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1.  Meeting Report XIII International Charles Heidelberger Symposium and 50 Years of Fluoropyrimidines in Cancer Therapy Held on September 6 to 8, 2007 at New York University Cancer Institute, Smilow Conference Center 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2009;8(5):10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0731.
This conference opened with Franco Muggia, host and principal organizer, thanking Joseph Landolph, co-Chair of the International Scientific Organizing Committee and its members (Franco Muggia, co-Chair, Max Costa, Steven Burakoff, Howard Hochster, Eliezer Huberman, John Bertram, Peter Danenberg, and Richard Moran); the members of the Local Organizing Committee (Drs. Costa, Guttenplan, Geacintov, and Hochster); and the Charles and Patricia Heidelberger Foundation for Cancer Research for developing the scientific program and for working to help him create this special symposium honoring the late Charles Heidelberger, former president of the American Association for Cancer Research, member of the National Academy of Sciences, and extraordinary scientist in the fields of carcinogenesis and cancer chemotherapy. It was most appropriate to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the patent obtained by him for 5-fluorouracil (5FU), a drug that came to symbolize the promise chemotherapy of nonhematologic malignancies. After this compound was shown to be helpful in the treatment of colorectal and breast cancers, Dr. Heidelberger proceeded to develop other fluoropyrimidines and to inspire Ph.D. students and postdoctoral fellows to investigate their mechanisms of action and to develop assays applicable to clinical specimens (what we now refer to as translational science). Steven Burakoff, director of the NYU Cancer Institute (2000 to 2008), followed with welcoming remarks. Dr. Burakoff pointed to his personal fortuitous connection to the Symposium: The famous immunologist, Michael Heidelberger, Charles’ father, who was known as the Father of Immunochemistry, trained Elvin Kabat while at Columbia, who trained Baruch Benacerraf, who moved from NYU to Harvard and subsequently became Burakoff’s mentor. The renowned NYU Division of Immunology carries the name Michael Heidelberger because he spent more than 30 years in the Department of Pathology at the NYU School of Medicine after retiring from Columbia University.
PMCID: PMC3878070  PMID: 19417150
2.  Four Children and Yale: The Making of a Human Geneticist 
Dr. Leon E. Rosenberg delivered the following presentation as the Grover Powers Lecturer on May 14, 2014, which served as the focal point of his return to his “adult home” as a Visiting Professor in the Department of Pediatrics. Grover F. Powers, MD, was one of the most influential figures in American Pediatrics and certainly the leader who created the modern Department of Pediatrics at Yale when he was recruited in 1921 from Johns Hopkins and then served as its second chairman from 1927 to 1951. Dr. Powers was an astute clinician and compassionate physician and fostered and shaped the careers of countless professors, chairs, and outstanding pediatricians throughout the country. This lectureship has continued yearly since it first honored Dr. Powers in 1956. The selection of Dr. Rosenberg for this honor recognizes his seminal role at Yale and throughout the world in the fostering and cultivating of the field of human genetics. Dr. Rosenberg served as the inaugural Chief of a joint Division of Medical Genetics in the Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine; he became Chair when this attained Departmental status. Then he served as Dean of the Medical School from 1984 to 1991, before he became President of the Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Bristol-Myers Squibb and later Senior Molecular Biologist and Professor at Princeton University, until his recent retirement. Dr. Rosenberg has received numerous honors that include the Borden Award from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the McKusick Leadership Award from the American Society for Human Genetics, and election to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences.
PMCID: PMC4144292  PMID: 25191153
3.  Arthrodesing Operations on the Feet 
Dr. Edwin Warner Ryerson was born in New York City, graduated from Harvard, then trained at Boston Children’s Hospital [1]. After visiting centers in Berlin and Vienna he moved to Chicago in 1899, where he accepted a post at Rush Medical College. In 1916 he was named professor and head of orthopaedics at the University of Illinois College of Medicine. Owing to WWI he entered military service in 1918–1919. Afterward he became head of orthopaedics at Northwestern University until his retirement from the university in 1935. He continued in private practice until 1947, when he retired to Florida.
Dr. Ryerson maintained a lifelong interest in teaching and service to the orthopaedic community. He became a member of the American Orthopaedic Association in 1905 and was President in 1925. Dr. Ryerson was active in the Clinical Orthopaedic Society, which also had a role in forming American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [4]. In the archives of the AAOS, he was described as “a forensic and parliamentary expert” [6]. He was a founding member of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery in 1934, became its vice President in 1935, and served on the Board until 1940 [11].
The article reproduced here describes the triple arthrodesis [9]. Ryerson modified a technique earlier described by Hoke which advocated fusing the subtalar and talo-navicular joints [7]. According to Campbell [5] Ryerson popularized the name “triple arthrodesis.” Hoke had not mentioned fusion of the calcaneo-cuboid joint, although Gill, in a discussion following Hoke’s description states, “an additional arthrodesis os calcis and cuboid is unnecessary.” Thus, it is possible Ryerson introduced the third fusion of the triple arthrodesis, although the record is not clear on this point. Ryerson’s operation, however, was commonly used to stabilize the hindfoot in polio patients, and continues to be used less commonly today for other indications. It is likely Ryerson met Adolf Lorenz (1854–1946), the Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Vienna at the time of his visit [8, 10]. Lorenz, in turn, had trained with Eduard Albert (1841–1900) who conceived the idea of arthrodesis for paralyzed extremities [2, 3]. As with most surgeons of the time, Ryerson wrote on a wide variety of topics related to spine surgery, infection, and congenital anomalies, although he seemed to have a particular interest in foot surgery.Edwin W. Ryerson, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983.
A Tribute to the First President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Edwin W. Ryerson, M.D. 1872–1961. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1965;47:1274–1275.Albert E. Einige Fälle künstliche Ankylosenbildung an paralytischen Gliedmaßen. Wien med Presse. 1882;23:725.Albert E. Some cases of artificial anklyosis of paralytic extremities. In: Bick EM, ed. Classics of Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company: 1976.Brown T. The American Orthopaedic Association: A Centennial History. Chicago, IL: The American Orthopaedic Association; 1987.Campbell WC. Operative Orthopedics. Saint Louis: C.V. Mosby Co.; 1939.Heck CV. Commemorative Volume 1933–1983 Fifty Years of Progress. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1983.Hoke M. An operation for stabilizing paralytic feet. Amer J Orthop Surg. 1921;3:494–507.Kotz R, Engel A, Schiller C, ed. 100 Jahre Orthopädie an der Universität Wien. Vienna, Austria: Verlag der Wiener Medizinischen Akademie; 1987.Ryerson EW. Arthrodesing operations on the feet. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1923;5:453–471.Skopec M. Adolf Lorenz und das Ringen um die Verselbständigung der Orthopädie in Wien. In: Wyklicky H, ed. 100 Jahre Orthopädie an der Universität Wien. Vienna, Austria: 1987:1–45.Wickstrom JK. Fifty years of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. 1934. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990;257:3–10.
