Scientific literature on depression and anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) consistently reports data of elevated anxiety and depression scores indicating clinically relevant quantities of these psychopathological conditions. Depression is considered to be a risk factor for the development of CHD and deteriorates the outcome after cardiac rehabilitation efforts. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of clinically relevant anxiety and depression in patients before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Additionally we evaluated their relationship to age because of the increasing number of elderly patients undergoing CABG surgery.
One hundred and forty-two consecutive patients who underwent CABG in our hospital were asked to fill in the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – German Version (HADS)" to measure depression and anxiety scores two days before and ten days after CABG surgery. Differences between these pre- and post-surgical scores were then calculated as means for changes, and the amount of elevated scores were appraised. In order to investigate the relationship between age and anxiety and depression, respectively, Spearman correlations between age and the difference scores were calculated. In addition, ANOVA procedures with the factor "age group" and McNemar tests were calculated. Therefore the sample was divided into four equally sized age groups.
25.8% of the patients were clinically depressed before and 17.5% after surgery; 34.0% of the patients were clinically anxious before and 24.7% after surgery. This overall change is not significant. We found a significant negative correlation between age and the difference between the two time points for anxiety (Spearman rho = -.218; p = 0.03), but not for depression (Spearman rho = -.128; p = 0.21). ANOVA and McNemar-Tests revealed that anxiety scores and the number of patients high in anxiety declined statistically meaningful only in the youngest patient group. Such a relationship could not be found for depression.
Our data show a relationship between age and anxiety. Younger patients are more anxious before CABG surgery than older ones and show a decline in symptoms while elderly patients show hardly any change.
The relationship between depression and coronary heart disease is well-established, but causal mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this review is to stimulate different ways of viewing the relationship between depression and adverse outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We present an argument for depression in ACS and CABG patients being a qualitatively distinct form from that observed in psychiatric populations. This is based on three features: (1) depression developing after cardiac events has been linked in many studies to poorer outcomes than recurrent depression; (2) somatic symptoms of depression following cardiac events are particularly cardiotoxic; (3) depression following an ACS does not respond well to antidepressant treatments. We propose that inflammation is a common causal process responsible in part both for the development of depressive symptoms and for adverse cardiac outcomes, and we draw parallels with inflammation-induced sickness behaviour. Clinical implications of our observations are discussed along with suggestions for further work to advance the field.
Acute coronary syndrome; Depression; Inflammation; Sickness behaviour
Research to date indicates that the number of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients affected by depression (i.e., major, minor, dysthymia) approximates between 30% and 40% of all cases. A longstanding empirical interest on psychosocial factors in CABG surgery patients highlights an association with increased risk of morbidity in the short and longer term. Recent evidence suggests that both depression and anxiety increase the risk for mortality and morbidity after CABG surgery independent of medical factors, although the behavioral and biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Though neither depression nor anxiety seem to markedly affect neuropsychological dysfunction, depression confers a risk for incident delirium. Following a comprehensive overview of recent literature, practical advice is described for clinicians taking into consideration possible screening aids to improve recognition of anxiety and depression among CABG surgery patients. An overview of contemporary interventions and randomized, controlled trials are described, along with suggestions for future CABG surgery research.
Depression; Depressive disorder; Coronary artery bypass; Coronary artery disease; Antidepressive agents; Anxiety
To describe the relationship between pain and depression on recovery after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
A secondary data analysis on 453 depressed and nondepressed post-CABG patients enrolled in a randomized, controlled, effectiveness trial of telephone-delivered collaborative care for depression. Outcome measures were collected from March 2004 to September 2007 and included pain, physical function, and mood symptoms.
Depressed patients (baseline Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 10) versus those without depression reported significantly worse pain scores on the SF-36 Bodily Pain Scale at baseline and up to 12-months post-CABG, p < 0.05. Among patients with depression, those who received collaborative care reported significantly better pain scores at each time point between 2 and 12-months post-CABG vs. depressed patients randomized to the usual care control group, p < 0.05. Regardless of intervention status, depressed participants with at least moderate pain at baseline reported significantly lower functional status (measured by the Duke Activity Status Index) at 8 and 12-months vs. depressed patients with none or mild pain, p < 0.05. Depressed patients with at least moderate pain at baseline were also significantly less likely to show improvement of depressive symptoms throughout the course of follow-up vs. depressed patients with little or no pain, p < 0.05. These findings controlled for age, gender, education, race, comorbid conditions and baseline pain diagnosis.
