Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Kuberaksha) is an Ayurvedic herb used in the management of malaria, liver disorders, worms, edematous conditions, etc. Based on classical Ayurvedic textual indications and recent pharmacological studies, its leaf powder was selected for studying its effect clinically on filaria. Before conducting the clinical trails, this leaf powder was subjected to certain chemical studies to find the pH, ash value, extractive values, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), etc. for standardization of the drug.
Acid insoluble ash; analytical study; Caesalpinia bonduc; Kuberaksa leaf powder; loss on drying; pH value; total ash
Standardization of herbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. This article reports on standardization of Ajmodadi churna, a polyherbal ayurvedic medicine used as a carminative and an antispasmodic, and is a strong wormifuge, and helps in all painful conditions like sciatica and stiffness in back and also restores normal digestive functions. Ajmodadi churna was prepared as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India. In-house preparation and the marketed drug have been standardized on the basis of organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical properties. The set parameters were found to be sufficient to evaluate the churna and can be used as reference standards for the quality control/quality assurance laboratory of a Pharmaceutical house.
Ajmodadi churna; physico-chemical; polyherbal formulation; standardization
Diabetic neuropathy is a relatively early and common complication affecting approximately 30% of diabetic patients. According to Ayurvedic principles there is involvement of Vata and Pitta Dosa in diabetic neuropathy. Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri) is a plant which shows possibility to pacify these two Dosas. Another plant Atibala (Abutilon indicum) has also Vata pacifying qualities. Present study has been carried out to study the effects of Bhumyamalaki and Atibala on 33 patients of diabetic neuropathy. All the patients have been given Bhumyamalaki Churna 3 g twice a day and decoction of 10 g of Atibala-mula twice a day for 30 days. Neuropathy analyzer machine has been used for exact recording of sensory perception of vibration, cold and hot sensations before and after treatment. Changes in numbness, tingling, burning sensation and pain in lower limbs have also been assessed before and after treatment. Results have been analyzed statistically by applying the ‘t’ test. It can be stated from the results that use of Bhumyamalaki and Atibalamula in the patients of diabetic neuropathy can revert the diminished sensory perception and can reduce the symptoms significantly.
Abutilon indicum; Atibala; Bhumyamalaki; Diabetic neuropathy; Phyllanthus niruri
Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs–Momordica charantia (seeds), Syzigium cumini (seeds), Trigonella foenum (seeds), Azadirachta indica (leaves), Emblica offi cinalis (fruits), Curcuma longa (rhizomes), Gymnema sylvestre (leaves), Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood) individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna
Material and Methods:
Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties.
Results and Conclusions:
The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.
Herbal antidiabetic drugs; physicochemical parameters; polyherbal formulation; standardization
Sitopaladi churna (SPC) is a popular polyherbal ayurvedic formulation used in the treatment of allergy and respiratory diseases.
The present study was aimed to justify the classical use of antiallergic claim by performing the mast cell stabilizing activity of extracts of SPC.
Materials and Methods:
The protective effect of aqueous extract and methanolic extract - of SPC against compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation model was carried out.
Sitopaladi churna aqueous extract (SPCA) at the dose of 300 mg/kg and Sitopaladi churna methanolic extract (SPCM) at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed better protection of mast cell degranulation (65%-74%) and were comparable to the standard drug ketotifen (79%), when peritoneal mast cells were treated with compound 48/80. The protection against mast cell degranulation was significant (P < 0.0001).
From the above results, it has been justified that SPC can be used to treat allergic disorders.
Compound 48/80; mast cell stabilizing; Sitopaladi churna
In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery.
The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve.
Materials and Methods:
Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods)
The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka.
Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home.
Ayurveda; Churna (powder); saubhagya shunthi paka; paka (semi-solid); puerperium
Standardization of a compound Ayurvedic formulation is a critical and essential issue to be considered in assuring the therapeutic efficacy and safety and to rationalize their use in the health care. Sitopaladi churna is a reputed polyherbal formulation of Ayurveda. It is prescribed for the treatment of pleurodynia, intercostal neuralgia, cold, cough associated with bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, viral respiratory infection, and in pharyngeal and chest congestion.
The present study aimed at physico-chemical standardization of in-house and two marketed brands of Sitopaladi churna.
