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1.  Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant 
This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant) was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive—Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative—Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains—Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.82956
PMCID: PMC3217694  PMID: 22171301
Cassia fistula; in vitro antibacterial activity; antifungal activity; secondary metabolites
2.  In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn 
Ayu  2013;34(2):209-214.
The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119684
PMCID: PMC3821253  PMID: 24250133
Antioxidants; Aragwadha; Cassia fistula; free radical; phenols
3.  HPLC Quantitative Analysis of Rhein and Antidermatophytic Activity of Cassia fistula Pod Pulp Extracts of Various Storage Conditions 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:821295.
Cassia fistula is well known for its laxative and antifungal properties due to anthraquinone compounds in the pods. This study quantitatively analyzed rhein in the C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts kept under various storage conditions using HPLC. The antifungal activity of the extracts and their hydrolyzed mixture was also evaluated against dermatophytes. The contents of rhein in all stored decoction extracts remained more than 95% (95.69–100.66%) of the initial amount (0.0823 ± 0.001% w/w). There was no significant change of the extracts kept in glass vials and in aluminum foil bags. The decoction extract of C. fistula pod pulp and its hydrolyzed mixture containing anthraquinone aglycones were tested against clinical strains of dermatophytes by broth microdilution technique. The results revealed good chemical and antifungal stabilities against dermatophytes of C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts stored under various accelerated and real time storage conditions.
doi:10.1155/2013/821295
PMCID: PMC3792547  PMID: 24171175
4.  Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf 
Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.79814
PMCID: PMC3217677  PMID: 22171295
Cassia fistula; human pathogenic bacteria; minimum inhibitory concentration; Similipal Biosphere Reserve; TLC bioautography
5.  Study of the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn 
Introduction:
Nonsteroidal and steroidal drugs are generally used as a part of drug therapy in inflammation. However, these drugs have severe side-effects like nausea and vomiting. Therefore, there is a need to identify anti-inflammatory compounds that will be effective with a better safety profile. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn has many therapeutic uses mentioned in Ayurveda and therefore we aimed to study its anti-inflammatory activity both alone and in combination.
Materials and Methods:
The water extract of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and dried pulp of Cassia fistula Linn was prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts was investigated using the carragenan-induced paw edema model in rats individually and in two different combinations. ED50 of both the extracts singly and in combination were calculated by dose-response curves, and this information was then plotted on the isobologram. The interaction index of the extracts was also investigated to determine whether both the extracts in combination show synergistic or antagonistic or additive effects.
Results:
It was observed that extracts of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum showed more anti-inflammatory activity than dried fruits of Cassia fistula Linn. Both the extracts showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity at 500 mg/kg dose. Among the different dose combinations of both the extracts, the 1:1 combination at the 500 mg/kg dose showed maximum percentage inhibition of 75%, which was comparable with the positive control, diclofenac sodium, which showed 81% inhibition.
Conclusion:
As revealed by the isobolograms, both the combinations fell below the additivity line, which indicates synergistic interactions between Solanum xanthocarpum and Cassia fistula extracts. Interaction indices of both combinations were observed to be <1, which re-demonstrated the synergistic effects of the combination.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.72489
PMCID: PMC2996575  PMID: 21170209
Anti-inflammatory activity; Cassia fistula linn; isobolographic analysis; Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl
6.  Comparative antimicrobial activities of Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum 
Ancient Science of Life  2007;27(2):1-6.
The aqueous and successive extracts of the fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis and fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether,chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were prepared by successive solvent extraction method and aqueous extract by maceration process and screened for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative bacteria E.coli and fungal strains of Candida species by using agar cup plate method. The extracts showed different degree of activity against pathogenic microbes. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs Amoxicillin (10μg) and Amphotericin B(10μg). The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was found to be more effective than the leaf and stem extracts of Ocimum sanctum in inhibiting all the microbial strains.
PMCID: PMC3330847  PMID: 22557261
7.  Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats 
Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg).
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.119823
PMCID: PMC3831724  PMID: 24302797
Cassia fistula Linn; antidiabetic activity; biochemical analysis; alloxan
8.  Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity 
Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.
doi:10.3390/ijms12106385
PMCID: PMC3210984  PMID: 22072893
Tamarind; Tamarindus indica; extracts; antibacterial activity
9.  Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn 
Objective
To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
Methods
The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 µg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control.
