In the present scenario, the available editions of Charaka Samhita contain eight Sthanas only. Charaka Samhita does not contain Uttara-Tantra like Sushruta Samhita and Samhitas of Vagbhata. On contrary, in the 12th chapter of Siddhi Sthana, Charaka has mentioned about Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. So, it is essential to emphasize on this issue, which was not explained in length by commentators of Charaka Samhita. Many controversies raised on the existence and recognition of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. On the other hand, some scholars who belong to a later period have been mentioned certain references in their work, which are claimed to be from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. After a thorough study and scanning of available literature, it is concluded that, Charaka Uttara-Tantra was existing up to the time of Nishchalakara (13th century AD). Nishchalakara has quoted a number of references in Ratnaprabha, which are from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. Furthermore, there is a need to discuss about the existence of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita by further more detailed study and scanning of literatures of Ayurveda and allied literatures.
Chakrapanidatta; Charaka Samhita; Nishchalakara; Ratnaprabha; Tika; Uttara Tantra
Not a single drug in Ayurveda has been termed as non-medicinal. This means every Dravya has medicinal value in this world. Jangam dravya is an animal sourced medicine. In samhita Jangam Dravya are described first. So as per Krama Varnan Vichar, Jangam Dravyas are significant in this type. In Ayurvedic literature there is more literature on Audbhid & Parthiva Dravyas. I Total available nighantu: more than 25. Total available Rasa Grantha: about 145. There is no one Grantha on Jangam Dravya which describes their whole information. Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Gross description is available in Samhitas. But they aren’t in format. They are not compiled according to their Guna Karma, Upayogitwa, Vyadhiharatwa, and Kalpa etc. Their use in Chikitsa is minimal as their ready references are not available, though very much effective. So due to sheer need of compilation of these references this topic was selected for study. The basic need for study of Jangam Dravya is to prepare its whole DATABASE. So through this study Database of Jangam Dravya can be available like Jangam Dravya.
Selection of topic this is a fundamental & literary study, Selection of material, Selection of Database software & font, Collection of data & preparation of Master Chart, Preparation of Database, Interpretation & summarization of data.
So in this paper, we are going to focus on literature availability of jangam dravya with the help of modern technique like Microsoft Excel. And also how we can prepare and use the categorical interpretation of jangam dravya with help of database
Jangam Dravyas are described in Ayurvedic literature in different views and in different branches. Importances of these dravyas are the main key point of this study.
History of medicine is a fascinating subject as it is a saga of man's struggle against disease. As the civilization advances and as the disease pattern changes, the medical science also changes. Ayurveda is the system of medicine that evolved in India with a rationale logical foundation and it has survived as a distinct entity from remote antiquity to the present day. The fundamentals on which the Ayurvedic system is based are essentially true for all times and do not change from are to age. These are based on human actors, on intrinsic causes. The origin of Ayurveda is attributed to Atharva Veda where mention is made several diseases with their treatments. Later, from the 6th Century BC to 7th Century AD there was systematic development of the science and it is called Samhita period, when a number of classical works were produced by several authors and during this period there is evidence of organized medical care.
Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.
Biodiversity; Khagendra Mani Darpana; Toxicology
The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.
History; India; urology
Prameha (Diabetes) which has been a global problem is well described in the ancient Indian classics life the Vedas and the Ayurvedic works which ensued the Vedic period. In the present work, the authors have tried to focus the narrations on pramehas in Vedic literature with special reference to the “Kauchika Soothra” of Atharva Veda. A new hypothesis comparing the actions of pittatejas which is set free by the pitta dharakala with the actions of the hormones like insulin and glucagon is also discussed. The aetiopathogenesis of pramehas as described by the Ayurvedic authors with a glance to the therapeutic measures is also included in the study
People in Indian region often apply Shankhpushpi and other Sanskrit-based common name to Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Canscora decussata, and Clitorea ternatea. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal plant. Before the establishment of British rule, like the other books, ayurvedic treatises were also hand written. This might be one of the reasons due to which ayurveda could not stand parallel to the western medicine and an ambiguity is reflected in the interpretation of names and description of drugs found in the books like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The most widespread application of Shankhpushpi is for mental problems, but they have been considered for an array of other human maladies. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of four ethanobotanicals of Shankhpushpi. A comparative morphoanatomy of the root, stem, and leaves has been studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. Various physicochemical, morphological, histological parameters, comparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatogram of methanolic extract presented in this communication may serve the purpose of standard parameters to establish the authenticity of commercialized varieties and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from the other species. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines.
