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1.  PA01.34. Catagorical interpretation in Microsoft excel of jangam dravya database from Bruhat-Trayi & Laghu-Trayi 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S84.
Purpose:
Not a single drug in Ayurveda has been termed as non-medicinal. This means every Dravya has medicinal value in this world. Jangam dravya is an animal sourced medicine. In samhita Jangam Dravya are described first. So as per Krama Varnan Vichar, Jangam Dravyas are significant in this type. In Ayurvedic literature there is more literature on Audbhid & Parthiva Dravyas. I Total available nighantu: more than 25. Total available Rasa Grantha: about 145. There is no one Grantha on Jangam Dravya which describes their whole information. Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Gross description is available in Samhitas. But they aren’t in format. They are not compiled according to their Guna Karma, Upayogitwa, Vyadhiharatwa, and Kalpa etc. Their use in Chikitsa is minimal as their ready references are not available, though very much effective. So due to sheer need of compilation of these references this topic was selected for study. The basic need for study of Jangam Dravya is to prepare its whole DATABASE. So through this study Database of Jangam Dravya can be available like Jangam Dravya.
Method:
Selection of topic this is a fundamental & literary study, Selection of material, Selection of Database software & font, Collection of data & preparation of Master Chart, Preparation of Database, Interpretation & summarization of data.
Result:
So in this paper, we are going to focus on literature availability of jangam dravya with the help of modern technique like Microsoft Excel. And also how we can prepare and use the categorical interpretation of jangam dravya with help of database
Conclusion:
Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Importances of these dravyas are the main key point of this study.
PMCID: PMC3800966
2.  PA02.11. An insight on ayurvedic drug discovery 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S56.
Purpose:
Every dravya have its own medicinal importance in the universe. Hence, we have to study each and every drug which is available around us. The locally available drugs are considered as best. Only few drugs are mentioned in ayurvedic textbooks but many have to be explained for their quality & applications. The research on new drugs is the need of hour in Ayurveda and we have to assess all dravyas viz. herbs, metals, minerals & animal products which are available in universe.
Method:
Drug research methodology is well explained in Ayurveda along with ethno & medico botanical survey. There are certain steps of research viz. the nature of dravyas, morphological characters of dravyas, place & time of collection, preservation etc and doctrine of signature or elaborate in new drug discovery. Further taste and taste threshold examination, exothermic and endothermic reactions, experimental model for assessment of vipaka and other methods of research on new drug will be discussed. This paper will discuss in detail about the ancient research method for new drugs.
Result:
Methodical research for new drug gives not only importance of pharmecological and clinical study but also importance to seasonal derivation, collection time and different application methods. Ancient ayurvedic drug research methodology includes from survey, pharmacognostic to clinical research.
Conclusion:
The oldest drug research methodology suits now also for all new drug research.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123873
PMCID: PMC4147528
3.  Skin in Health and Diseases in Ṛgveda Saṃhiṭa: An Overview 
Indian Journal of Dermatology  2013;58(6):413-416.
Ṛgveda is the oldest religious book of the Aryans. It picturises the early lives of the Aryans. We get mention of various diseases in this Veda. Skin - both in health and diseases had caught attention of the Vedic sages. Skin was not merely an organ of attraction and look but its colour was important socially. Mentions of various diseases like leprosy, guinea worm, jaundice etc., are interesting. Mention of different disorders of the nails and hair are also there, though in a very primitive and mystic form. Management strategy was consisted of herbs, amulates, chanting of mantras, touching the body, uses of water and sunrays etc. This may be presumed that this Veda founded the base for the Āyurveda of the later period.
doi:10.4103/0019-5154.119945
PMCID: PMC3827509  PMID: 24249889
Veda; Ṛgveda Saṃhiṭa; skin diseases
4.  PA01.82. Ayurvedic museum (dravyaguna) - as a profession: issues & challenges 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S132.
Purpose:
In original Ayurvedic classics viz. in Caraka Samhita & Susruta Samhita, thousands of Medicinal plants and their parts are prescribed in various diseases. Medicinal Plants are not available at one place, rather found at different part of our country i.e. Vatsanabha, Jatamansa, Devadaru, in northen India (Himalaya region); Agara, Paga, in Eastern India; Samudraphala, Kupalu, in southern India and Guggalu, Asvagandha, in western India. These are a few examples; many more can be seen in Ayurvedic texts. It is worthy to mention here that seed, root, root bark, stem, stem bark, tuber, rhizome, leaf, flower, exudate, latex, fruit etc. are the various plant parts which are used to prepare medicine in Ayurveda. Further, those parts are not available in one season and also at one Geographical region of our country. To a physician or to a Ayurvedic scholar, it is not possible to see all plants as they are grown in different regions. For proper knowledge they are required to be kept at one place, where one can see and acquire practical knowledge. Thus Museum is the best place to keep them in best condition. Its also essential as per CCIM norms. So all about brief study of dravya guna museums importance, maintenance and related problems & solution is given.