PMCID: PMC2505279  PMID: 18196368
4.  Rufus A. Lyman: Pharmacy's Lamplighter 
Rufus Ashley Lyman, a physician, was one of the most prominent leaders in US pharmacy education during the first half of the 20th century. He remains the only individual to be the founding dean at colleges of pharmacy at 2 state universities. His role in the creation and sustenance of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education provided a platform for a national community and a sounding board for faculty members and others interested in professional education. His efforts to increase pharmacy educational standards were instrumental in the abandonment of the 2-year graduate in pharmacy (PhG) degree and the universal acceptance of the 4-year bachelor of science (BS) degree. Lyman's simple approach and fierce championship of his beliefs led to his recognition as a lamplighter for the profession.
Curt P. Wimmer, chair of the New York Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association (now the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), introduced the 1947 Remington Honor Medalist, Rufus Ashley Lyman. Wimmer mentioned that Lyman worked as a lamplighter in Omaha, Nebraska, during medical school. Continuing the lamplighter analogy, Wimmer cited Lyman's work as a pharmacy educator and editor: “in the councils of your colleagues, your lamp became a torch emitting red hot sparks that often burnt and seared and scorched—but always made for progress.”1 This description provides an evocative image of one of the most prominent pharmacy educators and leaders of the first half of the 20th century.
PMCID: PMC2739067  PMID: 19777099
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education; pharmacy education; American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
5.  A 20-Year Perspective on Preparation Strategies and Career Planning of Pharmacy Deans 
To provide a longitudinal description of the variety of career paths and preparation strategies of pharmacy deans.
A descriptive cross-sectional study design using survey research methodology was used. Chief executive officer (CEO) deans at every full and associate member institution of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) in the United States as of May 1, 2009, were potential subjects.
The database housed 90.3% (N = 93) of all current (excluding interim/acting) CEO deans. Of the 4 cohorts across time (1991, 1996, 2002, and 2009 snapshots), the 2009 cohort had the highest percentage of deans following either the hierarchical or nontraditional career paths.
Deans named since 2002 have spent less time collectively in the professoriate than cohorts before them. One reason for this is the increase in the number of deans that followed nontraditional career paths and who spent little or no time in the professoriate prior to their first deanship. This also could be due to the increased demand for individuals to serve as dean due to retirements and the creation of new institutions.
PMCID: PMC2996752  PMID: 21301596
dean; career planning
6.  Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(6):e1001653.
Catherine J. Evans and colleagues studied how many and where centenarians in England die, their causes of death, and how these measures have changed from 2001 to 2010.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity.
Methods and Findings
This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ≥100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians’ place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100–115 years). Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%–57.4%) in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%–27.2%) or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%–35.0%) or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%–27.6%). The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (−0.36% annually, 95% CI −0.63% to −0.09%, p = 0.014), while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI −0.06% to 0.57%, p = 0.09). Dying with frailty was common with “old age” stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%–18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%–6.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%–28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%–0.9%] for those aged 80–84 years) and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%–4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%–25.4%] for those aged 80–84 years) and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%–8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%–19.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–0.99, p<0.001).
Centenarians are more likely to have causes of death certified as pneumonia and frailty and less likely to have causes of death of cancer or ischemic heart disease, compared with younger elderly patients. To reduce reliance on hospital care at the end of life requires recognition of centenarians’ increased likelihood to “acute” decline, notably from pneumonia, and wider provision of anticipatory care to enable people to remain in their usual residence, and increasing care home bed capacity.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors’ Summary
People who live to be more than 100 years old—centenarians—are congratulated and honored in many countries. In the UK, for example, the Queen sends a personal greeting to individuals on their 100th birthday. The number of UK residents who reach this notable milestone is increasing steadily, roughly doubling every 10 years. The latest Office of National Statistics (ONS) figures indicate that 13,350 centenarians were living in the UK in 2012 (20 centenarians per 100,000 people in the population) compared to only 7,740 in 2002. If current trends continue, by 2066 there may be more than half a million centenarians living in the UK. And similar increases in the numbers of centenarians are being seen in many other countries. The exact number of centenarians living worldwide is uncertain but is thought to be around 317,000 and is projected to rise to about 18 million by the end of this century.
Why Was This Study Done?
Traditional blessings often include the wish that the blessing’s recipient lives to be at least 100 years old. However, extreme longevity is associated with increasing frailty—declining physical function, increasing disability, and increasing vulnerability to a poor clinical outcome following, for example, an infection. Consequently, many centenarians require 24-hour per day care in a nursing home or a residential care home. Moreover, although elderly people, including centenarians, generally prefer to die in a home environment rather than a clinical environment, many centenarians end up dying in a hospital. To ensure that centenarians get their preferred end-of-life care, policy makers and clinicians need to know as much as possible about the health and social needs of this specific and unique group of elderly people. In this population-based observational study, the researchers examine trends in the place of death and factors associated with the place of death among centenarians in England over a 10-year period.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers extracted information about the place and cause of death of centenarians in England between 2001 and 2010 from the ONS death registration database, linked these data with area level information on deprivation and care-home bed capacity, and analyzed the data statistically. Over the 10-year study period, 35,867 centenarians (mainly women, average age 101 years) died in England. The annual number of centenarian deaths increased from 2,823 in 2001 to 4,393 in 2010. Overall, three-quarters of centenarian death certificates stated “old age” as the cause of death. About a quarter of centenarians died in the hospital, a quarter died in a nursing home, and a third died in a care home without nursing; only one in ten centenarians died at home. The proportion of deaths in a nursing home increased slightly over the study period but there was little change in the number of hospital deaths. Compared with younger age groups (80–84 year olds), centenarians were more likely to die from pneumonia and “old age” and less likely to die from cancer and heart disease. Among centenarians, dying in the hospital was more likely to be reported to be associated with pneumonia or heart disease than with dementia; death in the hospital was also associated with having four or more contributing causes of death and with living in a deprived area. Finally, living in an area with a higher care-home bed capacity was associated with a lower risk of dying in the hospital.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that many centenarians have outlived death from the chronic diseases that are the common causes of death among younger groups of elderly people and that dying in the hospital is often associated with pneumonia. Overall, these findings suggest that centenarians are a group of people living with a risk of death from increasing frailty that is exacerbated by acute lung infection. The accuracy of these findings is likely to be affected by the quality of UK death certification data. Although this is generally high, the strength of some of the reported associations may be affected, for example, by the tendency of clinicians to record the cause of death in the very elderly as “old age” to provide some comfort to surviving relatives. Importantly, however, these findings suggest that care-home capacity and the provision of anticipatory care should be increased in England (and possibly in other countries) to ensure that more of the growing number of centenarians can end their long lives outside hospital.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Institute on Aging provides information about healthy aging, including information on longevity (in English and Spanish)
The National End of Life Care Intelligence Network, England is a government organization that gathers data on care provided to adults approaching the end of life to improve service quality and productivity
The Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance promotes universal access to affordable palliative care through the support of regional and national palliative care organizations
The non-for-profit organization AgeUK provides information about all aspects of aging
Wikipedia has a page on centenarians (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population; its “Living Beyond 100” report examines the research base on centenarians and calls for policy to reflect the ongoing UK increase in extreme longevity
This study is part of GUIDE_Care, a project initiated by the Cicely Saunders Institute to investigate patterns in place of death and the factors that affect these patterns
PMCID: PMC4043499  PMID: 24892645
7.  Thank you for the privilege 
Thank you for the privilege to serve as the EFOST President.