Ethanobotanicals; HPLC; HPTLC; physiochemical; Shankhpushpi
The Ayurvedic system of medicine has stood the test of time for four millennia or more. The ancient seers found that drugs of different origin (herbal, metal or animal) in addition to codes of conduct and dietary regulations are suitable tools to maintain health in healthy and eradicating diseases in diseased. Use of metallic preparations in healthcare is a unique feature in this system. Processed metals including Mercury, Gold, Silver, Lead, Zinc, Copper etc. were used very frequently by seers of the Indian tradition in different disease conditions with great authority. It is generally claimed, that these metals are detoxified during the highly complex manufacturing processes described in Ayurvedic, especially Rasashastra texts. Charaka Samhita, one of the scheduled books of Ayurveda also holds ample of references regarding the use of metals for different purposes, which are summarized in the current paper.
Ayurveda; Charaka Samhita; lead; mercury; metals
AGNIHOTRA is a simple vedic ritual of lightening a pyramid of fire in a small copper pot and giving offering of Ghee & Rice on this fire at the time of sunset and sunrise with enchanting of two mantras. It is reported to enhance the state of tranquility of mind and is reported to be of benefit to those addicted to various types of intoxicants. We used Agnihotra in a young smack addict who was poorly motivated and resisted all efforts to help him even when he got over the physical withdrawal features. The results were encouraging. Over a period of 4 weeks, we found him to be a totally changed man who could go back to his work without any drugs. Follow up for more than a year, revealed no recurrence and positive achievements in his work performance. The paper presents practice of Agnihotra, also known as homa therapy, and discusses its role in drug addiction.
Calamus (Acorus calamus Linn., Araceae) rhizome synonymously called sweet flag or Vacha is an aromatic herb indigenous to Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It has been used by the Ayurvedic practitioners since time immemorial for diseases ranging from weakness of memory to being used as an anthelminthic. Reports of its use have been found in books like Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, etc., The major constituent of the oil of Vacha is a phenyl propanoid called β-asarone, which is reported to show carcinogenic properties. Due to the toxic effects of β-asarone, sodhana prakriya (detoxification process) has been prescribed for Vacha before its inclusion in the Ayurvedic medicines. Shodhanaprakriya (S. prakriya) of Vacha has been mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts.
This study was undertaken with an aim to find out the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha and also to suggest an alternate method for the conventional one.
Materials and Methods:
The conventional method was studied in the laboratory and equivalent alternate methods were designed based on the mechanism involved. Vacha samples were subjected to the conventional method as well as the alternate methods and the content of β-asarone in the different samples was monitored using Gas Chromatography technique.
Various alternate methods have been devised based on the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya which have given results comparable with those of the conventional method.
The scientific mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha has been established and alternate methods have been proposed.
Acorus calamus; β-asarone; Sodhana; Vacha
Ayurveda, which is considered as the Panchamaveda, can be counted as the science of life existing since time immemorial. The wise and experienced authors of the Ayurvedic classics have expressed in some references that, they have only given the guidelines on the subjects to the readers. The readers are to expand the same according to their need and intelligence. There is much confusion of the Ayurvedic students and also of the practitioners and Teachers on the availability of the answers of a number of questions. Among many of such questions in the minds the authors raised a question i.e. is there any description of the signs of death/near death in the Ayurvedic classics as in the Modern texts?
To solve the question the Ayurvedic Samhitas especially Charaka Samhita and Susruta Samhita were searched thoroughly. After the thorough search of the two Samhitas it was observed that, the signs and symptoms mentioned under the heading “Maranalingani” in Charak Samhita Chikitsasthana 23rd chapter and “Asadhya Bisapidita Lakshanani” in Susruta Samhita Kalpasthana 3rd chapter resembles closely with the signs of death/near death mentioned in the modern classics, specially perikh's Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology.