Method:
Method of glycerin preservation is adopted 50% glycerin + 50% hot water mixed with 1 tab of aspirin and put the plant part for 15 days then dry and mount.
Result:
This type of preservation has long term stability without loosing there normal color elasticity and texture.
Conclusion:
This is new and betters method for making herbarium preservation with lower cost for long time.
PMCID: PMC3800888
5.  Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(10):e1000357.
In a prospective cohort study of patients presenting with pesticide self-poisoning, Andrew Dawson and colleagues investigate the relative human toxicity of agricultural pesticides and contrast it with WHO toxicity classifications, which are based on toxicity in rats.
Background
Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000–370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aimed to determine the relative human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides to improve the effectiveness of regulatory policy.
Methods and Findings
We examined the case fatality of different agricultural pesticides in a prospective cohort of patients presenting with pesticide self-poisoning to two clinical trial centers from April 2002 to November 2008. Identification of the pesticide ingested was based on history or positive identification of the container. A single pesticide was ingested by 9,302 patients. A specific pesticide was identified in 7,461 patients; 1,841 ingested an unknown pesticide. In a subset of 808 patients, the history of ingestion was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 95% of patients. There was a large variation in case fatality between pesticides—from 0% to 42%. This marked variation in lethality was observed for compounds within the same chemical and/or WHO toxicity classification of pesticides and for those used for similar agricultural indications.
Conclusion
The human data provided toxicity rankings for some pesticides that contrasted strongly with the WHO toxicity classification based on rat toxicity. Basing regulation on human toxicity will make pesticide poisoning less hazardous, preventing hundreds of thousands of deaths globally without compromising agricultural needs. Ongoing monitoring of patterns of use and clinical toxicity for new pesticides is needed to identify highly toxic pesticides in a timely manner.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Suicide is a preventable global public health problem. About 1 million people die each year from suicide and many more harm themselves but survive. Although many people who commit suicide have a mental illness, stressful events (economic hardship or relationship difficulties, for example) can sometimes make life seem too painful to bear. Suicide attempts are frequently impulsive and use methods that are conveniently accessible. Strategies to reduce suicide rates include better treatment of mental illness and programs that help people at high risk of suicide deal with stress. Suicide rates can also be reduced by limiting access to common suicide methods. The single most important means of suicide worldwide is agricultural pesticide poisoning. Every year, between 250,000 and 370,000 people die from deliberate ingestion of pesticides (chemicals that kill animal pests or unwanted plants). Most of these suicides occur in rural areas of the developing world where high levels of pesticide use in agriculture combined with pesticide storage at home facilitate this particular method of suicide.
Why Was This Study Done?
To help reduce suicides through the ingestion of agricultural pesticides, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recommends the withdrawal of the most toxic pesticides—World Health Organization (WHO) class I pesticides—from agricultural use. This strategy has proven successful in Sri Lanka where a ban on class I pesticides in 1995 and on the class II pesticide endosulfan in 1998 has reduced pesticide deaths by 50% over the past 20 years without decreasing agricultural output. Further reductions in suicides from pesticide ingestion could be achieved if regulatory restrictions on the sale and distribution of the most toxic class II pesticides were imposed. But such restrictions must balance agricultural needs against the impact of pesticides on public health. Unfortunately, the current WHO pesticide classification is based on toxicity in rats. Because rats handle pesticides differently from people, there is no guarantee that a pesticide with low toxicity in rodents is safe in people. Here, the researchers try to determine the relative human toxicity of agricultural pesticides in a prospective cohort study (a study in which people who share a characteristic—in this case, deliberate pesticide ingestion—are enrolled and followed to see how they fare).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers examined the case fatality (the proportion of patients dying after hospital admission) of different agricultural pesticides among patients who presented with pesticide self-poisoning at two Sri Lankan referral hospitals. Between April 2002 and November 2008, 9,302 people were admitted to the hospitals after swallowing a single pesticide. The researchers identified the pesticide ingested in 7,461 cases by asking the patient what he/she had taken or by identifying the container brought in by the patient or relatives. 10% of the patients died but there was a large variation in case fatality between pesticides. The herbicide paraquat was the most lethal pesticide, killing 42% of patients; several other pesticides killed no one. Compounds in the same chemical class and/or the same WHO toxicity class sometimes had very different toxicities. For example, dimethoate and malathione, both class II organophosphate insecticides, had case fatalities of 20.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Similarly, pesticides used for similar agricultural purposes sometimes had very different case fatalities.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings provide a toxicity ranking for pesticides that deviates markedly from the WHO toxicity classification based on rat toxicity. Although the findings are based on a study undertaken at just two Sri Lankan hospitals, they are likely to be generalizable to other hospitals and to other parts of rural Asia. However, because the study only included patients who were admitted to hospital after ingesting pesticides, the actual case fatalities for some pesticides may be somewhat different. Nevertheless, these findings have several important public health implications. For example, they suggest that the decision taken in January 2008 to withdraw paraquat, dimethoate, and fenthion from the Sri Lankan market should reduce deaths from pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka by a further 33%–65% (equivalent to about 1,000 fewer suicides per year). More generally, they suggest that basing the regulation of pesticides on human toxicity has the potential to prevent hundreds and thousands of intentional and accidental deaths globally without compromising agricultural needs.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000357.
