Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after trauma. Though most of the western countries have their guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in these patients, India still does not have these. The increasing detection of VTE among Indian population, lack of awareness, underestimation of the risk, and fear of bleeding complications after chemical prophylaxis have made deep vein thrombosis (DVT) a serious problem, hence a standard guideline for thromboprophylaxis after trauma is essential. The present review article discusses the incidence of DVT and role of thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients who have sustained major orthopedic trauma. A thorough search of ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google Scholar’ revealed 10 studies regarding venous thromboembolism in Indian patients after major orthopedic trauma surgery (hip or proximal femur fracture and spine injury). Most of these studies have evaluated venous thromboembolism in patients of arthroplasty and trauma. The incidence, risk factors, diagnosis and management of VTE in the subgroup of trauma patients (1049 patients) were separately evaluated after segregating them from the arthroplasty patients. Except two studies, which were based on spinal injury, all other studies recommended screening/ thromboprophylaxis in posttraumatic conditions in the Indian population. Color Doppler was used as common diagnostic or screening tool in most of the studies (eight studies, 722 patients). The incidence of VTE among thromboprophylaxis-receiving group was found to be 8% (10/125), whereas it was much higher (14.49%, 40/276) in patients not receiving any form of prophylaxis. Indian patients have definite risk of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic trauma (except spinal injury), and thromboprophylaxis either by chemical or mechanical methods seems to be justified in them.
Thromboprophylaxis; trauma; venous thromboembolism
Postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs most often in the large veins of the legs in patients undergoing major joint arthroplasty and major surgical procedures. These patients remain at high risk for venous thromboembolic events. In patients undergoing total hip or total knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA, respectively), different patterns of altered venous hemodynamics and hypercoagulability have been found, thus the rate of distal DVT is higher than that of proximal DVT after TKA. In addition, symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs earlier after TKA than THA; however, most of those events occur after hospital discharge. Consequently, extended thromboprophylaxis after discharge should be considered and is particularly important after THA owing to the prolonged risk period for VTE. Evidence-based guideline recommendations for the prevention of VTE in these patients have not been fully implemented. This is partly owing to the limitations of traditional anticoagulants, such as the parenteral route of administration or frequent coagulation monitoring and dose adjustment, as well as concerns about bleeding risks. The introduction of new oral agents (e.g., dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban) may facilitate guideline adherence, particularly in the outpatient setting, owing to their oral administration without the need for routine coagulation monitoring. Furthermore, the direct Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban has been shown to be more effective than enoxaparin in preventing VTE.
Venous thromboembolism, presenting as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is a major challenge for health care systems. It is the third most common vascular disease after coronary heart disease and stroke, and many hospitalized patients have at least one risk factor. In particular, patients undergoing hip or knee replacement are at risk, with an incidence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis of 40%–60% without thromboprophylaxis. Venous thromboembolism is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, with patients being at risk of recurrence, post-thrombotic syndrome, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Arterial thromboembolism is even more frequent, and atrial fibrillation, the most common embolic source (cardiac arrhythmia), is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of stroke. Strokes due to atrial fibrillation tend to be more severe and disabling and are more often fatal than strokes due to other causes. Currently, recommended management of both venous and arterial thromboembolism involves the use of anticoagulants such as coumarin and heparin derivatives. These agents are effective, although have characteristics that prevent them from providing optimal anticoagulation and convenience. Hence, new improved oral anticoagulants are being investigated. Dabigatran is a reversible, direct thrombin inhibitor, which is administered as dabigatran etexilate, the oral prodrug. Because it is the first new oral anticoagulant that has been licensed in many countries worldwide for thromboprophylaxis following orthopedic surgery and for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, this compound will be the main focus of this review. Dabigatran has been investigated for the treatment of established venous thromboembolism and prevention of recurrence in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement, as well as for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients with a moderate and high risk of stroke.
