To determine whether assessing the extent of terminal hair growth in a subset of the traditional 9 areas included in the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score can serve as a simpler predictor of total body hirsutism when compared to the full scoring system, and to determine if this new model can accurately distinguish hirsute from non-hirsute women.
Two tertiary care academic referral centers.
1951 patients presenting for symptoms of androgen excess.
History and physical examination, including mFG score.
Main Outcome Measures
Total body hirsutism.
A regression model using all nine body areas indicated that the combination of upper abdomen, lower abdomen and chin was the best predictor of the total full mFG score. Using this subset of three body areas is accurate in distinguishing true hirsute from non-hirsute women when defining true hirsutism as mFG>7.
Scoring terminal hair growth only on the chin and abdomen can serve as a simple, yet reliable predictor of total body hirsutism when compared to full body scoring using the traditional mFG system.
hirsutism; Ferriman-Gallwey; modified Ferriman-Gallwey; androgen excess; polycystic ovary syndrome; PCOS; hair growth
Hirsutism refers to the presence of terminal hairs at the body sites under androgenic control. Various factors, including genetic makeup and hormonal status, influence the rate and pattern of hair growth at these sites.
To study the pattern of hirsutism in Kashmir.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty five consecutive patients of hirsutism were included in the study. After detailed history taking, physical examination and relevant investigations, scoring of hirsutism was done using the Ferriman Gallwey (FG) scoring system.
The FG score ranged from 10-34. Twenty patients had associated menstrual abnormalities. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) was diagnosed in four patients, hypothyroidism in two and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in one. The rest of the patients had idiopathic hirsutism.
Idiopathic hirsutism was the most common category, whilst PCOS, hypothyroidism and CAH were also seen.
Ferriman-Gallwey scoring; hirsutism; polycystic ovaries
To determine whether the severity in hyperandrogenemia determines, to a significant degree, the severity of hirsutism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Tertiary care academic referral center.
A total of 749 patients with PCOS.
History and physical examination, blood sampling.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Hirsutism defined by a value of ≥6 using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score, age, body mass index (BMI), calculated homeostatic assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value, and levels of total (TT) and free (FT) testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OH-P), and fasting insulin (INS) and glucose (GLC).
Univariate correlations revealed associations between the mFG score and INS, 17OH-P, HOMA-IR, and BMI. Multivariate classification and regression tree analysis indicated that INS had the most significant association with mFG score and that at higher INS levels T played an additional role whereas at lower INS levels 17OH-P had an effect; however, this model accounted for only 8.2% of total variation in mFG score.
Insulin appears to have a direct effect on the severity of hirsutism in PCOS and appears to have a synergistic interaction with TT. Notably, over 90% of the variation in the mFG score was not related to the factors studied and likely reflects intrinsic factors related to pilosebaceous unit function or sensitivity and to other factors not yet assessed.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; testosterone; DHEAS; 17-hydroxyprogesterone; hirsutism; hair
Hirsutism is a common clinical condition characterized by presence of terminal hair at body sites under androgenic influence. Inspite of the significant worldwide prevalence of hirsutism, studies on hirsutism from India are not many.
To assess the etiology of hirsutism and correlate its severity with underlying causes and various hormone levels.
Materials and Methods:
In this prospective study, 40 patients of hirsutism enrolled on first come basis were included. All patients underwent detailed clinical assessment and transabdominal ultrasonography. Free and total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, free tri-iodothyronine, free tetra-iodothyronine, and thyroid stimulating hormone, and sex hormone binding globulin were estimated. Forty age-matched controls without features of hyperandrogenemia were included for the comparison.
Thirteen (32.5%) patients had mild, 52.5% had moderate whereas 15% had severe hirsutism. Positive family history was documented in 42.5% patients. The clinical features found to be associated with hirsutism included acne (55%), menstrual irregularities (40%), acanthosis nigricans (37.5%), obesity (37.5%), and androgenetic alopecia in 27.5% of patients. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) was the underlying cause in 70%, non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia and hypothyroidism in 7.5% each whereas idiopathic hirsutism was found in 15% patients.
PCOS was the most common cause of hirsutism found in the instant study. Further, there was positive correlation between severity of hirsutism and free testosterone levels.