This study is further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Matt Miller and Kavi Bhalla
The World Health Organization provides information on the global burden of suicide and on suicide prevention (in several languages) and on its classification of pesticides
The US Environmental Protection Agency provides information about all aspects of pesticides (in English and Spanish)
Toxtown, an interactive site from the US National Library of Science, provides information on environmental health concerns including exposure to pesticides (in English and Spanish)
The nonprofit organization Pesticide Action Network UK provides information about all aspects of pesticides
The US National Pesticide Information Center provides objective, science-based information about pesticides (in several languages)
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to reduce hunger; as part of this effort, it has introduced pesticide policy reforms (in several languages)
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources about suicide and about pesticides (in English and Spanish)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000357
PMCID: PMC2964340  PMID: 21048990
6.  Adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic medicine with anti tubercular drugs on the therapeutic management of pulmonary tuberculosis 
Background:
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an age old disease described in Vedic Medicine as ‘Yakshma’. Later on, in Ayurveda it earned a prefix and found way into mythology as ‘Rajayakshma’. After the discovery of streptomycin, the therapeutic management of PTB received a major breakthrough. The treatment module changed remarkably with the formulation of newer anti-tubercular drugs (ATD) with appreciable success. Recent resurgence of PTB in developed countries like United States posed a threat to the medical community due to resistant strains. Consequently, WHO looked toward traditional medicine. Literature reveals that Ayurvedic treatment of PTB was in vogue in India before the introduction of ATD with limited success. Records show that 2766 patients of PTB were treated with Ayurvedic drugs in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata in the year 1933-1947.
Objectives:
To evaluate the toxicity reduction and early restoration by adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic drugs by increasing the bio-availability of ATDs.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, treatment response of 99 patients treated with ATD as an adjunct with Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) and a multi-herbal formulation described in Chikitsa-sthana of Charaka samhita i.e. Chyawanprash were investigated. Hematological profile, sputum bacterial load count, immunoglobulin IgA and IgM, blood sugar, liver function test, serum creatinine were the assessed parameters besides blood isoniazid and pyrazinamide, repeated after 28 days of treatment.
Results:
The symptoms abated, body weight showed improvement, ESR values were normal, there was appreciable change in IgA and IgM patterns and significantly increased bioavailability of isoniazid and pyrazinamide were recorded.
Conclusion:
This innovative clinical study coupled with empowered research may turn out to be promising in finding a solution for the treatment of PTB.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.100180
PMCID: PMC3487240  PMID: 23125511
Adjunct therapy; anti-tubercular drugs; Ayurveda; tuberculosis
7.  PA02.05. Pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of Lasuna Kshirpaka w.s.r to charaka and sharangadhara methods. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S50.
Purpose:
Ksheerpaka i.e. milk used in the medicated form is the unique feature of Ayurveda. Now a day, for Ksheerpaka preparation, method stated by Sharangadhara is generally followed. Charaka has mentioned Lasuna Ksheerpaka which is prepared by different proportions than that of Sharangadhara. Though ingredients used for preparation by each method are same, variation in proportion of ingredients may alter their respective efficacies. The present study aims at pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of Lasuna Ksheerpaka prepared by two different proportions viz. Charaka samhita (sample C) and Sharangadhara Samhita (sample S) and to hypothesize probable biotransformation during Lasuna Ksheerpaka preparation.
Method:
The samples were prepared according to the reference in Charaka Samhita(Chi. 5/94) and Sharangadhara Samhita (Madhyama. 1/161). The samples were evaluated by the tests like Methylene Blue Reduction (MBR), Solid non fat (SNF), specific gravity, pH, Gas Chromatography etc.
Result:
The results obtained from these tests indicated rapid transformations and degradation of active volatile compounds found in Garlic. The quantitative analysis of Lasuna Ksheerpaka samples done by Gas Chromatography study showed higher retention of Allin with its less destruction to further volatile Sulphur compounds in sample C (0.410 mg/gm) in comparison with sample S (0.211 mg/gm).
