To evaluate the comparative efficacy of Ayurvedic formulation a Rasanjana Madhu (RM) eye drops and Honey Rose (HR) water eye drops in Netra Abhishyanda in mucopurulent conjunctivitis, the current study is planned. Total of 35 patients attending the outpatient department of Shalakya Tantra at R. G. G. Postgraduate Ayurvedic College, Paprola, Distt. Kangra, Himachal Pradesh with characteristic features of Netra Abhishyanda were selected for the present study. Twenty patients were given trial drug, i.e., RM eye drops, while 15 patients were given HR eye drops. Random sampling technique was adopted for the present study. The duration of the treatment was 7 days with 1 week follow-up. Patients receiving the trial group demonstrated reduction of redness, burning sensation, lacrimation, photophobia, foreign body sensation, discharge, and congestion, which were statistically significant with 93% patients cured or markedly improved category. Signs and symptoms stated above were also statistically reduced with HR eye drops, probably because of well-documented hygroscopic and bacteriocidal properties of honey. Based on the study, it can be concluded that, RM eye drops are very effective in the management of Netra Abhishyanda viz. Infective conjunctivitis.
Abhishyanda; infective conjunctivitis; Rasanjana Madhu eye drops; rose water eye drops
Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 – 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda.
Ashchyotana; eye drops; simple allergic conjunctivitis; Vataja Abhishyanda
A 63-year-old man with unremarkable previous ocular history presented with bilateral symmetrical corneal ulceration along with mucopurulent conjunctivitis and dry eye 10 days after the fourth dose of intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation for treatment of bladder carcinoma. Slit lamp examination revealed thinning of the cornea at the base of the ulcer in both eyes. Conjunctival swab and scraping from ulcer sent for Gram and acid fast bacilli stain and culture were negative. On the basis of history, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations, we diagnosed it as bilateral immune mediated sterile corneal ulceration along with mucopurulent conjunctivitis and dry eye. He was treated with topical antibiotics, cycloplegics, cyclosporine, lubricant gel, and bandage contact lens. There was progressive stromal melting, descemetocele formation, and perforation in the inferior part of cornea in both the eyes. He was treated with pulse steroid and paramedian tarsorraphy in both eyes. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. We report this case to highlight this rare complication of BCG therapy, in order to improve their management protocol in patients with similar clinical profile. We could not find a similar case after thorough PubMed search.
Bacille Calmette-Guerin; bladder carcinoma; corneal ulcer; descemetocele
Ocular myasis and associated mucopurulent conjunctivitis in human eyes is a rare phenomenon. However, if the sheep bot fly abounds and poor hygienic environment prevails, the Oestrous ovis deposits its larvae in the conjunctival eye sac of human. The present paper reports a case study of ocular myasis among sheep farm workers caused by Oestrous ovis. The ocular myasis and the associated mucopurulent conjunctivitis are occupationally acquired in these cases. This study also suggests the treatment of patients and the recovery of the larvae.
Mucopurulent conjuctivitis; occupational ocular myasis; oestrus ovis
In a series of more than 200 rabbits in which generalized lesions were observed following local inoculation with Treponema pallidum, there were a number of animals in which characteristic lesions were noted upon mucous membranes or along mucocutaneous borders. These lesions were distributed with about equal frequency between the nose or nasolacrimal system and the eyelids on the one hand, and the genital and anal regions on the other. The lips and buccal mucosa appeared to be less subject to localized infections unless the papillomatous growths noted on the lips and under side of the tongue should prove to be in some way connected with such an infection. In many instances, the local reaction was initiated by an acute inflammatory process, and in the case of nasal and genital infections, a definite exudate was formed. The succeeding stages of the reaction consisted in an infiltration of the parts involved, together with a variable degree of proliferation of fixed tissue cells, leading eventually to necrosis and ulceration. The resulting lesions differed according to their location and the character of the reaction in the individual case. Localized infections of the nose occurred in several forms, first, as a rather diffuse affection of the nasal mucosa characterized by the presence of a mucopurulent exudate, second, as a more or less circumscribed process of infiltration with an especial predilection for the region of the anterior nares, and third, as a granulomatous process involving the alæ in particular. Involvement of the nasal mucosa was very commonly associated with lacrimal overflow and with some degree of conjunctivitis. The lesions of the eyelids were usually small, elevated papules or lesions of an ulcerative character some of which were surrounded by a zone of infiltration. In exceptional instances, large granulomatous lesions occurred along the margins of the lower lids. Infection of the penis and sheath gave rise to conditions analogous to those of the nose. In one group of animals, there was a diffuse affection characterized by redness and swelling of the parts with a mucopurulent exudate, in another there were circumscribed or diffuse infiltrations, while in a third the lesions formed were indurated granulomatous masses. Secondary necrosis with erosion or ulceration was a common feature of all these conditions. Localized infections in the region of the anus differed from those in other localities chiefly in the absence of an exudative group of affections and in the frequency with which lesions of a papillomatous type occurred. Lesions of mucous membranes and mucocutaneous borders developed at periods of time varying from a few weeks to several months after inoculation. Most of them were rather enduring and in several instances persisted in an active condition for considerably more than a year.
