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1.  PA01.34. Catagorical interpretation in Microsoft excel of jangam dravya database from Bruhat-Trayi & Laghu-Trayi 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S84.
Not a single drug in Ayurveda has been termed as non-medicinal. This means every Dravya has medicinal value in this world. Jangam dravya is an animal sourced medicine. In samhita Jangam Dravya are described first. So as per Krama Varnan Vichar, Jangam Dravyas are significant in this type. In Ayurvedic literature there is more literature on Audbhid & Parthiva Dravyas. I Total available nighantu: more than 25. Total available Rasa Grantha: about 145. There is no one Grantha on Jangam Dravya which describes their whole information. Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Gross description is available in Samhitas. But they aren’t in format. They are not compiled according to their Guna Karma, Upayogitwa, Vyadhiharatwa, and Kalpa etc. Their use in Chikitsa is minimal as their ready references are not available, though very much effective. So due to sheer need of compilation of these references this topic was selected for study. The basic need for study of Jangam Dravya is to prepare its whole DATABASE. So through this study Database of Jangam Dravya can be available like Jangam Dravya.
Selection of topic this is a fundamental & literary study, Selection of material, Selection of Database software & font, Collection of data & preparation of Master Chart, Preparation of Database, Interpretation & summarization of data.
So in this paper, we are going to focus on literature availability of jangam dravya with the help of modern technique like Microsoft Excel. And also how we can prepare and use the categorical interpretation of jangam dravya with help of database
Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Importances of these dravyas are the main key point of this study.
PMCID: PMC3800966
2.  Adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic medicine with anti tubercular drugs on the therapeutic management of pulmonary tuberculosis 
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an age old disease described in Vedic Medicine as ‘Yakshma’. Later on, in Ayurveda it earned a prefix and found way into mythology as ‘Rajayakshma’. After the discovery of streptomycin, the therapeutic management of PTB received a major breakthrough. The treatment module changed remarkably with the formulation of newer anti-tubercular drugs (ATD) with appreciable success. Recent resurgence of PTB in developed countries like United States posed a threat to the medical community due to resistant strains. Consequently, WHO looked toward traditional medicine. Literature reveals that Ayurvedic treatment of PTB was in vogue in India before the introduction of ATD with limited success. Records show that 2766 patients of PTB were treated with Ayurvedic drugs in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata in the year 1933-1947.
To evaluate the toxicity reduction and early restoration by adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic drugs by increasing the bio-availability of ATDs.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, treatment response of 99 patients treated with ATD as an adjunct with Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) and a multi-herbal formulation described in Chikitsa-sthana of Charaka samhita i.e. Chyawanprash were investigated. Hematological profile, sputum bacterial load count, immunoglobulin IgA and IgM, blood sugar, liver function test, serum creatinine were the assessed parameters besides blood isoniazid and pyrazinamide, repeated after 28 days of treatment.
The symptoms abated, body weight showed improvement, ESR values were normal, there was appreciable change in IgA and IgM patterns and significantly increased bioavailability of isoniazid and pyrazinamide were recorded.
This innovative clinical study coupled with empowered research may turn out to be promising in finding a solution for the treatment of PTB.
PMCID: PMC3487240  PMID: 23125511
Adjunct therapy; anti-tubercular drugs; Ayurveda; tuberculosis
3.  PA02.05. Pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of Lasuna Kshirpaka w.s.r to charaka and sharangadhara methods. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S50.
Ksheerpaka i.e. milk used in the medicated form is the unique feature of Ayurveda. Now a day, for Ksheerpaka preparation, method stated by Sharangadhara is generally followed. Charaka has mentioned Lasuna Ksheerpaka which is prepared by different proportions than that of Sharangadhara. Though ingredients used for preparation by each method are same, variation in proportion of ingredients may alter their respective efficacies. The present study aims at pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of Lasuna Ksheerpaka prepared by two different proportions viz. Charaka samhita (sample C) and Sharangadhara Samhita (sample S) and to hypothesize probable biotransformation during Lasuna Ksheerpaka preparation.
The samples were prepared according to the reference in Charaka Samhita(Chi. 5/94) and Sharangadhara Samhita (Madhyama. 1/161). The samples were evaluated by the tests like Methylene Blue Reduction (MBR), Solid non fat (SNF), specific gravity, pH, Gas Chromatography etc.