Depression and pain appear to influence functional recovery post-CABG. The relationship between these two conditions and 12-month outcomes should be considered by clinicians when planning treatment.
Depression; Pain; CABG; Collaborative Care
To assess genetic variability in two serotonin-related gene polymorphisms (MAOA-uVNTR and 5HTTLPR) and their relationships to depression and adverse cardiac events in a sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.
A total of 427 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients were genotyped for two polymorphisms and assessed for depressive symptoms at three time points, in accordance with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D): preoperative baseline; 6 months postoperative; and 1 year postoperative. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between depressive symptoms (CES-D = >16), genotype differences, and cardiac events. Because MAOA-uVNTR is sex-linked, males and females were analyzed separately for this polymorphism; sexes were combined for the 5HTTLPR analysis.
Depressed patients were more likely than nondepressed patients to have a new cardiac event within 2 years of surgery (p < .0001); depressed patients who carry the long (L) allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism were more likely than the short/short (S/S carriers to have an event (p = .0002). Genetic associations with 6-month and 1-year postoperative depressive symptoms do not survive adjustment for baseline depressive symptoms.
A serotonin-related gene polymorphism—5HTTLPR—was associated with adverse cardiac events post CABG, in combination with depressive symptoms. Because depressed patients with the L allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism were more likely to have an event compared with the S/S carriers, combining genetic and psychiatric profiling may prove useful in identifying patients at the highest risk for adverse outcomes post CABG.
depression; CABG surgery; serotonin; genetic variability; monoamine oxidase-A; serotonin transporter gene
There are no nationwide studies on mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) among foreign-born populations that include detailed information about country of birth and information about socioeconomic position. The objective was to investigate the risk of mortality after CABG considering socioeconomic position, sex and country of birth.
Material and Methods
We included all 72 333 patients undergoing a first isolated CABG in Sweden, during 1995 - 2007 of whom 12.7% were foreign-born. The patients were classified according to educational level, sex, and country of birth and were followed up to December 2007. We estimated the risk of short and long term mortality after CABG in a multivariable model adjusted for age, calendar year of surgery, diabetes, educational level, and waiting time for surgery. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on the Cox proportional hazard model.
There were 15,284 deaths during the follow-up, 10.4% of whom were foreign-born. The foreign-born patients were 3 to 4 years younger than Sweden-born patients at the time of CABG surgery. There were no significant differences in overall early or late mortality between foreign-born and Sweden-born men and women after CABG. All-cause mortality differed in between regions and was highest in foreign-born men from Eastern Africa (HR 3.80, 95% CI 1.58–9.17), China (HR 3.61, 95% CI 1.50–8.69), and in Chile (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.01–4.47). Patients with low level of education had worse survival compared to those with longer than 12 years of education irrespective of sex and country of birth. This difference was more pronounced among foreign-born women (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.00–2.33).
This national study showed higher CABG mortality in patients from lower socioeconomic position. Early and late mortality did not differ after isolated CABG in foreign-born and Sweden-born patients.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a treatment strategy to relieve the symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD). Based on determining the long term outcome of CABG using SF-36 Health Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) questionnaire, the present study was conducted in our center to determine the CABG results one-year after the operation.
Between March 2005 and August 2009, 112 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were enrolled. Patients completed SF-36 HRQOL general health status questionnaire. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to detect independent variables predicting changes in each eight subscales of SF-36 questionnaire.
The mean age of patients was 61.4±0.9 years and most of them were male with three vessel diseases that were on pump CABG. The mean physical and mental component summary scores were 59.5±0.9 and 60.2±0.9, respectively. Physical functioning (PF) and role physical (RP) improved in males. Regression models showed that there were some statistical models with low R-square to predict role emotional (RE), general health (GH), PF and RP according to ejection fraction after surgery, diabetes, pump type of CABG and male gender.