Etiology; hirsutism; polycystic ovarian syndrome
Hirsutism is defined as the growth of terminal hair in a male pattern in women; it affects 5-15% of women.
The aim of this study is evaluation of only the chin or lower abdomen for predicting hirsutism.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional diagnostic study, we randomly selected 695 women aged 15-45 years. The examiners scored the subjects on a scale of 0 - 4 for terminal hair growth on nine different body areas according to the Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) scoring system in a form given to the examiners before the examination. An FG score of 8 or more was considered diagnostic of hirsutism. If the sum of the FG scores for the chin or lower abdomen was 2 or more, the test result was assumed to be positive. Statistical analysis was performed using the MacNemar test, and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
The age group with the highest prevalence rate was 21-25 years. From the 695 subjects examined, 81 subjects (11.7%) had an FG score of 8 or more with a resultant prevalence rate of 11.7% for hirsutism. In our study population, 39% of the patients had an FG score of 2 or more for the chin or lower abdomen, and 61% of the patients had an FG score of less than 2 for the chin or lower abdomen.
Evaluating terminal hair growth on the chin or lower abdomen for predicting hirsutism seems to be an acceptable screening method.
Evaluation; Ferriman-gallwey score; hirsutism
Hirsutism is the presence of excess body or facial terminal (coarse) hair growth in females in a male-like pattern, affects 5–15% of women, and is an important sign of underlying androgen excess. Different methods are available for the assessment of hair growth in women.
We conducted a literature search and analyzed the published studies that reported methods for the assessment of hair growth. We review the basic physiology of hair growth, the development of methods for visually quantifying hair growth, the comparison of these methods with objective measurements of hair growth, how hirsutism may be defined using a visual scoring method, the influence of race and ethnicity on hirsutism, and the impact of hirsutism in diagnosing androgen excess and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Objective methods for the assessment of hair growth including photographic evaluations and microscopic measurements are available but these techniques have limitations for clinical use, including a significant degree of complexity and a high cost. Alternatively, methods for visually scoring or quantifying the amount of terminal body and facial hair growth have been in use since the early 1920s; these methods are semi-quantitative at best and subject to significant inter-observer variability. The most common visual method of scoring the extent of body and facial terminal hair growth in use today is based on a modification of the method originally described by Ferriman and Gallwey in 1961 (i.e. the mFG method).
Overall, the mFG scoring method is a useful visual instrument for assessing excess terminal hair growth, and the presence of hirsutism, in women.
hirsutism; hair growth; androgen excess; polycystic ovary syndrome
Hirsutism represents a primary clinical indicator of androgen excess. The most common endocrine condition causing hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Diagnosing PCOS is not easy as the signs and symptoms are heterogenous. The newest diagnostic guideline made by the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society in 2006, claims the presence of hyperandrogenism, and ovarian dysfunction (oligo / anovulation and / or polycystic ovaries). Obesity associated reproductive and metabolic dysfunctions may aggravate the symptoms of PCOS. PCOS might be underdiagnosed in non obese women because lean PCOS phenotypes might be underestimated for the syndrome. Effective medical treatment of PCOS and associated hirsutism depends on the endocrinological expertise and experience of the therapist in each individual case. An algorithm for the treatment has not been established yet.
Endocrinology; hirsutism; medical treatment; polycystic ovary syndrome
Hirsutism is recognized to cause profound distress in affected women, due to cosmetic and psychosexual implications. It was evaluated in the present study by methods found to be valid and reliable in psychosomatic research. Fifty women with hirsutism belonging to the spectrum of disorders from idiopathic hirsutism to polycystic ovary syndrome, after complete medical work-up, underwent the same psychometric evaluation as 50 healthy non-hirsute women, matched for sociodemographic variables. Hirsute women had a Ferriman and Gallwey score ranging from 8 to 19. Psychometric evaluation for quality of life was carried out by the following methods: (a) Kellner's Brief Problem List, a 12 item self-rating list of psychosocial problems; (b) Kellner's Symptom Rating Test (SRT), a 46 item self-rating scale that yields a total score of distress as well as six subscales (anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, anger-hostility, cognitive and psychotic symptoms); and (c) Marks' Social Situations Questionnaire (SSQ), a 30 item self-rating scale concerned with social phobia. Patients with hirsutism displayed significantly higher social fears at the SSQ than controls (P < 0.01). They also showed more anxiety (P < 0.01) and psychotic symptoms (P < 0.01) at the SRT, whereas there were no significant differences in depression, somatization, anger-hostility and cognitive symptoms. These results suggest that the complex management of hirsute women, in addition to pharmacological and/or cosmetic measures, may require specific psychotherapy.