According to Sushruta, disease in which plaque formed on teeth and hardened by the action of deranged Vayu, lies in a crystallized form at root of teeth is called as Dantasharkara. According to Vagbhata, accumulation of dirt on teeth by not cleaning them daily or of Kapha dehydrated by Vata adhering to the teeth, becoming hard and emits bad odor is known as Dantasharkara (Tartar). Tartar manifests as a deposit of inorganic salts composed primarily of calcium carbonate and phosphate mixed with food debris, bacteria and desquamated epithelial cells which reduce the quality of whiteness and strength of the teeth. Teeth loss is also not uncommon in tartar sufferers. Such deposits tend to destroy the healthy growth and function of teeth. It should be removed in such a way as not to hurt the roots of the teeth and then parts should be rubbed (Pratisarana) with Laksha Churna and Madhu. In trial group, management of tartar is attempted by local rubbing of Laksha Churna with Madhu on the surface of teeth and gingiva. Regeneration, repair and new attachment are the aspects of periodontal healing that are achieved by gingival physiotherapy on scaling wound. Pratisarana of Laksha Churna with Madhu is easy to apply, cost effective and free from side effects in comparison to systemic use of modern drugs.
Dantasharkara; Laksha Churna; Madhu; Pratisarana; Vranaropaka
The smooth and glowing complexion of face increases the beauty of a person and also gives tremendous self-confidence. Vyanga is a disease which decreases the glowing complexion of face and affects the skin. Even though it is considered as kshudra roga (minor disease), it has got a major importance as a cosmetic problem in the society. It is characterized by the presence of painless and bluish-black patches on face. Treating this condition has become a problem, since safe drugs are not available for long term therapy. So the study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Arjunatwak lepa with Madhu and Panchanimba churna internally.
For clinical study, 30 clinically diagnosed patients were registered and divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. In Group-A patients were administered with Arjunatwak lepa with Madhu for 21days. In Group-B patients were administered with both Arjunatwak lepa with Madhu and Panchanimba churna internally for 21days
In Group A, out of 15 patients, 09 patients were cured completely, which was statistically significant at the level of p<0.01. 4 patients have shown marked improvement, 2 patients showed slight improvement. In Group B, out of 15 patients, 12 patients had attained normal skin color, which was statistically highly significant at the level of p<0.001, 1 patient had mild improvement, 2 patients have moderate improvement. Statistically significant result was obtained in symptom bluish-black patch over the face. The clinical study has shown that combined therapy in Group-B gives better results than topical treatment.
From the observations and results of this study, it can be concluded that combined therapy using Arjunatwak lepa along with Panchanimba churna have provided better results in depigmentation of the patches seen in Vyanga roga than local therapy.
The elucidation of the routes of transmission of a pathogen is crucial for the prevention of infectious diseases caused by bacteria that are not a resident in human tissue. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of suture-related conjunctivitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa for which we identified the transmission route using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
A 38-year-old man, who had undergone surgery for glaucoma 2 years ago previously, presented with redness, discomfort, and mucopurulent discharge in the right eye. A 9–0 silk suture had been left on the conjunctiva. A strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from a culture obtained from the suture, and the patient was therefore diagnosed with suture-related conjunctivitis caused by P. aeruginosa. The conjunctivitis was cured by the application of an antimicrobial ophthalmic solution and removal of the suture. We used PFGE to survey of the indoor and outdoor environments around the patient’s house and office in order to elucidate the route of transmission of the infection. Three strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from the patient’s indoor environment, and the isolate obtained from the patient’s bathroom was identical to that from the suture.
