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1.  Simplification to Abacavir/Lamivudine + Atazanavir Maintains Viral Suppression and Improves Bone and Renal Biomarkers in ASSURE, a Randomized, Open Label, Non-Inferiority Trial 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96187.
Objective
Simplification of antiretroviral therapy in patients with suppressed viremia may minimize long-term adverse effects. The study’s primary objective was to determine whether abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir (ABC/3TC+ATV) was virologically non-inferior to tenofovir/emtricitabine + atazanavir/ritonavir (TDF/FTC+ATV/r) over 24 weeks in a population of virologically suppressed, HIV-1 infected patients.
Design
This open-label, multicenter, non-inferiority study enrolled antiretroviral experienced, HIV-infected adults currently receiving a regimen of TDF/FTC+ATV/r for ≥6 months with no history of virologic failure and whose HIV-1 RNA had been ≤75 copies/mL on 2 consecutive measurements including screening. Patients were randomized 1∶2 to continue current treatment or simplify to ABC/3TC+ATV.
Methods
The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL at Week 24 by the Time to Loss of Virologic Response (TLOVR) algorithm. Secondary endpoints included alternative measures of efficacy, adverse events (AEs), and fasting lipids. Exploratory endpoints included inflammatory, coagulation, bone, and renal biomarkers.
Results
After 24 weeks, ABC/3TC+ATV (n = 199) was non-inferior to TDF/FTC+ATV/r (n = 97) by both the primary analysis (87% in both groups) and all secondary efficacy analyses. Rates of grade 2–4 AEs were similar between the two groups (40% vs 37%, respectively), but an excess of hyperbilirubinemia made the rate of grade 3–4 laboratory abnormalities higher in the TDF/FTC+ATV/r group (30%) compared with the ABC/3TC+ATV group (13%). Lipid levels were stable except for HDL cholesterol, which increased significantly in the ABC/3TC+ATV group. Bone and renal biomarkers improved significantly between baseline and Week 24 in patients taking ABC/3TC+ATV, and the difference between groups was significant at Week 24. No significant changes occurred in any inflammatory or coagulation biomarker within or between treatment groups.
Conclusions
After 24 weeks, simplification to ABC/3TC+ATV from TDF/FTC+ATV/r maintained viral suppression was well-tolerated, and led to improvements in bone and renal biomarkers and HDL cholesterol.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01102972
GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Study Register #113734
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096187
PMCID: PMC4019479  PMID: 24825167
2.  Ritonavir-Boosted Darunavir Is Rarely Associated with Nephrolithiasis Compared with Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir in HIV-Infected Patients 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77268.
Background
Although ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) is known to be associated with nephrolithiasis, little is known about the incidence of nephrolithiasis in patients treated with ritonavir-boosted Darunavir (DRV/r), the other preferred protease inhibitor.
Methods
In a single-center cohort, the incidence of nephrolithiasis was compared between HIV-infected patients who commenced DRV/r-containing antiretroviral therapy and those on ATV/r. The effects of ATV/r use over DRV/r were estimated by univariate and multivariate Cox hazards models.
Results
Renal stones were diagnosed in only one patient (0.86 per 1000 person-years) of the DRV/r group (n=540) and 37 (20.2 per 1000 person-years) of the ATV/r group (n=517). The median [interquartile (IQR)] observation period in the DRV/r group was 27.1 months (IQR 18.1-38.4 months), and 40.6 months (IQR 17.5-42.7) for the ATV/r group. The total observation period was 1,163.6 person-years and 1,829.6 person-years for the DRV/r group and for the ATV/r group, respectively. In the 37 patients on ATV/r who developed nephrolithiasis, the median time from commencement of ATV/r to diagnosis was 28.1 months (IQR 18.4–42.7), whereas nephrolithiasis in the single patient of the DRV/r group occurred 11.2 month after the introduction of DRV/r. ATV/r use over DRV/r was significantly associated with nephrolithiasis by uni- and multivariate analyses (HR=26.01; 95% CI, 3.541–191.0; p=0.001) (adjusted HR=21.47; 95% CI, 2.879–160.2; p=0.003).
Conclusion
The incidence of nephrolithiasis was substantially lower in patients on DRV/r than those on ATV/r. The results suggest that DRV/r should be selected for treatment of HIV-infected patients at risk of chronic kidney disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077268
PMCID: PMC3795077  PMID: 24130871
3.  Peripheral and Central Fat Changes in Subjects Randomized to Abacavir-Lamivudine or Tenofovir-Emtricitabine With Atazanavir-Ritonavir or Efavirenz: ACTG Study A5224s 
A5224s compared fat changes with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or TenofovirDF/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r). TDF/FTC- and ABC/3TC-regimens similarly increased limb and visceral fat. ATV/r led to greater gains in limb fat, and a trend towards greater gains in visceral fat than EFV.
Background. We compare the effect of 4 different antiretroviral regimens on limb and visceral fat.
Methods. A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a trial of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected, treatment-naive subjects randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV-r). The primary endpoint was the presence of lipoatrophy (≥10% loss of limb fat) at week 96 by intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Secondary endpoints included changes in limb and visceral fat. Statistical tests included linear regression, binomial, two-sample t test, and Fisher's exact test.
Results. A5224s enrolled 269 subjects; 85% were male, and 47% were white non-Hispanic. The subjects had a median baseline HIV-1 RNA level of 4.6 log10 copies/mL, a median age of 38 years, a median CD4+ cell count of 233 cells/μL, median limb fat of 7.4 kg, median visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 84.1 cm2, and VAT: total adipose tissue (TAT) ratio of 0.31. At week 96, estimated prevalence of lipoatrophy (upper 95% confidence interval [CI]) was 18% (25%) for ABC-3TC and 15% (22%) for TDF-FTC (P = .70); this was not significantly less than the hypothesized 15% for both (P ≥ .55 for both). The secondary as-treated (AT) analysis showed similar results. At week 96, the estimated mean percentage change from baseline in VAT was higher for the ATV-r group than for the EFV group (26.6% vs 12.4%; P = .090 in ITT analysis and 30.0% vs 14.5%; P = .10 in AT analysis); however, the percentage change in VAT:TAT was similar by ITT and AT analysis (P ≥ .60 for both). Results were similar for absolute changes in VAT and VAT:TAT.