CABG has led to higher and more satisfactory outcomes for PF, RP and RE but lower in other scales comparing with normative data of the society and one-year post-operative scores of other studies. It could mostly be attributed to unmodified risk factors and progression of existing comorbidities.
Quality of Life; Coronary artery bypass; Questionnaires; Iran
Complicated Grief (CG) is a recently described mental health condition that follows bereavement. CG is often comorbid with depression and may also be associated with poor health outcomes. However, CG has not been studied in depressed medically ill populations. This study examined the prevalence, correlates, and impact of CG in depressed post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients.
A 5-item CG screen was administered to 302 depressed post-CABG patients participating in a comparative effectiveness intervention trial at 7 Pittsburgh-area hospitals from March 2004 to September 2007. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered collaborative care intervention for depression or their primary care physicians’ usual care. Measures examined depression, physical and mental health-related quality of life, and physical functioning over 8 months.
Compared to CG screen-negative patients, CG screen-positive patients were younger, more likely to: be female, non-White, have lost a partner or child, and to have used tobacco or antidepressants. At baseline, they had significantly higher depression and lower mental health scores. At 8 months, screen-positives had poorer physical functioning and marginally higher depression scores.
The study lacked a definitive measure of CG. Moreover, the CG-positive group was relatively small, reducing the power to detect differences between groups or control for the possible influence of other variables on identified results.
CG in depressed post-CABG patients is associated with negative health and mental health outcomes. These results underscore the importance of identifying and treating CG in depressed medically ill populations.
complicated grief; coronary artery bypass graft; depression; screening; care management
This paper rewiews findings regarding short- and long-term neuropsychiatnc consequences of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and noncardiac surgery. Stroke is one of the potentially most serious complications of CABG; studies have identified some demographic and medical risk factors. Short-term neuropsychological deficits are common after CABG, but have been similarly documented in noncardiac surgery patients, and may therefore not be specific to this procedure. Neuropsychological deficits in some cognitive areas may persist over time. Patients with depression before surgery are likely to have persistent depression afterwards. Also, depression does not account for the cognitive decline after CABG. Conflicting findings, and the possible methodological limitations of current published studies, are presented and discussed.
coronary artery bypass graft; postoperative cognitive delirium; cognition; surgery; stroke; delirium
After hospital discharge for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), infection is a common cause of morbidity. Although depression has been associated with immune dysfunction, its role in post-CABG infection is unknown.
The purpose of this study was to: 1) compare natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and post-hospitalization infections in depressed and non-depressed women after CABG; and 2) test whether NKCC mediated the relationship between post-discharge depression and infections.
Sixty-seven women recovering from CABG were assessed for depression prior to hospital discharge and followed for six months. Major depression was identified by a structured clinical interview. Infections were identified by patient report using the Modified Health Review and by medical chart audit.
Compared to non-depressed women after CABG, women with major depression had reduced NKCC, more all-cause infections, and more self-reported illnesses. Although NKCC did not mediate the relationship between depression and wound (i.e. incisional) infections after CABG, it did mediate the relationship between depression and non-wound infections, including pneumonias and upper respiratory infections.
For the first six months after CABG, women with major depression are at increased risk for infections. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity may be related to this phenomenon, particularly to non-wound infections.
depression; coronary artery bypass; infection; women
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS), in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT). Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized.
CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle.
CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis warranting further systematic application of the presented methodology on multiple patient datasets.
Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting has been accused of possibly compromising graft patency. Sixteen slice computed tomography has shown good diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of coronary bypass graft patency when compared with conventional coronary artery angiography and is less invasive. The study hypothesis is that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (Off-Pump) has equivalent early graft patency as if performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (On-Pump) and may have reduced complication rate.
