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1.  Pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma 
Ayu  2010;31(3):387-390.
In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like “pakwa jambu phala varna,” varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.77157
PMCID: PMC3221077  PMID: 22131745
Ayurveda; electric muffle furnace; Lauha; marana; puta; shodhana
2.  Critical review on the pharmaceutical vistas of Lauha Kalpas (Iron formulations) 
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.93944
PMCID: PMC3326790  PMID: 22529676
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
3.  STANDARDIZATION AND BIOAVAILABILILTY OF AYURVEDIC DRUG LAUHA BHASMA PART-1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL EVALUATION 
Ancient Science of Life  1995;15(2):129-136.
Lauha Bhasma, an ayurvedic drug, is widely used in iron deficiency anaemia, this ancient drug is claimed to be better absorbed gastrointestinally, and is also claimed to be devoid of the usual side effects associated with administration of the allopathic iron preparations, Physical and chemical methods of standardization required for any quality preparation, is not found in the ayurvedic and the modern literatures for Lauha Bhasma. Thus an approach has been made to standardize Lauha Bhasma. For the purpose of analysis, samples of all the three commonly available variants of Lauha Bhasma were considered. Qualitative analysis indicates the presence of iron both in the ferric and the ferrous forms, A simple spectrophotometric method has been used for simultaneous determination of ferric ferrous and the total iron content in a single aliquot.
PMCID: PMC3331203  PMID: 22556731
4.  A clinical study on Pandu Roga, iron deficiency anemia, with Trikatrayadi Lauha suspension in children 
Context:
Nutritional iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in India. The nearest correlation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) can be made with Pandu Roga in Ayurveda. As the IDA is a very common prevalent disease in the society and the side effects of oral allopathic iron preparations are very common, therefore to get a better alternative, an Ayurvedic herbomineral medicine, the Trikatrayadi Lauha, was subjected to a clinical trial in children suffering from IDA.
Aim:
Evaluation of safety and efficacy of the compound Trikatrayadi Lauha suspension in children with IDA.
Settings and Design:
Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted on 123 children of IDA for a period of 10 weeks. Clinical features and hematological parameters were documented before, during and after treatment.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Observations of the study were analyzed and findings were evaluated by using statistical methods (Student′s t test)
Results:
The present study shows that the trial drug Trikatrayadi Lauha suspension is effective to improve clinical features and hematological parameters significantly. The medicine is effective to increase the hemoglobin level 1.94 g/dL (8.52 -10.46 g/dL, P < 0.001) in 5 weeks and 3.33g/dL (8.52 -11.85g/dL, P < 0.001) in 10 weeks. No adverse effect of the trial drug was observed during the study.
Conclusions:
The results suggest that Trikatrayadi Lauha is significantly effective in the management of IDA in children.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.104446
PMCID: PMC3545243  PMID: 23326094
Anemia; hemoglobin; iron deficiency; Pandu Roga; serum ferritin
5.  Scientific evaluation of some Ayurvedic preparations for correction of iron deficiency and anemia 
A number of preparations are available in Ayurved for treatment of anemia and iron deficiency. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of some of them. Six most commonly used Ayurvedic iron containing preparations (Navayasa Curna, Punarnavadi Mandura, Dhatri Lauha, Pradarantaka Lauha, Sarva-Juara-Hara Lauha and Vrihat Yakrdari Lauha) were given in a dose of 250 mg b.d. for 30 days to six groups of iron deficient anemic patients; each group consisting of 20 patients. A control group was given Allopathic preparation—Irex-12, (containing—ferrous fumarate, vitamin C, folic acid and vitamin B12); 1 capsule daily for 30 days for comparison. All hematological and iron parameters were determined before and after completion of treatment. The results showed that there was statistically significant rise (p<0.001) in all of them—Hb, PCV, TRBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC and plasma iron, percent saturation and plasma ferritin. Total iron binding capacity decreased significantly (p<0.001). The response of most of Ayurvedic preparations was better than Allopathic preparation and there was no side effect as observed with iron salts The Hb regeneration rate was 0.10 g/dl/day for Allopathic preparation; while it was above this value for all Ayurvedic preparations exceptPradarantaka Lauha which was least effective.Sarva-Juara-Hara Lauha was the drug of choice as Hb regeneration with it was highest 0.16 g/dl/day. Upon analysis of Ayurvedic drugs, these results were found to be consistent and correlated with iron content of the preparation.