The results obtained from these tests indicated rapid transformations and degradation of active volatile compounds found in Garlic. The quantitative analysis of Lasuna Ksheerpaka samples done by Gas Chromatography study showed higher retention of Allin with its less destruction to further volatile Sulphur compounds in sample C (0.410 mg/gm) in comparison with sample S (0.211 mg/gm).
The preservation of Allin to restore the medicinal properties of Garlic is the main aim of modern Pharmaceutics. The same purpose of Allin preservation and retention of medicinal properties of Garlic can be achieved by Lasuna kshirapaka prepared according to Charaka Samhita in comparison with Lasuna kshirapaka prepared according to Sharangadhara Samhita. Thus, Lasuna kshirapaka preparation according to reference of Charaka Samhita seems to be a better option within the scope of this study.
PMCID: PMC4147522
4.  Skin in Health and Diseases in Ṛgveda Saṃhiṭa: An Overview 
Indian Journal of Dermatology  2013;58(6):413-416.
Ṛgveda is the oldest religious book of the Aryans. It picturises the early lives of the Aryans. We get mention of various diseases in this Veda. Skin - both in health and diseases had caught attention of the Vedic sages. Skin was not merely an organ of attraction and look but its colour was important socially. Mentions of various diseases like leprosy, guinea worm, jaundice etc., are interesting. Mention of different disorders of the nails and hair are also there, though in a very primitive and mystic form. Management strategy was consisted of herbs, amulates, chanting of mantras, touching the body, uses of water and sunrays etc. This may be presumed that this Veda founded the base for the Āyurveda of the later period.
PMCID: PMC3827509  PMID: 24249889
Veda; Ṛgveda Saṃhiṭa; skin diseases
5.  PA02.11. An insight on ayurvedic drug discovery 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S56.
Every dravya have its own medicinal importance in the universe. Hence, we have to study each and every drug which is available around us. The locally available drugs are considered as best. Only few drugs are mentioned in ayurvedic textbooks but many have to be explained for their quality & applications. The research on new drugs is the need of hour in Ayurveda and we have to assess all dravyas viz. herbs, metals, minerals & animal products which are available in universe.
Drug research methodology is well explained in Ayurveda along with ethno & medico botanical survey. There are certain steps of research viz. the nature of dravyas, morphological characters of dravyas, place & time of collection, preservation etc and doctrine of signature or elaborate in new drug discovery. Further taste and taste threshold examination, exothermic and endothermic reactions, experimental model for assessment of vipaka and other methods of research on new drug will be discussed. This paper will discuss in detail about the ancient research method for new drugs.
Methodical research for new drug gives not only importance of pharmecological and clinical study but also importance to seasonal derivation, collection time and different application methods. Ancient ayurvedic drug research methodology includes from survey, pharmacognostic to clinical research.
The oldest drug research methodology suits now also for all new drug research.
PMCID: PMC4147528
6.  A review through Charaka Uttara-Tantra 
Ayu  2013;34(1):17-20.
In the present scenario, the available editions of Charaka Samhita contain eight Sthanas only. Charaka Samhita does not contain Uttara-Tantra like Sushruta Samhita and Samhitas of Vagbhata. On contrary, in the 12th chapter of Siddhi Sthana, Charaka has mentioned about Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. So, it is essential to emphasize on this issue, which was not explained in length by commentators of Charaka Samhita. Many controversies raised on the existence and recognition of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. On the other hand, some scholars who belong to a later period have been mentioned certain references in their work, which are claimed to be from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. After a thorough study and scanning of available literature, it is concluded that, Charaka Uttara-Tantra was existing up to the time of Nishchalakara (13th century AD). Nishchalakara has quoted a number of references in Ratnaprabha, which are from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. Furthermore, there is a need to discuss about the existence of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita by further more detailed study and scanning of literatures of Ayurveda and allied literatures.
PMCID: PMC3764873  PMID: 24049400
Chakrapanidatta; Charaka Samhita; Nishchalakara; Ratnaprabha; Tika; Uttara Tantra
7.  PA01.82. Ayurvedic museum (dravyaguna) - as a profession: issues & challenges 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S132.