dabigatran etexilate; venous thromboembolism; stroke; prevention; treatment
Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are at high risk of venous thromboembolism, manifesting as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. The recommended pharmacologic treatment options for thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery include the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs eg, warfarin), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs; eg, enoxaparin) and the synthetic pentasaccharide fondaparinux. Most clinics use some kind of thromboprophylaxis routinely. However, due to the frequent need for coagulation monitoring (VKAs) and subcutaneous injections (LMWHs and fondaparinux) barriers exist to prescribing prophylaxis after discharge from hospital. Targeting specific components of the coagulation cascade has yielded several new antithrombotic agents for use as thromboprophylaxis after THA or TKA. Two of these, dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban, have already reached the markets in the European Union member states and Canada. Both are administered by the oral route, once-daily fixed dose and without the need to monitor the anticoagulant effect. Whether these new drugs facilitate guideline adherence, particularly in the outpatient settings and thereby improve the overall clinical outcomes remains to be shown.
dabigatran etexilate; rivaroxaban; thromboprophylaxis; total joint arthroplasty; venous thromboembolism
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients.
Most surgeons believe that Asians have a low risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and routine thromboprophylaxis therapy is not required after major orthopaedic trauma. This study evaluates the postoperative risk of VTE in Indian patients sustaining pelvi-acetabular injury. Fifty-six patients with pelvi-acetabular injury, who underwent open reduction and internal fixation, were prospectively evaluated for VTE in the postoperative period. They were evaluated, both clinically and radiologically (pulmonary CT angiography and indirect venography of lower limb and pelvis veins), until six weeks after surgery. A total of 16 patients developed VTE, of which 12 had proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT), ten had pulmonary embolism (PE) and only two had distal DVT. Six patients with proximal DVT had associated PE. The risk of development of VTE among Indian patients after pelvi-acetabular injury is high (28.6%) with increasing chances of proximal DVT and PE; hence, administration of routine thromboprophylaxis is fully justified in them.
In Western countries, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), are relatively common after THA and many surgeons recommend routine pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. There is some suggestion in the literature that the incidences of DVT and PE may be lower in East Asian patients. Therefore, it would be important to establish the incidences in a large number of East Asian patients who did not receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis.
We therefore determined the incidence of DVT and PE and evaluated the associated risk factors in a series of East Asian patients who underwent primary THA without pharmacologic prophylaxis.
We retrospectively evaluated all 861 patients who underwent 992 elective primary THAs from May 2003 to December 2009. We identified patients with symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, and fatal PE. For potential risk factors we considered age, gender, body mass index (BMI), administration of aspirin, type of anesthesia, operation time, approach, simultaneous bilateral THAs, and duration of immobilization between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.
We identified eight patients with symptomatic DVT, one of whom also had a symptomatic PE; there were no cases of fatal PE. The incidences of fatal PE, symptomatic PE, and symptomatic DVT were 0 %, 0.1 %, and 0.8 %, respectively. Longer duration of immobilization predicted symptomatic DVT or PE.
East Asian patients have a low incidence of symptomatic DVT and PE and virtually no fatal PEs after primary THA. The incidences and risk factors should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to prophylactically treat these patients with pharmacologic agents.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
There is high incidence of venous thromboembolism, comprising of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, in hospitalized patients. The need for systemic thromboprophylaxis is essential, especially in patients with inherited or acquired patient-specific risk factors or in patients undergoing surgeries associated with high incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These patients, on prophylactic or therapeutic doses of anticoagulants, may present for surgery. General or regional anaesthesia may be considered depending on the type and urgency of surgery and degree of anticoagulation as judged by investigations. The dilemma regarding the type of anaesthesia can be solved if the anaesthesiologist is aware of the pharmacokinetics of drugs affecting haemostasis. The anaesthesiologist must keep abreast with the latest developments of methods and drugs used in the prevention and management of venous thromboembolism and their implications in the conduct of anaesthesia.