I am deeply humbled for having been selected to serve as the new President of EFOST: this is not for the work that I have undertaken, but for what others around me have done.
I hope that my past duties as President of BOSTAA, and as president of the Sports and Exercise Medicine of the Royal Society of Medicine will help me in performing these my new duties.
It all started in 1992, and the EFOST is now just leaving its adolescent phase, with all its teenager problems.
There is truth in Newton’s quote about standing on the shoulders of giants. Francois, you and the other leaders at EFOST have generated the momentum to keep moving EFOST forward, and the wisdom to keep it moving in the right direction. We all benefited from your contributions, dedication and volunteerism.
To step into this role feels a little like steering a train. EFOST operates under a strategic plan which sets our direction and controls how the changing succession of leaders navigates. This plan is critical to helping us maintain focus, direction, and purpose.
It is crucial that we focus on our strategic direction. However, we must continue to monitor the environment around us. We must recognize the changing influences so that we can respond appropriately. Europe is in a state of flux, with great challenges, both scientifically and economically. Strategically, we recognized all this a while ago, and we have tried, and succeeded, to be inclusive. The policy has worked, and we have embraced, and we have been embraced, by several countries during Dr Kelberine’s tenure. I can only thank him and the Board for this vision, and can confirm that I wish this train to continue to move in this direction.
A train can only move if it is on the right tracks: I look forward to work with the great engineers of the organization, and welcome the help of the Board of Trustees to keep us on track.
EFOST was born as a get together of a group of friends, and is the baby that was born from the ideas and ideals of several individuals who are in this room today. To them, my thanks for such ideas and ideals, and an assurance: I wish to uphold them. EFOST will need to move forward, and to ensure that the needs of the Sports Trauma Societies which form, sustain, foster and nurture it are satisfied. For this, one of the charges given to me was to change the bylaws. The process was thorny, but the results have been here for all to see: a flexible, dynamic Executive Board, and a Board at Large which is really representative of all Europe. From you, I expect support. To you, I offer dedication.
The life of a President is often lonely. I am a social animal, and I do not wish to be lonely. I intend to use the help and advice of my Past President, Francois, and to have the support of my Vice President, Gernot. I take this opportunity to thank them in advance, and to apologise to them in advance: I know that it is difficult to work with me. I want things yesterday, and, despite 28 years outside of Italy, my Italian quick fire temper can still surface.
EFOST is a great organization, and it has forged great links. You have all seen how the work that Burt has undertaken and the endless meetings that Francois has held have borne fruits: the EFOST-AOSSM traveling fellowship is now a reality, and the support given by all of you on the Board has been superb: many thanks.
One of our Past Presidents, Paco Biosca, is now the Chief Medical Officer of Chelsea: with him, we have succeeded in establishing a football Team Physician fellowship, and we look forward to strengthening these ties.
More on fellowships during the years of my tenure. But remember: it will not be my doing, it will be the work of all of you, of all of us.
EFOST will need to speak with one voice to the world and the sister organizations. In Europe, we have all too often projected the wrong image of weak leadership and of having more than one train controller. The work that Francois has undertaken has ensured that everybody on the Executive Board sang from the same hymn sheet, and that the front that EFOST presents is united and strong. I intend to continue along these lines: too many at the helm is never too good. Each two years, there can only be one.
No doubt somebody and some organizations will feel challenged. Let me remind all of you that EFOST was never on a conquest trip: EFOST wants to build bridges, not to burn them. EFOST wants to have friends, not enemies. EFOST wants a friendly efficient network, not destructive wars.
We are grateful to our mother, EFORT, and we thank it for its support.
We are close to our sister organisation, ESSKA, and we welcome its President to our Congress: Thank you, Joao. ISAKOS has graced us with unending support: we thank Philippe Neyret, the President Elect, for having graced us with such great scientific input.
ECOSEP is a natural sister organisation and ally: Nikos, you are welcome amongst us today.
Communication is always important: my thanks will have to be conveyed to Dr Doral and Dr Mann and their team for the Newsletter. Only if you have never read it will you ignore the endless hours that Mahmut and Gideon put into it: to them, my vote of thanks.
A scientific organization cannot progress without a journal. You all know about Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (MLTJ), the official journal of EFOST and ISMuLT. I intend to continue to be the Chief Editor of MLTJ, and I can just see the challenges ahead. Let me tell you: the first two years have been hard, and only now we are starting to see the evidence of the hard work that my Associate Editor, Dr Oliva, has undertaken. It is a baby. Its nourishing milk is the high quality work that it publishes. Unless EFOST and its members nurture it, it will not thrive. Unless we send work to it, it will not flourish. Unless we find funds to keep the spirit of EFOST going through it, it will not be: as the President of EFOST and as the Editor in Chief of MLTJ, I prompt you to keep it going. Please remember that all the abstracts of this congress are available, for free, on the MLTJ platform: please visit it, and contribute to the Journal.
An organization cannot survive without appropriate finances: many thanks, Jose, for having put in place the infrastructure for our safety and financial survival. I am sure that you will keep us right, and that you will reassure the membership that their dues are well spent.
We would not have been able to mount such a great congress without the help of our trade partners: to them, my thanks for the continuing support of EFOST.
We are now coming to the end of the WSTC – EFOST congress. GCO has helped us, and will continue to do so. Claudine, Simon: my thanks to you. In difficult personal circumstances, you have been close to EFOST, and you have believed in us. We look forward to continuing to work with you.
I look forward to continuing to work with the organisation of which I have been President, BOSTAA: the deep friendship that ties me to Roger, the ougoing president, and Mike, who will be president starting in a couple of hours, will make things easier.