Should hirsute women be investigated? Most only need careful clinical evaluation. First, they need to be examined to determine whether they are hirsute or hypertrichotic, and for the degree of hair growth to assess the most appropriate form of treatment. Second, they need to be clinically evaluated for signs and symptoms of virilism to determine the extent of investigation needed. If virilism is absent laboratory investigation need only be minimal. As most hirsute women will have mild ovarian hyperandrogenism they will only require the appropriate tests for polycystic ovaries, and only those women who are virilised will need intensive investigation. The approach described is considered minimalist by some; but unless a tumour is diagnosed, anti-androgen treatment will only be offered to those with severe hirsutism who want treatment. Anti-androgens will be prescribed because (i) current medical treatment is insufficiently specific to require accurate localisation of the source of excess androgen and (ii) because anti-androgens are more effective at reducing hair growth than hydrocortisone, even in late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience infertility and hirsutism and often seek treatment for both concurrently. We investigated whether women who ovulate in response to treatment with clomiphene citrate), metformin, or both would have greater improvement in hirsutism compared to those who did not ovulate.
This is a secondary analysis evaluating the change in Ferriman-Gallwey score for the hirsute women (n = 505, 80.7%) from the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 1 study. This was a prospective, randomized, doubled-blind trial of 626 women with PCOS and infertility recruited from 12 university sites. They were treated with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or both (combination) for up to six cycles, and hirsutism evaluators were blinded to group assignment.
There was a significant decrease in the Ferriman-Gallwey score between baseline and completion of the study in each of the three individual groups (clomiphene citrate, p=0.024; metformin, p=0.005; combination, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the degree to which the hirsutism score changed when comparing the three groups (p=0.44). The change in hirsutism was not associated with the duration of treatment or with the presence or absence of ovulation.
In infertile hirsute women with PCOS, treatment with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or both for up to 6 cycles does not alter hirsutism.
Clinical Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00068861.
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of mood disorders and examine a range of predictors for psychological well-being among Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the factors related to psychological distress in PCOS patients in Kashan, Iran. Psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In addition we assessed quality of life using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Socio-demographic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity (body mass index), excessive body hair (hirsutism score), acne, menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile also were recorded for each patient.
In all 300 women with PCOS were entered into the study. Of these 32% (n =96) showed elevated HADS anxiety while depression was high in 5% (n =15). Quality of life was significantly impaired in women with anxiety (P <0.05), and depression (P <0.001) and in particular, in women with coexistence anxiety and depression (P <0.001) compared with unaffected participants. Compared with the non-depressed PCOS patients, the depressed women had significantly higher menstrual irregularities (P = 0.008). Moreover, we found significant difference in FAI level between the depressed and non depressed (p = 0.05), the anxious and non anxious patients (p < 0.001) compare to non affected PCOS women.
The high prevalence of depression and anxiety in this population suggests that initial evaluation of all women with PCOS should also include assessment of mental health disorders. The clinician should further pay attention to background of their patients especially in view of the factors influencing psychological well-being.
Anxiety; Depression; Quality of life; Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovaries were defined with ultrasound imaging in a series of 173 women who presented to a gynaecological endocrine clinic with anovulation or hirsutism. Polycystic ovaries were found in 26% of women with amenorrhoea, 87% with oligomenorrhoea, and 92% with idiopathic hirsutism--that is, hirsutism but with regular menstrual cycles. Fewer than half the anovulatory patients with polycystic ovaries were hirsute, but in 93% of cases there was at least one endocrine abnormality to support the diagnosis of polycystic ovaries--that is, raised serum concentrations of luteinising hormone, raised luteinising hormone: follicle stimulating hormone ratio, or raised serum concentrations of testosterone or androstenedione. This study shows that polycystic ovaries, as defined by pelvic ultrasound, are very common in anovulatory women (57% of cases) and are not necessarily associated with hirsutism or a raised serum luteinising hormone concentration. Most women with hirsutism and regular menses have polycystic ovaries so that the term "idiopathic" hirsutism no longer seems appropriate.
