Calamus (Acorus calamus Linn., Araceae) rhizome synonymously called sweet flag or Vacha is an aromatic herb indigenous to Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It has been used by the Ayurvedic practitioners since time immemorial for diseases ranging from weakness of memory to being used as an anthelminthic. Reports of its use have been found in books like Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, etc., The major constituent of the oil of Vacha is a phenyl propanoid called β-asarone, which is reported to show carcinogenic properties. Due to the toxic effects of β-asarone, sodhana prakriya (detoxification process) has been prescribed for Vacha before its inclusion in the Ayurvedic medicines. Shodhanaprakriya (S. prakriya) of Vacha has been mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts.
This study was undertaken with an aim to find out the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha and also to suggest an alternate method for the conventional one.
Materials and Methods:
The conventional method was studied in the laboratory and equivalent alternate methods were designed based on the mechanism involved. Vacha samples were subjected to the conventional method as well as the alternate methods and the content of β-asarone in the different samples was monitored using Gas Chromatography technique.
Various alternate methods have been devised based on the mechanism involved in the S. prakriya which have given results comparable with those of the conventional method.
The scientific mechanism involved in the S. prakriya of Vacha has been established and alternate methods have been proposed.
Acorus calamus; β-asarone; Sodhana; Vacha
Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients of
Atibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. ‘Bala compound” was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of ‘Bala compoumd”
Depression is a common diagnosis throughout India. It is one of the major sequelae of modern lifestyle which is full of stress. Several drugs and therapies have been tried but a safe and effective treatment of depressive illness is yet not fully established. The main objective of this experimental study on animal models is to evaluate the antidepressant action of plant drug Vacha (Acorus calamus). The behavioral study was conducted and at the same time 5-HT receptor involvement was evaluated. The experimental study was done in rats to evaluate their Open Field Behavior (OFB), High Plus Maze (HPM) activity and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor syndrome, before and after feeding Vacha. Concurrent Vacha administration in the depression model prevented the development of behavioral deficit in ambulation and rearing due to stress. Similarly, in High Plus Maze Test (HPMT), exploratory activity of rat was restored with Vacha administration. In adopted model of depression, when the animal was subjected to Vacha administration, the behavioural deficit was prevented very well as compared to stressed group. While eliciting the 5-HT syndrome, only two components out of five were influenced by Vacha, indicating that Vacha does not sensitize postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, which explains the behavioral deficit prevention in stressed rat group. Vacha definitely has antidepressant effects in animal model of depression.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors; depression; Vacha
Ashwagandharishta, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, is the remedy for Apasmara (epilepsy), Murchha (syncope), Unmada (psychosis), etc. Recent studies in animal models have shown that n-3 PUFAs can raise the threshold of epileptic seizures. The indigenous medicinal plant, called Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in Ayurveda, or flax seed, is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acids. The present study is designed to investigate whether Ashwagandharishta and Atasi taila (flax seed oil) protect against maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in albino rats. Further, a possible protective role of flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta in its anticonvulsant activity has also been evaluated in the study. MES seizures were induced for rats and seizure severity was assessed by the duration of hind limb extensor phase. Phenytoin was used as the standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Both flax seed oil and Ashwagandharishta significantly decreased convulsion phase. Pre-treatment with flax seed oil exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Contrary to the expectations, pre-treatment with flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta failed to decrease the tonic extensor phase; however, it significantly decreased the flexion phase (P < 0.001) and duration of the convulsions (P < 0.05). Both the drugs exhibited an excellent anti-post-ictal depression effect and complete protection against mortality.
Antiepileptic; Ashwagandharishta; flax seed oil; maximal electroshock seizure; omega-3 fatty acid
The present study is carried out to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha was prepared by classical method and evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-medicated immunity in established experimental models. Test formulation was administered at the dose of 900 mg/kg and parameters like hemagglutination titer, ponderal changes, histopathology of immunological organs and immunological paw edema were recorded. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha significantly enhanced antibody formation and moderately suppressed the immunological edema. The present study concludes that Vachadhatryadi Avaleha has immunopotentiating activity.
Cell mediated immunity; hemagglutination titer; Vachadhatryadi
Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.
Kupeelu; Kanji; anti-inflammatory; purification; Shodhana; purificatory procedure
Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.