This is an exciting time. Not just for me, as the new leader EFOST, but for all of you, for all of us. The opportunities are endless. I will work to ensure that, when my tenure is over and the new President will step into this role, he can see even farther down the tracks. The goal is to help usher the EFOST to a new place; not because we changed direction, but because we moved forward even faster.
Thank you again for this opportunity to serve you as president of EFOST. I appreciate your faith: I will do all I can to make these two years successful, enjoyable, and fun.
Nicola Maffulli
PMCID: PMC3671359
8.  The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877–1950) 
The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today’s and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin’s life.
Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov’s exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73.
His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the rediscovery of gastrin. He established a famous school of gastrointestinal physiologists at McGill University. He supported his trainees and helped them establish their careers. He received many honors: a DSc in London, England, and an LLD from Dalhousie University. Most importantly, he was the recipient of the Friedenwald Medal of the American Gastroenterological Association for lifelong contributions to the field. Dr Babkin taught us his philosophical aspect of approaching physiology, his devotion to his disciples and his overall kindness. Most importantly, he has proven that one can achieve international recognition by publishing mainly in Canadian journals. He is an example to follow.
PMCID: PMC2659943  PMID: 17001399
Biography; Boris Petrovich Babkin; Brain-gut-brain interaction; Friedenwald Medal; Gastrin; GI secretions; Ivan Petrovich Pavlov; McGill University; Mentor; Physiologist
9.  An interview with Mark G. Hans 
It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans' Master's Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of "Essentials of Facial Growth", being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans's academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of Dental Medicine and residents in the Department of Orthodontics at CWRU. Part of his clinical practice at the university is devoted to the treatment of craniofacial anomalies and to special needs patients. Prof. Mark Hans has been wisely conducting the Joint Cephalometric Experts Group (JCEG) since 2008, held at the School of Dental Medicine (CWRU). He coordinates a team composed of American, Asian, Brazilian and European researchers and clinicians, working on the transition from 2D cephalometrics to 3D cone beam imaging as well as 3D models for diagnosis, treatment planning and assessment of orthodontic outcomes. Dr. Hans travels to different countries to give lectures on his fields of interest. Besides, he still maintains a clinical orthodontic practice at his private office. In every respect, Dr. Hans coordinates all activities with particular skill and performance. Married to Susan, they have two sons, Thomas and Jack and one daughter, Sarah and he enjoys playing jazz guitar for family and friends.
Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves Nojima
PMCID: PMC4296620  PMID: 25162563
10.  Initial evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program 
Nursing outlook  2014;62(6):394-401.
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars (RWJF NFS) program was developed to enhance the career trajectory of young nursing faculty and to train the next generation of nurse scholars. Although there are publications that describe the RWJF NFS, no evaluative reports have been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first three cohorts (n = 42 scholars) of the RWJF NFS program.
A descriptive research design was used. Data were derived from quarterly and annual reports, and a questionnaire (seven open-ended questions) was administered via Survey Monkey Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA).
During their tenure, scholars had on average six to seven articles published, were teaching/mentoring at the graduate level (93%), and holding leadership positions at their academic institutions (100%). Eleven scholars (26%) achieved fellowship in the American Academy of Nursing, one of the highest nursing honors. The average ratings on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all supportive) to 10 (extremely supportive) of whether or not RWJF had helped scholars achieve their goals in teaching, service, research, and leadership were 7.7, 8.0, 9.4, and 9.5, respectively. The majority of scholars reported a positive, supportive relationship with their primary nursing and research mentors; although, several scholars noted challenges in connecting for meetings or telephone calls with their national nursing mentors.
These initial results of the RWJF NFS program highlight the success of the program in meeting its overall goal—preparing the next generation of nursing academic scholars for leadership in the profession.
PMCID: PMC4252366  PMID: 25085329
Faculty development; Early career award; Mentoring
11.  NIA at Middle Age – Its Past, Present, and Future 
The National Institute on Aging at NIH leads the Federal effort conducting and supporting research on aging. It is also designated as the lead within NIH for research on Alzheimer’s disease. Since NIA’s establishment in 1974, the Institute has grown to a billion dollar enterprise, featuring a balanced program of basic, clinical, and behavioral and social science. Both investigator-initiated research and strategic investments have been critical to the NIA’s success in bringing new insights and understandings to aging processes and diseases and conditions associated with advancing age. In recent years, constraints in the growth of resources have posed new challenges, as the Institute and NIH leadership seek to maintain a robust and productive program. The authors will review the history of the NIA, discuss current programs and priorities, and point to new directions in research, looking ahead.
PMCID: PMC3374902  PMID: 22646926
Research; Funding; Training
12.  A National Cohort Study of MD–PhD Graduates of Medical Schools With and Without Funding from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences’ Medical Scientist Training Program 
To determine whether pre-matriculation characteristics and career-setting preferences of MD–PhD graduates differ according to their schools’ funding from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences’ Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP).
The Association of American Medical Colleges provided de-identified records for the national cohort of all 1993–2000 U.S. medical school matriculants, 3,180 of whom graduated with dual MD–PhD degrees by March 2, 2009. The authors examined prematriculation characteristics, educational outcomes, and career-setting preferences at graduation in association with MD–PhD program graduation from schools with long-standing MSTP-funded, recent MSTP-funded, and non-MSTP-funded programs.
Of 3,142 MD–PhD graduates with prematriculation data, 30% were women and 36% were non-white. Graduates from long-standing MSTP-funded schools (63% of all graduates) composed a more highly selective group academically (based on MCAT scores) than did graduates from recent MSTP-funded (6%) and non-MSTP-funded schools (31%). Women and non-white graduates were more likely to have graduated from long-standing MSTP-funded schools. Controlling for MSTP funding and other variables, graduates with total debt of $100,000 or more were more likely to indicate non-research-related career-setting preferences (non-university clinical practice: odds ratio [OR] 3.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86–6.87; undecided/other: OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.29–3.60). Neither gender nor race/ethnicity was independently associated with graduates’ career-setting preferences.
Women and non-white MD–PhD graduates more likely graduated from long-standing MSTP than non-MSTP-funded schools. Controlling for institutional MSTP funding, MD–PhD graduates with high debt were more likely to indicate non-research-related career-setting preferences.