Flaxseed is a rich source of lignan and has been shown to reduce androgen levels in men with prostate cancer. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder among women in their reproductive years, also is associated with high levels of androgens and is frequently accompanied by hirsutism, amenorrhea and obesity. This clinical case study describes the impact of flaxseed supplementation (30 g/day) on hormonal levels in a 31-year old woman with PCOS. During a four month period, the patient consumed 83% of the flaxseed dose. Heights, weights, and fasting blood samples taken at baseline and 4-month follow-up indicated the following values: BMI (36.0 vs. 35.7m/kg2); insulin (5.1 vs. 7.0 uIU/ml); total serum testosterone (150 ng/dl vs. 45 ng/dl); free serum testosterone (4.7 ng/dl vs. 0.5 ng/dl); and % free testosterone (3.1% vs. 1.1%). The patient also reported a decrease in hirsutism at the completion of the study period. The clinically-significant decrease in androgen levels with a concomitant reduction in hirsutism reported in this case study demonstrates a need for further research of flaxseed supplementation on hormonal levels and clinical symptoms of PCOS.
Androgens; Flaxseed; Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome; Diet; Intervention Studies
Virilism is the masculinization and enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. The etiology is usually of adrenal or ovarian origin. Here we report a case of virilizing Leydig cell type, steroid cell tumor of the left ovary, in a 40 year old female who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of virilization: deepening of voice, hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey score 26), clitoromegaly, and androgenic alopecia. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyperandrogenism in the male range. Basal testosterone values were elevated. Folicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinising Hormone levels were within normal limits. Dexamethasone suppression test did not alter cortisol or testosterone levels. An ovarian mass was confirmed radiologically. Following a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy, histopathological studies confirmed a left sided steroid-cell ovarian tumor, Leydig cell type (stage T1N0M0), which proved to the etiology of virilization in this patient. Post-operatively her serum testosterone levels declined with near-complete reversal of symptoms over time.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women, is caused by both genes and environment. We and others previously reported association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DENND1A gene and PCOS. We therefore sequenced the DENND1A gene in white patients with PCOS to identify possible alterations that may be implicated in the PCOS pathogenesis. Patients were referred with PCOS and/or hirsutism between 1998 and 2011 (n = 261). PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria (n = 165). Sequence analysis was performed in 10 patients with PCOS. Additional patients (n = 251) and healthy female controls (n = 248) were included for SNP genotyping. Patients underwent clinical examination including Ferriman-Gallwey score (FG-score), biochemical analyses and transvaginal ultrasound. Mutation analysis was carried out by bidirectional sequencing. SNP genotyping was tested by allelic discrimination in real-time PCR in the additional patients and controls. Sequencing of the DENND1A gene identified eight SNPs; seven were not known to be associated with any diseases. One missense SNP was detected (rs189947178, A/C), potentially altering the structural conformation of the DENND1A protein. SNP genotyping of rs189947178 showed significantly more carriers among patients with PCOS and moderate hirsutism compared to controls. However, due to small sample size and lack of multiple regression analysis supporting an association between rs189947178 and FG-score or PCOS diagnosis, this could be a false positive finding. In conclusion, sequence analysis of the DENND1A gene of patients with PCOS did not identify alterations that alone could be responsible for the PCOS pathogenesis, but a missense SNP (rs189947178) was identified in one patient and significantly more carriers of rs189947178 were found among patients with PCOS and moderate hirsutism vs. controls. Additional studies with independent cohort are needed to confirm this due to the small sample size of this study.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common gynecological endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Despite its heavy burden on female reproduction and general health, there is no study regarding PCOS prevalence in Palestine. This study aims to establish prevalence of PCOS among female university students at An-Najah National University-Palestine and to explore its possible risk factors.