doi:10.1007/BF02913329
PMCID: PMC3453821  PMID: 23105698
Ayurvedic preparations; Iron deficiency; Anemia; Hematological parameters; Iron parameters
6.  Physicochemical characterization of Ayurvedic bhasma (Swarna makshika bhasma): An approach to standardization 
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS2, and SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.64409
PMCID: PMC2924988  PMID: 20814520
Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction
7.  Ancient concept of metal pharmacology based on Ayurvedic literature 
Ancient Science of Life  2010;29(4):1-6.
Metals have had a long history in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Mercury (Parada), gold (Swarna), silver (Rajata), copper (Tamra), iron (Lauha), tin (Vanga), lead (Naga), and zinc (Yasada) are used in therapeutics in an incinerated (Bhasma) form. The pharmacological actions, therapeutic indications, adverse effects and management of adverse effects of these metals are described and emphasis has been given to the proper preparation, rational dose and duration during clinical practice in the classics of Ayurveda. Most important observation is, there are no contraindications of these Bhasmas, indicating universal applicability to all age levels with suitable adjuvant, proper dose and duration.
PMCID: PMC3336294  PMID: 22557360
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Marana; Shodhana; Dosha
8.  Comparative study on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by two different methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):62-72.
Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva (bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-chemical properties.
PMCID: PMC3530270  PMID: 23284208
Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra; Traditional Puta; Kasisa Bhasma
9.  Evaluation of Lauha bhasma on classical analytical parameters – A pilot study 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;27(3):24-30.
Lauha Bhasma is the most widely used bhasma preparation in therapeutics, but till date the temperature pattern to prepare Lauha Bhasma in electric muffle furnace is not fixed. So in this pilot study an attempt has been made to confirm the appropriate temperature pattern to prepare Lauha Bhasma. And emphasis has been given to evaluate this prepared Lauha Bhasma on classical analytical parameter, which reflects the physical and chemical properties of the Bhasma.
PMCID: PMC3330859  PMID: 22557274
10.  PA01.62. Mukta-sukti bhasma; nectar for acid peptic disorders, w.s.r to its anti-ulcer activity - an experimental study 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S112.
Purpose:
Mukta Shukti (Pearl oyster shell); a sudha varga dravya, attains better therapeutic properties with proper sodhana and marana processes. It is indicated in Amlapitta, Parinamashoola and Annadravashoola. Acharya Susruta mentioned; Amla is the property of Vidagdha Pitta. The term Amlapitta may be correlated with Acid reflux syndrome which comprises of various types of Gastro esophageal reflux diseases like Gastritis, Peptic ulcer etc. A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, the beginning of the small intestine. A bacterium called Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcers. An attempt was made in this regard to establish standards to assure quality and to assess antiulcer activity of Mukta Sukti Bhasma.
Method:
Mukta sukti Bhasma prepared as per Rasatarangini and subjected to Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X ray diffraction (XRD). Anti ulcer activity of Mukta sukti Bhasma in Albino rats by Aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Sucralfate as standard group and normal food water as control group used for the comparison.
Result:
Mukta sukti Bhasma showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than control group. The alkaline pH and chemical components might have contributed by inhibiting secretions, neutralizing the acidity and reducing size of the ulcerative lesions. Presence of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Sodium (Na) and Zinc (Zn) were detected in raw Mukta sukti and Mukta sukti Bhasma. X ray diffraction shown face centered Cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal and monoclinic crystal structures.
Conclusion:
In aspirin induced model, the Mukta sukti Bhasma and standard group (Sucralfate) showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than control group (food water). The Mukta sukti Bhasma showed highly significant Anti ulcer activity than standard group (Sucralfate) when compared. This experimental study has given scientific evidence for the claim in the ancient text regarding the Anti ulcer property of Mukta sukti Bhasma which gives scope for conducting clinical study.
PMCID: PMC3800866
11.  Efficacy of Trikatrayadi Lauha in Panduroga with reference to Iron Deficiency Anemia 
Ayu  2012;33(1):62-67.