In original Ayurvedic classics viz. in Caraka Samhita & Susruta Samhita, thousands of Medicinal plants and their parts are prescribed in various diseases. Medicinal Plants are not available at one place, rather found at different part of our country i.e. Vatsanabha, Jatamansa, Devadaru, in northen India (Himalaya region); Agara, Paga, in Eastern India; Samudraphala, Kupalu, in southern India and Guggalu, Asvagandha, in western India. These are a few examples; many more can be seen in Ayurvedic texts. It is worthy to mention here that seed, root, root bark, stem, stem bark, tuber, rhizome, leaf, flower, exudate, latex, fruit etc. are the various plant parts which are used to prepare medicine in Ayurveda. Further, those parts are not available in one season and also at one Geographical region of our country. To a physician or to a Ayurvedic scholar, it is not possible to see all plants as they are grown in different regions. For proper knowledge they are required to be kept at one place, where one can see and acquire practical knowledge. Thus Museum is the best place to keep them in best condition. Its also essential as per CCIM norms. So all about brief study of dravya guna museums importance, maintenance and related problems & solution is given.
Method of glycerin preservation is adopted 50% glycerin + 50% hot water mixed with 1 tab of aspirin and put the plant part for 15 days then dry and mount.
This type of preservation has long term stability without loosing there normal color elasticity and texture.
This is new and betters method for making herbarium preservation with lower cost for long time.
PMCID: PMC3800888
8.  Urology in ancient India 
The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.
PMCID: PMC2721488  PMID: 19675749
History; India; urology
9.  Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(10):e1000357.
In a prospective cohort study of patients presenting with pesticide self-poisoning, Andrew Dawson and colleagues investigate the relative human toxicity of agricultural pesticides and contrast it with WHO toxicity classifications, which are based on toxicity in rats.
Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000–370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aimed to determine the relative human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides to improve the effectiveness of regulatory policy.
Methods and Findings
We examined the case fatality of different agricultural pesticides in a prospective cohort of patients presenting with pesticide self-poisoning to two clinical trial centers from April 2002 to November 2008. Identification of the pesticide ingested was based on history or positive identification of the container. A single pesticide was ingested by 9,302 patients. A specific pesticide was identified in 7,461 patients; 1,841 ingested an unknown pesticide. In a subset of 808 patients, the history of ingestion was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 95% of patients. There was a large variation in case fatality between pesticides—from 0% to 42%. This marked variation in lethality was observed for compounds within the same chemical and/or WHO toxicity classification of pesticides and for those used for similar agricultural indications.
The human data provided toxicity rankings for some pesticides that contrasted strongly with the WHO toxicity classification based on rat toxicity. Basing regulation on human toxicity will make pesticide poisoning less hazardous, preventing hundreds of thousands of deaths globally without compromising agricultural needs. Ongoing monitoring of patterns of use and clinical toxicity for new pesticides is needed to identify highly toxic pesticides in a timely manner.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Suicide is a preventable global public health problem. About 1 million people die each year from suicide and many more harm themselves but survive. Although many people who commit suicide have a mental illness, stressful events (economic hardship or relationship difficulties, for example) can sometimes make life seem too painful to bear. Suicide attempts are frequently impulsive and use methods that are conveniently accessible. Strategies to reduce suicide rates include better treatment of mental illness and programs that help people at high risk of suicide deal with stress. Suicide rates can also be reduced by limiting access to common suicide methods. The single most important means of suicide worldwide is agricultural pesticide poisoning. Every year, between 250,000 and 370,000 people die from deliberate ingestion of pesticides (chemicals that kill animal pests or unwanted plants). Most of these suicides occur in rural areas of the developing world where high levels of pesticide use in agriculture combined with pesticide storage at home facilitate this particular method of suicide.
Why Was This Study Done?