The case highlights the fact that an indoor environmental strain of P. aeruginosa can cause ocular infections.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Conjunctivitis; Bathroom; Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis
Endophthalmitis due to endogenous or exogenous bacteria is a rare infection of the eye. We report a case of endophthalmitis following Listeria monocytogenes keratoconjunctivitis in a 27-year-old healthy white male presenting with hand motion visual acuity, right eye mucopurulent conjunctivitis, elevated intraocular pressure, and pigmented hypopyon 6 months post-keratectomy. The conjunctivitis was unresponsive to a 5-day course of topical tobramycin eye drops, and the patient developed keratitis with pain that progressed to endophthalmitis after 21 days. Diagnostic B-scan revealed vitreous exudates. Intraocular fluid specimen showed Gram-positive organisms and the aqueous culture grew penicillin-/aminoglycoside-sensitive L. monocytogenes. The patient was given intravitreal and systemic vancomycin and ceftazidime. The eye was unresponsive to intravenous penicillin and gentamicin; the anterior chamber progressively flattened and developed phthisis bulbi. L. monocytogenes keratoconjunctivitis may lead to bacterial endophthalmitis. Prompt culture and early antibiotic therapy are recommended.
conjunctivitis; L. monocytogenes; endophthalmitis
The purpose of this study is to describe a case series of keratoconjunctivitis caused by a retained bindi (dot) in six children who presented to a tertiary eye care facility in Southern India.
Patients and Methods:
Over a period of 11 years (January 2000 and January 2012), six children (all female, ranging in age from 6 months to 3 years) were diagnosed with ocular manifestations subsequent to a retained bindi.
All patients presented with redness, photophobia, extensive lacrimation, and blepharospasm. Two patients presented with mucopurulent conjunctivitis, three patients with suppurative keratitis and one patient presented with corneal epithelial defect. After removal of the foreign body the response to topical antibiotics was good in five of six cases, whereas one patient required therapeutic keratoplasty.
Young children presenting with unilateral keratitis and conjunctivitis should alert the clinician to the possibility of a retained foreign body in the eye.
Bindi; keratitis; keratoconjunctivitis
A case of human fowl plague keratoconjunctivitis occurred after accidental laboratory exposure. The conjunctivitis was characterised by follicle formation and a mucopurulent discharge, and ran a self-limiting course over two weeks. The keratitis was of an unusual type and consisted of small intraepithelial opacities, which appeared after one week and resolved completely over the next three weeks. The infection, confirmed by viral culture, was produced by Dutch strain (Hav 1 Neq 1) of fowl plague virus.
Twenty-four cases of an acute ophthalmia of cattle have been observed. The infection is characterized by photophobia, severe congestion of the vessels of the eyeball, conjunctivitis, congestion and edema of the membrana nictitans, edema of the eyelids, accompanied by a thick, yellowish white mucus or mucopurulent exudate. In certain cases corneal ulcers and extensive corneal opacities developed. From all cases a characteristic diplobacillus was obtained. The organism was usually observed in the exudate in large numbers. The morphology, the hemolytic properties, and the proteolytic activities readily assist in its identification. Instillation of a few drops of bouillon suspensions of pure cultures beneath the eyelids of normal cattle gave rise to characteristic inflammations. The organism is not pathogenic for laboratory animals.
Application of Madhu (honey) is one among the Shashthi Upakrama (sixty treatment modalities) described by Sushruta. Clinical observation has shown its effectiveness in treatment of Dushta Vrana (chronic wounds). We report a case of Dushta Vrana on the anterior aspect of the right leg that was treated successfully with local application of Madhu and Neem (Azadirachata indica) bark decoction.
Dushta Vrana; Madhu; Neem bark; Shashthi Upakrama
Dushta Pratishyaya is the chronic stage of Pratishyaya, which occurs due to neglect or improper management of the disease Pratishyaya. In modern science, chronic sinusitis can be correlated with Dushta Pratishyaya on the basis of the signs, symptoms, complications, and prognosis. Changing lifestyles, rapid urbanization, and the increase in cases of antibiotic resistance are responsible for the rise in the prevalence of sinusitis. In the present clinical study, 37 patients were registered and were randomly divided into three groups: A, B, and C; of the 37 patients, 31 completed the full course of treatment. In group A, Trayodashanga Kwatha with Madhu was given orally; in group B, Pradhamana Nasya with Trikatu + Triphala Churna was administered; and in group C (combined group), Pradhamana Nasya was administered initially, followed by oral Trayodashanga Kwatha with Madhu. In group A, complete relief was observed in 10% of the patients; in group B, marked improvement was observed in 81.82% of patients; and in group C, marked relief was observed in 60% of patients. In comparison to other groups (Group A and Group B), Group C showed percentage wise better results in most of the symptoms.