The common nutritional deficiency, iron deficiency, causes Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) throughout the world especially in the developing countries. In Ayurveda, different herbal, mineral or herbomineral drugs have been emphasized to combat anemia (Panduroga). Trikatrayadi Lauha and Fersolate-CM (a modern medicine taken as standard control) were administered to the patients to evaluate their role in Panduroga. A simple random sampling method was followed for the clinical study. The 56 iron deficiency anemic patients of both sexes and age group between 16 to 70 years divided into two groups – Group-A (n=34) and Group-C (n=22) were treated with Trikatrayadi lauha and Fersolate-CM, respectively. Both drugs provided significant effect on the signs and symptoms of Shrama (fatigue), Shwasa (dyspnea on exertion), Daurbalya (weakness), Pandu Varna (pallor/yellowish-whitish), Hridspandana (palpitation), Hatanala (diminished digestive capacity), Bhrama (giddiness), Aruchi (anorexia), Arohana Ayasa (exhaustion during climbing), Shiroruja (headache) and Shotha (edema). Trikatrayadi Lauha provided significant results on Hb gm%, RBC, PCV, MCV, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation and TIBC where as insignificant changes were found in MCH and MCHC. Fersolate-CM provided significant results on Hb gm%, RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation and TIBC whereas insignificant change was found in MCHC. Trikatrayadi Lauha showed significant results on Panduroga and Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA).
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100313
PMCID: PMC3456866  PMID: 23049186
Anemia; Fersolate-CM; iron deficiency anemia; Panduroga; Trikatrayadi Lauha
12.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Tamra Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(4):561-568.
Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper) is one of the main weapons in the archery of Ayurvedic practitioners. Though several methods of preparation of Tamra Bhasma (TB) are found in Rasashastra classics, several difficulties occur during the preparation of a good-quality Bhasma. In this study, TB was prepared and analyzed to develop the standard manufacturing procedure. Each unit operative procedure was considered as an independent processing and an attempt was made to validate each procedure. Wire used for the purpose of electrical earthing was taken for the preparation of Bhasma. Procedures of Shodhana, Marana, and Amritikarana were followed as per the classical references. Specific temperature pattern was adopted for Puta in the electrical muffle furnace. From 500 g of Tamra, 483.4 g of black colored TB was obtained after subjecting to three Putas. Final product was detected to be cupric sulfide in X-ray diffraction. In particle size distribution analysis 10% of the material was below the size of 2 μm, while in inductive coupled plasma - atomic absorption spectrometry 58.56 wt% copper and 22.48 wt% of sulfur were found present in the final product along with the elements such as arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and manganese in traces.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110528
PMCID: PMC3665197  PMID: 23723677
Bhasma; Puta; standard manufacturing procedure; Tamra; X-ray diffraction
13.  SAFETY AND TOXICITY PROFILE OF SOME METALLIC PREPARATIONS OF AYURVEDA 
Ancient Science of Life  2006;25(3-4):57-63.
Metals and minerals are used profusely in practice of Ayurveda after proper incineration by the name of Bhasma. Some metals and minerals have the potency to produce toxic effects in human being. In this paper safety and toxicity profiles of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper, Cu), Lauha Bhasma (incinerated iron, Fe), and Yashada Bhasma (incinerated Zinc, Zn) has been presented, which reveal no serious deleterious effects on body function as a whole.
PMCID: PMC3335224  PMID: 22557208
Toxicity; Metal; Ayurveda; Tamra (Copper); Lauha (Iron); Yashada (Zinc)
14.  A comparative study of Agni karma with Lauha, Tamra and Panchadhatu Shalakas in Gridhrasi (Sciatica) 
Ayu  2010;31(2):240-244.