Materials and Methods:
In our investigation, in-house churna and two commercial brands of Sitopaladi churna were standardized based on powder microscopy, physico-chemical evaluations, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing as per standard procedures.
The set parameters were sufficient to evaluate the churna based on various physico-chemical parameters.
The data evolved can be adopted for laying down the standards for the manufacturing units of Sitopaladi churna.
High performance thin layer chromatography; physico-chemical; Sitopaladi churna; standardization
Avipattikar churna, a poly-herbal formulation, is one of the popular ayurvedic formulations which is used for peptic ulcer diseases but the scientific documentation with regards to its effect for the indication is lacking.
Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-secretory and the anti-ulcerogenic activities of the churna and to compare its activity with that of ranitidine in a pyloric ligated model of rats.
Material and methods: Four groups of rats with 6 animals in each served as the ulcer controls, churna low dose (500 mg/kg), churna high dose (750mg/kg) and ranitidine (25mg/kg). The control group rats received only vehicle (2% (v/v) gum acacia), while the rats of the other groups received the respective dose of the churna or ranitidine which was suspended in the vehicle. The treatments were given twice a day, orally, for two days. After 1 hour of the last dose, pyloric ligations were performed and the rats were sacrificed for evaluation after four hours of the ligations. The gastric contents were collected and its volume, pH and acidity were measured. The numbers of ulcers and their lengths were measured which were used to calculate the gastric irritancy index and the curative ratio. The histological examinations of the gastric tissues were also performed.
Results: The churna, in both doses, significantly decreased the volumes of the gastric contents, the ulcer score, the length of the ulcer, the gastric irritancy index and pH increased as compared to those in the control group. The effects of the churna were comparable to that of ranitidine. The histopathological evaluation of the gastric tissue also supported the results.
Avipattikar churna has anti-secretory and anti-ulcerogenic effects which are comparable to those of ranitidine in peptic ulcer diseases.
Avipattikar churna; Gastric acid; Peptic ulcer; Pyloric ligation; Ranitidine, Rats
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
Purpose: Gokhsuradi churna is an ayurvedic formulation, was investigate for antiurolithiatic activity.
Methods: Calcium oxalate crystallization was induced by the addition of 0.01M sodium oxalate solutions in synthetic urine and nucleation method.
Results: The effect of Gokhsuradi Churna exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of on calcium oxalate crystallization and nucleation.
Conclusion: The present studies suggest that Gokhsuradi churna has a potential inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization exhibited and nucleation. Gokhsuradi Churna showed potent antiurolethiatic activity.
Gokhsuradi churna; Antiurolethiatic activity; Calcium oxalate; Nucleation
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
Balacaturbhadrika churna has an important place in pediatric practice in Ayurveda. Millennia of use of this formulation bears testimony to its safety when used for prolonged duration in children. This prompted us to initiate a long-term, acute oral toxicity evaluation of Balacaturbhadrika churna in rats. The study was carried out by administering Balacaturbhadrika churna orally once only in a dose up to 2000 mg/kg. For long-term toxicity, Balacaturbhadrika churna was administered in doses of 450 and 900 mg/kg orally for 45 consecutive days. The effects of the drug on ponderal changes, hematological, biochemical and histological parameters were noted. The acute toxicity experiment showed that the drug did not produce any signs and symptoms of toxicity (or mortality) up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Long-term toxicity results showed that, even at higher dose of 900 mg/kg, Balacaturbhadrika churna did not affect the parameters studied, to a significant extent. The doses employed for these toxicity studies were several times higher than normal clinical doses of Balacaturbhadrika churna, hence the observed changes will probably not become apparent at therapeutic dose level.
Aconitum heterophyllum; acute toxicity; Balacaturbhadrika churna; long-term toxicity
The epidemiological knowledge on acute condition of lymphatic filariasis is essential to understand the burden and issues on management of the disease.
A one year long longitudinal prospective surveillance of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) was carried out in rural population of Orissa, India.
The annual incidence of ADL per 1000 individuals is 85.0, and is slightly higher (P > 0.05) in male (92.0) than in female (77.6). A steady rise in the incidence of ADL episodes along with the age is recorded. The distribution indicates that persons with chronic disease are more prone to ADL attacks. The average number of episodes per year is 1.57 (1.15 SD) per affected person, and is gender dependent. Duration of the episode varies from 1 to 11 days with mean duration of 3.93 (1.94 SD) days. The chronic disease is the significant predictor for the duration of the episode. The data show that fever and swelling at inguinal regions are most common symptoms.