Dushta Pratishyaya; chronic sinusitis; Trayodashanga Kwatha; Pradhamana Nasya
Vrana (wound) and its sequels play a major concern in the field of surgery as Vrana Ropana (wound healing) requires uneventful healing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in physical and morphological properties due to topical application of Madhu (honey) on fresh traumatic wounds or cutaneous wounds. Ten patients of wounds of either sex were randomly selected. Site of the wound, shape, size, floor, and margin were recorded on day 0 and observed on day 7, 15, 20, and till the end of the healing for the progression of granulation, scar type, shape, size, and clinical symptoms. There was significant improvement in the healing process as Madhu possesses antibacterial, wound cleansing, wound healing properties and showed beneficiary effects.
Madhu; Vrana; Vrana Ropana; Vrana shodhana
Mucociliary clearance depends on the interaction between cilia and mucus; it is delayed in the presence of purulent secretions. Nasal mucociliary clearance was examined by the saccharin method and nasal ciliary beat frequency by a photometric technique. Four groups were studied: normal controls, patients with bronchiectasis without nasal symptoms, patients with chronic mucopurulent sinusitis alone, and patients with chronic mucopurulent sinusitis and bronchiectasis. Nasal mucociliary clearance was prolonged in infected patients. Cilia obtained from the site of purulent secretions were found to beat more slowly in vitro (mucopurulent sinusitis 12.1 Hz, mucopurulent sinusitis and bronchiectasis 11.6 Hz), than those obtained from normal controls (14.3 Hz) and from patients with bronchiectasis alone (13.6 Hz). The cause of the ciliary slowing seemed most likely to be the release of host factors during the inflammatory response, rather than the particular organism isolated. Ciliary slowing may contribute to the observed delay of mucociliary clearance in conditions in which purulent secretions are present.
OBJECTIVE: To test the recommendation from the Canadian guidelines for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) per high-power field of a Gram-stained endocervical smear or, when Gram staining is not possible, the presence of endocervical discharge and one of edema, erythema or induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix can be considered diagnostic for chlamydial cervicitis. METHODS: A total of 596 consecutive women attending 2 family planning clinics for routine care underwent vaginal speculum examination and were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMN counts from Gram-stained endocervical smears and the presence or absence of putative indicators of chlamydial infection were recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of chlamydial cervicitis was 6.2% (37/596), and no women tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis based on the guidelines criteria of mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more PMN per high-power microscopic field had a sensitivity and specificity of 18.9% and 97.0% respectively, a positive predictive value of 29.2% and a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 6.2 (p = 0.003). Presumptive diagnosis based on endocervical discharge with edema, erythema or induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix had a sensitivity and specificity of 43.2% and 80.0% respectively, a positive predictive value of 12.5% and a positive LR of 2.2 (p = 0.002). In the presence of bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis, the LR for the criteria of mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more PMN per high-power field was 5.4 (p = 0.04), whereas the LR was 4.3 (p = 0.10) if bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis were absent. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, the practice of making a presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis on the basis of the criteria given in the Canadian STD guidelines was not supported.
The effect of three amoxycillin treatment regimens on purulent secretions of patients with bronchiectasis has been studied. On the basis of information recorded on a diary card the patients were divided into three groups, according to the usual nature of their secretions: seven who produced mucoid sputum, which occasionally became purulent; seven whose secretions were usually mucopurulent but occasionally purulent; and 19 whose secretions were persistently purulent. Treatment with capsules of amoxycillin in a dosage of 250 mg three times a day resulted in clearance of purulent secretions in patients of the mucoid group when they were treated for a clinical exacerbation. The sputum remained clear in these patients for long periods before a further exacerbation (median 6 1/2, range 1-11 months). The mucopurulent-purulent group also responded to this dosage but sputum purulence returned more rapidly (median 9, range 4-31 days). Only three of the 19 (17%) patients with persistently purulent secretions showed a macroscopic response to this dosage, whereas seven (60%) of 12 patients who received the higher dosage (3 g sachets twice a day) responded. Among the failures, some responded to nebulised amoxycillin, suggesting that higher levels of amoxycillin in secretions are required in these patients. Macroscopic clearance of purulent secretions was finally achieved in most of the patients studied. The response was not always predictable from the results of sputum culture. Clearance of secretions by antibiotics was also identified by the patients, using a diary card score. Improvements in well being and in symptoms were noticed even in the group who usually produced mucopurulent and purulent secretions even though they appeared to be clinically stable before treatment.