Conclusion:
The preservation of Allin to restore the medicinal properties of Garlic is the main aim of modern Pharmaceutics. The same purpose of Allin preservation and retention of medicinal properties of Garlic can be achieved by Lasuna kshirapaka prepared according to Charaka Samhita in comparison with Lasuna kshirapaka prepared according to Sharangadhara Samhita. Thus, Lasuna kshirapaka preparation according to reference of Charaka Samhita seems to be a better option within the scope of this study.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123866
PMCID: PMC4147522
8.  A review through Charaka Uttara-Tantra 
Ayu  2013;34(1):17-20.
In the present scenario, the available editions of Charaka Samhita contain eight Sthanas only. Charaka Samhita does not contain Uttara-Tantra like Sushruta Samhita and Samhitas of Vagbhata. On contrary, in the 12th chapter of Siddhi Sthana, Charaka has mentioned about Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. So, it is essential to emphasize on this issue, which was not explained in length by commentators of Charaka Samhita. Many controversies raised on the existence and recognition of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. On the other hand, some scholars who belong to a later period have been mentioned certain references in their work, which are claimed to be from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. After a thorough study and scanning of available literature, it is concluded that, Charaka Uttara-Tantra was existing up to the time of Nishchalakara (13th century AD). Nishchalakara has quoted a number of references in Ratnaprabha, which are from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. Furthermore, there is a need to discuss about the existence of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita by further more detailed study and scanning of literatures of Ayurveda and allied literatures.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115438
PMCID: PMC3764873  PMID: 24049400
Chakrapanidatta; Charaka Samhita; Nishchalakara; Ratnaprabha; Tika; Uttara Tantra
9.  Urology in ancient India 
The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.30253
PMCID: PMC2721488  PMID: 19675749
History; India; urology
10.  Fate of β-asarone in Ayurvedic Sodhana process of Vacha 
Background:
Calamus (Acorus calamus Linn., Araceae) rhizome synonymously called sweet flag or Vacha is an aromatic herb indigenous to Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It has been used by the Ayurvedic practitioners since time immemorial for diseases ranging from weakness of memory to being used as an anthelminthic. Reports of its use have been found in books like Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, etc., The major constituent of the oil of Vacha is a phenyl propanoid called β-asarone, which is reported to show carcinogenic properties. Due to the toxic effects of β-asarone, sodhana prakriya (detoxification process) has been prescribed for Vacha before its inclusion in the Ayurvedic medicines. Shodhanaprakriya (S. prakriya) of Vacha has been mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts.
Objectives:
This study was undertaken with an aim to find out the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha and also to suggest an alternate method for the conventional one.
Materials and Methods:
The conventional method was studied in the laboratory and equivalent alternate methods were designed based on the mechanism involved. Vacha samples were subjected to the conventional method as well as the alternate methods and the content of β-asarone in the different samples was monitored using Gas Chromatography technique.
Results:
Various alternate methods have been devised based on the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya which have given results comparable with those of the conventional method.
Conclusion:
The scientific mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha has been established and alternate methods have been proposed.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.109545
PMCID: PMC3667428  PMID: 23741157
Acorus calamus; β-asarone; Sodhana; Vacha
11.  Anguli Parimana in Ayurveda and its association with adiposity and diabetes 
Background:
Recent studies have shown the association of disproportionate body size measurements with noncommunicable diseases like diabetes. This concept is described in Ayurveda (1500 BC), which uses Anguli Parimana (the breadth of one's own finger as 1 unit) to measure the body proportions. Excessive tallness or shortness (deviation from the reference value of Anguli Parimana) indicated deranged meda dhaatu (mainly adipose tissue). Deranged meda dhatu was associated with Prameha (diabetes).
Objectives:
To find association of Anguli Parimana with modern parameters of adiposity and diabetes.
Materials and Methods:
We studied 192 village residents representing the whole population (94 men and 98 women) to measure height, arm span, facial structures and limbs and expressed them in Anguli pariman (ratio of each measure as: Length or height of the body part [cm]/anguli, i.e. average finger breadth [cm]). The Anguli measurements were associated with body mass index, body fat percentage by DEXA, glucose and fasting insulin levels.
Results:
The volunteers were adults between 20 and 40 years age. Their mean fasting and 2 h plasma glucose concentrations were 91.6 mg% and 102.8 mg%, respectively. Of all, only 6 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance, while 3 were diabetic (WHO 1999). When compared with reference Anguli measurements mentioned by Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, the participants had smaller height, facial structures, and lower limbs. Those, who had proportionately smaller facial, neck and limb structures, had higher obesity, adiposity, plasma glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]-R) indicating higher metabolic risk. In contrast, those who had proportionately larger forehead and face had higher beta cell function measured as HOMA-B indicating lower risk for diabetes (r = 0.20 both P < 0.05 all, adjusted for age and gender).