The Prospective Randomized Comparison of Off-Pump and On-Pump MultI-vessel Coronary Artery BypasS Surgery (PROMISS) is a controlled, single blinded, single centre clinical trial, comparing early graft patency using 16-slice computed tomography in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease operated either without or with extracorporeal circulation. Inclusion criteria are multivessel disease with an indication for first time, isolated, non emergent coronary artery bypass grafting with a minimum of three distal anastomoses. Secondary end points are peri-operative mortality, combined morbidity, length of stay, neuro-cognitive testing at 6 weeks and adverse events, stress test and quality of life at 6 months and one year. The sample size of one hundred and fifty patients was calculated in order to enable the detection of a 5% difference in graft patency, with 80% power, considering a minimum of 3 distal anastomoses per patient. Enrolment started in April 2005 and ended July 2007 with study closure in July 2008.
The PROMISS trial aims to shed new light on the effect of Off-Pump as compared to On-Pump coronary artery bypass surgery on graft patency, assessed by multidetector computed tomography, in unselected patients with multivessel coronary artery disease.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58800729
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is often used to treat patients with significant coronary heart disease (CHD). To date, multiple longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have examined the association between depression and CABG outcomes. Although this relationship is well established, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we compared three markers of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in four groups of patients: 1) Patients with coronary heart disease and depression (CHD/Dep), 2) Patients without CHD but with depression (NonCHD/Dep), 3) Patients with CHD but without depression (CHD/NonDep), and 4) Patients without CHD and depression (NonCHD/NonDep). Second, we investigated the impact of depression and autonomic nervous system activity on CABG outcomes.
Patients were screened to determine whether they met some of the study's inclusion or exclusion criteria. ANS function (i.e., heart rate, heart rate variability, and plasma norepinephrine levels) were measured. Chi-square and one-way analysis of variance were performed to evaluate group differences across demographic, medical variables, and indicators of ANS function. Logistic regression and multiple regression analyses were used to assess impact of depression and autonomic nervous system activity on CABG outcomes.
The results of the study provide some support to suggest that depressed patients with CHD have greater ANS dysregulation compared to those with only CHD or depression. Furthermore, independent predictors of in-hospital length of stay and non-routine discharge included having a diagnosis of depression and CHD, elevated heart rate, and low heart rate variability.
The current study presents evidence to support the hypothesis that ANS dysregulation might be one of the underlying mechanisms that links depression to cardiovascular CABG surgery outcomes. Thus, future studies should focus on developing and testing interventions that targets modifying ANS dysregulation, which may lead to improved patient outcomes.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts.
A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT) angiography in the first week after surgery.
There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7%) of all the grafts, including 26 (10%) of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5%) of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA) grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4%) grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30%) of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX) region and 1 (50%) of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA) territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7%) of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5%) of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5%) grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4%) of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04).
The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.
To prospectively examine the contribution of angina and cardiac history to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression in cardiac patients, over 6 months post-hospitalization.
Participants were myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) out-patients under the age of 70. One hundred and seventy one patients consented to participate, with 121 patients retained 6 months later (71% response rate). The impact of the patient’s cardiac history and the presence of angina on physical, social and emotional HRQoL and depression was examined.
At baseline, cardiac history was not significantly related to any of the dimensions of HRQoL or depression. At 6-months follow-up, cardiac history significantly predicted a higher level of depression, and angina was predictive of a significantly worse emotional, physical, and social HRQoL and a higher level of depression.
The presence of a cardiac history is associated with depression 6 months post-cardiac event, and angina is associated with both an adverse HRQoL and higher levels of depression. As past research has demonstrated depression is a risk factor for mortality in patients with established heart disease, it is important both from a clinical and a research perspective to address these issues.
PMID: 18072698 CAMSID: cams1438
angina; cardiac history; coronary heart disease; depression; quality of life
Depressive symptoms have been associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and poor prognosis among patients with existing CAD, but whether depressive symptoms specifically influence atherosclerotic progression among such patients is uncertain.
Methods and Results
The Post-CABG Trial randomized patients with a history of CABG surgery to either an aggressive or moderate lipid lowering strategy and to either warfarin or placebo. Coronary angiography was conducted at enrollment and after a median follow up of 4.2 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed at enrollment using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) in 1319 patients with 2496 grafts. In models adjusting for age, gender, race, treatment assignment and years since CABG surgery, a CES-D score ≥ 16 was positively associated with risk of substantial graft disease progression (odds ratio: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.10; p=0.02) and marginally associated with a 0.11 mm (95% CI: −0.22, 0.01 mm; p=0.07) decrease in minimum lumen diameter, but not with risk of graft occlusion (p=0.30). Additional adjustment for past medical history, blood pressure, and renal function did not materially alter these results. This association was virtually absent among participants randomly assigned to aggressive lipid lowering therapy.