Results
At a concentration of 400 µg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 µg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 µg/mL).
Conclusions
It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L).
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60090-7
PMCID: PMC3614197  PMID: 23569803
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); Antimicrobial activity; Rhizome; Antifungal activity; Phytochemicals; Disc diffusion method; Soluble fraction; Pathogenic bacteria
10.  Screening of selected single and polyherbal Ayurvedic medicines for Antibacterial and Antifungal activity 
Ancient Science of Life  2010;29(3):22-25.
The present study deals with antimicrobial activity of ayurvedic drugs containing single herb (Amalaki Choorna and Yastimadhu Choorna) and combination of herbs (DN-90 and Asanadi Kwatha Choorna). Disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial activity and antifungal activity was tested using Poison food technique. Absence of bacterial growth around the discs impregnated with the aqueous extracts of drugs and reduction of fungal growth in poisoned plates indicated antimicrobial activity. Further, the results of antibacterial activity of Amalaki choorna were comparable with standard drug Streptomycin. Asanadi Kwatha Choorna inhibited bacteria to more extent than Yastimadhu choorna and DN-90. Among fungi tested, more antifungal activity was observed against Mucor sp. The antimicrobial activity of drugs tested could be due to active principles present in them.
PMCID: PMC3336284  PMID: 22557355
Ayurvedic drugs; antimicrobial activity; inhibition zone; Disc diffusion method; Poison food technique
11.  Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts 
Ayu  2011;32(4):585-589.
Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96138
PMCID: PMC3361940  PMID: 22661859
Antibacterial; antifungal; Cordia dichotoma; gram positive; gram negative; in vitro
12.  Antibacterial Activity of Fistulin: A Protease Inhibitor Purified from the Leaves of Cassia fistula 
ISRN Pharmaceutics  2012;2012:584073.
Plant protease inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the important components of a plant's defense machinery. PPIs are active against the insects and microbes which invade the plant. Cassia species possess anti-insecticidal and antimicrobial properties and this study was aimed at investigating the antibacterial efficacy of a PPI present in the leaves of Cassia fistula. A PPI, fistulin, was isolated from the leaves of C. fistula and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The antibacterial activity of the purified fistulin was studied against five bacterial strains, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The PPI was found to be very active against S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, and K. pneumonia, and its efficacy was comparable to the standard drug, streptomycin sulphate.
doi:10.5402/2012/584073
PMCID: PMC3388288  PMID: 22779011
13.  Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plants 
Ten Nigerian plants suggested from their ethnomedical uses to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were studied for their anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Escherichia coli NCTC 10418, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Candida pseudotropicalis and Trichophyton rubrum (clinical isolate). Trichilia heudelotti leaf extract showed both antibacterial and antifungal activities and was the most active against all the strains of bacteria tested. Boerhavia diffusa, Markhamia tomentosa and T. heudelotti leaf extracts inhibited the gram negative bacteria E.coli and P. aeruginosa strains whereas those of M. tomentosa, T. heudelotti and Sphenoceutrum jollyamum root inhibited at least one of the fungi tested. At a concentration of 312 µg/ml, hexane and chloroform fractions of T. heudelotti extract inhibited 6 and 14% of the fifty mult-idrug resistant bacteria isolates from clinical infectins, respectively. At ≤ 5mg/ml, the CHCl3 (64%) and aqueous (22%) fractions of T. heudelotti and those of CHCl3 (34%) and EtOAC (48%) of M. tomentosa gave the highest inhibition that was stronger than their corresponding methanol extracts. The corresponding EC50 of the extracts on M. acuminata, T. heudelotti, E. senegalensis and M. tomentosa were 4.00, 6.50, 13.33, and 16.50 ig/ml using the TLC staining and 1,1-dipheyl-2-picry-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Therefore, leaf extracts of M. tomentosa and T. heudelotti, especially the latter, possess strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and should be further investigated. These activities justified the ethnomedical uses of these plants.
PMCID: PMC2816440  PMID: 20162089
Antimicrobial; antifungal; antioxidant properties; Nigerian medicinal plants
14.  In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L. 
Aim:
This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae).