Kupeelu; Strychnos nuxvomica; Shodhana; strychnine; Ayurveda; brucine; Cow's milk; Cow's urine
Standardization of ayurvedic drugs has become necessary as in all other walks of life. This paper deals with the detection of Acorus calamus in Ayurvedic preparations. It is one of the most commonly used ingredients in ayurvedic preparations. This layer chromatographic technique was used for detection. Two solvent systems were developed and the spots were visualized in iodine vapour. The spot of Rf 0.85 in I and 0.70 in (ii) obtained for Acorus calamus was present in all the finished products, taken thus showing the present of Acorus calamus in the finished products. Co. T.L.C. was done to confirm the observation. This was further confirmed by testing o market samples containing Acorus calamus.
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.
Bhallataka; bhilawanol; blisters; dermatitis; Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; urushiol
In a two-microelectrode voltage clamp with Xenopus laevis oocytes, a petroleum ether extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes enhanced the GABA-induced chloride current through GABAA receptors of the α1β2γ2S subtype by 277% ± 9.7% (100 μg/mL). β-Asarone (1), (+)-dioxosarcoguaiacol (2), (+)-shyobunone (3), and (+)-preisocalamenediol (4) were subsequently identified as main active principles through HPLC-based activity profiling and targeted isolation. The compounds induced maximum potentiation of the chloride current ranging from 588% ± 126% (EC50: 65.3 ± 21.6 μM) (2) to 1200% ± 163% (EC50: 171.5 ± 34.6 μM) (1), whereas (−)-isoshyobunone (5) and (−)-acorenone (6) exhibited weak GABAA modulating properties (5: 164% ± 42.9%; EC50: 109.4 ± 46.6 μM and 6: 241% ± 23.1%; EC50: 34.0 ± 6.7 μM). The relative configuration of 2 was established as 4R*8S*10R* by NOESY experiments and conformational analysis.
To study the anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of the rhizome of Smilax china (EESC and EAF, respectively) in mice.
Materials and Methods:
The anticonvulsant activities of EESC and EAF were studied against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice and neurotoxicity was determined using rotarod test.
The duration of hindleg extension in MES test was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) by EESC at a dose level of 400 mg/kg and EAF at both higher dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg). In PTZ model, the seizure latency was prolonged by all the test groups.
The EESC and EAF may help to control petit mal and grand mal seizures.
Epilepsy; China root; Smilax china; neurotoxicity
In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil.
Angelica archangelica (Umbelliferae); convulsions; pentylenetetrazol; medicinal plants; maximal electroshock
• Background and Aims Plants have evolved a number of inducible defence mechanisms against pathogen attack, including synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins. The aim of the study was to purify and characterize antifungal protein from leaves of Acorus calamus.
• Methods Leaf proteins from A. calamus were fractionated by cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration and the fraction inhibiting the hyphal extension of phytopathogens was characterized. The temperature stability and pH optima of the protein were determined and its presence was localized in the leaf tissues.
• Key Results The purified protein was identified as a class III haem peroxidase with a molecular weight of approx. 32 kDa and pI of 7·93. The temperature stability of the enzyme was observed from 5 °C to 60 °C with a temperature optimum of 36 °C. Maximum enzyme activity was registered at pH 5·5. The pH and temperature optima were corroborated with the antifungal activity of the enzyme. The enzyme was localized in the leaf epidermal cells and lumen tissues of xylem, characteristic of class III peroxidases. The toxic nature of the enzyme which inhibited hyphal growth was demonstrated against phytopathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Trichosporium vesiculosum. Microscopic observations revealed distortion in the hyphal structure with stunted growth, increased volume and extensive hyphal branching.
• Conclusions This study indicates that peroxidases may have a role to play in host defence by inhibiting the hyphal extension of invading pathogens.
Acorus calamus; haem peroxidase; antifungal; hyphal inhibition; thermal stability; localization; epidermal cells; xylem lumen
The rhizomes of Acorus gramineus have frequently been used in traditional medicine mainly for sedation as well as enhancing brain function. In this study, the anti-allergic activity of A. gramineus was investigated. The 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of A. gramineus was found to inhibit the allergic response against 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-catalyzed leukotriene (LT) production from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells and β-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells with IC50’s of 48.9 and >200 μg/ml, respectively. Among the 9 major constituents isolated, β-asarone, (2R,3R,4S,5S)-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-bis (2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran (AF) and 2,3-dihydro-4,5,7-trimethoxy-1-ethyl-2-methyl-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)indene (AI) strongly inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed LT production in A23187-treated RBL-1 cells, AI being the most potent (IC50=6.7 μM). Against β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, only AI exhibited strong inhibition (IC50=7.3 μM) while β-asarone and AF showed 26.0% and 39.9% inhibition at 50 μM, respectively. In addition, the ethanol extract of A. gramineus showed significant inhibitory action against the hapten-induced delayed hypersensitivity reaction in mice by oral administration at 200 mg/kg. Therefore, it is suggested that A. gramineus possesses anti-allergic activity and the constituents including β-asarone and AI certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of A. gramineus.