The incidence, frequency and duration of ADL episodes in this community are similar to that of other endemic areas. As the loss due to these ADL episodes is substantial, it should be considered while further estimating the burden due to lymphatic filariasis. The disability and loss caused by chronic forms of filariasis is higher, and the additional incapacity caused by the ADL episode, majority of which occur among chronic filariasis patients, further poses the burden on individuals and their families. Hence, morbidity management measures to prevent ADL episodes among endemic communities are to be implemented.
Manjisthadi churna has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine and by traditional medical practices of India to treat hyperlipidemia. A rapid, simple and accurate method with high performance thin layer chromatography has been developed to standardised Manjisthadi churna using rubiadin, sennoside and ellagic acid as markers. Methanol extract of Manjisthadi churna were used for high performance thin layer chromatography on silica gel plates. The Rf of rubiadin, sennoside-A and ellagic acid were found to 0.48, 0.23 and 0.72, respectively with densitometric scanning at 280 nm and the calibration plot were linear in the range of 100-600 ng of markers. The correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99 were indicative of good linear dependence of peaks area on concentration. The rubiadin, sennoside-A and ellagic acid contents in Manjisthadi churna were found to be 0.014, 0.038 and 0.534% w/w, respectively. This method permits reliable quantification of rubiadin, sennoside-A and ellagic acid with good resolution and separation of the same from other constitutes of the extract of Manjisthadi churna. Recovery value from 95.66-102.33% showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method. The proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method for simultaneous quantification of markers in Manjisthadi churna can be used for routine quality testing.
Ellagic acid; high performance thin layer chromatography; Manjisthadi churna; Rubiadin; Sennoside
Dhatura is an important deliriant poison grouped under sthavara upavisha and phalavisha. It affects the Central Nervous system. Dhatura is important ingredient of large number of medicinal formulations. In the Ayurvedic text,, Basavarajeeyam, Chincha Rasa (Tamarind) has been described to be possessing antidote action to counter toxicity of Dhatura. This study attempts to establish the activity and mechanism of action of chincha rasa against toxic effects of Dhatura by means of chemical analysis.
1) Collection of drugs, 2) Authentication of three drugs in Govt. authorised institute, 3) i) Preparation of Chincha rasa (According to charaka), ii) Preparation of Chincha pakwa phal (According to Sharangdhar), 4) Physical and Chemical study of Dhatur seed, i) Preparation of Dhatur Churna (According to Sharangdhar) and Analytical Study of three drugs, 5) Methods of determination of an antidote.
Laboratory experiments were carried out to obtain values of specific parameters for Dhatur seeds, chincha patra ras (tamarind leafe juice) and chincha pakwa phal (ripe tamarind fruit).
On the basis of observations and results found in chemical study and reported literature, the study came with the following conclusions. 1) The chincha patra rasa and Chincha pakwa phal rasa both contain Hordenine which has the antibacterial activity and stimulates the central nervous system providing relief from unquenchable thirst, muttering and delirium (indistinct and inaudible words unsteady gait) 2) Because of tannins, Chinchapatra ras and Chincha pakwaphal ras have astringent property, which counteract the toxic symptoms of Dhatur like dermatitis, rash and exfoliation of the skin. 3) Because of glycosides and tannins, chincha patra rasa and chincha pakwaphal have diuretic property which counteract the toxic symptoms of dhatura like urinary retention and inability to pass urine. 4) The tartaric acid present in chincha patra ras and chincha pakwaphal ras causes gastric irritation and thus induces vomiting. 5) Chincha patra ras and Chincha pakwa phal ras have flavonoids (Vit. P. and Citrin) which strengthens the blood vessels and lowers blood pressure and works as anti-inflammatoryagent. 6) The Chincha patra ras and Chincha pakwa phal ras have vit. ‘C’ which lead the blood circulation towards the heart which prevent the cardiac arrest produced in the Dhatura poisoning. 7) Chincha patra ras aqueous extract 1% and 10% has the pH of 5.91 and 5.45 and the pH of chincha pakwa phal ras aqueous extract of 1% and 10% has pH of 4.72 and 4.50. Both are acidic but the pH of Dhatura in aqueous extract of 1% is 8.19 and 8.00. Therefore, they neurtralize each other and reduce the toxic effect of dhatura. Similarly, the action of chincha rasa can be explained through the concepts of Ayurveda.