Conclusion:
Compared with ancient Indian Anguli reference, our subjects were proportionately smaller in most of the measurements except fingers and upper arm. Relative smallness of body parts was predictive of increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.140482
PMCID: PMC4204289  PMID: 25336850
Adiposity; Anguli Pariman; Ayurved; body proportion; insulin resistance in Indians
12.  A Perspective on Forage Production in Canada 
Over the past decade, the cattle industry has experienced practically a full circle. With the promising beef prices in the early 1970s, with the glut of grain and a generous assist from government incentive programs, the forage acreage and cattle population have increased at a record rate. By 1974, the tide began to turn — grain prices went up sharply and beef prices became sluggish — and by 1976 a major crisis faced the producers. The cattle industry which had been developing on a cheap grain economy was now obliged to rely more on forage for its survival. Unfortunately, the forage was not existent and the only salvation of the industry was the gift of Providence — weather patterns that provided ample moisture conditions and above normal forage crops, the utilization of cereals and the intervention of government cow-calf support programs.
Over the past year, the cycle was completed and record beef prices again prevail. The barley bins are full again and the cattlemen are gearing up for a few fat years. Demands for forage seed are brisk and the seeding down of forage acreage is bound to increase substantially over the next few years. And with this increase, cattle population expansion is bound to follow: how much expansion can the economy support? The production cost factors will determine the extent, but one can almost be certain that any expansion will either be modest or of short duration. At least, it should be.
If the cattle industry is to establish solid foundations, it cannot be dependent upon the instability of a grain surplus-shortage position. With the present resources and the potential for developing it in direct competition with other crops, one can only expect a small and steady expansion over a long time span. One must agree with the range researchers and specialists of the Canada Research Stations at Lethbridge and Swift Current that pasture and range will continue to be the limiting factors of cattle expansion as they have been for the past 50 years. It is interesting to note that in the Prairie Provinces at least, the number of livestock raised each year has not changed since 1930 although cattle have largely replaced the horses.
It is easy to speculate on paper that Canada can double in the next 20 years its forage and cattle production on its large expanses of land on the fringes of the agriculturally settled areas. It is true that these lands, while marginal for cash crops, could produce excellent forage. But at what cost? And what kind of pasture could we grow on them?
It is easy to speculate that our livestock geneticists can breed a ruminant-type animal that will feed on poplar saplings and poplar leaves, or develop a new breed of cattle with buffalo vigor that will thrive in the extreme north. But looking at the musk-ox experience in the Northwest Territories and the history of the Wood Buffalo National Park leaves little room for optimism.
The present generation is not likely to see in its lifetime the cattle population go beyond the 20 million mark. We can look, however, with good assurance on the present cattle numbers remaining stable and can look forward to gradual increase brought about by normal improvement in both forage and cattle management.
Hopefully, both the cattle producer and the veterinarian will be able to reap the benefits of this most important segment of Canada's agricultural industry.
PMCID: PMC1789688  PMID: 7363269
13.  Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India 
People in Indian region often apply Shankhpushpi and other Sanskrit-based common name to Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Canscora decussata, and Clitorea ternatea. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal plant. Before the establishment of British rule, like the other books, ayurvedic treatises were also hand written. This might be one of the reasons due to which ayurveda could not stand parallel to the western medicine and an ambiguity is reflected in the interpretation of names and description of drugs found in the books like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The most widespread application of Shankhpushpi is for mental problems, but they have been considered for an array of other human maladies. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of four ethanobotanicals of Shankhpushpi. A comparative morphoanatomy of the root, stem, and leaves has been studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. Various physicochemical, morphological, histological parameters, comparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatogram of methanolic extract presented in this communication may serve the purpose of standard parameters to establish the authenticity of commercialized varieties and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from the other species. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines.
doi:10.4103/0110-5558.76437
PMCID: PMC3255406  PMID: 22247878
Ethanobotanicals; HPLC; HPTLC; physiochemical; Shankhpushpi
14.  Whole Grain, Bran, and Germ Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study and Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(8):e261.
Background
Control of body weight by balancing energy intake and energy expenditure is of major importance for the prevention of type 2 diabetes, but the role of specific dietary factors in the etiology of type 2 diabetes is less well established. We evaluated intakes of whole grain, bran, and germ in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in prospective cohort studies.