Of 297 women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who were examined for the presence of mucopurulent cervicitis, 96 (32%) satisfied the diagnostic criteria. Mucopurulent cervicitis was strongly associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It was also associated with bacterial vaginosis, the use of oral contraceptives, and sexual contact with men who had non-gonococcal urethritis. Conversely, the presence of opaque cervical secretions did not show these associations, and the results indicated no difference in genital infections in women with clear cervical secretions whether or not more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes per field (at a magnification of x 1000) were present. The findings support the suggestion that mucopurulent cervicitis is a definite clinical entity that requires investigation and treatment.
Madhu Pai and colleagues introduce the BCG World Atlas, an open access, user
friendly Web site for TB clinicians to discern global BCG vaccination policies
and practices and improve the care of their patients.
Traditional Medicine has its own importance for the treatment of various medical and surgical diseases irrespective of tremendous development of modern medicine. There are number of diseases were after repeated surgery. Fistula-in ano is one such condition which is prone to recurrence even after repeated surgery and can be effectively treated by Ayurvedic medicines. An extensive work has been done on the treatment of Bhagandara by Kshara sutra exploring various aspects of the problem and finding our the solution to them1. the present study is related to similar type of medicated thread known as Aragvadadi Sutra which has been mentioned by sushruta in Bhagandara. It consists of Aragvadha (Cassia fistula), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Agaru (Aquilaria agalocha), Madhu (Honey) and Ghrita (Ghee). This is the first non-caustic thread being tried on different types of Bhagandara. Especially it is a painless thread, non-irritant and very useful in sensitive patients like children, females and elders.
Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) is the best therapy for the elimination of vitiated Kapha Dosha. In the present clinical practice Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum) is mainly used for Vamana Karma. Apart from Madanaphala, five other drugs, and in total 355 formulations are described in Charaka Samhita; one of them is Krutavedhana (Luffa acutangula) kalpa (formulations). Krutavedhana is specially indicated in Gadha (compact) Dosha condition like Kushtha (skin diseases), Garavisha (slow poison), and so on, for Vamana Karma. The present study aimed to observe the effect on Vamana Karma and by that its effect on Ekakushtha (Psoriasis). Krutavedhana Beeja Churna (seed powder) was given with Madhu (honey) and Saindhava (rock salt) as Vamana Yoga (emetic formulation), to compare it with Madanaphala Pippali Churna (seed powder). After the Sansarjana Krama (special dietetic schedule), Panchatikta Ghrita (medicated ghee) was given as Shamana Sneha (pacifying oleation). An average dose of Krutavedhana was 5.9 g. Krutavedhana could produce a good number of Vega (bouts), Pittanta Lakshana (bile coming out at the end of Vamana), and Pravara Shuddhi (maximum cleansing) in a majority of patients. Madanaphala is the best among all Vamaka (emetic) drugs, but Krutavedhana showed a similar to higher effect on Vamana Karma in terms of Antiki, Maniki, Vaigiki, and Laingiki
Shuddhi (cleansing criteria). Vamana Karma by Krutavedhana showed better relief in Matsyashakalopamam (silvery scale), Kandu (itching), and Rukshataa (dryness), while Madanapahala showed better relief in Krishnaruna Varna (erythema). After completion of the Shamana (pacifying) treatment, both the groups showed nearly the same effect on Asvedanam (lack of perspiration), Matsyashakalopamam, Kandu, Rukshataa, Krishnaruna Varna, and Mahaavaastu (bigger lesion).