Anaesthetic considerations; deep vein thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; thromboprophylaxis; venous thromboembolism
This is a literature review of the frequency of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with cancer and of the available evidence supporting the use of thromboprophylaxis. Patients with cancer are at particularly high risk of venous thromboembolism and account for almost 20% of patients in the population. Hospitalization is an important risk factor in patients with cancer, with rates reported between 0.6% and 7.8%. The incidence has been increasing over the past decade. Three randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses indicate that prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, heparin, or fondaparinux significantly reduces the rate of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medical patients who are at high risk. Patients with cancer were included in these studies, but prospective trials specifically focused on patients with cancer are not available. Evidence indicates that appropriate thromboprophylaxis is provided to a minority of hospitalized patients with cancer and that targeted educational efforts and computerized prompt systems can increase appropriate use. Guidelines developed by both oncology and thrombosis organizations support the use of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with cancer. In conclusion, most patients hospitalized with cancer are at high risk of venous thromboembolism, and thromboprophylaxis should be provided in the absence of active bleeding or a high bleeding risk.
A retrospective study of the morbidity and mortality from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) in 490 consecutive patients undergoing uncemented total hip replacement was carried out in a district general hospital. Special diagnostic tests for DVT and PE were not available. Patients were followed up for one year. There were three deaths in hospital and eight further deaths during the first year, all unrelated to DVT and PE. The clinical incidence of venous thromboembolism was 2.04%. While clinical diagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease probably underestimates its incidence, the figures for mortality are accurate. With every patient accounted for one year after operation, there were no deaths attributable to PE in this series.
We prospectively assessed the implementation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis guidelines and the impact of grand round presentation of the datain changing clinical practice. Two NHS teaching hospitals were studied for 24 months from January 2003. Patients were risk stratified according to the THRIFT (thromboembolic risk factor) consensus group guidelines and compared with the recommendations of the THRIFT and ACCP (American College of Chest Physicians) consensus groups. Six months following presentation of the initial results, a further analysis was made to assess changes in clinical practice.
1128 patients were assessed of whom 1062 satisfied the inclusion criteria for thromboprophylaxis. 89% of all patients were stratified as having high or moderate riskof developing VTE. Of these only 28% were prescribed some form of thromboprophylaxis—4% received the THRIFT-recommended and 22% received the ACCP-recommended thromboprophylaxis. The vast majority (72%) received no thromboprophylaxis at all. Reassessment, following data presentation at grandrounds, showed a significant increase to 31% inpatients receiving THRIFT (P<0.0001) and ACCP (P=0.002) recommended thromboprophylaxis. However,the proportion of patients receiving no form of prophylaxis barely changed (72% to 69%: P=0.59).
We found a gross underutilization of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients. A simple grand-round presentation of the data and recommended guidelines to clinicians significantly increased the proportion of patients receiving recommended thromboprophylaxis but did not increasethe overall proportion of patients receiving it. Wetherefore conclude that a single presentation of guidelines is not enough to achieve the desired levels. Such presentations may only serve to make DVT (deepvenous thromboembolism) aware clinicians prescribe prophylaxis more accurately.
Venous thromboembolism is the most common preventable cause of death in surgical patients. Thromboprophylaxis, using mechanical methods to promote venous outflow from the legs and antithrombotic drugs, provides the most effective means of reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. Despite the evidence supporting thromboprophylaxis, it remains underused because surgeons perceive that the risk of venous thromboembolism is not high enough to justify the potential hemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant use. The risk of venous thromboembolism is determined by patient characteristics and by the type of surgery that is performed. In this paper we identify the risk factors for venous thromboembolism and provide a scheme for stratifying surgical patients according to their risk. We describe the mechanism of action of the various forms of thromboprophylaxis and outline the evidence supporting thromboprophylaxis in different surgical settings. Finally, we recommend optimal forms of thromboprophylaxis in patients who undergo various types of surgery. Intermittent pneumatic compression, with or without elastic stockings, can be used for thromboprophylaxis in patients who undergo neurosurgical procedures; for patients who undergo vascular or cardiovascular procedures, long-term acetylsalicylic acid should be used for thromboprophylaxis. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or warfarin is the choice for patients with spinal cord operations and all patients with major trauma who do not have contraindications to anticoagulation should receive thromboprophylaxis with LMWH.
Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been accepted as the “gold standard” for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS) represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy.
major orthopedic surgery; apixaban; dabigatran; edoxaban; rivaroxaban; deep vein thrombosis; venous thromboembolism; VTE prophylaxis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and its most feared complication, pulmonary embolism (PE), still have a high incidence with high risk for patients’ health. Proven prophylactic measures are available but are generally underused, and DVT is still considered the most common cause of preventable death among hospitalized patients. The rationale for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism is based on the clinically silent nature of the disease, the relatively high prevalence among hospitalized patients and the potentially tragic consequences of a missed diagnosis. During the last 15–20 years, spine surgery has changed radically, developing into a well-defined area of specialist surgery, and some attention is now being given to DVT events in spine surgery. The incidence of DVT during spine surgery is not documented in the literature, because only case reports or retrospective studies are reported. It would therefore be very helpful to initiate a multicenter study in order to understand this problem better and to develop, if possible, some guidelines on prophylactic measures in spine surgery. In doing so, we need to consider each patient’s pattern, any risk factors and every kind of surgical technique related to DVT, in order to improve the outcome of the patient and to reduce any medicolegal problems that could arise from a thrombotic complication or an epidural hematoma, with its high potential for irreversible consequences.
Deep vein thrombosis; Pulmonary embolism; Prophylaxis; Spinal surgery
The western literature on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following spinal cord injury (SCI) report an alarmingly high incidence, necessitating thromboprophylaxis. The literature on incidence from the Asian subcontinent is scanty and from India is almost nonexistent.
Materials and Methods:
Seventy hospitalized acute SCI patients presenting within five days of the injury were included in the present analysis. Forty-two cases were subjected to color Doppler studies and 28 cases had to be subjected to venography due to lack of facility at some point of time. The clinical course of the patients was closely observed during the period of hospitalization. All except 14 were managed nonoperatively. Thromboprophylaxis was not given to any patient at any stage; however, treatment was instituted in those showing the features of DVT on investigations.
Twelve patients died during the period of hospitalization. Deep vein thrombosis could be detected in seven patients only, three in the proximal and four in the distal segment of the lower limb and of these three died. Based on the clinical course and positive investigation report in favor of DVT, we presumed that the cause of death in these three patients was pulmonary embolism. In the other nine, in the absence of an autopsy report, the cause of deaths was considered as pulmonary infection, asphyxia, diaphragmatic paralysis, hematemesis, cervicomedullary paralysis etc. Clinical features to diagnose DVT were of little help.
There is a much lower incidence (10%) of DVT and PE following spinal cord injury (SCI) in India than what is reported from the western countries. Higher age group and quadriplegia were the only factors which could be correlated. Deep vein thrombosis extending proximal to the knee was significant. In the absence of autopsy and other screening tests like D-dimer test or 125I fibrogen uptake study, the true incidence of venous thromboembolism remains uncertain. Noninvasive screening of all patients for the detection of deep vein thrombosis in SCI patients is strongly recommended.
Deep vein thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; spinal cord injury
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) often occurs after surgery and can even occur before surgery in patients with gynaecological malignancies. We investigated the incidence of VTE before treatment of endometrial cancer and associated risk factors. Plasma D-dimer (DD) levels before initial treatment were examined in 171 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer. Venous ultrasound imaging (VUI) of the lower extremities was performed in patients with DD ⩾1.5 μg ml−1, as the negative predictive value of DD for VTE is extremely high. For patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary scintigraphy was performed to ascertain the presence of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Risk factors for VTE were analysed using univariate and multivariate analyses for 171 patients. Of these, 37 patients (21.6%) showed DD ⩾1.5 μg ml−1, 17 (9.9%) displayed DVT by VUI and 8 (4.7%) showed PTE on pulmonary scintigraphy. All patients with VTE were asymptomatic. Univariate analysis for various risk factors revealed older age, non-endometrioid histology and several variables of advanced disease as significantly associated with VTE before treatment. Obesity, smoking and diabetes mellitus were not risk factors. Multivariate analysis confirmed extrauterine spread and non-endometrioid histology as independently and significantly associated with risk of VTE. These data suggest that silent or subclinical VTE occurs before treatment in at least around 10% of patients with endometrial cancer. Risk factors for VTE before treatment might not be identical to those after starting treatment.
endometrial adenocarcinoma; deep vein thrombosis; pulmonary thromboembolism; plasma D-dimer
There is no clear evidence in the literature regarding the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Literature also lacks on the recommendations on thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. We conducted a prospective analysis to assess incidence of DVT in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.