Conclusions. ABC-3TC– and TDF-FTC–based regimens increased limb and visceral fat at week 96, with a similar prevalence of lipoatrophy. Compared to the EFV group, subjects assigned to ATV-r had a trend towards higher mean percentage increase in VAT.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00118898.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir324
PMCID: PMC3165963  PMID: 21690627
4.  Effects of Switching from Lopinavir/ritonavir to Atazanavir/ritonavir on Muscle Glucose Uptake and Visceral Fat in HIV Infected Patients 
AIDS (London, England)  2009;23(11):1349-1357.
Objective
To determine the effects of switching from lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) on muscle glucose uptake, glucose homeostasis, lipids, and body composition.
Methods
Fifteen HIV-infected men and women on a regimen containing LPV/r and with evidence of hyperinsulinemia and/or dyslipidemia were randomized to continue LPV/r or to switch to ATV/r (ATV 300mg and ritonavir 100mg daily) for six months. The primary endpoint was change in thigh muscle glucose uptake as measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Secondary endpoints included abdominal visceral adipose tissue, fasting lipids and safety parameters. The difference over time between treatment groups (treatment effect of ATV/r relative to LPV/r) was determined by repeated measures ANCOVA.
Results
After six months, anterior thigh muscle glucose uptake increased significantly (treatment effect +18.2 ± 5.9 μmol/kg/min, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, p=0.035), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area decreased significantly in subjects who switched to ATV/r (treatment effect -31 ± 11cm2, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, p=0.047). Switching to ATV/r significantly decreased triglyceride (treatment effect -182 ± 64 mg/dL, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, p=0.02) and total cholesterol (treatment effect -23 ± 8 mg/dL, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, p=0.01), whereas HDL and LDL did not change significantly. Fasting glucose also decreased significantly following switch to ATV/r (treatment effect -15 ± 4 mg/dL, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, p=0.002).
Conclusions
Switching from LPV/r to ATV/r significantly increases glucose uptake by muscle, decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue, improves lipid parameters and decreases fasting glucose over 6 months.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832ba904
PMCID: PMC2886977  PMID: 19474651
HIV; lipodystrophy; atazanavir; lopinavir; glucose; intra-abdominal fat; lipids
5.  Effect of Rifampin on Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Atazanavir with Ritonavir in Healthy Volunteers†  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(10):3336-3342.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a concern in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Rifampin (RIF), an agent used against M. tuberculosis, is contraindicated with most HIV protease inhibitors. Atazanavir (ATV) has clinical efficacy comparable to a standard of care regimen in naive patients and, when dosed with low-dose ritonavir (RTV), also in treatment-experienced patients. We evaluated here the safety and pharmacokinetics of ATV, resulting from three regimens of ATV, RTV, and RIF in 71 healthy subjects. The pharmacokinetics for ATV and RTV were assessed after 6 and 10 days of dosing with ATV 400 mg (n = 53) and with ATV-RTV at 300 and 100 mg (ATV/RTV 300/100; n = 52), respectively. Steady-state pharmacokinetics for ATV, RTV, RIF, and desacetyl-rifampin (des-RIF) were measured after 10 days of dosing of ATV/RTV/RIF 300/100/600 (n = 17), ATV/RTV/RIF 300/200/600 (n = 17), or ATV/RTV/RIF 400/200/600 (n = 14). An RIF 600-alone arm was enrolled as a control group (n = 18). With ATV/RTV/RIF 400/200/600, ATV area under the concentration-time curve values were comparable, but the Cmin values were lower relative to ATV 400 alone. ATV exposures were substantially reduced for the other RIF-containing regimens relative to ATV 400 alone and for all regimens relative to ATV/RTV 300/100 alone. RIF and des-RIF exposures were 1.6- to 2.5-fold higher than with RIF 600 alone. The incidence of grade 3/4 alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase values was limited to 1 subject each in both the ATV/RTV/RIF 300/200/600 and the ATV/RTV/RIF 400/200/600 treatments. Coadministration of ATV with RIF was safe and generally well tolerated. Since ATV exposures were reduced in all regimens, ATV and RIF should not be coadministered at the dosing regimens studied.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00461-06
PMCID: PMC1610067  PMID: 17005814
6.  Efficacy and Safety of Three Antiretroviral Regimens for Initial Treatment of HIV-1: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Diverse Multinational Settings 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(8):e1001290.
Thomas Campbell and colleagues report findings of a randomized trial conducted in multiple countries regarding the efficacy of antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing.
Background
Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world.
Methods and Findings
1,571 HIV-1-infected persons (47% women) from nine countries in four continents were assigned with equal probability to open-label antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz plus lamivudine-zidovudine (EFV+3TC-ZDV), atazanavir plus didanosine-EC plus emtricitabine (ATV+DDI+FTC), or efavirenz plus emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (DF) (EFV+FTC-TDF). ATV+DDI+FTC and EFV+FTC-TDF were hypothesized to be non-inferior to EFV+3TC-ZDV if the upper one-sided 95% confidence bound for the hazard ratio (HR) was ≤1.35 when 30% of participants had treatment failure.
An independent monitoring board recommended stopping study follow-up prior to accumulation of 472 treatment failures. Comparing EFV+FTC-TDF to EFV+3TC-ZDV, during a median 184 wk of follow-up there were 95 treatment failures (18%) among 526 participants versus 98 failures among 519 participants (19%; HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.72–1.27; p = 0.74). Safety endpoints occurred in 243 (46%) participants assigned to EFV+FTC-TDF versus 313 (60%) assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV (HR 0.64, CI 0.54–0.76; p<0.001) and there was a significant interaction between sex and regimen safety (HR 0.50, CI 0.39–0.64 for women; HR 0.79, CI 0.62–1.00 for men; p = 0.01). Comparing ATV+DDI+FTC to EFV+3TC-ZDV, during a median follow-up of 81 wk there were 108 failures (21%) among 526 participants assigned to ATV+DDI+FTC and 76 (15%) among 519 participants assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV (HR 1.51, CI 1.12–2.04; p = 0.007).
Conclusion
EFV+FTC-TDF had similar high efficacy compared to EFV+3TC-ZDV in this trial population, recruited in diverse multinational settings. Superior safety, especially in HIV-1-infected women, and once-daily dosing of EFV+FTC-TDF are advantageous for use of this regimen for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection in resource-limited countries. ATV+DDI+FTC had inferior efficacy and is not recommended as an initial antiretroviral regimen.