To help reduce suicides through the ingestion of agricultural pesticides, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recommends the withdrawal of the most toxic pesticides—World Health Organization (WHO) class I pesticides—from agricultural use. This strategy has proven successful in Sri Lanka where a ban on class I pesticides in 1995 and on the class II pesticide endosulfan in 1998 has reduced pesticide deaths by 50% over the past 20 years without decreasing agricultural output. Further reductions in suicides from pesticide ingestion could be achieved if regulatory restrictions on the sale and distribution of the most toxic class II pesticides were imposed. But such restrictions must balance agricultural needs against the impact of pesticides on public health. Unfortunately, the current WHO pesticide classification is based on toxicity in rats. Because rats handle pesticides differently from people, there is no guarantee that a pesticide with low toxicity in rodents is safe in people. Here, the researchers try to determine the relative human toxicity of agricultural pesticides in a prospective cohort study (a study in which people who share a characteristic—in this case, deliberate pesticide ingestion—are enrolled and followed to see how they fare).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers examined the case fatality (the proportion of patients dying after hospital admission) of different agricultural pesticides among patients who presented with pesticide self-poisoning at two Sri Lankan referral hospitals. Between April 2002 and November 2008, 9,302 people were admitted to the hospitals after swallowing a single pesticide. The researchers identified the pesticide ingested in 7,461 cases by asking the patient what he/she had taken or by identifying the container brought in by the patient or relatives. 10% of the patients died but there was a large variation in case fatality between pesticides. The herbicide paraquat was the most lethal pesticide, killing 42% of patients; several other pesticides killed no one. Compounds in the same chemical class and/or the same WHO toxicity class sometimes had very different toxicities. For example, dimethoate and malathione, both class II organophosphate insecticides, had case fatalities of 20.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Similarly, pesticides used for similar agricultural purposes sometimes had very different case fatalities.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings provide a toxicity ranking for pesticides that deviates markedly from the WHO toxicity classification based on rat toxicity. Although the findings are based on a study undertaken at just two Sri Lankan hospitals, they are likely to be generalizable to other hospitals and to other parts of rural Asia. However, because the study only included patients who were admitted to hospital after ingesting pesticides, the actual case fatalities for some pesticides may be somewhat different. Nevertheless, these findings have several important public health implications. For example, they suggest that the decision taken in January 2008 to withdraw paraquat, dimethoate, and fenthion from the Sri Lankan market should reduce deaths from pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka by a further 33%–65% (equivalent to about 1,000 fewer suicides per year). More generally, they suggest that basing the regulation of pesticides on human toxicity has the potential to prevent hundreds and thousands of intentional and accidental deaths globally without compromising agricultural needs.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
This study is further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Matt Miller and Kavi Bhalla
The World Health Organization provides information on the global burden of suicide and on suicide prevention (in several languages) and on its classification of pesticides
The US Environmental Protection Agency provides information about all aspects of pesticides (in English and Spanish)
Toxtown, an interactive site from the US National Library of Science, provides information on environmental health concerns including exposure to pesticides (in English and Spanish)
The nonprofit organization Pesticide Action Network UK provides information about all aspects of pesticides
The US National Pesticide Information Center provides objective, science-based information about pesticides (in several languages)
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to reduce hunger; as part of this effort, it has introduced pesticide policy reforms (in several languages)
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources about suicide and about pesticides (in English and Spanish)
PMCID: PMC2964340  PMID: 21048990
10.  Fate of β-asarone in Ayurvedic Sodhana process of Vacha 
Calamus (Acorus calamus Linn., Araceae) rhizome synonymously called sweet flag or Vacha is an aromatic herb indigenous to Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It has been used by the Ayurvedic practitioners since time immemorial for diseases ranging from weakness of memory to being used as an anthelminthic. Reports of its use have been found in books like Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, etc., The major constituent of the oil of Vacha is a phenyl propanoid called β-asarone, which is reported to show carcinogenic properties. Due to the toxic effects of β-asarone, sodhana prakriya (detoxification process) has been prescribed for Vacha before its inclusion in the Ayurvedic medicines. Shodhanaprakriya (S. prakriya) of Vacha has been mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts.
This study was undertaken with an aim to find out the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha and also to suggest an alternate method for the conventional one.
Materials and Methods:
The conventional method was studied in the laboratory and equivalent alternate methods were designed based on the mechanism involved. Vacha samples were subjected to the conventional method as well as the alternate methods and the content of β-asarone in the different samples was monitored using Gas Chromatography technique.