From the comparative study of the above mentioned descriptions it was observed that, the signs and symptoms described by Charaka and Susruta are not insufficient for a physician to give death declaration. The mentioned signs and symptoms can be used as a tool to confirm death/near death of an individual.
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
Polyhedral formulations based on Rasayana therapy described in Charaka Samhita showed remarkable improvement in quality of life of various cancer patients who have been found to be refractory or poor responders to modern chemotherapy and radiation treatment. One of the most recent novel herbomineral preparation, Las01 prepared absolutely as per the instruction given in the ancient Ayurvedic literature has been found to be effective as a potent anticancer drug in the human cell lines, the MCF-7 and Hela cancer cell lines. This novel preparation of Las01 is also found to be devoid of toxicity both in animals as well as in human subjects, which is the main drawback of chemotherapeutic agents used in modern system of medicine. Our results warrant multicentric clinical trials on a large scale which seems to be a future promising drug to cure incurables cancer patients.
The antiquity of achievements of Hindus in the field of Mental health is explained. The chief points discussed in this article are: (1) The exact sense in which the school of ancient Indian Medicine (Ayurveda) is to be understood. (2) The interpretation of some of the fundamental philosophical issues governing the laws of mental sciences and (3) The relevance of such laws to modern scientific world. However, the present article limits its scope to Charaka Samhita- the most fundamental book on Ayurveda only.
Field survey was conducted in rural areas of Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh including Ramnagar, Manduadih and surrounding areas to identify and collect information on undocumented medicinal plants (Anukta Dravya) by direct interaction with folklore people through field survey and indirect means by means of comprehensive survey of available literature. Local names of undocumented medicinal plants along with other relevant information were collected, after recording local names of medicinal plants, their botanical identification was done by comprehensive survey of literature, and the plants were identified according to Bentham & Hooker's system of classification using local floristic works. Expert opinion of plant taxonomists was also sought for cross checking and confirmation on identity. The freshly collected specimens were photographed for visual identification of the species. After identification, nomenclature of 10 Anukta Dravya was done as per the criteria of nomenclature mentioned in Nighantus.
Undocumented medicinal plants; Anukta Dravya; Botanical identification; nomenclature
Ṛgveda is the oldest religious book of the Aryans. It picturises the early lives of the Aryans. We get mention of various diseases in this Veda. Skin - both in health and diseases had caught attention of the Vedic sages. Skin was not merely an organ of attraction and look but its colour was important socially. Mentions of various diseases like leprosy, guinea worm, jaundice etc., are interesting. Mention of different disorders of the nails and hair are also there, though in a very primitive and mystic form. Management strategy was consisted of herbs, amulates, chanting of mantras, touching the body, uses of water and sunrays etc. This may be presumed that this Veda founded the base for the Āyurveda of the later period.