Methods and Findings
We followed 161,737 US women of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHSs) I and II, without history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. The age at baseline was 37–65 y for NHSI and 26–46 y for NHSII. Dietary intakes and potential confounders were assessed with regularly administered questionnaires. We documented 6,486 cases of type 2 diabetes during 12–18 y of follow-up. Other prospective cohort studies on whole grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes were identified in searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE up to January 2007, and data were independently extracted by two reviewers. The median whole grain intake in the lowest and highest quintile of intake was, respectively, 3.7 and 31.2 g/d for NHSI and 6.2 and 39.9 g/d for NHSII. After adjustment for potential confounders, the relative risks (RRs) for the highest as compared with the lowest quintile of whole grain intake was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.69) for NHSI and 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.81) for NHSII (both: p-value, test for trend <0.001). After further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), these RRs were 0.75 (95% CI 0.68–0.83; p-value, test for trend <0.001) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.72–1.02; p-value, test for trend 0.03) respectively. Associations for bran intake were similar to those for total whole grain intake, whereas no significant association was observed for germ intake after adjustment for bran. Based on pooled data for six cohort studies including 286,125 participants and 10,944 cases of type 2 diabetes, a two-serving-per-day increment in whole grain consumption was associated with a 21% (95% CI 13%–28%) decrease in risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders and BMI.
Conclusions
Whole grain intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, and this association is stronger for bran than for germ. Findings from prospective cohort studies consistently support increasing whole grain consumption for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Jeroen de Munter and colleagues found that, in women in the US Nurses' Health Studies, whole grain intake was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. The association was stronger for bran than for germ.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (also sometimes called adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes) is increasing worldwide and is the most common form of diabetes. It puts people at risk of poor health and death by increasing their risk of heart disease and stroke, and a range of other conditions including blindness, kidney disease, and ulcers. It has long been recognized that there is a link between diet and developing type 2 diabetes, because people who are overweight (because the amount of energy in their diet is greater than the energy they use up) run a greater risk of getting type 2 diabetes. However, it has not been clear which particular nutrients or foods might increase the risk or might give protection.
Cereals—such as rice, wheat, corn (maize), etc.—make up a major part of most people's diets. During the refining of cereal grains, much of the outer part of the grain (kernel) are usually removed. Foods are described as “whole grain” if all components of the kernel (the bran, germ, and endosperm) are still present in their natural proportions. There is good evidence that consumption of whole grains may reduce the risk of several diseases, including various types of cancer, heart attacks, and strokes. Some evidence also suggests that eating a diet rich in whole grains might help protect against diabetes, but this has not been firmly established.
Why Was This Study Done?
The authors of this study wanted to find out how much whole grain was eaten by a large number of people over several years and to record how many of these people developed type 2 diabetes. If these two things were closely associated it would provide more evidence to support the idea that whole grain consumption helps protect against type 2 diabetes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers drew on information recorded in a very large and continuing study in the US, the Nurses' Health Study, which began in 1976, when over 100,000 female registered US nurses completed and returned a mailed questionnaire to assess their health and lifestyle. More nurses were added in 1989. It is an example of what is known as a “cohort study.” Every two years, questionnaires have been mailed to the nurses. Questions asked include the nurses' age, weight, their diet, whether they smoke, their use of oral contraception; and their personal history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The researchers calculated each nurse's whole grain intake in grams per day. They found that by 2004 about 6,500 of them had developed type 2 diabetes. From an analysis of the data it was clear that the greater the consumption of whole grains the lower the risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
An additional part of the study was that the researchers searched the medical literature for other cohort studies that examined whole grain intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes. (This type of research is called a “systematic review,” and it requires that researchers define clearly in advance the kind of studies they are looking for and how they will analyze the data.) They found five such studies. They added together the results of all the studies, including their own. This gave a total of nearly 11,000 cases of type 2 diabetes, out of around 286,000 people. From their analysis they calculated that a two-serving-per-day increment in whole grain consumption was associated with a 21% decrease in risk of type 2 diabetes.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Scientists say that association can never prove causation. (That would require a different sort of study called a trial, where two similar groups of people would be given either a diet high in whole grains or one that was low.) Nevertheless, the research does strongly suggest that a healthy diet that reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes should include the consumption of several servings of whole grains daily. The authors do point out that people who choose to eat a lot of whole grains also tend to have a healthy lifestyle in other respects, and that it was hard to calculate intake accurately. However, they do not consider that these limitations to their study would have affected the overall result too seriously.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040261.