SURADARU LEPA CHURNA’-A Compound drug formulation in Ayurvedic system of medicine was analysed. The proximate chemical analysis, the microscopic method of identifying their ingredients, flourescese study and thin layer chromatographic studies of the drug have been reported in this paper.
Vata is the governing factor in the maintenance of equilibrium in the universe as well as in the body. As age advances, the influence of Vata Dosha progresses, resulting in the process of gradual degeneration of the body. Sandhigatavata (osteoarthritis) is one of the consequences of this process, which is common in the elderly people. This is one of the major causes of chronic disability, affecting the quality of life. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in India is more among menopausal women. This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurvedic multimodal management in Sandhigatavata and to provide better options to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). In present clinical trial, 50 patients of Sandhigatavata have been registered and have been given Snehana, Svedana, Mriduvirechana, Matrabasti, and Jalaukavacharana, along with oral medications like Yogaraja Guggulu and Ashvagandha Churna. This multimodal therapy is being used in P.D. Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad, since years, providing good relief to patients with Sandhigatavata. The results have been analyzed statistically by using the Student paired‘t’ test. The therapy showed highly significant (P < 0.001) beneficial effect on the clinical features of Sandhigatavata. On overall effect of therapy, 4% of the patients were relieved completely, while 24% have shown marked improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 22% mild improvement. Results of follow-up showed that marked improvement decreased, but moderate improvement was steady. Continuing the study on a larger number of patients, with inclusion of more objective parameters to get better conclusions is suggested at the end of the study.
Matrabasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; Snehana; Svedana; Upanaha
It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.
Antioxidant; Caesalpinia bonduc; free radicals; lipid peroxidation
In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.
Analgesic; anti-inflammatory; Caesalpinia bonduc; tail flick
In Ayurveda, various herbal preparations are clinically used to prevent or cure infectious diseases. Herbal preparations such as Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna, Manjistadi churna, Sukhsarak churna, Ajmodadi churna, Shivkshar pachan churna, Mahasudarshan churna, Swadist Virechan churna and Pipramool churna were investigated by preparing their organic solvent extract for antibacterial potential against enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Proteus vulgaris, respectively. In the present study, Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna were potent antibacterial agents against S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. The study supports the use of these herbal preparations not only as dietary supplements but also as agents to prevent or control enteric bacterial infections.
Antibacterial activity; dashmula churna; hareetaki churna; triphala churna
The disease Amavata can be presented as very similar to Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatoid Arthritis is chronic in nature and affects mostly middle aged people. For this disease there is no satisfactory medicine is available till date. But in Ayurveda there are many drugs described for Amavata which are cost effective and easily available with no side effects. The present clinical study evaluated the effect of Chitrakadi Churna and Kshar Basti in the management of Amavata.
30 clinically diagnosed patient of Amavata were registered and completed the trial. In this 15 patients (Group A) administered Chitrakadi Churna 4gm twice daily with lukewarm water after meal. Another 15 patients (Group B) administered Chitrakadi Churna 4gm twice daily with lukewarm water after meal and Kshar Basti as per Kalbasti krama i.e 16days followed by local Snehan Swedan.
Results of this trial were encouraging as there is improvement in each symptom of patient like pain, stiffness, swelling, and tenderness. Group A in which only Chitrakadi Churna was administered there was no significant improvement seen statistically. But Group B in which Chitrakadi Churna as well as Kshar Basti was administered highly significant improvement seen statistically. Details of the Statistical test and other important will be discussed at the time of paper presentation.
From present clinical trial it is concluded that this therapy is very useful for pain, swelling, tenderness and stiffness, which were chief complaint of the patient. Chronicity more than 3 years did not show marked improvement. And also this drug is supposed to be very good combination of Vedanashamaka, Shothaghna, Amapachaka Dravyas. No untoward effects were seen except mild loss of weight.
No satisfactory effective treatment is available yet to cure diabetes mellitus. Though, synthetic drugs are used but there are several drawbacks. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of many traditional plants are due to their ability for the management of diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods:
A hydromethanolic extract was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days. Its effects on the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, activities of key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the effect on the lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissues were measured. Glycogen levels were also assessed in hepatic and skeletal muscles and some toxicity parameters, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and alkaline phosphates activities were measured.