Veda; Ṛgveda Saṃhiṭa; skin diseases
Vatastheela is a disease of Mutravahasrotasa, one among the 12 types of Mutraghata disorders elaborated by Sushruta in his seminal work, the Sushruta Samhita. Vatastheela, as described in Ayurveda, closely resembles benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) of modern medicine in its signs and symptoms. It is a senile disorder and chiefly affects individuals above the age of 40 years. The symptoms are those of bladder outflow obstruction, with increased frequency of micturition, dribbling, hesitancy, and the features of chronic urinary retention. Surgical management has been accepted as the standard management but is associated with many disadvantages as well as complications, which may not be acceptable at this age. Conservative management with modern medicines is also not free from side effects. So, in this age-group, there is a need for much safer alternative method of management. In this regard, many works have been carried out and shown that the Ayurvedic approach, using natural medicines, is a far better approach. We carried out a comparative study of Mahayavanala Roma Kshara (MRK) and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita (DGG), which are the compounds prescribed for Mutraghata in Ayurvedic literature. The patients were randomly selected from the OPD and IPD of IPGT and RA hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, and divided into two groups. In first group, one (500 mg) capsule of MRK was given twice a day with lukewarm water for 45 days; in second group, 10 gm of DGG was given orally twice a day with lukewarm water for 45 days. DGG showed significantly greater relief in the subjective parameters as per International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) than MRK. However, reduction in the size of the prostate and in the volume of the post-void residual urine was found much better in the MRK group.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita; Kshara; Mahayavanala Roma Mutraghata; Mutravahasrotasa; Vatastheela
This review focuses on a comprehensive and sophisticated system of natural medicine that appears to hold promise for prevention of chronic diseases and disabilities, loss of independence, suffering, and enormous health care costs often associated with ‘usual’ aging. We first discuss the negative impact of usual aging on our society, with its rapidly-growing percentage of elderly, and the challenge of how to promote “successful aging”. Emphasis is given to the research literature suggesting that Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM) is particularly effective in retarding ‘usual’ aging. Proposed mechanisms for the anti-aging effects of MVM include reductions in physiological and psychological stress and enhancement of homeostatic and self-repair processes. We conclude that this set of innovative strategies may help society achieve recommended health objectives for disease prevention and health promotion in older adults, and that wide-spread implementation of this self-empowering, prevention-oriented approach in the elderly is feasible, cost-effective and timely.
usual aging; successful aging; Vedic Medicine; health promotion; disease prevention
A Pilonidal sinus (PNS) occurs in the cleavage between the buttocks (natal cleft) and can cause discomfort, embarrassment and absence from work. It is more common in men (as they have more hair) than in women. The most commonly used surgical techniques for this disorder include excision and primary closure and excision with reconstructive flap. However, the risk of recurrence or of developing an infection of the wound after the operation is high. Also, the patient requires longer hospitalization, and the procedure is expensive. There is a similarity between Shalyaj Nadi Vran described in Sushruta Samhita and Pilonidal sinus. Sushruta has advocated a minimally invasive para-surgical treatment, viz., Kshar Sutra procedure, for nadi vran. Hence this therapy was tried in Pilonidal sinus, and is described in this case report. Kshar Sutra treatment not only minimizes complications and recurrence but also enables the patient to resume work quicker and with less discomfort, impact upon body image and self-esteem as well as reduced cost.
Pilonidal sinus; Shalya Tantra; Nadi Vrana chikitsa; Kshar Sutra
The study aims to observe the effects of Amrutapatolaksheeravasti Dravya (medicated milk enema) in values of biophysical-chemical parameters. The classical Vasti (enema) can be analyzed with the help of biophysical parameters like pH, temperature, and specific gravity (Sp.gr.). Three hundred samples of classically prepared Amrutapatolaksheeravasti were analyzed for pH, temp., Sp.gr. with the calibrated instruments before each Vastikarma. The clinical symptoms based on proper Vastikarma and its complication were recorded and assessed. The parameters - pH, temperature, Sp.gr., and viscosity have shown a significant to highly significant value of correlation coefficient “r” and ‘t’ in relation to successful Vastikarma and retention time of Vasti Dravya respectively. pH <5.8 and temperature >39°C led to anal irritation in Ksheera Vasti. Similarly, pH >6.1 and temperature <32°C resulted in flatulence. The effects of pH and Sp.gr. are due to temperature as both are temperature-based variables.
Biophysical parameters; standardization; Vastikarma
Sandhana kalpana (biomedical fermented formulations) are one of the best dosage forms of Ayurveda in practice since thousands of years. In order to prepare these medicaments, certain sets of conditions are prearranged, which lead to fermentation. Thus, products bequeath with self-generated ethyl alcohol, which potentiate these preparations (Asava–Arishta), pharmaceutically and therapeutically. Commonly, medicinal and commercial components of these formulations are prompting many researchers to contribute in manufacturing, quality control, safety, and efficacy of these formulations. To cope up with this, literature related to Asava–Arishta has been surveyed from the Vedic period to recent publications of Government of India, ie, Ayurvedic Formulary of India, and presented briefly here. In this review paper, we have discussed pioneering facts such as nature and amount of carbohydrate, type of containers, optimum temperature, variety and relevance of initiator of fermentation, manufacturing, regulatory rules, and business aspects of Asava-Arishta. After going through this basic information, any academician or researcher may show a way to further strengthen this dosage form.