A cross sectional study was conducted on 137 female students using convenience sampling method for age group (18–24) years. PCOS cases were identified according to the National Institute of health (NIH) criteria through clinical interview and assessment for participants at the University clinics. Menstrual irregularities regarding cycle and flow were identified and clinical hyperandrogenism was assessed as the self-reported degree of hirsutism using the modified Ferriman Gallwey (mF-G) scoring method of more than 8 score. Biochemical hyperandrogenism for girls with menstrual irregularities was assessed by measuring free testosterone level. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 applying descriptive methods; different risk factor relationships were estimated using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
The estimated prevalence of PCOS was 7.3% , acne was the only studied risk factor among others to be statistically significantly related to PCOS patients (OR = 8.430, P-value = 0.015). Clinical Hirsutism was found in 27% of participants, 70% of whom had idiopathic hirsutism.
Prevalence of PCOS in Palestine seems to be relatively high but similar to other Mediterranean statistics. We recommend further studies using wider age group and larger sample for all parts of Palestine in order to generalize results.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; PCOS; Prevalence; Palestine
Hirsutism has a significant impact on the quality of life and serves as a marker of underlying hormonal and systemic conditions. The aim of this study was to study the clinical, biochemical characteristics of these patients and other associations.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty (n=50) consecutive newly diagnosed patients of hirsutism were assessed during a period from August 2009 to July 2010 using modified Ferriman Gallwey (mF-G) score.
Idiopathic hirsutism (IH) was found in 30 (60%) patients followed by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in 19 (38%) patients. Other causes included late-onset classic adrenal hyperplasia in two (4%) and hypothyroidism in four (8%) patients. The mean age at presentation was 23.8±6.657 years. Total (T) and free testosterone (fT), 17-hydroxyprogesterone was significantly higher in PCOS than IH.
The present data show IH as the commonest cause of hirsutism in our study population. Face, chest, and lower abdomen have a higher impact on the hirsutism score while upper back, abdomen, and lower back are rarely involved.
Ferriman–gallwey score; hirsutism; polycystic ovarian syndrome
Leydig stromal cell tumor is a rare ovarian tumor that belongs to the group of sex-cord stromal tumors. They produce testosterone leading to hyperandrogenism. We present a 41yr old woman with symptoms of virilization and a mass of right adenex via ultra Sonography, and a rise of total and free serum testosterone. An ovarian source of androgen was suspected and a surgery performed. A diagnosis of leydig-stromal cell tumor was confirmed.
Our report is a reminder that although idiopathic hirsutism and other benign androgen excess disorder like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs) are common, ovarian mass should be considered in differential diagnosis.
Leydig stromal cell tumor; Androgen secreting neoplasm; Virilizing ovarian tumors; Sex cord-stromal cell tumor
Hirsutism is a common medical condition that in most women is due to the polycystic ovary syndrome or is idiopathic. For a few women, hirsutism signals a serious underlying disorder such as an ovarian or adrenal tumor, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or Cushing's syndrome. A detailed medical history and examination can identify women in whom a serious disease is suspected and for whom laboratory evaluation is warranted. Measurements of serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels, and 24-hour urinary cortisol concentrations are important screening tests. Therapy is directed at suppressing ovarian or adrenal androgen production, inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, or antagonizing the effects of androgens at the receptor level.
Polycystic ovarian disease represents a poorly defined spectrum of clinical disorders having oligo-ovulation or anovulation as a common feature. There is no single, universally accepted biochemical or clinical definition. Clinical findings usually include anovulation resulting in irregular uterine bleeding and infertility, androgen excess resulting in hirsutism and acne, and obesity. The patho-physiology involves altered functions of the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary and adrenal glands, resulting in failure of folliculogenesis to regularly proceed to ovulation. The cause of the initiating event in this disease process remains enigmatic. Therapy for the various abnormalities in polycystic ovarian disease is tailored to a patient's needs and may include preventing endometrial hyperplasia, controlling irregular uterine bleeding, controlling hirsutism and inducing ovulation.