Acorus gramineus; β-Asarone; 2; 3-Dihydro-4; 5; 7-trimethoxy-1-ethyl-2-methyl-3-(2; 4; 5-trimethoxyphenyl)indene; 5-Lipoxygenase; β-Hexosaminidase; Anti-allergy
Acorus calamus (family: Araceae), is an indigenous plant, traditionally it is used as an ingredient of various cocktail preparations and for the management of severe inflammatory disorders in Indian system of medicine. Present study investigated the attenuating role of Acorus calamus plant extract in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced peripheral neuropathy in rats.
Hot plate, plantar, Randall Selitto, Von Frey Hair, pin prick, acetone drop, photoactometer and rota-rod tests were performed to assess degree of thermal, radiant, mechanical, chemical sensation, spontaneous motor activity and motor co-ordination changes respectively, at different time intervals i.e., day 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Tissue myeloperoxidase, superoxide anion and total calcium levels were determined after 21st day to assess biochemical alterations. Histopathological evaluations were also performed. Hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered from the day of surgery for 14 days.
CCI of sciatic nerve significantly induced thermal, radiant, mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal, chemical, tactile allodynia, along with increase in the levels of superoxide anion, total calcium and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover significant histological changes were also observed. HAE-AC attenuated CCI induced development of painful behavioural, biochemical and histological changes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of pregabalin serving as positive control.
Acorus calamus prevented CCI induced neuropathy which may be attributed to its multiple actions including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory actions.
To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice.
Materials and Methods:
The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice.
Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination.
The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity.
Anticonvulsant; Dendrophthoe falcate; mice; muscle relaxant
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sedative and antiepileptic activities of ethanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba (ACE) bark in various experimental animal models.
Materials and Methods:
ACE was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. We used ketamine-induced sleeping time model to test the sedative property of the extract where, onset and duration of sleep were observed. A paradigm of anticonvulsant models (pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid and maximal electroshock-induced seizures) were used to evaluate its protective effect against absence and generalized types of seizures. Onset of clonic convulsions, tonic extension and time of death were observed in PTZ and INH-induced seizure models. In MES model, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed.
ACE showed significant increase in ketamine induced sleeping time. It also exhibited significant increase (P<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001) in latency to clonic convulsion, tonic extension and time of death in PTZ and INH models at all tested doses, whereas in the MES model, the lower dose was found to be effective when compared with the higher doses (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.).
The results of the present investigation demonstrated that ACE possesses sedative and antiepileptic activities.
Anthocephalus cadamba; isoniazid; maximal electro shock; pentylenetetrazole; sedation; seizures
Hedychium spicatum (Ham-ex-Smith), known as Shati in Ayurvedic classics, is documented for the treatment of cough, hiccough, fever and asthma. The present study includes the evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the dried rhizome of H. spicatum for anti-histaminic and ulcer-protective activities in guinea pig (GP), anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat and acute toxicity in mouse. The extracts were administered orally, daily as suspension, in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose either for 7 days in GP studies or 60 min before or just before experiment in rats and mice. An initial dose-dependent anti-histaminic action of both the extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was performed against histamine-induced bronchospasm in GPs. The 200 mg/ kg dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts was selected both in GP and rat for further studies. GPs treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed gastric ulcer protection against histamine-induced gastric ulcer compared with the control group. Both the extracts also showed an anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats from 1 h onwards, and this was maximum at 3 h. Analgesic effect was determined by using hot plate and tail flick tests in rats, and both the extracts at 200 mg/kg showed a significant increase in the latent period from 30 min onwards till 120 min of their study period. Both the extracts did not show any toxic effect like increased motor activity, salivation, clonic convulsion, coma and death in mice even at the 2000 mg/kg dose (nearly 10 times of the optimal effective dose), indicating the safety of the extracts. The result confirms the indigenous use of this plant in respiratory disorders.
Analgesic; antihistaminic; anti-inflammatory; Hedychium spicatum; respiratory disorders; ulcer protective
Flowering herbs of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) are widely used as bitter tonic, stomachic, stimulant of appetite, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic and for mental problems in the different regions of Turkey.
To establish the anticonvulsant activity potential of G. olivieri.