PMCID: PMC3145809  PMID: 21694566
13.  M. Deborrah Hyde, MD, MS: the second African-American female neurosurgeon. 
BACKGROUND: A less-publicized consequence of the civil rights movement in the mid-20th century is the door of opportunity it provided for African-American women to become neurosurgeons, beginning in 1984 with Alexa I. Canady (University of Minnesota). Unfortunately, the exploits of a contemporary African-American woman neurosurgeon, M. Deborrah Hyde, have remained largely in obscurity. This report details the career and exploits of Hyde, one of the first women to receive neurosurgery training in Ohio. METHODS: A comprehensive review of pertinent modern and historical records spanning the past century was performed. RESULTS: Born in 1949 in Laurel, MS, Hyde received her BS with honors from Tougaloo College in 1969 and her MS in biology at Cleveland State University. Despite being told in medical school that she was not qualified to compete with "better-prepared" nonminority students, Hyde received her MD from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in 1977, earning election into the Alpha Omega Alpha medical honor society. The next year, she began neurosurgery residency at Case Western under Dr. Robert A. Ratcheson and Dr. Robert F. Spetzler, finishing in 1982 as the program's first female graduate. In 1985, Hyde became the second African-American woman certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery and in 1991 she established the Beacon of Hope Scholarship Foundation for underprivileged youth. She has subsequently continued a distinguished career in private practice, presently residing in West Hills, CA. CONCLUSION: Hyde's diligence, perseverance and commitment enabled her to overcome intense sexism and racism to train at Case Western, becoming the second African-American woman neurosurgeon and the third woman trained in Ohio (first and second of which were Carole Miller and Janet Bay). As the first woman to train under Ratcheson and Spetzler, her determination, excellence and generosity continue to inspire people of all races.
PMCID: PMC2574399  PMID: 17987924
14.  Presentation of the 2009 Morris F Collen Award to Betsy L Humphreys, with remarks from the recipient 
The American College of Medical Informatics is an honorary society established to recognize those who have made sustained contributions to the field. Its highest award, for lifetime achievement and contributions to the discipline of medical informatics, is the Morris F Collen Award. Dr Collen's own efforts as a pioneer in the field stand out as the embodiment of creativity, intellectual rigor, perseverance, and personal integrity. The Collen Award, given once a year, honors an individual whose attainments have, throughout a whole career, substantially advanced the science and art of biomedical informatics. In 2009, the college was proud to present the Collen Award to Betsy Humphreys, MLS, deputy director of the National Library of Medicine. Ms Humphreys has dedicated her career to enabling more effective integration and exchange of electronic information. Her work has involved new knowledge sources and innovative strategies for advancing health data standards to accomplish these goals. Ms Humphreys becomes the first librarian to receive the Collen Award. Dr Collen, on the occasion of his 96th birthday, personally presented the award to Ms Humphreys.
PMCID: PMC2995660  PMID: 20595319
The purpose of this study was to review institutional statistics provided in dean's letters and determine the percentage of honors awarded by institution and clerkship specialty.
Institutional and clerkship aggregate data were compiled from a review of dean's letters from 80 United States medical schools. The percentage of honors awarded during 3rd year clerkships during 2005 were collected for analysis. Across clerkship specialties, there were no statistically significant differences between the mean percentage of honors given by the medical schools examined with Internal Medicine (27.6%) the low and Psychiatry (33.5%) the high. However, inter-institutional variability observed within each clerkship was high, with surgery clerkship percentage of honors ranging from 2% to 75% of the students. This suggests some schools may be more lenient and other more stringent in awarding honors to their students. This inter-institutional variability makes it difficult to compare honors received by students from different medical schools and weakens the receipt of honors as a primary tool for evaluating potential incoming residents.
PMCID: PMC2723699  PMID: 19742092
16.  Succession Planning in US Pharmacy Schools 
The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice.
PMCID: PMC2907851  PMID: 20798799
succession planning; leadership; faculty development; mentoring; administration
17.  Association of Medical Students' Reports of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries and Medical School Policies and Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(10):e1001743.
Aaron Kesselheim and colleagues compared US medical students' survey responses regarding pharmaceutical company interactions with the schools' AMSA PharmFree scorecard and Institute on Medicine as a Profession's (IMAP) scores.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors.
Methods and Findings
Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50–2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50–2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.63). Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19–0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19–1.04) and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15–0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14–0.95) than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly versus privately funded school did not alter the association. Policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus were associated with students reporting having not received gifts and having not interacted with marketing representatives. Policy dimensions reflecting the regulation of industry involvement in educational activities (e.g., continuing medical education, travel compensation, and scholarships) were associated with perceived separation between faculty and industry. The study is limited by potential for recall bias and the cross-sectional nature of the survey, as school curricula and industry interaction policies may have changed since the time of the survey administration and study analysis.
As medical schools review policies regulating medical students' industry interactions, limitations on receipt of gifts and meals and participation of faculty in speaking bureaus should be emphasized, and policy makers should pay greater attention to less research-intensive institutions.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Making and selling prescription drugs and medical devices is big business. To promote their products, pharmaceutical and medical device companies build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, by organizing educational meetings and sponsored events, and by giving gifts. Financial relationships begin early in physicians' careers, with companies providing textbooks and other gifts to first-year medical students. In medical school settings, manufacturers may help to inform trainees and physicians about developments in health care, but they also create the potential for harm to patients and health care systems. These interactions may, for example, reduce trainees' and trained physicians' skepticism about potentially misleading promotional claims and may encourage physicians to prescribe new medications, which are often more expensive than similar unbranded (generic) drugs and more likely to be recalled for safety reasons than older drugs. To address these and other concerns about the potential career-long effects of interactions between medical trainees and industry, many teaching hospitals and medical schools have introduced policies to limit such interactions. The development of these policies has been supported by expert professional groups and medical societies, some of which have created scales to evaluate the strength of the implemented industry interaction policies.
Why Was This Study Done?