Various alternate methods have been devised based on the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya which have given results comparable with those of the conventional method.
The scientific mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha has been established and alternate methods have been proposed.
PMCID: PMC3667428  PMID: 23741157
Acorus calamus; β-asarone; Sodhana; Vacha
11.  Anguli Parimana in Ayurveda and its association with adiposity and diabetes 
Recent studies have shown the association of disproportionate body size measurements with noncommunicable diseases like diabetes. This concept is described in Ayurveda (1500 BC), which uses Anguli Parimana (the breadth of one's own finger as 1 unit) to measure the body proportions. Excessive tallness or shortness (deviation from the reference value of Anguli Parimana) indicated deranged meda dhaatu (mainly adipose tissue). Deranged meda dhatu was associated with Prameha (diabetes).
To find association of Anguli Parimana with modern parameters of adiposity and diabetes.
Materials and Methods:
We studied 192 village residents representing the whole population (94 men and 98 women) to measure height, arm span, facial structures and limbs and expressed them in Anguli pariman (ratio of each measure as: Length or height of the body part [cm]/anguli, i.e. average finger breadth [cm]). The Anguli measurements were associated with body mass index, body fat percentage by DEXA, glucose and fasting insulin levels.
The volunteers were adults between 20 and 40 years age. Their mean fasting and 2 h plasma glucose concentrations were 91.6 mg% and 102.8 mg%, respectively. Of all, only 6 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance, while 3 were diabetic (WHO 1999). When compared with reference Anguli measurements mentioned by Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, the participants had smaller height, facial structures, and lower limbs. Those, who had proportionately smaller facial, neck and limb structures, had higher obesity, adiposity, plasma glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]-R) indicating higher metabolic risk. In contrast, those who had proportionately larger forehead and face had higher beta cell function measured as HOMA-B indicating lower risk for diabetes (r = 0.20 both P < 0.05 all, adjusted for age and gender).
Compared with ancient Indian Anguli reference, our subjects were proportionately smaller in most of the measurements except fingers and upper arm. Relative smallness of body parts was predictive of increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4204289  PMID: 25336850
Adiposity; Anguli Pariman; Ayurved; body proportion; insulin resistance in Indians
12.  Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India 
People in Indian region often apply Shankhpushpi and other Sanskrit-based common name to Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Canscora decussata, and Clitorea ternatea. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal plant. Before the establishment of British rule, like the other books, ayurvedic treatises were also hand written. This might be one of the reasons due to which ayurveda could not stand parallel to the western medicine and an ambiguity is reflected in the interpretation of names and description of drugs found in the books like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The most widespread application of Shankhpushpi is for mental problems, but they have been considered for an array of other human maladies. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of four ethanobotanicals of Shankhpushpi. A comparative morphoanatomy of the root, stem, and leaves has been studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. Various physicochemical, morphological, histological parameters, comparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatogram of methanolic extract presented in this communication may serve the purpose of standard parameters to establish the authenticity of commercialized varieties and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from the other species. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines.
PMCID: PMC3255406  PMID: 22247878
Ethanobotanicals; HPLC; HPTLC; physiochemical; Shankhpushpi
13.  A critical review on two types of Laghupanchamula 
Ayu  2012;33(3):343-347.
A group of five roots of small plants i.e., Shalaparni, Prshniparni, Brhati, Kantakari and Gokshura or Eranda is known as Laghupanchamula under Mishraka Varga (group of drugs). It is used as such or with Mahat Panchamula i.e., Bilva, Gambhari, Shyonaka, Agnimantha and Patala, constituting Dashamula, a well recognized and popular Ayurvedic preparation or as an ingredient of different dosage forms. Classical texts of Ayurveda differs regarding components of this Mishraka Varga. Four out of five drugs of Laghupanchamula are similar in all the Ayurvedic texts, but either Gokshura or Eranda is considered as the fifth drug. So a comphrenesive review of Veda, Samhita Grantha, Cikitsa Grantha and Nighantus, with regards to synonyms, contents, Guna- Karma, origin of variation in contents and possible thought behind two kinds of Laghupanchamula, to throw light for rational use of either Eranda or Gokshura under Laghupanchamula was conducted. It was observed that both the traditions were in practice however Acharya Kashyapa and Ravigupta were in view of Eranda as a fifth drug of Laghupanchamula where as Acharya Charaka, Sushruta, Vagabhatta, Yogaratnakara and Chakradatta are in favour of Gokshura. Infact, the variation in content depends on the need i.e Dosha, Dushya and Vyadhi.