Forty two women with hidradenitis suppurativa were assessed clinically and biochemically for evidence of androgen excess. Thirteen had irregular menses; 22 of 36 experienced exacerbation of hidradenitis suppurativa premenstrually; 19 had or had had acne vulgaris; and seven were hirsute. Comedones (blackheads) were found in apocrine sites in 37, but also in retroauricular sites in 18 and were considered to be an important physical sign for early diagnosis. Eight had evidence of pilonidal (postanal) sinus. The patients had a higher concentration of total testosterone (p less than 0.01) and free androgen index (testosterone to sex hormone binding globulin concentrations) (p less than 0.01) than normal controls. Patients with hidradenitis suppurativa appear to have endocrine abnormalities sufficient to suggest an androgenic basis for the disease.
Background. Steroid cell ovarian tumors, not otherwise specified, represent a unique cause of female virilization. Most commonly encountered in premenopausal women, these tumors can exist throughout a women's lifetime, from before puberty until after menopause. Case. Steroid cell, not otherwise specified, was diagnosed in a 70-year-old female significant for hirsutism. The patient demonstrated elevated total testosterone levels with normal gonadotropins, DHEA, and DHEA-S levels. CT imaging revealed a right ovarian mass and subsequent laparoscopic right oophorectomy yielded clinical improvement promptly. Conclusion. Virilization in females can occur based on ovarian or adrenal pathology. In terms of ovarian-based female virilization, many tumors exist that may induce women to demonstrate masculine features, such as pure Sertoli, pure Leydig, Sertoli-Leydig combinations, and gynandroblastomas. Each of these tumor types possesses a unique histologic pattern that allows for pathologic identification after removal. A rare source of ovarian-based female virilization is steroid cell neoplasms, not otherwise specified, that do not demonstrate these specific histologic characteristics and thus represent a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes of ovarian-based female virilization have been ruled out.
A 16-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea and excess hair growth on her body and face for the last three years, along with pain and a mass in her lower abdomen for last one year. Examination revealed hirsutism and other virilizing features, with an irregular mass in the lower abdomen corresponding to 16 weeks’gestation. Serum testosterone was 320 ng / dl and ultrasonogram of the pelvis revealed a solid mass of 5 × 4 cm in the left adnexa. Suspecting it to be a virilizing tumor of the left ovary, the patient was subjected to staging laparotomy, which revealed stage 1a ovarian involvement amenable to surgical resection alone. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively the serum testosterone returned to 40 ng / dl and her menstrual cycle started after two months of surgery.
Granulosa cell tumor; hirsutism; primary amenorrhea; virilization
Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed.
To determine the proportion of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients who have normal body mass index (BMI) and to compare the clinical, hormonal, and metabolic profile between lean and overweight patients of PCOS.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred consecutive infertile women with PCOS were studied and divided into lean (BMI between 18.5 and 23) and overweight (BMI ≥ 23). Metabolic and hormonal profile (serum FSH, LH, testosterone, prolactin, TSH on days 2–3 of menstrual cycle; serum progesterone premenstrually; serum insulin—fasting and 2 hours postglucose, glucose tolerance test, and fasting serum lipid profile) was performed along with pelvic sonogropahy; and clinical features, viz. waist hip ratio, hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and clitoromegaly were recorded.
42% of the PCOS subjects had normal BMI. Average age, hirsutism (80.9% vs. 89.7%), irregular cycles (92.8% vs. 96.6%), acne (9.5% vs. 15.5%), clitoromegaly (2.3% vs. 3.4%), endometrial thickness >4 mm (9.5% vs. 15.5%), and hormonal profile were similar in the lean and overweight PCOS groups. Family history of diabetes (9.5% vs. 24.1%), abnormal glucose tolerance test (GTT) (4.7% vs. 10.3%), deranged lipid profile (14.2% vs. 31%), and 2-hour postprandial insulin levels were higher in the overweight PCOS (P < 0.05). Insulin resistance was observed in 83.3% of lean PCOS but was still lower than 93.1% seen in overweight PCOS (P < 0.05).
42% of the PCOS had normal BMI, but clinical and hormonal profile was similar to PCOS patients with elevated BMI (overweight/obese). However, insulin resistance is observed in 83.3% of lean PCOS. Family history of diabetes, impaired GTT, deranged lipid profile, and insulin resistance were more prevalent in overweight PCOS.
Metabolic syndrome; obesity; overweight; polycystic ovary syndrome