Trial Registration
www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00084136
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
Background
Despite the enormous gains in reducing HIV-related illness and death over the past decade, there are still considerable challenges to meeting the global goal of universal access to highly active antiretroviral treatment—a combination of effective drugs that attack the HIV virus in various ways—to everyone living with HIV/AIDS who could benefit from treatment. In recognition of the related financial, technical, and system obstacles to providing universal access to HIV treatment, in 2010 the UN agency responsible for HIV/AIDS—UNAIDS—launched an ambitious plan called Treatment 2.0, which aims to simplify the way HIV treatment is currently provided. One of the main focuses of Treatment 2.0 is to simplify drug regimes for the treatment of HIV and to make treatment regimes less toxic. In line with Treatment 2.0, the World Health Organization currently recommends that antiretroviral regimens for the initial treatment of HIV should include two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [DF] with lamivudine or emtricitabine) and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz or nevirapine.)
Why Was This Study Done?
Most of the evidence about the safety and effectiveness of clinical trials come from clinical trials in high-income countries and thus is not generally representative of the majority of people with HIV. So in this study, the researchers conducted a randomized controlled trial in diverse populations in many different settings to investigate whether antiretroviral regimens administered once daily were as effective as twice-daily regimens and also whether a regimen containing the drug atazanavir administered once daily was as safe and effective as a regimen containing efavirenz—data from previous studies have suggested that atazanavir has characteristics, such as its side effect profile, which may make it more suitable for low income settings.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers recruited eligible patients from centers in Brazil, Haiti, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, the United States, and Zimbabwe—almost half (47%) were women. Then the researchers randomly assigned participants to one of three regimens: efavirenz 600 mg daily plus co-formulated lamivudine-zidovudine 150 mg/300 mg twice daily (EFV+3TC-ZDV); or atazanavir 400 mg once daily, plus didanosine-EC 400 mg once daily, plus emtricitabine 200 mg once daily (ATV+DDI+FTC); or efavirenz 600 mg once daily plus coformulated emtricitabine-tenofovir-DF 200 mg/300 mg once daily (EFV+FTC-TDF). During the study period ATV+DDI+FTC was found to be inferior to EFV+3TC-ZDV, so the Multinational Data Safety Monitoring Board ordered this arm of the trial to stop. Then a year later, due to the low number of treatment failures (deaths, severe HIV disease, or serious opportunistic infections) in the remaining two arms, the board advised the trial to stop early. So the researchers analyzed the data obtained up to this point and pooled the results from all of the centers.
The researchers found that during an average of 184 weeks of follow-up, there were 95 treatment failures (18%) among 526 participants taking EFV+FTC-TDF compared to 98 failures among 519 participants taking EFV+3TC-ZDV. During an average 81 weeks follow-up, there were 108 failures (21%) among 526 participants assigned to ATV+DDI+FTC and 76 (15%) among 519 participants assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV. As for safety, 243 (46%) participants assigned to EFV+FTC-TDF reached a safety endpoint (grade 3 disease, abnormal lab measurement, or the need to change drug) compared to 313 (60%) in the EFV+3TC-ZDV group. Importantly, the researchers found that there was greater risk of safety events for women assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV and also that the atazanavir-based regimen had a higher relative efficacy in women compared to men.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that in diverse populations, EFV+FTC-TDF is as effective as EFV+3TC-ZDV but importantly, the once-daily dosing of EFV+FTC-TDF makes this regimen useful for the initial treatment of HIV, especially in low-income countries. Therefore, as per the guidance in Treatment 2.0, EFV+FTC-TDF in a single combination tablet that can be taken once a day is an attractive option. These findings also indicate that as ATV+DDI+FTC was found to be inferior to the other regimens, this combination should not be used in the initial treatment of HIV. These findings also add to the evidence that antiretroviral efficacy and safety can differ between women and men and support further development of sex-specific recommendations for antiretroviral regimen options.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001290.
The UNAIDS website has more information about Treatment 2.0; and the WHO website provides technical information
For an introduction to the treatment of HIV/AIDS see http://www.avert.org/treatment.htm; the AVERT site also has personal stories from women living with HIV/AIDS
AIDSmap provides information for individuals and communities affected by HIV/AIDS
The ACTG website provides information about research to improve treatment of HIV and related complications
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001290
PMCID: PMC3419182  PMID: 22936892
7.  HIV-Protease Inhibitors Suppress Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Oxidation by Reducing CD36 and CPT-I Fatty Acid Transporters 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2010;1801(5):559-566.
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and treatment with HIV-protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) is associated with dysregulated fatty acid and lipid metabolism. Enhanced lipolysis, increased circulating fatty acid levels, and hepatic and intramuscular lipid accumulation appear to contribute to insulin resistance in HIV-infected people treated with PI-based HAART. However, it is unclear whether currently prescribed HIV-PIs directly alter skeletal muscle fatty acid transport, oxidation, and storage. We find that ritonavir (r, 5 μmol/l) plus 20 μmol/l of atazanavir (ATV), lopinavir (LPV), or darunavir (DRV) reduce palmitate oxidation(16-21%) in differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Palmitate oxidation was increased following exposure to high fatty acid media but this effect was blunted when myotubes were pre-exposed to the HIV-PIs. However, LPV/r and DRV/r, but not ATV/r suppressed palmitate uptake into myotubes. We found no effect of the HIV-PIs on FATP1, FATP4, or FABPpm but both CD36/FAT and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) were reduced by all three regimens though ATV/r caused only a small decrease in CPT1, relative to LPV/r or DRV/r. In contrast, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 was increased by all 3 HIV-PIs. These findings suggest that HIV-PIs suppress fatty acid oxidation in murine skeletal muscle cells and that this may be related to decreases in cytosolic- and mitochondrial-associated fatty acid transporters. HIV-PIs may also directly impair fatty acid handling and partitioning in skeletal muscle, and this may contribute to the cluster of metabolic complications that occur in people living with HIV.
doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2010.01.007
PMCID: PMC2838954  PMID: 20117238
HIV-PIs; fatty acid uptake; fatty acid oxidation; CD36, CPT1; metabolic dysregulation
8.  Switching Tenofovir/Emtricitabine plus Lopinavir/r to Raltegravir plus Darunavir/r in Patients with Suppressed Viral Load Did Not Result in Improvement of Renal Function but Could Sustain Viral Suppression: A Randomized Multicenter Trial 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e73639.
Background
Whether tenofovir nephrotoxicity is reversible after its withdrawal is unknown. Furthermore, there are no data on the viral efficacy of raltegravir (RAL) plus ritonavir-boosted Darunavir (DRV/r) in patients with suppressed viral load.
Methods
This multicenter, randomized trial compared renal function and viral efficacy in patients with suppressed viral load treated with RAL+DRV/r and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (TVD), who had been previously on LPV/r+TVD. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with >10% improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 48 weeks calculated with Cockcroft-Gault equation.