PMCID: PMC3665092  PMID: 23723639
Brihatpanchamula; Eranda; Gokshura; Laghupanchamula
14.  Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana 
Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.
PMCID: PMC3703563  PMID: 23905027
Biodiversity; Khagendra Mani Darpana; Toxicology
15.  Critical review on the pharmaceutical vistas of Lauha Kalpas (Iron formulations) 
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
PMCID: PMC3326790  PMID: 22529676
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
16.  A comprehensive review of Cataract (Kaphaja Linganasha) and its Surgical Treatment in Ayurvedic Literature 
Ayu  2010;31(1):93-100.
Ayurveda the science of life, since its origin is serving the mankind throughout in health & disease state of life. Shalakyatantra, one of its specialized branch deals with the science of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Orodental surgery & Head; was contributed and developed by Rajrishi Nimi, the King of Videha, who was a colleague of Atreya, Punarvasu, Dhanwantri, Bharadwaja, Kashyapa etc. The available literature related to this speciality is reproduced from original text of Nimitantra in Uttartantra of Sushruta samhita. So Rajrishi Nimi deserves all the credit and regards for Shalakyatantra and for being the first eye surgeon on this earth. The fact regarding the technique of cataract surgery adopted by ancient surgeons is still a matter of debate. Most of the medical fraternity accepts cataract surgery of ancient surgeons as couching procedure but after going through forth coming pages, the prevailing concept will prove to be a myth. It started with extra capsular extraction through small incision during the period of Sushruta Samhita but later shifted to couching like technique by Acharya Vagbhatta. Secondly, the objective of this literary research paper is to find proper co-relation of the disease cataract to those mentioned in Ancient Ayurvedic classic. Linganasha has been inadvertently taken as cataract but this is neither logical nor in accordance with classics. We find detailed description of cataract's differential diagnosis, indications, contra- indications, pre/intra/post operative procedures and complication in ancient texts of Ayurveda. Not only this, vivid description of treatment of various complications of cataract surgery are also given. Needless to say, no other surgically treatable diseases & its complications except Kaphaja Linganasha are given this much attention.
PMCID: PMC3215330  PMID: 22131692
Linganasha; Shalaka; Vedhana; Daivakrita; Lekhana; Aschyotana; Lepa; Seka
17.  Historical perspective on the usage of perfumes and scented Articles in ancient Indian literatures 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;28(2):33-39.
In India perfumes and scented articles were in use from pre Vedic and Vedic periods for religious practices, social customs, and domestic rituals and later gradually became part and parcel of human life. Perfumes were also used in cosmetics and beauty aids. Medicinal values of many perfumes were well known to ancient Indians and were used in both rituals and to treat diseases. Medicated fumigation (dhupan) was an advanced method for medicinal purposes. Medicated oils, collyriums, powders were prepared from perfumes used externally in many diseases. Perfumes were also anointed in various body parts (Anulepan). Chewing betel leaves along with fragrant material like nutmeg, mace, etc. (Tambulam) was used with a view to rendering mouth clean and fragrant. usage of scented oils to massage body(Abhyanga) which keeps the skin smooth, healthy and invigorating; Udvartanam, massaging various body parts; Udgarshanam, scrubbing; Utsadanam rubbing with scented powders etc., were some of the health protective and disease eliminating procedures. Scented drugs and perfumes enhance the quality, activity and pleasantness of these processes.
PMCID: PMC3336354  PMID: 22557310
18.  History of Cardiology in India 
Indian Heart Journal  2015;67(2):163-169.
History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena.
PMCID: PMC4475834  PMID: 26071301
Vedic concept of health; Cardiological Society of India; Yoga; Intervention in cardiology; Innovations
19.  Importance of Manas Tattva: A searchlight in Yoga Darshana 
Ayu  2014;35(3):221-226.