Asava; Arishta; ethyl alcohol; fermentation; quality control; Sandhana kalpana
The ancient Vedic texts Provides us with valuable information and guide lines on various multi-faced aspects of human life. The present discussion is limited to the medical treatment and medicinal charms mentioned in the Atharvanic literature with specific consideration to Kausikasutra for better understanding of the rites and actions mentioned in Atharvanaveda.
Couching for cataract is one of the most ancient surgical procedures. Maharshi Sushruta, an ancient Indian surgeon, first described the procedure around 600 BC in Sushruta Samhita. The procedure, also known as jin pi shu in Mandarin, was introduced to China via the Silk Road during the late West Han Dynasty (206 BC - 9 AD), and it spread throughout China during the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD). As the procedure was combined with the Chinese concept of acupuncture, jin pi shu was integrated into Chinese medical practice until the founding of the Republic of China in 1911. The government of the Republic of China considered jin pi shu to be unscientific. In 1949, the Communists established the People’s Republic of China. Jin pi shu was revitalized by Chairman Mao (1893-1976), who thought that traditional Chinese medicine, including jin pi shu, was a great treasure. After his death and the opening of China to the external world, many Chinese ophthalmologists pointed out that jin pi shu has relatively high complications and a low success rate, compared to various modern techniques for cataract surgery. This procedure is gradually fading away in China. The use of jin pi shu reflects the history, culture, and political transformation of China.
In original Ayurvedic classics viz. in Caraka Samhita & Susruta Samhita, thousands of Medicinal plants and their parts are prescribed in various diseases. Medicinal Plants are not available at one place, rather found at different part of our country i.e. Vatsanabha, Jatamansa, Devadaru, in northen India (Himalaya region); Agara, Paga, in Eastern India; Samudraphala, Kupalu, in southern India and Guggalu, Asvagandha, in western India. These are a few examples; many more can be seen in Ayurvedic texts. It is worthy to mention here that seed, root, root bark, stem, stem bark, tuber, rhizome, leaf, flower, exudate, latex, fruit etc. are the various plant parts which are used to prepare medicine in Ayurveda. Further, those parts are not available in one season and also at one Geographical region of our country. To a physician or to a Ayurvedic scholar, it is not possible to see all plants as they are grown in different regions. For proper knowledge they are required to be kept at one place, where one can see and acquire practical knowledge. Thus Museum is the best place to keep them in best condition. Its also essential as per CCIM norms. So all about brief study of dravya guna museums importance, maintenance and related problems & solution is given.
Method of glycerin preservation is adopted 50% glycerin + 50% hot water mixed with 1 tab of aspirin and put the plant part for 15 days then dry and mount.
This type of preservation has long term stability without loosing there normal color elasticity and texture.
This is new and betters method for making herbarium preservation with lower cost for long time.
Soil compaction adversely influences most terrestrial ecosystem services on which humans depend. This global problem, affecting over 68 million ha of agricultural land alone, is a major driver of soil erosion, increases flood frequency and reduces groundwater recharge. Agricultural soil compaction has been intensively studied, but there are no systematic studies investigating the extent of compaction in urban ecosystems, despite the repercussions for ecosystem function. Urban areas are the fastest growing land-use type globally, and are often assumed to have highly compacted soils with compromised functionality. Here, we use bulk density (BD) measurements, taken to 14 cm depth at a citywide scale, to compare the extent of surface soil compaction between different urban greenspace classes and agricultural soils. Urban soils had a wider BD range than agricultural soils, but were significantly less compacted, with 12 per cent lower mean BD to 7 cm depth. Urban soil BD was lowest under trees and shrubs and highest under herbaceous vegetation (e.g. lawns). BD values were similar to many semi-natural habitats, particularly those underlying woody vegetation. These results establish that, across a typical UK city, urban soils were in better physical condition than agricultural soils and can contribute to ecosystem service provision.
soil compaction; urbanization; greenspace; ecosystem services; urban ecology; land-use change