Results
58 randomized and treatment-exposed patients were analyzed (28 on RAL+DRV/r and 30 on LPV/r+TVD). Greater than 10% improvement in eGFR was noted in 6 (25%) out of 24 with RAL+DRV/r and 3 (11%) of 28 with LPV/r+TVD, and the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.272, 95% CI -0.067 to 0.354). Sensitivity analyses using three other equations for eGFR showed the same results. Urinary β2 microglobulin, a sensitive marker of tenofovir tubulopathy, significantly improved with RAL+DRV/r than with LPV/r+TVD (-271 versus -64 µg/gCr, p=0.026). Per protocol analysis showed that the HIV-RNA was <50 copies/mL at week 48 in all patients of both arms (24 in RAL+DRV and 29 in LPV/r+TVD).
Conclusions
Switching LPV/r+TVD to RAL+DRV/r did not significantly increase the proportion of patients who showed >10% improvement in renal function among those with relatively preserved eGFR. However, the switch improved urinary β2 microglobulin, suggesting that discontinuation of TDF might be beneficial in the long-term. RAL+DRV/r showed favorable viral efficacy in patients with suppressed viral load.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01294761 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01294761?term=SPARE&rank=2, Umin Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000005116 http://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000006083&language=J)
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073639
PMCID: PMC3738570  PMID: 23951362
9.  Fosamprenavir or atazanavir once daily boosted with ritonavir 100 mg, plus tenofovir/emtricitabine, for the initial treatment of HIV infection: 48-week results of ALERT 
Background
Once-daily (QD) ritonavir 100 mg-boosted fosamprenavir 1400 mg (FPV/r100) or atazanavir 300 mg (ATV/r100), plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) 300 mg/200 mg, have not been compared as initial antiretroviral treatment. To address this data gap, we conducted an open-label, multicenter 48-week study (ALERT) in 106 antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected patients (median HIV-1 RNA 4.9 log10 copies/mL; CD4+ count 191 cells/mm3) randomly assigned to the FPV/r100 or ATV/r100 regimens.
Results
At baseline, the FPV/r100 or ATV/r100 arms were well-matched for HIV-1 RNA (median, 4.9 log10 copies/mL [both]), CD4+ count (mean, 176 vs 205 cells/mm3). At week 48, intent-to-treat: missing/discontinuation = failure analysis showed similar responses to FPV/r100 and ATV/r100 (HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL: 75% (40/53) vs 83% (44/53), p = 0.34 [Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test]); mean CD4+ count change-from-baseline: +170 vs +183 cells/mm3, p = 0.398 [Wilcoxon rank sum test]). Fasting total/LDL/HDL-cholesterol changes-from-baseline were also similar, although week 48 median fasting triglycerides were higher with FPV/r100 (150 vs 131 mg/dL). FPV/r100-treated patients experienced fewer treatment-related grade 2–4 adverse events (15% vs 57%), with differences driven by ATV-related hyperbilirubinemia. Three patients discontinued TDF/FTC because their GFR decreased to <50 mL/min.
Conclusion
The all-QD regimens of FPV/r100 and ATV/r100, plus TDF/FTC, provided similar virologic, CD4+ response, and fasting total/LDL/HDL-cholesterol changes through 48 weeks. Fewer FPV/r100-treated patients experienced treatment-related grade 2–4 adverse events.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-5-5
PMCID: PMC2365957  PMID: 18373851
10.  Comparative gender analysis of the efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir at 96 weeks in the CASTLE study 
Objectives
To examine whether the overall results of the CASTLE study pertain to both genders, we analysed the efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in 277 female and 606 male patients in the open-label, multinational trial over 96 weeks. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00272779.
Methods
Treatment-naive patients aged ≥18 years with HIV-1 RNA ≥5000 copies/mL were randomized to receive either atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once daily or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily, with fixed-dose tenofovir/emtricitabine 300/200 mg once daily.
Results
At week 96, confirmed virological response rates (HIV RNA <50 copies/mL; intent-to-treat analysis) were higher in women and men receiving atazanavir/ritonavir than those receiving lopinavir/ritonavir and lower in women than men in both treatment arms (67% of women and 77% of men on atazanavir/ritonavir and 63% of women and 71% of men on lopinavir/ritonavir). These differences were not observed in the on-treatment analysis. Mean change in CD4 cell count from baseline to week 96 was 265 cells/mm3 for women and 269 cells/mm3 for men on atazanavir/ritonavir and 298 cells/mm3 for women and 286 cells/mm3 for men on lopinavir/ritonavir. Discontinuation rates were higher in women than men in each treatment arm (22% of women and 15% of men on atazanavir/ritonavir and 29% of women and 18% of men on lopinavir/ritonavir). In women and men, grade 2–4 nausea and diarrhoea were more frequent in the lopinavir/ritonavir group; jaundice and hyperbilirubinaemia occurred more frequently in the atazanavir/ritonavir group.
Conclusions
Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option for women and men with HIV-1 infection. The sex-based differences in response may be due to higher discontinuation rates in women.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkq457
PMCID: PMC3019087  PMID: 21148235
antiretroviral therapy; protease inhibitors; HIV
11.  Impact of Low Abundance HIV Variants on Response to Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir or Fosamprenavir Given Once Daily with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Patients 
Abstract
Population genotyping (PG) can underestimate resistance if resistance-containing low abundance variants go undetected. PG and clonal analysis (CA) results were compared in virologic failures (VFs) from a 48-week clinical trial that evaluated once-daily fosamprenavir/ritonavir (FPV/r) 1400 mg/100 mg or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) 300 mg/100 mg, each combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine, in antiretroviral-naive patients. VF was defined as confirmed HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/ml at ≥24 weeks or viral rebound >400 copies/ml any time following viral suppression. All patients had baseline PG. One hundred and six patients enrolled (53/arm). Baseline resistance mutations were more prevalent in patients receiving FPV/r (10/53) than ATV/r (3/53). Seven patients (7%) were VFs-four on FPV/r and three on ATV/r. In the four FPV/r-treated VFs, baseline HIV TAMs combinations and/or PI mutations were detected in one by PG at VF (RT: L210W + T215C; PR: M46I + L76V) and three others by CA alone (RT: L210W + T215Y; RT: M41L; RT: K65R + K70R; PR: I47V); all four had study drug-associated mutations (CA detecting more HIV-1 resistance mutations than PG). In the three ATV/r VFs, no baseline drug-associated mutations were detected by PG; for one patient CA detected RT: K65R; PR: I84V. Phylogenetic analysis revealed tight clustering for FPV/r-treated VFs with highly related clones, whereas HIV-1 from ATV/r-treated VFs had no outgrowth from baseline of low abundance resistance-containing variants. In conclusion, low-abundance HIV resistance-containing variants were detected in baseline samples from patients with VF. The archived viruses that reemerged under selection pressure and acquired additional mutations were found primarily in patients in the FPV/r arm. Despite this and a baseline resistance imbalance between the two arms, FPV/r and ATV/r provided similar virologic suppression through 48 weeks; however, these findings highlight the necessity for the development of quick and inexpensive methods for detection of minority species to better guide therapy selection.