Materials and Methods:
120 consecutive patients with MRI proven ACL injury who were operated for arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were enrolled in this prospective study. None of the patients had risk factors (on history) for DVT, and all were below the age of 45 years. All cases were operated upon by a single surgeon and a standard rehabilitation regime was followed. The patients underwent clinical examination and screening (Doppler ultrasonography/venous scan) for any DVT, on the day prior to surgery, day of discharge (Day 3) and at 4 weeks postsurgery. None of the patients received any form of thromboprophylaxis against DVT.
One hundred and twelve patients (61 males and 51 females) completed the study. The average age was 31.6 years (range 24-42 years). All patients underwent arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstruction surgery within 3 weeks of the injury. Two patients (males) in the series had Doppler venous scan proven DVT. One patient was asymptomatic but the screening Doppler picked up the DVT on the third postoperative day. The other patient was symptomatic at 12 weeks with pain and swelling in the leg and had ultrasound -proven DVT.
In our study the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction is 1.78%. We do not recommend routine thromboprophylaxis in patients, who are not high risk candidates for thrombosis and are of less than 45 years, in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, with early postoperative rehabilitation.
Anterior cruciate ligament; deep vein thrombosis; reconstruction; arthroscopy; thromboprophylaxis
Two hundred admissions to a general surgical ward were audited prospectively before and after the introduction of a thromboembolic risk score. This was based on the Thromboembolic Risk Factors (THRIFT) Consensus Group guidelines for thrombo-prophylaxis. The results showed an overall improvement in compliance from 65% to 79%. High risk patients formed 24% of the patients studied. In this group, compliance improved significantly from 14% to 58%. The overall prevalence of important thromboembolic risk factors was calculated. Of the patients, 26.5% had a Body Mass Index (BMI) of > 25, and 10% gave a past or family history of thromboembolism. Of female patients, 24% were taking oestrogens. We conclude that quantitative assessment of all patients for thromboembolic risk can improve the implementation of thromboprophylaxis, particularly in high risk patients.
Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common complications of total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Though the reported incidence of DVT is very high, that of proximal DVT is low and that of fatal thromboembolism is very low. Hence the issue of prophylaxis for DVT remains controversial.
The incidence of DVT is based on various studies in European and American populations. The Asian population is genetically and socially quite different from American and European populations, and the incidence of DVT can be quite different. Therefore a prospective study was initiated at our centre to determine incidence of DVT after THA and TKA in Indian patients.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 60 hips in 45 patients and 46 knees in 26 patients who underwent THA and TKA respectively, without any known risk factors for thromboembolic disease. DVT was studied by preoperative and postoperative serial colour Doppler ultrasonography. No prophylaxis was given to any of the patients.
Results: DVT was found in two patients who had undergone THA. No case of DVT was detected in any patient who had undergone TKA.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the incidence of DVT in Indian patients is very low and is not comparable with American and European populations. It is therefore not cost effective to advise prophylaxis in Indian patients undergoing THA/TKA who have no known risk factors for DVT.
Background and Aims:
Central venous catheters (CVC) are essential in a critical care setting. Thrombosis is one of the very important associated complications that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of thrombosis in right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV) CVC with the help of color Doppler duplex sonography, its extent, risk factors and clinical impact.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred consecutive patients having right-sided IJV CVC were included in the study. Color Doppler sonography was performed on the 3rd and 6th days after CVC insertion. The size of the thrombus was noted. Presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension or smoking was noted. Presence of any hypertonic solution and thromboprophylaxis for Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were also noted.
Thrombus was detected in 33 of 100 (33.0%) patients. The incidence in males was 32.86% and in females was 33.33%. Males had a significantly higher incidence of small thrombus (P = 0.05), whereas females had a significantly higher incidence of large thrombus (P = 0.05). DVT thromboprophylaxis was not effective for CVC-related thrombosis. Hypertonic solution, presence of diabetes, hypertension or history of smoking did not increase the risk of thrombosis.