Since time immemorial ‘Manas’ has been the subject of curiosity for scholars, scientists and philosophers. The reason behind this curiosity is its importance in the development of mankind. Human being is superior to other creatures in the series of development. This supremacy of man remains in his quality to work after thinking, which is the function of ‘Manas’. No other animal is capable to think logically. This is the only reason which leads the mankind to the crest of development in every aspect. To highlight the concept of Manas in Yoga Darshana, information extracted from Yoga literatures and Ayurvedic Samhitas. In Indian culture mind has been described from various angles. Vedic, Philosophical and Ayurvedic literatures have a vast and exclusive description of Manas. Philosophers either Astika or Nastika have described Manas Siddhanta vividly. Though many kinds of difference of opinions are there, Yoga Darshana accept the importance of mind in the process of perception and even for the birth of any individual.
PMCID: PMC4649565  PMID: 26664229
Darshana; Manas; Yoga
20.  Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(Suppl 2):S310-S314.
The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of “traditional mental health promoting practices” was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a “mind control” as referred by Caraka, is achieved through “spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.
PMCID: PMC3705701  PMID: 23858273
Achar rasayana; Ayurveda; psychotherapy; psychoveda; sattvavajaya
21.  PA01.61. Vrishya dravya- tool in shaping the corner stones of healthy society 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S111.
The principle aim of Ayurvedic aphrodisiac therapy Vrishya chikitsa is the birth of mentally and physically healthy children as they are the corner stones of a healthy future society. Modern life style is full of stress and competition thus interferes with physical mechanism of body creating psychosomatic impact leading to sexual inefficiency. Ayurvedic aphrodisiacs that enhance the vitality and give sexual power to couples, which enable them to give birth to healthy children. Western medicine relies on aggressive prescription of drugs and surgery to deal with many problems related to sexual dysfunction which in turn have unwanted and even dangerous side effects. In regards to this Scientists are searching for a safe and effective phytomedicine from Ayurveda.
Review of classical text and research data reported in various journals and monographs.
Vrishya chikitsa described in Ashtang Ayurveda mentions the reasons for sexual inefficiency and directs the use of several aphrodisiac herbs and minerals to enhance the vitality. Charaka has prescribed the use of aphrodisiacs that enhance the potency of a person. Ex. Ashwagandha, Mushali, Shatavari, Kapikacchu etc. Researches prove that, they enhance the reproductive capabilities and vigor of men while strengthening the body and overall well-being. In Ashwagandha main contain is withanolides, which are steroid lactones and have a quick and pronounced hormonal effect, which stimulate the development of testicular cells. Kapikacchu has been shown to increase sperm count. L dopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine, isolated from Kapikacchu, has been shown to increase sperm production. The Vrishya chikitsa resorts to herb preparations and minerals, including nonpharmacological measures mentioned by Charaka like Sadvrutta palana and Aacharrasayana, also attain to enhance reproductive capabilities and vigor of men.
The herbs mentioned above and Sadavrutta, Achararasayana stands as an answer to solve problem of sexual inefficiency and enhance the potency of a person.
PMCID: PMC3800865
22.  Effect of Mahayavanala Roma Kshara and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in benign prostatic hyperplasia 
Ayu  2010;31(3):332-337.
Vatastheela is a disease of Mutravahasrotasa, one among the 12 types of Mutraghata disorders elaborated by Sushruta in his seminal work, the Sushruta Samhita. Vatastheela, as described in Ayurveda, closely resembles benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) of modern medicine in its signs and symptoms. It is a senile disorder and chiefly affects individuals above the age of 40 years. The symptoms are those of bladder outflow obstruction, with increased frequency of micturition, dribbling, hesitancy, and the features of chronic urinary retention. Surgical management has been accepted as the standard management but is associated with many disadvantages as well as complications, which may not be acceptable at this age. Conservative management with modern medicines is also not free from side effects. So, in this age-group, there is a need for much safer alternative method of management. In this regard, many works have been carried out and shown that the Ayurvedic approach, using natural medicines, is a far better approach. We carried out a comparative study of Mahayavanala Roma Kshara (MRK) and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita (DGG), which are the compounds prescribed for Mutraghata in Ayurvedic literature. The patients were randomly selected from the OPD and IPD of IPGT and RA hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, and divided into two groups. In first group, one (500 mg) capsule of MRK was given twice a day with lukewarm water for 45 days; in second group, 10 gm of DGG was given orally twice a day with lukewarm water for 45 days. DGG showed significantly greater relief in the subjective parameters as per International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) than MRK. However, reduction in the size of the prostate and in the volume of the post-void residual urine was found much better in the MRK group.