Materials and Methods:
The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method.
Results:
The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava.
Conclusion:
The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.80776
PMCID: PMC3103916  PMID: 21687350
Antimicrobial activity; paper disc diffusion method; Psidium guajava
15.  Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata 
Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. ‘For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by ‘Zone of inhibition ≤12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols’ and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.113546
PMCID: PMC3719143  PMID: 23901174
Antibacterial activity; Cassia auriculata; phytochemical constituents
16.  Antishigellosis and Cytotoxic Potency of Crude Extracts and Isolated Constituents from Duranta repens 
Mycobiology  2008;36(3):173-177.
The crude ethanol extracts (stem and fruits), their fractions and two triterpenes, β-Amyrin and 12-Oleanene 3β, 21β-diol, isolated as a mixture from the chloroform soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of Duranta repens stem, were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal activities by the disc diffusion method and cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The structures of the two compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS spectral data. The chloroform soluble fraction of stem and ethanol extract of fruits possess potent antishigellosis activity and also exhibited moderate activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi but the isolated compound 1 (mixture of β-Amyrin and 12-Oleanene 3β, 21β-diol) showed mild to moderate inhibitory activity to microbial growth. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts (stem and fruits), their fractions and compound 1 were found to be in the range of 32~128 µg/ml. The chloroform soluble fractions of stem and ethanol extract of fruit showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 0.94 µg/ml and 0.49 µg/ml, respectively against brine shrimp larvae.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2008.36.3.173
PMCID: PMC3755189  PMID: 23997620
β-Amyrin; Antimicrobial activity; Cytotoxicity; Duranta repens; 12-Oleanene-3-β; 21-β-diol
17.  Bio-efficacy of Dioscorea pentaphylla from Midmid-Western Ghats, India 
Toxicology International  2012;19(2):100-105.
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extracts of medicinally important and traditionally used yam plant, Dioscorea pentaphylla, from mid-Western Ghats was evaluated against 27 bacterial and 5 fungal clinical strains collected of the patients from infectious sources. The clinical strains belonging to their respective species showed concentration-dependent susceptibility toward crude petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and methanol extract at 100 μg/100 μl. The extracts exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-20852), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-29737) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-618), respectively, and five clinically isolated pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audouini, and Candida albicans, with antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and antifungal drug fluconozole (50 μg/100 μl) as standards. Out of the three extracts, ethanol extracts possessed better minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all the bacterial strains. All the three extracts showed significant activity against all the five fungal pathogen strains. The results are promising and support the traditional use of D. pentaphylla for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.
doi:10.4103/0971-6580.97195
PMCID: PMC3388750  PMID: 22778504
Antifungal; antibacterial; Dioscoreapentaphylla; minimum inhibitory concentration
18.  Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases 
Objective
To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases.
Methods
Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method.
Results
Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains.
Conclusions
The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60040-9
PMCID: PMC3609279  PMID: 23569896
Trifolium alexandrinum L.; Fabaceae; Antibacterial activity; Pathogenic bacteria; Gram-positive bacteria; Gram-negative bacteria; Tropical disease; Infectious disease
19.  In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential of Dry FruitExtracts of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Chhoti Elaichi) 
Emergence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria against available antibiotics is posing a great challenge to the current world. Thus, there is a great need to discover novel antibiotics. Traditional plants have been proved to be novel source in the search of antimicrobial compounds. The current study pertained to the susceptibilities of some clinically significant bacterial species to various crude extracts of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Chhoti elaichi) dry fruits by agar well diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of extracts were further evaluated against these bacteria. The study indicated that antibacterial activity of this plant is dependent on the type of extract and the organism evaluated. Ethanol extract was found to have comparatively higher activity than other organic and aqueous extracts. Gram-positive bacteria showed competent but variable susceptibilities to all the tested extracts. MIC data showed hopeful results as some of the extracts exhibited significant inhibitions of bacteria even at concentrations as low as 512 μg/mL. Overall, E. cardamomum seems to have significant antibacterial activity and to be very useful in the discovery of novel antibiotic.