Sushruta has mentioned different methods of management of diseases, such as Bheshaja karma, Kshara Karma, Agni karma, Shastrakarma and Raktamokshana. The approach of Agni karma has been mentioned in the context of diseases like Arsha, Arbuda, Bhagandar, Sira, Snayu, Asthi, Sandhigata Vata Vikaras and Gridhrasi. Gridhrasi is seen as a panic condition in the society as it is one of the burning problems, especially in the life of daily laborers. It is characterized by distinct pain starting from Sphik Pradesha (gluteal region) and goes down toward the Parshni Pratyanguli (foot region) of the affected side of leg. On the basis of symptomatology, Gridhrasi may be simulated with the disease sciatica in modern parlance. In modern medicine, the disease sciatica is managed only with potent analgesics or some sort of surgical interventions which have their own limitations and adverse effects, whereas in Ayurveda, various treatment modalities like Siravedha, Agni karma, Basti Chikitsa and palliative medicines are used successfully. Among these, Agni karma procedure seems to be more effective by providing timely relief. Shalakas for Agni karma, made up of different Dhatus like gold, silver, copper, iron, etc. for different stages of the disease conditions, have been proposed. In the present work, a comparative study of Agni karma by using iron, copper and previously studied Panchadhatu Shalaka in Gridhrashi has been conducted. A total of 22 patients were treated in three groups. Result of the entire study showed that Agni karma by Panchadhatu Shalaka provided better result in combating the symptoms, especially Ruka and Tandra, while Lauhadhatu Shalaka gave better results in combating symptoms of Spanadana and Gaurava. In the meantime, Tamradhatu Shalaka provided better effect in controlling symptoms like Toda, Stambha and Aruchi. Fifty percent patients in Panchadhatu Shalaka (Group A) were completely relieved. In Lauhadhatu Shalaka (Group B), the success rate was 00.00%, and in Tamradhatu Shalaka (Group C), the percentage of success rate was 14.28%. After analyzing the data, Tamradhatu Shalaka was found to be more effective than Lauha and Panchadhatu Shalakas.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.72408
PMCID: PMC3215372  PMID: 22131718
Agni karma; Gridhrasi; Panchadhatu Shalaka; Parshni Pratyanguli; Sciatica
15.  FURTHER STUDIES ON CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LAUHA BHASMA III 
Ancient Science of Life  1996;16(1):26-33.
Samples of marketed Lauha bhasma from different manufactures were evaluated chemically. Apart from the 81 -85% iron content, the 15-19% other constituents were determined therein. Ferrous ferric and total iron in a single aliquot were determined spectrophotometrically, Qualitative and chromatographic analysis indicate the presence of sodium, potassium, calcium copper and cobalt in the samples, silicious matter and traces of ascorbic acid were present while tannin was absent in Lauha bhasma . Quantitatively sodium and potassium were determined by flame spectrometry. Upon fractionation, water soluble and acid soluble contents were determined.
PMCID: PMC3331142  PMID: 22556767
16.  Physico-chemical analysis of a Herbo-mineral compound Mehamudgara vati – A pilot study 
Ayu  2011;32(4):572-575.
Efforts have been made to lay down analytical standards for Mehamudgara vati (MMV), which were not found reported till date. Weight variation showed that 90% tablets of MV manufactured in the Gujarat Ayurved University Pharmacy were within acceptable range (323 mg ± 10%), pH 4.58, and disintegration time 17 min, whereas hardness was 1.25 kg/cm2. Loss on drying was found to be 9.3% w/w, acid insoluble ash was 0.9 %w/w, water soluble extract was 24.06% w/w and methanol soluble extract 14.1% w/w. Determination of iron as Fe2O3 was done as Lauha bhasma being the major ingredient of MMV. The result showed that iron content was reduced in the formulation (28.67%) as compared to that in Lauha bhasma (61.19%). In TLC, 5 spots each at 254 nm and 366 nm were found.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96136
PMCID: PMC3361938  PMID: 22661857
Lauha-bhasma; Mehamudgara vati; standardization; thin layer chromatography
17.  Physicochemical characterization of an Iron based Indian traditional medicine: Mandura Bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):52-57.
Ayurveda is a unique system of medicine which uses metals and minerals in the form of bhasma (fine powder obtained through calcinations). Mandura is one of such mineral having various therapeutic uses. An effort has been made in the present study to characterize raw and processed Mandura using sophisticated analytical tools as a step forward to standardization. Mandura bhasma was prepared following references of Ayurvedic classics. To assure the quality of the prepared bhasma, Rasa Shastra quality control tests like rekhapurnatvam (particles enter into furrows of human hand), varitara (floating of product particles on water), irreversible etc., were used. Bhasma fulfilling these tests was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. This revealed that raw Mandura contained Fe2Si04, and Mandura bhasma contained Fe2O3 and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the grains in Mandura bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of sizes 200-300 nm as compared to the raw Mandura, which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of sizes 10-2 microns. It may be concluded that this conversion of raw Mandura, a complex compound, into a mixture of simple compounds having nano-sized particles is due to the particular process of calcination employed.