Good introductory information about diabetes (type 1 and type 2) may be found on the Web sites of the National Diabetes Clearing House (US) and Diabetes UK
More detailed information is available on Medline Plus, a Web site that brings together authoritative information from several US government agencies and health-related organizations
Wikipedia has an entry on whole grain (Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
The Nurses' Health Study has a Web site
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040261
PMCID: PMC1952203  PMID: 17760498
15.  Cyperus rotundus, a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum: Studies on the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution) 
In the absence of a desired first choice medicinal herb, classical Ayurveda recommends use of a functionally similar substitute. Post 16th century Ayurvedic texts and lexicons give specific examples of possible substitutes. Here we report a preliminary study of one such Ayurvedic substitution pair: Musta (Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperaceae), a common weed, for the rare Himalayan species, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle; Ranunculaceae). The study's strategy was to use modern phytochemical and pharmacological methods to test the two herbs for biochemical and metabolic similarities and differences, and literary studies to compare their Ayurvedic properties, a novel trans-disciplinary approach. No previous scientific paper has compared the two herbs’ bioactivities or chemical profiles. Despite being taxonomically unrelated, the first choice, but relatively unavailable (Abhava) plant, A. heterophyllum, and its substitute (Pratinidhi) C. rotundus, are not only similar in Ayurvedic pharmacology (Dravyaguna) profile, but also in phytochemical and anti-diarrheal properties. These observations indicate that Ayurveda may attach more importance to pharmacological properties of raw drugs than to their botanical classification. Further research into the nature of raw drugs named could open up new areas of medicinal plant classification, linking chemistry and bioactivity. Understanding the logic behind the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution) could lead to new methods of identifying legitimate drug alternatives, and help solve industry's problems of crude drug shortage.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.59825
PMCID: PMC3149390  PMID: 21829299
Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya; Ayurveda; anti-diarrheal; drug substitution
16.  An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy 
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60240-9
PMCID: PMC3868798  PMID: 25182446
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy; Pharmacognosy; Microscopy; Macroscopy; Phytochemistry; Pharmacology
17.  Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2012;6(11):61-67.
Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.95886
PMCID: PMC3358970  PMID: 22654406
Cucurbitacin; diabetes; hepatoprotective; Trichosanthes dioica
18.  An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal 
Background
Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal.
Methods
Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references.
Results
During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use.
Conclusions
The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-19
PMCID: PMC3473258  PMID: 22591592
Ethnobotany; Medicinal plants; Traditional healers; Tharu; Magar; Terai forest; Nepal
19.  A critical review on two types of Laghupanchamula 
Ayu  2012;33(3):343-347.
A group of five roots of small plants i.e., Shalaparni, Prshniparni, Brhati, Kantakari and Gokshura or Eranda is known as Laghupanchamula under Mishraka Varga (group of drugs). It is used as such or with Mahat Panchamula i.e., Bilva, Gambhari, Shyonaka, Agnimantha and Patala, constituting Dashamula, a well recognized and popular Ayurvedic preparation or as an ingredient of different dosage forms. Classical texts of Ayurveda differs regarding components of this Mishraka Varga. Four out of five drugs of Laghupanchamula are similar in all the Ayurvedic texts, but either Gokshura or Eranda is considered as the fifth drug. So a comphrenesive review of Veda, Samhita Grantha, Cikitsa Grantha and Nighantus, with regards to synonyms, contents, Guna- Karma, origin of variation in contents and possible thought behind two kinds of Laghupanchamula, to throw light for rational use of either Eranda or Gokshura under Laghupanchamula was conducted. It was observed that both the traditions were in practice however Acharya Kashyapa and Ravigupta were in view of Eranda as a fifth drug of Laghupanchamula where as Acharya Charaka, Sushruta, Vagabhatta, Yogaratnakara and Chakradatta are in favour of Gokshura. Infact, the variation in content depends on the need i.e Dosha, Dushya and Vyadhi.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108820
PMCID: PMC3665092  PMID: 23723639
Brihatpanchamula; Eranda; Gokshura; Laghupanchamula
20.  Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District) 
Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae).
In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-6-22
PMCID: PMC2930631  PMID: 20712897
21.  Impact of pesticides on soil microbiological parameters and possible bioremediation strategies 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2008;48(1):114-127.
Intensive agriculture is spectacularly successful since last couple of decades due to the inputs viz; fertilizers and pesticides along with high yielding varieties. The mandate for agriculture development was to feed and adequate nutrition supply to the expanding population by side the agriculture would be entering to into new area of commercial and export orientation. The attention of public health and proper utilization natural resources are also the main issues related with agriculture development. Concern for pesticide contamination in the environment in the current context of pesticide use has assumed great importance [1]. The fate of the pesticides in the soil environment in respect of pest control efficacy, non-target organism exposure and offsite mobility has been given due consideration [2]. Kinetics and pathways of degradation depend on abiotic and biotic factors [6], which are specific to a particular pesticide and therefore find preference. Adverse effect of pesticidal chemicals on soil microorganisms [3], may affect soil fertility [4] becomes a foreign chemicals major issue. Soil microorganisms show an early warning about soil disturbances by foreign chemicals than any other parameters.
But the fate and behavior of these chemicals in soil ecosystem is very important since they are degraded by various factors and have the potential to be in the soil, water etc. So it is indispensable to monitor the persistence, degradation of pesticides in soil and is also necessary to study the effect of pesticide on the soil quality or soil health by in depth studies on soil microbial activity.