These findings suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with a higher risk of atherosclerotic progression among patients with saphenous vein grafts, and that aggressive lipid lowering can minimize this increased risk. Whether depressive symptoms increase progression in other types of coronary atherosclerosis, and whether aggressive lipid lowering attenuates such progression, will require additional study.
Depressive symptoms; Coronary disease; atherosclerosis; coronary artery bypass surgery; saphenous vein grafts
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse led shared care programme to improve coronary heart disease risk factor levels and general health status and to reduce anxiety and depression in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
DESIGN—Randomised controlled trial.
SETTING—Community, January 1997 to March 1998.
STUDY GROUPS—98 (75 male) consecutive patients were recruited to the study within one month of joining the waiting list for elective CABG at Glasgow Royal Infirmary University NHS Trust. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care (control; n = 49) or a nurse led intervention programme (n = 49).
INTERVENTION—A shared care programme consisting of health education and motivational interviews, according to individual need, was carried out monthly. Care was provided in the patients' own homes by the community based cardiac liaison nurse alternating with the general practice nurse at the practice clinic.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Smoking status, obesity, physical activity, anxiety and depression, general health status, and proportion of patients exceeding target values for blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, and alcohol intake.
RESULTS—Compared with patients who received usual care, those participating in the nurse led programme were more likely to stop smoking (25% v 2%, p = 0.001) and to reduce obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m2) (16.3% v 8.1%, p = 0.01). Target systolic blood pressure improved by 19.8% compared with a 10.7% decrease in the control group (p = 0.001) and target diastolic blood pressure improved by 21.5% compared with 10.2% in the control group (p = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of patients with cholesterol concentrations exceeding target values. There was a significant improvement in general health status scores across all eight domains of the 36 item short form health survey with changes in difference in mean scores between the groups ranging from 8.1 (p = 0.005) to 36.1 (p < 0.000). Levels of anxiety and depression improved (p < 0.000) and there was improvement in time spent being physically active (p < 0.000).
CONCLUSIONS—This nurse led shared care intervention was shown to be effective for improving care for patients on the waiting list for CABG.
Keywords: coronary artery bypass grafting; coronary heart disease risk; nurse led shared care; risk reduction
To examine equity in one aspect of care provision in the Veterans Health Administration, this study analyzed factors associated with receipt of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), vascular, hip/knee, or digestive system surgeries during FY2006–2009. A random sample of patients (N = 317, 072) included 9% with depression, 17% African-American patients, 5% Hispanics, and 5% women. In the four-year followup, 18,334 patients (6%) experienced surgery: 3,109 hip/knee, 3,755 digestive, 1,899 CABG, and 11,330 vascular operations. Patients with preexisting depression were less likely to have surgery than nondepressed patients (4% versus 6%). In covariate-adjusted analyses, minority patients were slightly less likely to receive vascular operations compared to white patients (Hispanic OR = 0.88, P < .01; African-American OR = 0.93, P < .01) but more likely to undergo digestive system procedures. Some race-/ethnicity-related disparities of care for cardiovascular disease may persist for veterans using the VHA.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is performed more frequently in individuals who are older and sicker than in previous years. Increased patient acuity and reduced hospital length of stays leave individuals ill prepared for their recovery.
To test the feasibility of a peer support program and determine indicators of the effects of peer support on recovery outcomes of individuals following CABG surgery.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A pre-post test pilot randomized clinical trial design enrolled men and women undergoing first-time nonemergency CABG surgery at a single site in Ontario. Patients were randomly assigned to either usual care or peer support. Patients allocated to usual care (n=50) received standard preoperative and postoperative education. Patients in the peer support group (n=45) received individualized education and support via telephone from trained cardiac surgery peer volunteers for eight weeks following hospital discharge. Most (93%) peer volunteers believed they were prepared for their role, with 98% of peer volunteers initiating calls within 72 h of the patient’s discharge. Peer volunteers made an average of 12 calls, less than 30 min in duration over the eight-week recovery period. Patients were satisfied with their peer support (n=45, 98%). The intervention group reported statistical trends toward improved physical function (physical component score) (t =−1.6; P=0.12) role function (t =−1.9; P=0.06), less pain (t =1.30; P=0.20) and improved cardiac rehabilitation enrollment (χ2=2.50, P=0.11).