PMCID: PMC3530268  PMID: 23284206
Mandura bhasma; X-ray diffraction; Scanning electron microscopy
18.  Standardization of Gaja Puta and Ardha Gaja Puta in the preparation of Vanga Bhasma 
Ayu  2010;31(4):511-515.
The Vanga Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasmas. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Puta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vanga. The medicines, which are prepared from Gaja Puta, are said to be the best ones (Mahagunavidhayaka). Gaja Puta is commonly used in the preparation of almost all the Bhasmas. There are a few references found in classics regarding Ardhagaja Puta, but not any reference regarding its detail description, therefore, the effort was made to standardize both the Putas with regard to Vanga Bhasma. In the present study, Vanga Bhasma was prepared by Gaja Puta and Ardhagaja Puta. For Marana of Vanga, it was found that the Ardhagaja Puta is more convenient than Gaja Puta with respect to color and particle size analysis of Bhasma after Jarana procedure of Vanga.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82028
PMCID: PMC3202267  PMID: 22048550
Gaja Puta; Ardhagaja Puta; Shodhana; Jarana; Marana
19.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Rajata Bhasma 
Ayu  2011;32(4):566-571.
Rasa Shastra is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the processing of minerals and metals having therapeutic importance. Rajata comes under the group of metals having high therapeutic value. Minerals and metals are mostly used in the form of Bhasma. During the medieval period Rasacharyas extensively worked and developed a number of processing methods for a single drug. They all are standard manufacturing procedures (SMP) which ensure the quality, safety, efficacy and reproducibility of the product. Earlier Ayurvedic physicians were producing medicines by themselves according to their need. Now a day, due to commercialization of Ayurvedic medicines and ignorance of classical methods, quality of drugs has deteriorated. Presently, the demand of Ayurvedic drugs in the global market is increasing day by day. Hence it is the need of time to develop SMP for Ayurvedic products for global acceptability. This paper aims at providing SMP for the manufacture of Rajata Bhasma and also attempts to study the effect of Shodhana process on Rajata. Rajata was obtained from the local market of Varanasi. Rajata Bhasma was prepared and it was observed that during the preparation of Rajata Bhasma, use of Muffle Furnace instead of conventional Puta is more advantageous due to better temperature control. Use of mercury and sulphur together acts as best medium in the preparation of Rajata Bhasma.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96135
PMCID: PMC3361937  PMID: 22661856
Bhavana; Marana; Rajata; Rajata sindura; Shodhana
20.  Detection of Carbonaceous Material in Naga Bhasma 
Traditional medicines have maintained their popularity in all regions of the developing world and are being adopted increasingly by people worldwide. Indian traditional system of medicine Ayurveda make use of unique metallic-herbal preparations (called Bhasma) which involves different processing steps including repeated steps of calcination of metal in the presence of natural precursor (herbal juices, decoctions, and powders, etc). It has been recently established that Bhasma contains nano/sub-micron size particles and different nutrient elements. However, the role and the end product of the raw materials, especially the herbal parts, used during the synthesis of the drug (Bhasma) is one of the important but unanswered problems in such medicinal preparations. Present work on Naga Bhasma is an attempt to understand the role of natural precursors in detail. Our results on infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy along with thermal measurements identify the presence of carbonaceous material (hydrogenated amorphous carbon) in the drug along with other compounds. In addition, this work also suggests the science and mechanism behind such complex preparations which could help in standardization of such medicines.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.103858
PMCID: PMC3546339  PMID: 23326003
Bhasma; carbonaceous material; nanostructure; traditional medicines
21.  Study on Bhasma Kalpana with special reference to the preparation of Kasisa Bhasma 
Ayu  2011;32(4):554-559.