The removal of metabolites or degraded products should be removed from soil and it has now a day’s primary concern to the environmentalist. Toxicity or the contamination of pesticides can be reduced by the bioremediation process which involves the uses of microbes or plants. Either they degrade or use the pesticides by various co metabolic processes.
doi:10.1007/s12088-008-0011-8
PMCID: PMC3450207  PMID: 23100705
Pesticide; Degradation; Soil Microbial Biomass-C; Soil respiration; FDA; Bioremediation
22.  Urban cultivation in allotments maintains soil qualities adversely affected by conventional agriculture 
The Journal of Applied Ecology  2014;51(4):880-889.
Modern agriculture, in seeking to maximize yields to meet growing global food demand, has caused loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and compaction, impairing critical regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which humans also depend. Own-growing makes an important contribution to food security in urban areas globally, but its effects on soil qualities that underpin ecosystem service provision are currently unknown. We compared the main indicators of soil quality; SOC storage, total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and bulk density (BD) in urban allotments to soils from the surrounding agricultural region, and between the allotments and other urban greenspaces in a typical UK city. A questionnaire was used to investigate allotment management practices that influence soil properties. Allotment soils had 32% higher SOC concentrations and 36% higher C : N ratios than pastures and arable fields and 25% higher TN and 10% lower BD than arable soils. There was no significant difference between SOC concentration in allotments and urban non-domestic greenspaces, but it was higher in domestic gardens beneath woody vegetation. Allotment soil C : N ratio exceeded that in non-domestic greenspaces, but was lower than that in garden soil. Three-quarters of surveyed allotment plot holders added manure, 95% composted biomass on-site, and many added organic-based fertilizers and commercial composts. This may explain the maintenance of SOC, C : N ratios, TN and low BD, which are positively associated with soil functioning. Synthesis and applications. Maintenance and protection of the quality of our soil resource is essential for sustainable food production and for regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which we depend. Our study establishes, for the first time, that small-scale urban food production can occur without the penalty of soil degradation seen in conventional agriculture, and maintains the high soil quality seen in urban greenspaces. Given the involvement of over 800 million people in urban agriculture globally, and its important contribution to food security, our findings suggest that to better protect soil functions, local, national and international urban planning and policy making should promote more urban own-growing in preference to further intensification of conventional agriculture to meet increasing food demand.
doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12254
PMCID: PMC4301088  PMID: 25641978
ecosystem services; food security; greenspace; grow your own; organic carbon; sustainable agriculture
23.  New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam 
Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.133424
PMCID: PMC4065466  PMID: 24959414
Fumariaceae; homaira; homoiridolide; kshetra; phenolic ester glycoside; pitpapra
24.  Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana 
Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60134-3
PMCID: PMC3703563  PMID: 23905027
Biodiversity; Khagendra Mani Darpana; Toxicology
25.  PA02.06. Tracking the transitions in Guggulu Kalpana : An extensive review through Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S51.
Purpose:
Guggulu Kalpana enjoys a coveted position in the arena of Ayurvedic therapeutics. Guggulu Kalpana is widely used in Charak Samhita & Sushruta Samhita and its notable collection is described in Ashtanga Sangraha. Out of laghu trayi, Sharangadhara Samhita has described Guggulu kalpas at length. Though its present form is closely related to Guti Vati Kalpana, it has not been the case always. Present study was attempted to track these transitions in Guggulu Kalpana during period of Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi and propose the importance of this journey in the view of current Ayurvedic pharmaceutics and therapeutics.
Method:
A comprehensive review of Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi was done. Opinions of their critics as well as contemporaries were also taken into consideration. These views were collated on the basis of current trends and researches in Guggulu Kalpana.
Result:
Amongst other categories, main usage of Guggulu Kalpana was seen in form of Kwatha and Guti Vati Kalpana. Though used in great deal, Brihat Trayi doesn’t describe Guggulu in every respect. Different point of view regarding preparation of Guggulu Kalpana was observed in all these treatises. Various functional limitations and constant improvisations seemed to have shaped the Guggulu Kalpana in its today's form.
Conclusion:
Current status of Ayurvedic pharmaceutics in general and Guggulu Kalpana in particular, is greatly influenced by Sharangadhara Samhita. It mainly shows use of Guggulu in GutiVati form. The Brihat Trayi treatises, however display its use in Conjunction of Kwatha Kalpana chiefly. This paradigm shift in the pharmaceutics of Guggulu Kalpana highlights the buoyant and pliant nature of Ayurveda. The difference in choice of kalpana is explained on the basis of soluble alkaloid content and insoluble resinous gum content of Guggulu. Thus, this study is helpful to understand the progression of Ayurvedic therapeutics and prospective avenues for its advancement.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123867
PMCID: PMC4147523

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