PMCID: PMC3863444  PMID: 24363739
Antibacterial activity; Elettaria cardamomum; Chhoti elaichi; Minimum inhibitory concentration
20.  Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains 
Objective
To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis.
Methods
Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts.
Results
Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth.
Conclusions
The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60004-0
PMCID: PMC3621469  PMID: 23593573
Antibacterial; Antifungal; Relative percentage inhibition; Ricinus communis; Methanol; Ethanol
21.  Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India 
Objective
To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens.
Methods
Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied.
Results
The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges.
Conclusions
The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60186-X
PMCID: PMC3609203  PMID: 23569831
Gastropod; Babylonia spirata; Antimicrobial activity; SDS-PAGE; FTIR; Antibacterial activity; Antifungal activity; Inhibition zone; Muscle protein; Bioactive compound
22.  Study of antimicrobial activity and root symbionts of Hemionitis arifolia 
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extract, alcoholic extract and extracted phenol from various parts of tropical pteridophyta, Hemionitis arifolia were tested by agar diffusion and tube dilution assay. Both the crude and alcoholic extracts of vegetative and reproductive leaves of H. arifolia showed considerable antibacterial activity against Gram negative test strain of Escherichia coli (MTCC-739). Extract from reproductive leaves also showed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-441) (Gram positive test strain) but didn’t show any antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MTCC-7353). Mycorrhizal and other symbiotic association with the root system of H. arifolia was studied and it is revealed that a number of mycorrhizal strains were present in both vegetative and reproductive form. Presence of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungi (DSF) was also detected.
doi:10.1007/s12298-011-0063-9
PMCID: PMC3550538  PMID: 23573010
Antimicrobial activity; Dark Septate Endophytic Fungi (DSF); Extract; Hemionitis arifolia; Mycorrhiza
23.  Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiparasitic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Laennecia confusa 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:263572.
The current paper investigated the potential benefit of the traditional Mexican medicinal plant Laennecia confusa (Cronquist) G. L. Nesom (Asteraceae). Fractions from the hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were analyzed for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions was assessed on bacterial and fungal strains, in addition to the protozoa Leishmania donovani, using a microdilution assay. The propensity of the plant's compounds to produce adverse effects on human health was also evaluated using propidium iodine to identify damage to human macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions was investigated by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes in the chloroform extract. A number of extracts and fractions show antibacterial activity. Of particular interest is antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and its relative methicillin-resistant strain, MRSA. Hexanic and chloroformic fractions also exhibit antifungal activity and two extracts and the fraction CE 2 antiparasitic activity against Leishmania donovani. All bioactive extracts and fractions assayed were also found to be cytotoxic to macrophages. In addition, the hexane and methane extracts show anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of interleukine-6.
doi:10.1100/2012/263572
PMCID: PMC3351095  PMID: 22623891
24.  Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn 
The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay.
doi:10.4103/0975-1483.62213
PMCID: PMC3035885  PMID: 21331191
Antimicrobial activity; Artemia salina; brine shrimp lethality bioassay; Dillenia indica
25.  Antioxidant and Antimicrobial activity of Pedicularis sibthorpii Boiss. And Pedicularis wilhelmsiana Fisch ex.  
Purpose: This research paper presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Pedicularis sibthorpii and Pedicularis wilhelmsiana which grow in Azerbaijan/Iran with claimed a lot of therapeutic effects. Methods: DPPH assay and agar well diffusion method were carried out to determine antioxidant and antimicrobial activities respectively. Results: Methanolic extract showed better antioxidant activity compared to other crude extracts (n-hexane and dichloromethane). Methanolic extracts of both Pedicularis sibthorpii and Pedicularis wilhelmsiana were found to have antibacterial activity especially against gram positive strains of S. ureus, S.epidermidis. No antifungal activity was observed in the tested extracts. Conclusion: Existence of some phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, such as phenylethanoids and flavonoids (found in other species of Pedicularis), which cause both antioxidant and antibacterial activities, is probable. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts supports further studies related to phytochemical investigation and bioassay of different fractions to isolate pure compounds of plants.
doi:10.5681/apb.2012.012
PMCID: PMC3846006  PMID: 24312775
Pedicularis sibthorpii; Pedicularis wilhelmsiana; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Methanolic extract

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