Bhasma means ash but according to Ayurveda, Bhasma means conversion of a metal into a form which is irreversible in the sense that one cannot derive the metal back from it again (Apunarbhava). It should be so light so that it must float on the surface of water after sprinkling, called Varitara. Its particle should be so small that it can enter in to the creases of fingers called Rekha-purnatva. The preparative procedure of Bhasma is a bit complicated. Many texts are available regarding the identification, acceptable qualities of metals and minerals, their purification, uses and method of preparation of their Bhasma. But in many texts, the method of Bhasma preparation of some metals and minerals is mentioned very briefly, i.e. their references are available in Sutrarupa. This leads to many practical difficulties in the preparation of Bhasma. Kasisa Bhasma is one of them. The present work was aimed to study the basic concept of Bhasma Kalpana by means preparing Kasisa Bhasma. This study suggests some modifications and ways for standardization of Bhasma procedure.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96133
PMCID: PMC3361935  PMID: 22661854
Bhasma; Kasisa Bhasma; Marana; stardard operative procedure
22.  The Impact of Bacterial Strain on the Products of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction 
Geochimica et cosmochimica acta  2010;74(2):574-583.
Three bacterial strains from the genus Shewanella were used to examine the influence of specific bacteria on the products of dissimilatory iron reduction. Strains CN32, MR-4 and W3-18-1 were incubated with HFO (hydrous ferric oxide) as the terminal electron acceptor and lactate as the organic carbon and energy source. Mineral products of iron reduction were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, coulometry and susceptometry. Under identical nutrient loadings, iron reduction rates for strains CN32 and W3-18-1 were similar, and about twice as fast as MR-4. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of mineralized end products (secondary minerals) indicated that different products were formed during experiments with similar reduction rates but different strains (CN32 and W3-18-1), and similar products were formed during experiments with different iron reduction rates and different strains (CN32 and MR-4). The major product of iron reduction by strains CN32 and MR-4 was magnetite, while for W3-18-1 it was a mixture of magnetite and iron carbonate hydroxide hydrate (green rust), a precursor to fougerite. Another notable difference was that strains CN32 and MR-4 converted all of the starting ferric iron material into magnetite, while W3-18-1 did not convert most of the Fe3+ into a recognizable crystalline material. Biofilm formation is more robust in W3-18-1 than in the other two strains used in this study. The differences in mineralization may be an indicator that EPS (or another cellular product from W3-18-1) may interfere with the crystallization of magnetite or facilitate formation of green rust. These results suggest that the relative abundance of mineral end products and the relative distribution of these products are strongly dependent on the bacterial species or strain catalyzing iron reduction.
doi:10.1016/j.gca.2009.10.039
PMCID: PMC2796802  PMID: 20161499
23.  Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine 
Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal's derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don’t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s). Particle size (1-2 μ) reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.126980
PMCID: PMC3960793  PMID: 24696811
Ayurveda; bhasma; marna; nano-particle; shodhna; standardization
24.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(1):136-142.
Shukti is an important component of Sudha Varga, which is considered as the latest class in the field of Rasa Shastra. Two types of Shukti have been mentioned in Rasa Shastra texts i.e. Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukti according to the availability. In present study, an attempt has been made to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma. Five batches of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma were prepared and standardization was attempted by maintaining batch manufacturing records of individual batches. During pharmaceutical procedures like Shodhana, Bhavana, Marana, etc. due care of temperature, its duration, percentage of weight gain or loss and the cost factor of the end product, etc. were considered. The average weight loss observed was 12.08 g i.e. 2.42% and 14.62 g i.e. 2.92% during Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukiti Shodhana respectively. Average weight loss found was 38.94 g i.e. 7.79% in Jala Shukti Bhasma while in Mukta Shukti Bhasma, it was 35.24 g i.e. 7.05%. At the end of the pharmaceutical procedure, it was found that Mukta Shukti Bhasma is 2.8 times costlier than Jala Shukti Bhasma.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100331
PMCID: PMC3456852  PMID: 23049199
Bhasma; Jala Shukti; Marana; Mukta Shukti; Shodhana
25.  Preparation and Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Kshiramandura 
Ancient Science of Life  2010;29(4):7-12.
Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000°c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO3 and 1.32% CaCO3.
PMCID: PMC3336292  PMID: 22557361
Mandura; Parinama shoola; Triphala Kvatha; Gaja puta; Kshira Mandura; Tridosa

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