Ekakushtha; Krutavedhana; Madanaphala; Panchatikta Ghrita; Psoriasis; Vamana Karma
Microalbuminuria is the strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Microalbuminuria is also characterized by increased prevalence of arterial hypertension, proliferative retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. The study was planned to evaluate the effect of Gokshura-Punarnava Basti in the management of microalbuminuria in DM (Madhumeha). Eligible diabetic patients with urine albumin excretion between 30 and 300 mg in 24 h were randomly divided into two groups. Asthapana Basti (decoction enema) of Gokshura and Punarnava Kwatha (decoction), Kalka (paste), Taila (medicated oil), Madhu (honey), and Saindhava (rock salt) for 6 consecutive days and Anuvasana (unctuous enema) of Gokshura-Punarnava Taila on 1st and 8th day by traditional Basti Putaka method was given in study group. Tablet Enalapril 5 mg, twice daily for 30 days was given to the patients in control group. The primary outcome measures were percentage change in the presenting complaints of diabetes, urine microalbumin, Blood Sugar Level (BSL), and Blood Pressure (BP). Enalapril showed 33.33% improvement, where as Gokshura-Punarnava Basti showed 79.59% improvement in the presenting complaints of diabetes, urine microalbumin, BSL and BP. Gokshura-Punarnava Basti has shown superior results in the management of microalbuminuria in DM as compared to control drug.
Basti; diabetes mellitus; Gokshura; Madhumeha; microalbuminuria; Punarnava1
Objectives: Every expectant mother should receive a comprehensive oral health education & risk assessment. Numerous reports have shown association between oral diseases and preterm, low birth weight and gestational diabetes. The purpose of this study is to understand the attitude, knowledge regarding prenatal and perinatal oral health care among obstetricians and knowledge, attitude & practice skills of dental professionals.
Materials and Methods: The study involved a survey of 36 each gynaecologists and general dental practitioners. The pre tested questionnaire on oral health for expectant mothers was used to collect data related. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using frequency of responses and standard deviation.
Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that 98% of general dental practitioners felt that delay in dental treatment effect both the mother and the child. 85.7% (p>0.05) of gynaecologist never examined the oral cavity of the patient during routine checkup.
Conclusion: The findings of this survey with dentists and gynaecologist showed that dental management during pregnancy still presents some deviations from scientific literature recommendations, indicating the need to update these health care professionals in order to establish guidelines for prenatal dental care.
How to cite this article: Patil S, Thakur R, Madhu K, Paul S T, Gadicherla P. Oral Health Coalition: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice Behaviours among Gynaecologists and Dental Practitioners. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):8-15.
pregnancy; knowledge; barrier; general dental practitioners; oral health
Background: Non vital bleaching is simple, conservative procedure for esthetic correction of discolored endodontically treated teeth. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the amount of peroxide leakage from four different bleaching agents i.e superoxol, sodium perborate, combination of superoxol & sodium perborate and carbamide peroxide during intracoronal bleaching, as the safe and effective bleaching is the need of the hour.
Materials & Methods: 50 extracted maxillary centrals were selected for the study. Following standardized protocol access, cleaning and shaping by step back technique and obturation was done using guttapercha and AH plus sealer. Access was sealed with Cavit G and outer root surface was coated with wax and nail varnish. The teeth were separated into crown and root and the root portion was placed in plastic tube containing distilled water for 7days.After incubation, 3mm of gutta-percha was removed below CEJ and 2mm glass ionomer cement base was placed. Grouped into five categories based on the bleaching agent placed in pulp chamber as –group1 (control)-distilled water, group 2-sodium perborate with distilled water , group 3- 30% hydrogen peroxide ,group 4-mixture of sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide and group 5-10% carbamide peroxide gel. Peroxide leakage was measured after 24hrs using ferrothiocyanate method and optical density using spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted using ANOVA and multiple comparisons within the groups was done using BONFERRONI method (Post-Hoc tests).
Results: The results showed highest peroxide penetration from 30% hydrogen peroxide followed by mixture of sodium perborate with 30% hydrogen peroxide, mixture of sodium perborate with distilled water and least penetration from 10% carbamide peroxide gel. The results were statistically significant.
Conclusion: Radicular peroxide leakage in 10% carbamide peroxide was significantly lower than the other tested bleaching agents making it a very safe alternative for intracoronal bleaching.
How to cite this article: Madhu KS, Hegde S, Mathew S, Lata DA, Bhandi SH, Shruthi N. Comparison of Radicular Peroxide Leakage from four Commonly used Bleaching agents following Intracoronal Bleaching in Endodontically treated teeth - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):49-55.
Intracoronal Bleaching; Hydrogen Peroxide; Sodium Perborate; Carbamide Peroxide