CVC-related thrombosis is common and has the potential for serious complications. Females appear to be at a higher risk for larger thrombus formation. DVT thromboprophylaxis does not confer protection for CVC-related thrombosis. Color Doppler duplex sonography provides with an easily available, noninvasive means of detecting a thrombus. More studies are needed to establish a consensus for prophylaxis and treatment of asymptomatic CVC-related thrombosis.
Central venous catheter; internal jugular vein; thrombosis
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are at increased risk of thrombosis. Nadroparin has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of venous and arterial thrombotic events (TEs) by about 50% in cancer outpatients receiving chemotherapy. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to evaluate the thromboembolic risk and the benefit of thromboprophylaxis according to type of chemotherapy.
Cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of nadroparin or placebo. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was assessed according to the type of chemotherapy. Results were reported as risk ratios with associated 95% CI and two-tailed probability values.
769 and 381 patients have been evaluated in the nadroparin and placebo group, respectively. In the absence of thromboprophylaxis, the highest rate of TEs was found in patients receiving gemcitabine- (8.1%) or cisplatin-based chemotherapy (7.0%). The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin or carboplatin increased the risk to 10.2%. Thromboprophylaxis reduced TE risk by 68% in patients receiving gemcitabine; with a further decrease to 78% in those receiving a combination of gemcitabine and platinum.
This retrospective analysis confirms that patients undergoing chemotherapy including gemcitabine, platinum analogues or their combination are at higher risk of TEs. Our results also suggest that outpatients receiving chemotherapy regimens including these agents might achieve an increased benefit from thromboprophylaxis with nadroparin. Clinical Trial registration number: NCT 00951574
chemotherapy; nadroparin; prophylaxis; thrombosis; LMWH
The 7th conference of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP7) provides recommendations on the type, dose, and duration of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the extent to which hospitals follow these criteria has not been well studied. Discharge and billing records for patients admitted to any of 16 acute-care hospitals from January 2005 to December 2006 were obtained. Patients 18 years or older who had an inpatient stay ≥2 days and no apparent contraindications for thromboprophylaxis were grouped into the categories of critical care, surgery and medically ill before being assessed for additional VTE risk factors based on the diagnostic criteria outlined in ACCP7. For patients at risk, the recommended type (mechanical or pharmacologic), dose, and duration of thromboprophylaxis was identified based on the guidelines and compared to the regimen actually received, if any. Among the 258,556 hospitalized patients, 68,278 (26.4%) were determined to be at risk of VTE without apparent contraindications for thromboprophylaxis. The proportions of patients who received the appropriate type, dose, and duration of thromboprophylaxis were 10.5, 9.8, and 17.9% for critical care, medical, and surgical patients, respectively. Of those at risk, 36.8% received no thromboprophylaxis and an additional 50.2% received thromboprophylaxis deemed inappropriate for one or more reasons. The implementation of ACCP7 guidelines for type, dosage, and duration of thromboprophylaxis is low in patients at risk of VTE. There is a need for physicians and health systems to improve awareness and implementation of recommended thromboprophylaxis.
Venous thromboembolism; Guidelines; Health care quality
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in medically ill patients. This study was done to assess risk factors and prophylaxis given for DVT and PE in newly admitted medically ill patients during the first two weeks of their hospital stay at a tertiary care center hospital in India.
All patients within one week of their admission in intensive care unit (ICU) and wards were enrolled in the study after an informed written consent. Patients who had DVT prophylaxis within the past month or any contraindications for DVT prophylaxis were excluded. A structured proforma was designed and effective risk stratification for DVT was done. Patients were followed for up to two weeks to record any changes in the risk categories and document any signs of PE or DVT if present. Any prophylaxis given for DVT or PE was noted.