doi:10.1089/aid.2009.0189
PMCID: PMC2875981  PMID: 20380480
12.  A Multicenter, Open Labeled, Randomized, Phase III Study Comparing Lopinavir/Ritonavir Plus Atazanavir to Lopinavir/Ritonavir Plus Zidovudine and Lamivudine in Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients: 48-Week Analysis of the LORAN Trial 
The Open AIDS Journal  2011;5:44-50.
Objective:
The primary aim of the study was to compare the metabolic side effects of a nucleoside analogue-containing regimen with a nucleoside analogue-sparing double protease inhibitor regimen. A secondary goal was to test for efficacy of a double-PI regimen.
Design:
Multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III clinical trial.
Subjects:
Adult HIV-1-infected individuals naïve to antiretroviral therapy with viral load above 400 HIV-RNA copies/ml were randomized (1:1) to either 400 mg lopinavir /100 mg ritonavir (LPV/r) BID plus 150 mg lamivudine/300 mg zidovudine (CBV) BID versus LPV/r BID plus 300 mg atazanavir (ATV) QD. Main outcome measure was the virologic failure in both groups, defined as viral load ≥50 copies/ml at week 48.
Results:
In the CBV/LPV/r-arm, 29 out of 35 patients [(83%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 66.9-92.2%] and 18 out of 40 patients (45%; 95% CI 29.7-61.5%) in the ATV/LPV/r-arm had a HIV-RNA level <50 copies/ml at week 48. The intent-to-treat analysis revealed inferior virologic response in the ATV/LPV/r arm (Chi-Q and Fisher´s Exact Test p<0.001) and resulted in premature termination of the trial. Eleven patients in the ATV/LPV/r-arm discontinued therapy because of virological failure. These failures mostly presented with low level replication (<1,000 copies/ml). Increases in CD4 cell counts was significantly more rapid in the ATV/LPV/r arm (p=0.02), but comparable at week 48.
Conclusions:
ATV/LPV/r had less virologic efficacy than the conventional RTI-based regimen and resulted in a high virological failure rate with low level replication.
doi:10.2174/1874613601105010044
PMCID: PMC3103898  PMID: 21643422
HIV-therapy; double-protease-inhibitor; Therapy-naïve patients.
13.  Bone Mineral Density and Fractures in Antiretroviral-Naive Persons Randomized to Receive Abacavir-Lamivudine or Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-Emtricitabine Along With Efavirenz or Atazanavir-Ritonavir: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a Substudy of ACTG A5202 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;203(12):1791-1801.
(See the editorial commentary by Yin and Overton, on pages 1705-7.)
Background.  Long-term effects of abacavir (ABC)–lamivudine (3TC), compared with tenofovir (TDF)–emtricitabine (FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV/r), on bone mineral density (BMD) have not been analyzed.
Methods.  A5224s was a substudy of A5202, in which HIV-infected treatment-naive participants were randomized and blinded to receive ABC-3TC or TDF-FTC with open-label EFV or ATV/r. Primary bone end points included Dual-emission X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA)-measured percent changes in spine and hip BMD at week 96. Primary analyses were intent-to-treat. Statistical tests used the factorial design and included linear regression, 2-sample t, log-rank, and Fisher's exact tests.
Results.  Two hundred sixty-nine persons randomized to 4 arms of ABC-3TC or TDF-FTC with EFV or ATV/r. At baseline, 85% were male, and 47% were white non-Hispanic; the median HIV-1 RNA load was 4.6 log10 copies/mL, the median age was 38 years, the median weight was 76 kg, and the median CD4 cell count was 233 cells/μL. At week 96, the mean percentage changes from baseline in spine and hip BMD for ABC-3TC versus TDF-FTC were -1.3% and -3.3% (P = .004) and -2.6% and -4.0% (P = .024), respectively; and for EFV versus ATV/r were -1.7% and -3.1% (P = .035) and -3.1% and -3.4% (P = .61), respectively. Bone fracture was observed in 5.6% of participants. The probability of bone fractures and time to first fracture were not different across components.
Conclusions. Compared with ABC-3TC, TDF-FTC–treated participants had significantly greater decreases in spine and hip BMD, whereas ATV/r led to more significant losses in spine, but not hip, BMD than EFV.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00118898.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jir188
PMCID: PMC3100514  PMID: 21606537
14.  Inflammation markers after randomization to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavir: ACTG A5224 s, A5202 substudy 
AIDS (London, England)  2012;26(11):1371-1385.
Background
The effect of specific antiretrovirals on inflammation is unclear.
Methods
A5224 s was a substudy of A5202, which randomized HIV-infected treatment-naïve subjects to blinded abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) in a factorial design. Our analysis compared changes in inflammation markers from baseline to week 24 between ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC. Secondary analyses included changes at week 96 and comparisons of EFV vs. ATV/r.
Results
Analyses included 244 subjects (85% male, 48% white non-Hispanic), median age 39 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, CD4 240 cells/µL. TNF-α, sTNFR-I and -II, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 decreased significantly at weeks 24 and 96, without significant differences between components (p ≥ 0.44). At week 24, ABC/3TC had a greater hsCRP mean fold change than TDF/FTC (1.43 vs. 0.88, estimated mean fold change percent difference (Δ) 61.5% [95% CI 13.6%, 129.5%]; p = 0.008). Similar results were seen at week 96 (p = 0.021). At week 24 (but not 96), EFV had a greater hsCRP mean fold change than ATV/r (1.41 vs. 0.88; Δ = 60.2% [12.6%, 127.7%]; p = 0.009). IL-6 decreased significantly at week 24 with TDF/FTC but not with ABC/3TC (between-components p = 0.019). At week 96, IL-6 decreased significantly in both NRTI components (between-components p = 0.11). IL-6 changes were not significantly different between ATV/r and EFV at either time point (p ≥ 0.89).