These preliminary results suggest that peer support may improve recovery outcomes following CABG. Data from the present pilot trial also indicate that a home-based peer support intervention is feasible and an adequately powered trial should be conducted.
Convalescence; Coronary artery bypass; Quality of life; Social support
Many patients demonstrate psychological distress and reduced physical activity before coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Here we evaluated the addition of a brief, cognitive-behavioural intervention (the HeartOp Programme) to routine nurse counselling for people waiting for CABG surgery.
Randomised controlled trial comparing nurse counselling with the HeartOp programme to routine nurse counselling in 204 patients awaiting first time elective CABG. Primary outcome measures were: anxiety and length of hospital stay; secondary outcome measures were: depression, physical functioning, cardiac misconceptions and cost utility. Measures were collected prior to randomisation and after 8 weeks of their intervention prior to surgery, excepting length of hospital stay which was collected after discharge following surgery.
100 patients were randomised to intervention, 104 to control. At follow-up there were no differences in anxiety or length of hospital stay. There were significant differences in depression (difference = 7.79, p = 0.008, 95% CI = 2.04–13.54), physical functioning (difference = 0.82, p = 0.001, 95%CI = 0.34–1.3) and cardiac misconceptions (difference = 2.56, p < 0.001, 95%CI = 1.64–3.48) in favour of the HeartOp Programme. The only difference to be maintained following surgery was in cardiac misconceptions. The HeartOp Programme was found to have an Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) of £288.83 per Quality-Adjusted Life Year.
Nurse counselling with the HeartOp Programme reduces depression and cardiac misconceptions and improves physical functioning before bypass surgery significantly more than nurse counselling alone and meets the accepted criteria for cost efficacy.
Pre-operative care; Coronary artery bypass; Self-care; Cognitive-behavioural treatment
Aneurysms of saphenous vein grafts to coronary arteries are unusual complications of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Three patients (men aged 47, 62, and 68 years) are presented with spontaneous chest pains 10, 21, and 17 years after CABG surgery. In one case, the saphenous vein graft had eroded into the right atrium and had established a fistula between the graft and the right atrium. Diagnosis of saphenous vein graft aneurysms was confirmed by echocardiography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and by arteriography. Two patients were treated surgically, the third by percutaneous coil embolisation followed by balloon angioplasty of the right coronary artery.
Keywords: aneurysm; pseudoaneurysm; saphenous vein grafts; coronary artery bypass graft
To determine the nature of telephone-delivered collaborative care intervention provided patients below and above age 60 experiencing clinically significant depressive symptoms following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, and whether patient age is related to response and remission rates and delivery of care at 8-month follow-up.
Exploratory post-hoc analysis of data collected in a randomized controlled trial.
Seven Pittsburgh-area general hospitals.
58 depressed post-CABG patients below age 60 and 92 comparable patients age 60 and above randomized to the RCT's intervention arm.
Components of collaborative care provided patients over the 8-month study period, and HRS-D scores at 8-month follow-up to determine response and remission status.
There were no differences in the cumulative 8-month rates at which the components of collaborative care were delivered to the two age groups. Similar response and remission rates were also achieved by these groups.
Older and younger patients experiencing clinical depression following CABG surgery can be treated with comparable components of collaborative care and both age groups will achieve clinical outcomes that do not differ significantly from each other.
Collaborative care; coronary artery bypass graft surgery; depression
Background: Various risk stratification systems have been developed in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), based mainly on patients undergoing procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Objective: To assess the validity and applicability of the Parsonnet score, the EuroSCORE, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) system, and the UK CABG Bayes model in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) in the UK.