Seventy-five percent of patients had the highest risk for DVT and PE. Only 12.5% had DVT prophylaxis within the first two days of admission. Within two weeks of admission, 30.8% of patients were discharged, and 16.2% died. 72.6% of the patients still in the wards belonged to the highest risk category. Clinical signs and symptoms of DVT and PE were present in 25.8% and 9.8% of patients, respectively after the second week of admission. 86% of symptomatic patients belonged to the highest risk category initially and none of them received any prophylaxis. 21.6% of the highest risk category patients died within two weeks of their admission. A statistically significant correlation was found between mortality and risk score of the patients for DVT and between lack of prophylaxis and mortality (p < 0.05).
A significant risk for DVT and PE exists in medically ill patients, but only a small proportion of the patients are given prophylaxis. This study underlines the need to aggressively implement DVT risk stratification strategy in medical patients and provide prophylaxis unless contraindicated.
deep venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; risk stratification; DVT prophylaxis
Objective To examine the duration and magnitude of increased risk of venous thromboembolism after different types of surgery.
Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study).
Setting Questionnaire data from the Million Women Study linked with hospital admission and death records.
Participants 947 454 middle aged women in the United Kingdom recruited in 1996-2001 and followed by record linkage to routinely collected NHS data on hospital admissions and deaths. During follow-up 239 614 admissions were for surgery; 5419 women were admitted, and a further 270 died, from venous thromboembolism.
Main outcome measures Adjusted relative risks and standardised incidence rates for hospital admission or death from venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis), by time since and type of surgery.
Results Compared with not having surgery, women were 70 times more likely to be admitted with venous thromboembolism in the first six weeks after an inpatient operation (relative risk 69.1, 95% confidence interval 63.1 to 75.6) and 10 times more likely after a day case operation (9.6, 8.0 to 11.5). The risks were lower but still substantially increased 7-12 weeks after surgery (19.6, 16.6 to 23.1 and 5.5, 4.3 to 7.0, respectively). This pattern of risk was similar for pulmonary embolism (n=2487) and deep venous thrombosis (n=3529). The postoperative risks of venous thromboembolism varied considerably by surgery type, with highest relative risks after inpatient surgery for hip or knee replacement and for cancer—1-6 weeks after surgery the relative risks were, respectively, 220.6 (187.8 to 259.2) and 91.6 (73.9 to 113.4).
Conclusion The risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after surgery is substantially increased in the first 12 postoperative weeks, and varies considerably by type of surgery. An estimated 1 in 140 middle aged women undergoing inpatient surgery in the UK will be admitted with venous thromboembolism during the 12 weeks after surgery (1 in 45 after hip or knee replacement and 1 in 85 after surgery for cancer), compared with 1 in 815 after day case surgery and only 1 in 6200 women during a 12 week period without surgery.
To assess the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding events with or without thromboprophylaxis and the associated costs in a cohort of medically ill patients in both in-hospital and outpatient settings.
A large hospital drug database and linked outpatient files were used to identify patients eligible for this analysis, based on demographic and clinical characteristics.
Among 11,135 patients identified, 1592 (14.30%) were admitted with chronic heart failure, 1684 (15.12%) with thromboembolic stroke, 3834 (34.43%) with severe lung disease, 1658 (14.89%) with acute infection, and 2367 (21.26%) with cancer. Of the 11,135 patients, 5932 received anticoagulant therapy at some point during their hospitalization and until 30 days after discharge. VTE events occurred in 1.30% of patients who received anticoagulant prophylaxis versus 2.99% of patients who did not. Risk-adjusted total healthcare costs for patients with a VTE or major or minor bleeding event were significantly higher than for those without events (VTE: $52,157 ± 24,389 vs $24,164 ± 11,418; major bleeding: $33,656 ± 18,196 vs $24,765 ± 11,974; minor bleeding: $33,690 ± 14,398 vs $23,610 ± 11,873). In a multivariate analysis, appropriate anticoagulant prophylaxis use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of clinical VTE, compared with no anticoagulant use (hazard ratio: 0.37). Patients admitted with thromboembolic stroke were less likely to have a VTE than patients admitted with cancer (hazard ratio: 0.42).
In this analysis, VTE and major bleeding event rates were lower for patients who received prophylaxis compared with those who did not. Prophylaxis use was associated with lower healthcare costs.