Conclusions
Soluble TNF-receptors and adhesion molecules decreased following treatment initiation and did not differ by regimens. Differences were seen on hsCRP and IL-6 changes with ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC and on hsCRP with EFV vs. ATV/r.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328354f4fb
PMCID: PMC3560932  PMID: 22546988
abacavir; C-reactive protein; endothelial activation markers; Inflammation markers; interleukin-6; TNF alpha
15.  Effects of Darunavir/Ritonavir-Based Therapy on Metabolic and Anthropometric Parameters in Women and Men Over 48 Weeks 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2011;25(6):333-340.
Abstract
Gender-based differences in lipids have been noted in antiretroviral clinical trials. We present the metabolic and anthropometric data from the GRACE (Gender, Race And Clinical Experience) study by gender. Treatment-experienced adults received darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 600/100 mg twice daily, plus a background regimen, over 48 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained for lipid, glucose, and insulin measurements at baseline and at weeks 24 and 48/early discontinuation. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48/discontinuation. The Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire was administered at baseline and regular intervals. Descriptive statistics as well as comparisons using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test are reported. Four hundred twenty-nine patients (women, n=287; men, n=142) enrolled in GRACE; 94 women (32.8%) and 33 men (23.2%) discontinued the trial. Median changes in triglycerides from baseline to week 48 were higher in men (25 mg/dL versus 8 mg/dL; p=0.006); the mean change in triglycerides was higher in men than in women in all racial subgroups. Other lipid and glucose level changes were similar between genders. Anthropometric parameters increased for both genders, with larger increases in women. Patients' perceptions of body changes concurred with physical measurements. The proportion of women who were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with their bodies increased from 45.2% to 57.8% from baseline to week 48 (p=0.005), while the proportion of men who were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with their bodies increased from 56.3% to 61.5% from baseline to week 48 (p=0.317). DRV/r-based therapy was associated with small to moderate changes in metabolic parameters, and few between-gender differences were observed. Levels of self-reported, body-related distress improved for women and men over 48 weeks.
doi:10.1089/apc.2010.0386
PMCID: PMC3143406  PMID: 21612545
16.  Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Darunavir Boosted with Ritonavir and Omeprazole or Ranitidine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Healthy Volunteers▿  
Darunavir (DRV; TMC114; Prezista) is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor used in combination with low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (DRV/r) as a pharmacokinetic enhancer. Protease inhibitor absorption may be decreased during coadministration of drugs that limit stomach acid secretion and increase gastric pH. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ranitidine and omeprazole on the plasma pharmacokinetics of DRV and RTV in HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Sixteen volunteers completed the study and received DRV/r, DRV/r plus ranitidine, and DRV/r plus omeprazole, in three separate sessions. Treatment was given for 4 days with an additional morning dose on day 5, and regimens were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Samples were taken over a 12-h period on day 5 for the assessment of DRV and RTV plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters assessed included DRV area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, and trough plasma concentration. The least-squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals are reported with treatment of DRV/r alone as a reference. Compared with DRV/r alone, no significant changes in DRV pharmacokinetic parameters were observed during coadministration of DRV/r and either ranitidine or omeprazole. Treatment regimens were generally well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, coadministration of DRV/r and ranitidine or omeprazole was well tolerated by the volunteers. Ranitidine and omeprazole did not have a significant influence on DRV pharmacokinetics. No dose adjustments are required when DRV/r is coadministered with omeprazole or ranitidine.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01203-06
PMCID: PMC1803132  PMID: 17210768
17.  Structural and Thermodynamic Basis of Amprenavir/Darunavir and Atazanavir Resistance in HIV-1 Protease with Mutations at Residue 50 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(8):4176-4184.
Drug resistance occurs through a series of subtle changes that maintain substrate recognition but no longer permit inhibitor binding. In HIV-1 protease, mutations at I50 are associated with such subtle changes that confer differential resistance to specific inhibitors. Residue I50 is located at the protease flap tips, closing the active site upon ligand binding. Under selective drug pressure, I50V/L substitutions emerge in patients, compromising drug susceptibility and leading to treatment failure. The I50V substitution is often associated with amprenavir (APV) and darunavir (DRV) resistance, while the I50L substitution is observed in patients failing atazanavir (ATV) therapy. To explain how APV, DRV, and ATV susceptibility are influenced by mutations at residue 50 in HIV-1 protease, structural and binding thermodynamics studies were carried out on I50V/L-substituted protease variants in the compensatory mutation A71V background. Reduced affinity to both I50V/A71V and I50L/A71V double mutants is largely due to decreased binding entropy, which is compensated for by enhanced enthalpy for ATV binding to I50V variants and APV binding to I50L variants, leading to hypersusceptibility in these two cases. Analysis of the crystal structures showed that the substitutions at residue 50 affect how APV, DRV, and ATV bind the protease with altered van der Waals interactions and that the selection of I50V versus I50L is greatly influenced by the chemical moieties at the P1 position for APV/DRV and the P2 position for ATV. Thus, the varied inhibitor susceptibilities of I50V/L protease variants are largely a direct consequence of the interdependent changes in protease inhibitor interactions.
doi:10.1128/JVI.03486-12
PMCID: PMC3624360  PMID: 23365446
18.  Early virologic response to abacavir/lamivudine and tenofovir/emtricitabine during ACTG A5202 
HIV clinical trials  2013;14(6):284-291.
Background
ACTG A5202 randomized treatment-naive individuals to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) combined with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r). Individuals in the high screening viral load (VL) stratum (≥100,000 copies/mL) had increased rates of virologic failure with ABC/3TC.
Objective
Compare regimen-specific early virologic response.
Methods
Using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, we compared regimen-specific VL changes from entry to week 4 in A5202 subjects (n=1813) and from entry to week 1, 2 and 4 in a 179-patient substudy. We evaluated associations between week 4 VL change and time to virologic failure with Cox proportional-hazards models.
Results
TDF/FTC- and ABC/3TC produced similar Week 4 viral load declines in the entire study population and in the high VL stratum. EFV produced greater VL declines from baseline at week 4 than ATV/r (median −2.1 vs. −1.9 log10 copies/mL; p<0.001). In the substudy of subjects with week 1, 2 and 4 VL data, there was no difference in viral load decline in those randomized to TDF/FTC versus ABC/3TC, but EFV resulted in greater VL decline from entry at each of these timepoints than ATV/r. Smaller Week 4 viral load decline was associated with increased risk of virologic failure.
