 145. There is no one Grantha on Jangam Dravya which describes their whole information. Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Gross description is available in Samhitas. But they aren’t in format. They are not compiled according to their Guna Karma, Upayogitwa, Vyadhiharatwa, and Kalpa etc. Their use in Chikitsa is minimal as their ready references are not available, though very much effective. So due to sheer need of compilation of these references this topic was selected for study. The basic need for study of Jangam Dravya is to prepare its whole DATABASE. So through this study Database of Jangam Dravya can be available like Jangam Dravya.
Method:
Selection of topic this is a fundamental & literary study, Selection of material, Selection of Database software & font, Collection of data & preparation of Master Chart, Preparation of Database, Interpretation & summarization of data.
Result:
So in this paper, we are going to focus on literature availability of jangam dravya with the help of modern technique like Microsoft Excel. And also how we can prepare and use the categorical interpretation of jangam dravya with help of database
Conclusion:
Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Importances of these dravyas are the main key point of this study.
PMCID: PMC3800966
25.  Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal 
Background
By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties.
Methods
Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species.
Results
A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification.
Conclusions
The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-6-3
PMCID: PMC2823594  PMID: 20102631

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