Methods: Data on 2223 patients who underwent OPCAB in eight cardiac surgical centres were collected. Predicted mortality risk scores were calculated using the four systems and compared with observed mortality. Calibration was assessed by the Hosmer–Lemeshow (HL) test. Discrimination was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area.
Results: 30 of 2223 patients (1.3%) died in hospital. For the Parsonnet score the HL test was significant (p < 0.001) and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) area was 0.74. For the EuroSCORE the HL test was also significant (p = 0.008) and the ROC area was 0.75. For the ACC/AHA system the HL test was non-significant (p = 0.7) and the ROC area was 0.75. For the UK CABG Bayes model the HL test was also non-significant (p = 0.3) and the ROC area was 0.81.
Conclusions: The UK CABG Bayes model is reasonably well calibrated and provides good discrimination when applied to OPCAB patients in the UK. Among the other three systems, the ACC/AHA system is well calibrated but its discrimination power was less than for the UK CABG Bayes model. These data suggest that the UK CABG Bayes model could be an appropriate risk stratification system to use for patients undergoing OPCAB in the UK.
risk stratification; coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Reliable data regarding absolute and relative risks of death and graft failure after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in renal transplant patients are unavailable.
Methods and Results
Renal transplant patients undergoing inpatient CABG (n=1400) or PCI (n=4097) were identified from United States Renal Data System data. Cumulative incidence of nonfatal graft failure and death was reported for observed events. A Cox model with the Fine–Gray method was used to account for competing risks in assessing relative hazards. Age and race were similarly distributed; patients who underwent CABG were more likely to have acute arrhythmia and congestive heart failure but less likely to have acute myocardial infarction on index admission. In‐hospital death was more frequent after CABG (5.6% versus 3.0%, P<0.001). Cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, and the combined outcome at 3 years were 23.1%, 15.4%, and 38.5% after CABG and 22.9%, 13.3%, and 36.1% after PCI, respectively. In adjusted analyses, CABG was not associated with increased risk of graft failure versus PCI during the first 6 months (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43) or from 6 to 36 months (0.98, 0.78 to 1.22). Risk of death increased after CABG during the first 3 months (1.37, 1.08 to 1.73), but decreased from 6 months on (0.76, 0.63 to 0.93).
CABG does not appear to be associated with a difference in risk of graft failure compared with PCI in renal transplant patients. Compared with PCI, adjusted risk of early death is higher after CABG; however, mortality from 6 months on is lower.
coronary disease; kidney; revascularization; surgery; transplantation
Drug-eluting stents (DES) may promote percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures in patients traditionally referred for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and may save money.
The purpose of the present study was to quantify the potential shift from CABG surgery to multivessel PCI in the DES era and to model the economic consequences.
Based on predefined criteria, the feasibility of PCI was evaluated in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who underwent CABG surgery before the availability of DES at the Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal’s Notre-Dame Hospital (Montreal, Quebec). Modelling was used to evaluate the potential cost savings using multivessel PCI instead of CABG surgery. Equal one-year outcomes in both groups were assumed, with the exception of a 10% repeat revascularization (RR) rate in the DES group and a 4% RR rate in the CABG group. The impact of those assumptions was evaluated using 1000 Monte Carlo simulations.
The authors retrospectively evaluated that, of 289 patients who underwent CABG without concomitant valve surgery between January and December 2003, only 22 patients (8%) were good candidates for multivessel DES implantation. The procedures would have involved an average of 3.6 DES per patient. The average cost per revascularization procedure was $14,402 with surgery and $11,220 for multivessel DES implantation (using $2,200 DES), leading to a savings of $3,182 per patient. However, after including RR procedures, PCI would only have been associated with savings of $812 per surgery avoided. Monte Carlo analysis revealed that surgery may be less expensive than PCI in 36% of patients.
Most patients who underwent CABG surgery in 2003 were retrospectively judged to be ineligible for multivessel PCI with DES. In the rare eligible patient, multivessel PCI with DES is not expected to produce savings to health care costs in Canada unless the DES purchase cost continues to decrease.
Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery; Drug-eluting stents; Economic analysis; Multivessel disease; Percutaneous coronary intervention