The impact of policies designed to limit interactions between students and industry on student behavior is unclear, and it is not known which aspects of the policies are most predictive of student behavior. This information is needed to ensure that the policies are working and to identify ways to improve them. Here, the researchers investigate which medical school characteristics and which aspects of industry interaction policies are most predictive of students' reported behaviors and beliefs by comparing information collected in a national survey of US medical students with the strength of their schools' industry interaction policies measured on two scales—the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers compared information about reported gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and the perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation collected from 1,610 medical students at 121 US medical schools with AMSA and IMAP scores for the schools evaluated a year earlier. Students at schools with the highest ranked interaction policies based on the AMSA score were 63% less likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools. Students at the highest ranked schools based on the IMAP score were about half as likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools, although this finding was not statistically significant (it could be a chance finding). Similarly, students at the highest ranked schools were 70% less likely to interact with sales representatives as students at the lowest ranked schools. These associations became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for the amount of research funding each school received from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Policies limiting gifts, meals, and being a part of speaking bureaus (where companies pay speakers to present information about the drugs for dinners and other events) were associated with students' reports of receiving no gifts and of non-interaction with sales representatives. Finally, policies regulating industry involvement in educational activities were associated with the perceived separation between faculty and industry, which was regarded as adequate by most of the students at schools with such policies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that policies designed to limit industry interactions with medical students need to address multiple aspects of these interactions to achieve changes in the behavior and attitudes of trainees, but that policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus may be particularly important. These findings also suggest that the level of NIH funding plays an important role in students' self-reported behaviors and their perceptions of industry, possibly because institutions with greater NIH funding have the resources needed to implement effective policies. The accuracy of these findings may be limited by recall bias (students may have reported their experiences inaccurately), and by the possibility that industry interaction policies may have changed in the year that elapsed between policy grading and the student survey. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that limitations on gifts should be emphasized when academic medical centers refine their policies on interactions between medical students and industry and that particular attention should be paid to the design and implementation of policies that regulate industry interactions in institutions with lower levels of NIH funding.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The UK General Medical Council provides guidance on financial and commercial arrangements and conflicts of interest as part of its good medical practice document, which describes what is required of all registered doctors in the UK
Information about the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Just Medicine campaign (formerly the PharmFree campaign) and about the AMSA Scorecard is available
Information about the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) and about its Conflicts of Interest Policy Database is also available
“Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide” is a manual prepared by Health Action International and the World Health Organization that medical schools can use to train students how to recognize and respond to pharmaceutical promotion
The US Institute of Medicine's report “Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice” recommends steps to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest
The ALOSA Foundation provides evidence-based, non-industry-funded education about treating common conditions and using prescription drugs
PMCID: PMC4196737  PMID: 25314155
18.  Global Estimates of the Burden of Injury and Illness at Work in 2012 
This article reviews the present indicators, trends, and recent solutions and strategies to tackle major global and country problems in safety and health at work. The article is based on the Yant Award Lecture of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) at its 2013 Congress. We reviewed employment figures, mortality rates, occupational burden of disease and injuries, reported accidents, surveys on self-reported occupational illnesses and injuries, attributable fractions, national economic cost estimates of work-related injuries and ill health, and the most recent information on the problems from published papers, documents, and electronic data sources of international and regional organizations, in particular the International Labor Organization (ILO), World Health Organization (WHO), and European Union (EU), institutions, agencies, and public websites. We identified and analyzed successful solutions, programs, and strategies to reduce the work-related negative outcomes at various levels. Work-related illnesses that have a long latency period and are linked to ageing are clearly on the increase, while the number of occupational injuries has gone down in industrialized countries thanks to both better prevention and structural changes. We have estimated that globally there are 2.3 million deaths annually for reasons attributed to work. The biggest component is linked to work-related diseases, 2.0 million, and 0.3 million linked to occupational injuries. However, the division of these two factors varies depending on the level of development. In industrialized countries the share of deaths caused by occupational injuries and work-related communicable diseases is very low while non-communicable diseases are the overwhelming causes in those countries. Economic costs of work-related injury and illness vary between 1.8 and 6.0% of GDP in country estimates, the average being 4% according to the ILO. Singapore's economic costs were estimated to be equivalent to 3.2% of GDP based on a preliminary study. If economic losses would take into account involuntary early retirement then costs may be considerably higher, for example, in Finland up to 15% of GDP, while this estimate covers various disorders where work and working conditions may be just one factor of many or where work may aggravate the disease, injury, or disorders, such as traffic injuries, mental disorders, alcoholism, and genetically induced problems. Workplace health promotion, services, and safety and health management, however, may have a major preventive impact on those as well. Leadership and management at all levels, and engagement of workers are key issues in changing the workplace culture. Vision Zero is a useful concept and philosophy in gradually eliminating any harm at work. Legal and enforcement measures that themselves support companies and organizations need to be supplemented with economic justification and convincing arguments to reduce corner-cutting in risk management, and to avoid short- and long-term disabilities, premature retirement, and corporate closures due to mismanagement and poor and unsustainable work life. We consider that a new paradigm is needed where good work is not just considered a daily activity. We need to foster stable conditions and circumstances and sustainable work life where the objective is to maintain your health and work ability beyond the legal retirement age. We need safe and healthy work, for life.
PMCID: PMC4003859  PMID: 24219404
burden of injury and illness at work; global estimates; mortality; occupational accidents; occupational exposures; work-related disease
19.  Educational Outcomes for MD-PhD Program Matriculants: A National Cohort Study 
Educational outcomes for a national cohort of MD-PhD program matriculants have not been described.
The authors used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with overall MD-PhD program non-completion (both MD-only graduation and medical-school withdrawal/dismissal) compared with MD-PhD program graduation among the 1995–2000 national cohort of MD-PhD program enrollees at matriculation at medical schools with and without National Institutes of Health Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) support.
Of 2,582 MD-PhD program enrollees in this national cohort (1,729[67.0%] men; 853[33.0%] women), 1,885 (73.0%) were MD-PhD-program graduates, 597 (23.1%) were MD-only graduates, and 100 (3.9%) withdrew/were dismissed from medical school. Enrollees at non-MSTP-funded schools compared with MSTP-funded schools (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60–2.41) and who had lower Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores (<31 vs. ≥36: AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.20–2.14; 31–33 vs. ≥36: AOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01–1.70)were more likely to have left the MD-PhD program; enrollees who reported greater planned career involvement in research (AOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51–0.84) and matriculated in more recent years (AOR,0.90; 95% CI, 0.85–0.96) were less likely to have left the MD-PhD program. Gender, race/ethnicity, and pre-medical debt were not independently associated with overall MD-PhD program non-completion.
Most MD-PhD matriculants completed the MD-PhD program, and 85.7% (597/697) of non-completers graduated from medical school. The authors’ findings regarding variables associated with MD-PhD program attrition can inform efforts to recruit and support MD-PhD program enrollees through successful completion of the dual-degree program.
PMCID: PMC3874256  PMID: 24280845
20.  Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950 
Born in 1902 to the earliest chiropractor known to practice in Canada, Joshua Norman Haldeman would develop national and international stature as a political economist, provincial and national professional leader, and sportsman/adventurer. A 1926 graduate of the Palmer School of Chiropractic, he would maintain a lifelong friendship with B.J. Palmer, and served in the late 1940s as Canada’s representative to the Board of Control of the International Chiropractors’ Association. Yet, he would also maintain strong alliances with broad-scope leaders in Canada and the United States, including the administrators of the National and Lincoln chiropractic schools. Haldeman, who would practice chiropractic in Regina for at least 15 years, was instrumental in obtaining, and is credited with composing the wording of, Saskatchewan’s 1943 Chiropractic Act. He served on the province’s first board of examiners and the provincial society’s first executive board. The following year Dr. Haldeman represented Saskatchewan in the deliberations organized by Walter Sturdy, D.C. that gave rise to the Dominion Council of Canadian Chiropractors, forerunner of today’s Canadian Chiropractic Association. As a member of the Dominion Council he fought for inclusion of chiropractors as commissioned officers during World War II, and participated in the formation of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, which he subsequently served as a member of the first board of directors. Dr. Haldeman also earned a place in the political history of Canada, owing to his service as research director for Technocracy, Inc. of Canada, his national chairmanship of the Social Credit Party during the second world war, and his unsuccessful bid for the national parliament. His vocal opposition to Communism during the war briefly landed him in jail. His 1950 relocation of his family and practice to Pretoria, South Africa would open a new page in his career: once again as professional pioneer, but also as aviator and explorer. Although he died in 1974, the values he instilled in his son, Scott Haldeman, D.C., Ph.D., M.D. continue to influence the profession.