Materials and Methods:
In this work, the ethanol extract of G. olivieri was tested in three doses (200, 750 and 1000 mg/kg) for anticonvulsant activity against seizures produced in mice by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), picrotoxin (PIC) and maximal electroshock (MES). Neurotoxicity of the ethanol extract was also determined by the Rota rod test to evaluate the safety. Ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) and carbamazepine (30 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs.
Intraperitonally, injection of the extract significantly prolonged the onset of seizures at doses of 200 and 750 mg/kg, but did not alter the incidence of PTZ-induced seizures. Onset of PIC-induced seizures was delayed by the injection of the extract (1000 mg/kg). Moreover, only 750 mg/kg of the extract protected 25% of the mice against PIC-induced seizures. On the other hand, G. olivieri extract (200, 750 and 1000 mg/kg) showed a significant protective effect against MES-induced seizures. In the Rota rod test, the ethanol extract (200 mg/kg, ip) induced disturbance in motor coordination.
The results indicate that G. olivieri has possessed anticonvulsant activity against MES-induced seizures in mice.
Anticonvulsant; Gentiana olivieri; maximum electroshock; pentylenetetrazole; picrotoxin; Rota rod
To compare the effect of Brāhmī Ghṛta with piracetam (a reference standard chemical) in amnesia.
Materials and Methods:
Brāhmī Ghṛta contained Brāhmī (Bacopa monneri), Vacā (Acorus calamus), Kuṣṭha (Sassurea lappa), Śaṅkhapuṣpī (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purāṇa Ghṛta, prepared as per snehapāka process. Antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced amnesia in Charles Foster rats using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Piracetam (500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard drug. This effect was compared with standard chemical used in experimental study.
Brāhmī Ghṛta - (in both doses) and piracetam-treated rats significantly reversed the effect of scopolamine in modified elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. But there were no significant differences observed in antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta and standard drug.
Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam produced significant beneficial effect on scopolamine-induced amnesic effect, but no significant difference was observed in between them.
Brāhmī Ghṛta; modified elevated plus maze test; scopolamine
The alcoholic extract of Achyranthes bidentata (AAB) has been studied for analgesic, anticonvulsant and CNS depressant activities in animal models. Analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writing test for assessing peripheral analgesic effect and tail immersion test for central analgesic effect. Anticonvulsant activity was performed by maximal electroshock induced convulsions; while the locomotor activity was evaluated using actophotometer. AAB (250-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of wriths induced by acetic acid and elevated pain threshold in hot water test. The extract (500mg/kg) exhibited anticonvulsant activity significantly (P<0.001) against tonic seizures induced by MES. The results of locomotor activity showed the significant (P<0.01) CNS depressant effect at the three doses (250,375 and mg/kg) employed. The results suggest that AAB exhibited analgesic, anticonvulsant and CNS depressant activity in a dose dependent pattern.
Achyranthes bidentata: Writhing; Tail-flick; Tonic extensor; Locomotor
Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities of leaf extracts and fraction of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) were studied using seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol and open-field tests in mice. The results showed that the extracts and fraction increased the latency of tonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death and elicited 50% protection against mortality. In the open-field test, the extracts and fraction decreased the frequency of line crossing, center square entries, rearing against a wall and grooming, whereas grooming duration and freezing frequency and duration were increased. Acute toxicity test in mice gave an oral LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg for the methanol extract. These findings suggest that extracts of this plant possess anticonvulsant and anxiolytic-like properties.
Anticonvulsant; anxiolytic; Ocimum gratissimum; open field
Medicinal plant materials are being adulterated in commerce due to many reasons such as similar morphological features, same name as written in classical text, presence of similar active principles in the substituted plant etc., that may badly affect the therapeutic activity of the finished products. Therefore, systematic identification is becoming essential in order to produce standardized finished herbal products. The present study includes two medicinal plant rhizomes; Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Heenaratta) and A. galanga (Linn.) Willd (Aratta) whose microscopical build up was different from each other and was assessed by standard Pharmacognostical methods. Diagnostic identification characters of A. calcarata were compound starch grins, triangular-shaped starch grains, and plenty of simple starch grains in one parenchyma cell compared to that of A. galanga. Diamond-shaped silica crystals were found only on A. galanga rhizome powder. Present study has revealed an easy technique to identify two similar medicinal plant materials microscopically and this method can also be employed to detect the degree of adulteration in powdered raw medicinal plant materials as well.
Adulteration; Alpinia galanga; Alpinia calcarata; microscopy
Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 – 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 – 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100–400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (p<0.05) the onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures but only slightly prolonged the time of death of the mice. Although the findings in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it appears that the aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions.
Stereospermum kunthianum; Anticonvulsant activity; maximal Electroshock; pentylenetetra-zole