PMCID: PMC3221067  PMID: 22131735
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita; Kshara; Mahayavanala Roma Mutraghata; Mutravahasrotasa; Vatastheela
23.  A Perspective on Forage Production in Canada 
Over the past decade, the cattle industry has experienced practically a full circle. With the promising beef prices in the early 1970s, with the glut of grain and a generous assist from government incentive programs, the forage acreage and cattle population have increased at a record rate. By 1974, the tide began to turn — grain prices went up sharply and beef prices became sluggish — and by 1976 a major crisis faced the producers. The cattle industry which had been developing on a cheap grain economy was now obliged to rely more on forage for its survival. Unfortunately, the forage was not existent and the only salvation of the industry was the gift of Providence — weather patterns that provided ample moisture conditions and above normal forage crops, the utilization of cereals and the intervention of government cow-calf support programs.
Over the past year, the cycle was completed and record beef prices again prevail. The barley bins are full again and the cattlemen are gearing up for a few fat years. Demands for forage seed are brisk and the seeding down of forage acreage is bound to increase substantially over the next few years. And with this increase, cattle population expansion is bound to follow: how much expansion can the economy support? The production cost factors will determine the extent, but one can almost be certain that any expansion will either be modest or of short duration. At least, it should be.
If the cattle industry is to establish solid foundations, it cannot be dependent upon the instability of a grain surplus-shortage position. With the present resources and the potential for developing it in direct competition with other crops, one can only expect a small and steady expansion over a long time span. One must agree with the range researchers and specialists of the Canada Research Stations at Lethbridge and Swift Current that pasture and range will continue to be the limiting factors of cattle expansion as they have been for the past 50 years. It is interesting to note that in the Prairie Provinces at least, the number of livestock raised each year has not changed since 1930 although cattle have largely replaced the horses.
It is easy to speculate on paper that Canada can double in the next 20 years its forage and cattle production on its large expanses of land on the fringes of the agriculturally settled areas. It is true that these lands, while marginal for cash crops, could produce excellent forage. But at what cost? And what kind of pasture could we grow on them?
It is easy to speculate that our livestock geneticists can breed a ruminant-type animal that will feed on poplar saplings and poplar leaves, or develop a new breed of cattle with buffalo vigor that will thrive in the extreme north. But looking at the musk-ox experience in the Northwest Territories and the history of the Wood Buffalo National Park leaves little room for optimism.
The present generation is not likely to see in its lifetime the cattle population go beyond the 20 million mark. We can look, however, with good assurance on the present cattle numbers remaining stable and can look forward to gradual increase brought about by normal improvement in both forage and cattle management.
Hopefully, both the cattle producer and the veterinarian will be able to reap the benefits of this most important segment of Canada's agricultural industry.
PMCID: PMC1789688  PMID: 7363269
Ancient Science of Life  1981;1(1):1-7.
History of medicine is a fascinating subject as it is a saga of man's struggle against disease. As the civilization advances and as the disease pattern changes, the medical science also changes. Ayurveda is the system of medicine that evolved in India with a rationale logical foundation and it has survived as a distinct entity from remote antiquity to the present day. The fundamentals on which the Ayurvedic system is based are essentially true for all times and do not change from are to age. These are based on human actors, on intrinsic causes. The origin of Ayurveda is attributed to Atharva Veda where mention is made several diseases with their treatments. Later, from the 6th Century BC to 7th Century AD there was systematic development of the science and it is called Samhita period, when a number of classical works were produced by several authors and during this period there is evidence of organized medical care.
PMCID: PMC3336651  PMID: 22556454
25.  Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2012;6(11):61-67.
Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.
PMCID: PMC3358970  PMID: 22654406
Cucurbitacin; diabetes; hepatoprotective; Trichosanthes dioica

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