Treatment of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes along with correction in FBG and glycogen levels as compared with the untreated diabetic group. The extract also resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of toxicity assessment enzyme parameters. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the lipid peroxidation levels were also recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after the treatment of the extract. The corrective effects produced by the extract were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide.
Our findings provide that the extract shows possible antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activities.
Antihyperglycemic; antioxidative; C. bonduc; streptozotocin
Karpoordi Taila is a medicated oil used in Ayurvedic system of Medicine for ‘Vaathavikaram’. The drugs used in karpoorradi Taila are trachysperum ammi (Linn) Sprague (Ayamodakam) and Cinnammomum camphora (Linn) Nees and Eberm (Karpooram). The phyusico chemical standards and the Thin Layer chromatographic standards presented in this paper can be used as finger print standards for karpporadi Taila.
Lymphedema related to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling condition that commonly manifests in adolescence. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected, in age and sex-matched groups, using the Binax ICT rapid card test for filarial antigen were recruited to the study. None of the participants had overt signs of lymphedema. Lymphedema assessment measures were used to assess lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and joint range of motion (goniometry). The mean tonometric measurements from the left, right, and dominant posterior thighs were significantly larger in participants with LF compared to participants who had tested negative for LF (p = 0.005, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively) indicating increased tissue compressibility in those adolescents with LF. ROC curve analysis to define optimal cut-off of the tonometry measurements indicated that at 3.5, sensitivity of this potential screening test is 100% (95%-CI = 86.3%, 100%) and specificity is 21.4% (95%-CI = 8.3%, 41.0%). It is proposed that this cut-off can be used to indicate tissue change characteristic of LF in an at-risk population of PNG adolescents. Further longitudinal research is required to establish if all those with tissue change subsequently develop lymphedema. However, thigh tonometry to identify early tissue change in LF positive adolescents may enable early intervention to minimize progression of lymphedema and prioritization of limited resources to those at greatest risk of developing lifetime morbidity.
The effects of lymphatic filariasis (LF) on the lymphatic system often become apparent during adolescence when the lower limb swells due to lymphedema and males develop hydrocele. Currently there is no simple or mobile field method to identify those at greatest risk of developing lymphedema or those with early subclinical lower limb change. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected were recruited to the study. The groups were compared with respect to lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and hip, knee and ankle joint range of motion (goniometry). Tonometry, is a simple, inexpensive tool, which measures the distance a plunger will indent the soft tissues. Those adolescents who were LF positive had significantly increased soft tissue compressibility when assessed with tonometry than adolescents who were LF negative. Tonometry has high levels of sensitivity to identify adolescents who test positive to LF. If we are able to identify adolescents before they have overt symptoms, management practices to decrease disease progression can be implemented. This could prevent lifetime morbidity and allow allocation of scarce resources to those identified to be most at risk of developing lymphedema.
According to Sushruta, disease in which plaque formed on teeth and hardened by the action of deranged Vayu, lies in a crystallized form at root of teeth is called as Dantasharkara. According to Vagbhata, accumulation of dirt on teeth by not cleaning them daily or of Kapha dehydrated by Vata adhering to the teeth, becoming hard and emits bad odor is known as Dantasharkara (Tartar). Tartar manifests as a deposit of inorganic salts composed primarily of calcium carbonate and phosphate mixed with food debris, bacteria and desquamated epithelial cells which reduce the quality of whiteness and strength of the teeth. Teeth loss is also not uncommon in tartar sufferers. Such deposits tend to destroy the healthy growth and function of teeth. It should be removed in such a way as not to hurt the roots of the teeth and then parts should be rubbed (Pratisarana) with Laksha Churna and Madhu. In trial group, management of tartar is attempted by local rubbing of Laksha Churna with Madhu on the surface of teeth and gingiva. Regeneration, repair and new attachment are the aspects of periodontal healing that are achieved by gingival physiotherapy on scaling wound. Pratisarana of Laksha Churna with Madhu is easy to apply, cost effective and free from side effects in comparison to systemic use of modern drugs.
Dantasharkara; Laksha Churna; Madhu; Pratisarana; Vranaropaka