PMCID: PMC2485067
chiropractic; manipulation; Canada
21.  Alzheimer's disease diagnostic criteria: practical applications 
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be identified prior to the occurrence of dementia by using biomarkers. Three phases of AD are recognized: an asymptomatic biomarker-positive phase, a phase with positive biomarkers and mild cognitive deficits, and a dementia phase. Codification of these phases was first accomplished in 2007 by an International Work Group (IWG) led by Bruno Dubois. The definitions relevant to the approach were further clarified in 2010. In 2011, the National Institute on Aging/Alzheimer's Association (NIA/AA) established three work groups to develop definitions and criteria for these three phases of AD. The criteria of the IWG and those of the NIA/AA have many similarities and important differences. The two sets of criteria concur in recognizing the onset of AD prior to dementia. The three phases of AD described in both sets of criteria embrace the same clinical entities but with different terminologies and emphases. IWG criteria emphasize a single clinico-biological approach that includes all symptomatic phases of AD and uses the same diagnostic framework across the spectrum of symptomatic disease; the NIA/AA criteria apply different diagnostic approaches to the three phases. Biomarkers are an integrated and required part of the IWG criteria and are optional in the NIA/AA approach. Both sets of criteria have substantial strengths, but new information demonstrates shortcomings that can be addressed in future revisions of the criteria. These new criteria have profound implications, including greatly increasing the number of people identified as suffering from AD and increasing the time that patients will spend with knowledge of the presence of the disease.
PMCID: PMC3580392  PMID: 22947665
22.  Graduate Medical Education Leadership Development Curriculum for Program Directors 
Program director (PD) orientation to roles and responsibilities takes on many forms and processes. This article describes one institution's innovative arm of faculty development directed specifically toward PDs and associate PDs to provide institutional resources and information for those in graduate medical education leadership roles.
The designated institutional official created a separate faculty development curriculum for leadership development of PDs and associate PDs, modeled on the Association of American Medical Colleges-GRA (Group on Resident Affairs) graduate medical education leadership development course for designated institutional officials. It consists of monthly 90-minute sessions at the end of a working day, for new and experienced PDs alike, with mentoring provided by experienced PDs. We describe 2 iterations of the curriculum. To provide ongoing support a longitudinal curriculum of special topics has followed in the interval between core curriculum offerings.
Communication between PDs across disciplines has improved. The broad, inclusive nature allowed for experienced PDs to take advantage of the learning opportunity while providing exchange and mentorship through sharing of lessons learned. The participants rated the course highly and education process and outcome measures for the programs have been positive, including increased accreditation cycle lengths.
It is important and valuable to provide PDs and associate PDs with administrative leadership development and resources, separate from general faculty development, to meet their role-specific needs for orientation and development and to better equip them to meet graduate medical education leadership challenges. This endeavor provides a foundational platform for designated institutional official and PD interactions to work on program building and improvement.
PMCID: PMC3184915  PMID: 22655147
23.  Health Disparities Grants Funded by National Institute on Aging: Trends Between 2000 and 2010 
The Gerontologist  2012;52(6):748-758.
Purpose of the Study:
The present study examined the characteristics of health disparities grants funded by National Institute on Aging (NIA) from 2000 to 2010. Objectives were (a) to examine longitudinal trends in health disparities–related grants funded by NIA and (b) to identify moderators of these trends.
Design and Methods:
Our primary data source was the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures and Results (RePORTER) system. The RePORTER data were merged with data from the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. General linear models were used to examine the longitudinal trends and how these trends were associated with type of grant and institutional characteristics.
NIA funded 825 grants on health disparities between 2000 and 2010, expending approximately 330 million dollars. There was an overall linear increase over time in both the total number of grants and amount of funding, with an outlying spike during 2009. These trends were significantly influenced by several moderators including funding mechanism and type of institution.
The findings highlight NIA’s current efforts to fund health disparities grants to reduce disparities among older adults. Gerontology researchers may find this information very useful for their future grant submissions.
PMCID: PMC3495907  PMID: 22454392
Health disparities; National Institute on Aging (NIA); Funding; Grants; National Institutes of Health (NIH); Aging
24.  Respiratory medicine and research at McGill University: A historical perspective 
The history of respiratory medicine and research at McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) is tightly linked with the growth of academic medicine within its teaching hospitals. Dr Jonathan Meakins, a McGill medical graduate, was recruited to the Royal Victoria Hospital in 1924; as McGill’s first full-time clinical professor and Physician-in-Chief at the Royal Victoria Hospital. His focus on respiratory medicine led to the publication of his first book, Respiratory Function in Disease, in 1925. Meakins moved clinical laboratories from the Department of Pathology and placed them within the hospital. As such, he was responsible for the development of hospital-based research.
Dr Ronald Christie was recruited as a postdoctoral fellow by Meakins in the early 1930s. After his fellowship, he returned to Britain but came back to McGill from St Bartholomew’s Hospital (London, United Kingdom) to become Chair of the Department of Medicine in 1955; he occupied the post for 10 years. He published extensively on the mechanical properties of the lung in common diseases such as emphysema and heart failure.
Dr David Bates was among Dr Christie’s notable recruits; Bates in turn, recruited Drs Maurice McGregor, Margaret Becklake, William Thurlbeck, Joseph Milic-Emili, Nicholas Anthonisen, Charles Bryan and Peter Macklem. Bates published extensively in the area of respiratory physiology and, with Macklem and Christie, coauthored the book Respiratory Function in Disease, which integrated physiology into the analysis of disease.
Dr JA Peter Paré joined the attending staff of the Royal Victoria Hospital and the Royal Edward Laurentian Hospital in 1949. A consummate clinician and teacher, he worked closely with Dr Robert Fraser, the Chair of Radiology, to write the reference text Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. This was a sentinel contribution in its focus on radiographic findings as the foundation for a systematic approach to diagnosis, and the correlation of these findings with pathological and clinical observations.
Dr Margaret Becklake immigrated to Montreal from South Africa in 1957. Her research focused on occupational lung disease. She established the respiratory epidemiology research unit at McGill. She was renowned for her insistence on the importance of a clearly stated, relevant research question and for her clarity and insight.