Conclusions
Within all treatment arms, a less robust week 4 virologic response was associated with higher risk for subsequent virologic failure. However, between-regimen differences in week 4 VL declines did not parallel the previously reported differences in longer term virologic efficacy in A5202, suggesting that between-regimen differences in responses were not due to intrinsic differences in antiviral activity.
doi:10.1310/hct1406-284
PMCID: PMC4060613  PMID: 24334181
Anti-HIV Agents; HIV Infections/drug therapy/*virology; Treatment Outcome
19.  Changes in Fat Mitochondrial DNA and Function in Subjects Randomized to Abacavir-Lamivudine or Tenofovir DF–Emtricitabine With Atazanavir-Ritonavir or Efavirenz: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s, Substudy of A5202 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;207(4):604-611.
Background. The effect of nonthymidine nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on fat mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and function is unclear.
Methods. A5202 randomized antiretroviral therapy–naive human immunodeficiency virus–infected subjects to abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) versus tenofovir DF–emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). A5224s, substudy of A5202, enrolled 269 subjects with fat measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. A subset of subjects underwent fat biopsies at baseline and week 96 for mtDNA content (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and oxidative phosphorylation nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) dehydrogenase (complex I) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity levels (immunoassays). Intent-to-treat analyses were performed using analysis of variance and paired t tests.
Results. Fifty-six subjects (87% male; median age, 39 years) were included; their median body mass index, CD4 cell count, and fat mtDNA level were 26 kg/m2, 227 cells/μL, and 1197 copies/cell, respectively. Fat mtDNA content decreased within the ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC groups (combining EFV and ATV/r arms; median change, −341 [interquartile range, −848 to 190; P = .03] and −400 [−661 to −221; P < .001] copies/cell, respectively), but these changes did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P = .57). Complex I and IV activity decreased significantly in the TDF/FTC group (median change, −12.45 [interquartile range, −24.70 to 2.90; P = .003] and −8.25 [−13.90 to −1.30; P < .001], optical density × 103/µg, respectively) but not the ABC/3TC group. Differences between the ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC groups were significant for complex I (P = .03).
Conclusions. ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC significantly and similarly decreased fat mtDNA content, but only TDF/FTC decreased complex I and complex IV activity levels.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00118898.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jis720
PMCID: PMC3549598  PMID: 23204164
lipoatrophy; lipodystrophy; metabolic disease; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial toxicity; oxidative phosphorylation
20.  Boosted Tipranavir versus Darunavir in Treatment-Experienced Patients 
Drugs in R&d  2012;11(4):295-302.
Background: The POTENT trial compared the safety and efficacy of tipranavir/ritonavir (TPV/r) to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), each with an optimized background regimen (OBR) in triple-class experienced HIV-1-infected patients with resistance to more than one protease inhibitor (PI).
Methodology/Principal Findings: POTENT was a prospective, open-label study of triple-class (PI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI], nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTI]), treatment-experienced, HIVpositive patients. Subjects were randomized to either TPV/r (500/200mg twice daily) or DRV/r (600/100mg twice daily) on a genotype-guided, investigatorselected OBR. CD4+ counts andHIV viral loads were assayed at key timepoints. The primary endpoint was time to virologic failure (viral load >-500 copies/mL).
POTENT was prematurely terminated due to slow enrollment. Thirty-nine patients were treated with either TPV/r (n= 19) or DRV/r (n= 20); 82% were male, 77%White, with mean age of 43.6 years. Mean baselineHIV RNA was 3.9 log10 copies/mL.Median prior antiretrovirals was 11, with no prior raltegravir or maraviroc exposure. Raltegravir was the most common novel class agent in the OBRs (n = 14 TPV/r; n = 12DRV/r). In both groups, patients achieved mean viral load decreases >-2 log10 copies/mL by week 8, and by week 12 mean CD4+ counts rose by 40–50 cells/mm3. Total observation time was 32 weeks. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 21% (TPV/r) and 25% (DRV/r) of patients.
Conclusions/Significance: TPV/r- and DRV/r-based regimens showed similar short-term safety and efficacy. These data support the use of next-generation PIs such as tipranavir or darunavir with novel class antiretroviral agents (integrase inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists, or fusion inhibitors).
Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00517192
doi:10.2165/11596340-000000000-00000
PMCID: PMC3585832  PMID: 22007990
21.  Atazanavir Plus Ritonavir or Efavirenz as Part of a 3-Drug Regimen for Initial Treatment of HIV-1 
Annals of internal medicine  2011;154(7):445-456.
Background
Limited data compare once-daily options for initial therapy for HIV-1.
Objective
To compare time to virologic failure; first grade-3 or -4 sign, symptom, or laboratory abnormality (safety); and change or discontinuation of regimen (tolerability) for atazanavir plus ritonavir with efavirenz-containing initial therapy for HIV-1.
Design
A randomized equivalence trial accrued from September 2005 to November 2007, with median follow-up of 138 weeks. Regimens were assigned by using a central computer, stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA level less than 100 000 copies/mL or 100 000 copies/mL or greater; blinding was known only to the site pharmacist. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00118898)
Setting
59 AIDS Clinical Trials Group sites in the United States and Puerto Rico.
Patients
Antiretroviral-naive patients.
Intervention
Open-label atazanavir plus ritonavir or efavirenz, each given with with placebo-controlled abacavir–lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF)–emtricitabine.
Measurements
Primary outcomes were time to virologic failure, safety, and tolerability events. Secondary end points included proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA level less than 50 copies/mL, emergence of drug resistance, changes in CD4 cell counts, calculated creatinine clearance, and lipid levels.
Results
463 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive atazanavir plus ritonavir and 465 were assigned to receive efavirenz, both with abacavir–lamivudine; 322 (70%) and 324 (70%), respectively, completed follow-up. The respective numbers of participants in each group who received tenofovir DF–emtricitabine were 465 and 464; 342 (74%) and 343 (74%) completed follow-up. Primary efficacy was similar in the group that received atazanavir plus ritonavir and and the group that received efavirenz and did not differ according to whether abacavir–lamivudine or tenofovir DF–emtricitabine was also given. Hazard ratios for time to virologic failure were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.82 to 1.56) and 1.01 (CI, 0.70 to 1.46), respectively, although CIs did not meet prespecified criteria for equivalence. The time to safety (P = 0.048) and tolerability (P < 0.001) events was longer in persons given atazanavir plus ritonavir than in those given efavirenz with abacavir–lamivudine but not with tenofovir DF–emtricitabine.
Limitations
Neither HLA-B*5701 nor resistance testing was the standard of care when A5202 enrolled patients. The third drugs, atazanavir plus ritonavir and efavirenz, were open-label; the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were prematurely unblinded in the high viral load stratum; and 32% of patients modified or discontinued treatment with their third drug.