Dr William Thurlbeck, another South African, had developed an interest in emphysema and chronic bronchitis and applied a structure-function approach in collaboration with Peter Macklem and other respirologists. As chief of the Royal Victoria autopsy service, he used pathological specimens to develop a semiquantitative grading system of gross emphysema severity. He promoted the use of morphometry to quantify structural abnormalities.
Dr James Hogg studied the functional consequences of pathological processes for lung function during his PhD studies under the joint supervision of Drs Macklem and Thurlbeck. His contributions to understanding the structural basis for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are numerous, reflecting his transdisciplinary knowledge of respiratory pathology and physiology. He trained other outstanding investigators such as Peter Paré Jr, with whom he founded the Pulmonary Research Laboratory in St Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver (British Columbia) in 1977.
A signal event in the evolution of respiratory research at McGill was the construction of the Meakins-Christie Laboratories in 1972. These laboratories were directed by Dr Peter Macklem, a trainee of Dr Becklake’s. The research within the laboratory initially focused on respiratory mechanics, gas distribution within the lung and the contribution of airways of different sizes to the overall mechanical behaviour of the lungs. The effects of cigarette smoking on lung dysfunction, mechanisms of possible loss of lung elastic recoil in asthma and control of bronchomotor tone were all additional areas of active investigation. Dr Macklem pioneered the study of the physiological consequences of small airway pathology.
Dr Joseph Milic-Emili succeeded Dr Macklem as director of the Meakins-Christie Laboratories in 1979. Milic-Emili was renowned for his work on ventilation distribution and the assessment of pleural pressure. He led the development of convenient tools for the assessment of respiratory drive. He clarified the physiological basis for carbon dioxide retention in patients with COPD placed on high inspired oxygen concentrations.
Another area that captured many investigators’ attention in the 1980s was the notion of respiratory failure as a consequence of respiratory muscle fatigue. Dr Charalambos (‘Charis’) Roussos made seminal contributions in this field. These studies triggered a long-lasting interest in respiratory muscle training, in rehabilitation, and in noninvasive mechanical ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure.
Dr Ludwig Engel obtained his PhD under the supervision of Peter Macklem and established himself in the area of ventilation distribution in health and in bronchoconstriction and the mechanics of breathing in asthma; he trained many investigators including one of the authors, Dr Jim Martin, who succeeded Milic-Emili as director of the Meakins Christie Laboratories from 1993 to 2008. Dr Martin developed small animal models of allergic asthma, and adopted a recruitment strategy that diversified the research programs at the Meakins Christie Laboratories.
Dr Manuel Cosio built on earlier work with Macklem and Hogg in his development of key structure-function studies of COPD. He was instrumental in recruiting a new generation of young investigators with interests in sleep medicine and neuromuscular diseases.
The 1970s and 1980s also witnessed the emergence of a topnotch respiratory division at the Montreal General Hospital, in large part reflecting the leadership of Dr Neil Colman, later a lead author of the revised Fraser and Paré textbook. At the Montreal General, areas of particular clinical strength and investigation included asthma, occupational and immunological lung diseases.
In 1989, the Meakins Christie Laboratories relocated to its current site on Rue St Urbain, adjacent to the Montreal Chest Institute. Dr Qutayba Hamid, on faculty at the Brompton Hospital, joined the Meakins-Christie Labs in 1994. In addition to an outstanding career in the area of the immunopathology of human asthma, he broadened the array of techniques routinely applied at the labs and has ably led the Meakins-Christie Labs from 2008 to the present.
The Meakins Christie Laboratories have had a remarkable track record that continues to this day. The basis for its enduring success is not immediately clear but it has almost certainly been linked to the balance of MD and PhD scientists that brought perspective and rigour. The diverse disciplines and research programs also facilitated adaptation to changing external research priorities.
The late 1990s and the early 21st century also saw the flourishing of the Respiratory Epidemiology Unit, under the leadership of Drs Pierre Ernst, Dick Menzies and Jean Bourbeau. It moved from McGill University to the Montreal Chest Institute in 2004. This paved the way for expanded clinical and translational research programs in COPD, tuberculosis, asthma, respiratory sleep disorders and other pulmonary diseases. The faculty now comprises respiratory clinician-researchers and PhD scientists with expertise in epidemiological methods and biostatistics.
Respiratory physiology and medicine at McGill benefitted from a strong start through the influence of Meakins and Christie, and a tight linkage between clinical observation and physiological research. The subsequent recruitment of talented and creative faculty members with absolute dedication to academic medicine continued the legacy. No matter how significant the scientific contributions of the individuals themselves, their most important impact resulted from the training of a large cohort of other gifted physicians and graduate students. Some of these are further described in the accompanying full-length online article.
PMCID: PMC4324519  PMID: 25664457
25.  Career Flexibility and Family-Friendly Policies: An NIH-Funded Study to Enhance Women's Careers in Biomedical Sciences 
Journal of Women's Health  2011;20(10):1485-1496.
Although women receive nearly half of all doctoral degrees and show a high interest in academic careers, the pipeline is leaky. The challenge of balancing life course events with career trajectory is an important determinant leading to premature dropout or slower career advancement. This report describes the findings of the first phase of a National Institute of Health Office of Research on Women's Health (NIH ORWH)-funded study using survey and academic data for exploring satisfaction and awareness of/intent to use specific career flexibility options at the University of California, Davis (UCD).
All men and women faculty in the UCD's Schools of Medicine (SOM) and Veterinary Medicine (SVM) and College of Biological Science (CBS) were surveyed. Data also were obtained from deans' offices on use of family-friendly benefits by faculty.
Three hundred twenty-five total survey responses were received from the SOM, 83 from SVM, and 64 from CBS, representing 42%, 46%, and 52% of their total faculty, respectively. In each school, large percentages of men (32%–60%) and women (46%–53%) faculty have children under 18 and a moderately high level of demand of family care responsibilities. Women were significantly more likely to be childless, particularly in the SOM (35% vs. 14%, p<0.001). For all schools, documented use of any family-friendly policy was low (0%–11.5%), as was awareness of policies, although both were significantly higher for women than for men. Significantly more women than men wanted to use policies or chose not to, particularly in the SOM (51% vs. 28%, p<0.001, and 37% vs. 23%, p=0.016, respectively), because of multiple barriers. Faculty in all schools agreed/highly agreed that policies were important to recruitment, retention, and career advancement.
Family-friendly policies are pertinent to men and women, as both demonstrate interest and need, linked to increased career satisfaction. A family-friendly policy is important, particularly for women in the biomedical sciences.
PMCID: PMC3186447  PMID: 21859346

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