Conclusion
Atazanavir plus ritonavir and efavirenz have similar antiviral activity when used with abacavir–lamivudine or tenofovir DF–emtricitabine.
Primary Funding Source
National Institutes of Health.
doi:10.1059/0003-4819-154-7-201104050-00316
PMCID: PMC3430716  PMID: 21320923
22.  Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Factors Affecting Neonatal Bilirubinemia Following Atazanavir Treatment of Mothers During Pregnancy 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2013;29(10):1287-1292.
Abstract
A theoretical concern exists that atazanavir (ATV) use during pregnancy may exacerbate physiologic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The aim of this substudy was to evaluate patterns of neonatal bilirubin following ATV/ritonavir (RTV) treatment of pregnant mothers and clinical and pharmacogenetic factors that may correlate. The design involved a subanalysis of study AI424182, a multicenter, open-label, prospective, single-arm Phase I study. The study had two treatment arms: (1) ATV/RTV 300/100 mg once daily or (2) ATV/RTV 400/100 mg once daily, both in combination with zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg twice daily. Total bilirubin was assessed at baseline, each visit, and delivery day for mothers and on days 1 (delivery day), 3, 5, and 7 and weeks 2 and 6 for neonates. Blood samples were obtained for UGT1A1 genotyping and ATV cord blood concentration. Bilirubin elevation of any grade occurred in 14/40 neonates (35%). All Grade 3 to 4 bilirubin abnormalities (n=7) occurred after day 14. The pattern of neonatal bilirubin levels reported was consistent with neonatal physiologic elevations of bilirubin. Little correlation was observed between either maternal bilirubin levels over the last 4 weeks of pregnancy (including delivery) or ATV cord concentration and neonatal bilirubin. There was a significant association between UGT1A1 genotype and bilirubin grade in the maternal population (p=0.0006) but not neonates (p=0.49). Neither neonatal UGT1A1 genotype nor cord blood ATV concentration is a good predictor of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. ATV/RTV treatment of mothers does not appear to exacerbate neonatal physiologic hyperbilirubinemia.
doi:10.1089/aid.2013.0002
PMCID: PMC3785800  PMID: 23782005
23.  Population Pharmacokinetics of Atazanavir in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(11):3801-3808.
Atazanavir (ATV) is a new azapeptide protease inhibitor recently approved and currently used at a fixed dose of either 300 mg once per day (q.d.) in combination with 100 mg ritonavir (RTV) or 400 mg q.d. without boosting. ATV is highly bound to plasma proteins and extensively metabolized by CYP3A4. Since ATV plasma levels are highly variable and seem to be correlated with both viral response and toxicity, dosage individualization based on plasma concentration monitoring might be indicated. This study aimed to assess the ATV pharmacokinetic profile in a target population of HIV patients, to characterize interpatient and intrapatient variability, and to identify covariates that might influence ATV disposition. A population analysis was performed with NONMEM with 574 plasma samples from a cohort of 214 randomly selected patients receiving ATV. A total of 346 randomly collected ATV plasma levels and 19 full concentration-time profiles at steady state were available. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were an oral clearance (CL) of 12.9 liters/h (coefficient of variation [CV], 26%), a volume of distribution of 88.3 liters (CV, 29%), an absorption rate constant of 0.405 h−1 (CV, 122%), and a lag time of 0.88 h. A relative bioavailability value was introduced to account for undercompliance due to infrequent follow-ups (0.81; CV, 45%). Among the covariates tested, only RTV significantly reduced CL by 46%, thereby increasing the ATV elimination half-life from 4.6 h to 8.8 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ATV were adequately described by a one-compartment population model. The concomitant use of RTV improved the pharmacokinetic profile. However, the remaining high interpatient variability suggests the possibility of an impact of unmeasured covariates, such as genetic traits or environmental influences. This population pharmacokinetic model, together with therapeutic drug monitoring and Bayesian dosage adaptation, can be helpful in the selection and adaptation of ATV doses.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00098-06
PMCID: PMC1635184  PMID: 16940065
24.  Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s 
AIDS (London, England)  2013;27(13):2069-2079.
Objective
To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD).
Methods
A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression.
Results
A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p≥0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD.
Conclusions
ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328361d25d
PMCID: PMC3966569  PMID: 24384588
antiretroviral therapy; HIV; body composition; body weight; lean body mass; bone mineral density; randomized clinical trial
25.  Prospective evaluation of bone markers, parathormone and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D in HIV-positive patients after the initiation of tenofovir/emtricitabine with atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz 
Background
Increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been associated with the use of antiretroviral drugs. There is a paucity of prospective evaluations of bone markers after the initiation of drugs currently recommended to treat HIV infection and results on the evolution of these markers are conflicting. Lastly, the effect of tenofovir on 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D is uncertain.
Methods
We performed a prospective study on the evolution of bone markers, parathormone and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D before and after standard antiretroviral regimens. This was a sub-study of a trial conducted in antiretroviral-naïve patients randomized to tenofovir + emtricitabine in combination with either atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV). Follow-up lasted 48 weeks. The following bone markers were analyzed: C-terminal cross-laps (CTx), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Mixed-factorial analysis of variance with random-coefficient general linear model was used to compare their trends over time and linear multivariable regression was performed with a backward selection method to assess predictors of their variations from baseline to week 48. Trends of parathormone and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D were also evaluated.
Results
Seventy-five patients were studied: 33 received EFV and 42 ATV/r. Significant increases were found for all markers except for RANKL. There was a significant direct association between CTx and OC increases. Multivariable analysis showed that higher glomerular filtration rate (estimated through cystatin C clearance) predicted greater OPG increase, while older age, higher HIV RNA at baseline and use of ATV/r predicted greater CTx increase. A significant increase of parathormone accompanied the evolution of the study markers. 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D remained stable, though a seasonality variation was demonstrated.
Conclusions
These data demonstrate CTx increase (bone resorption marker) corresponding to OC increase (bone formation marker) early upon HAART initiation. Moreover, predictors of bone marker increases have been suggested, possibly indicating that a stricter monitoring of bone health and pro-active interventions are needed in older patients, those with higher HIV RNA, prescribed ATV/r rather than EFV, and with decreased renal function at baseline. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for up-regulation of bone turnover markers, as well as to understand if and what markers are best correlated or predictive of pathological fractures.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-38
PMCID: PMC3296645  PMID: 22333484
HIV; Antiretroviral therapy; Bone turnover; Osteoporosis; Vitamin D

Results 1-25 (980043)