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1.  Glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) & tissue transglutaminase (anti-TTG) antibodies in patients with thyroid autoimmunity 
Background & objectives:
Several autoimmune disorders have been reported to be associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and may coexist with other organ-specific autoantibodies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of tissue transglutaminase (anti-TTG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies in patients suffering from autoimmune thyroiditis as diagnosed by anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, which may indicate high risk for developing celiac disease or type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Five thousand children and 2800 adults were screening as part of a general health examination done on a voluntary basis in four different parts of Delhi. A total of 577 subjects positive for anti-TPO antibody constituted the cases. Equal number of age and sex matched anti-TPO antibody negative controls were randomly selected from the same cohort to form paired case control study. The cases and controls were further divided into two groups as follows: group-1 (children and adolescent <18 yr), group-2 (adults >18 yr). Serum samples of cases and controls were analysed for thyroid function test (FT3, FT4, and TSH), anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies.
A total of 1154 subjects (577 cases and 577 controls) were included in this study. Hypothyroidism was present in 40.2 per cent (232) cases compared to only 4.7 per cent (27) in controls (P<0.001). Anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies were present in 6.9 and 12.5 per cent subjects among cases compared to 3.5 per cent (P=0.015) and 4.3 per cent (P=0.001) in controls, respectively. Only anti-GAD antibody were significantly positive in cases among children and adolescents (P =0.0044) and adult (P=0.001) compared to controls. Levels of anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies increased with increasing titre of anti-TPO antibody.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Our findings showed high positivity of anti-GAD and anti-TTG antibodies among subjects with thyroid autoimmunity. It is, therefore, important to have high clinical index of suspicion for celiac disease or type 1 diabetes mellitus in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.
PMCID: PMC3657903  PMID: 23481055
Anti-GAD antibody; anti-TPO antibody; anti-TTG antibody; thyroid autoimmunity
2.  Factors for thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2009;114(4):214-220.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with an autoimmune reaction to thyroid antigens including thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg).
We determined in children with T1DM the relationship of positive anti-thyroid antibodies to potential risk factors, including, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD).
Materials and methods
We studied 144 children and adolescents with T1DM. Their age was 12.3 ± 4.6 (mean ± SD) years, and duration of diabetes was 4.6 ± 3.8 years. Anti-thyroid antibodies were determined using a luminescence method and anti-GAD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The prevalence rates of anti-thyroid antibodies among the children with T1DM in our study were: anti-TPO (17.4%), anti-Tg (11.1%), and of both anti-thyroid antibodies (10.4%). The presence of serum anti-thyroid antibodies was positively associated with age (16.6 years in those with positive tests versus 12.0 years in those with negative tests, P = 0.027), duration of diabetes (7.4 versus 4.3 years, P = 0.031), and serum TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels (4.8 versus 2.3 μIU/mL, P = 0.002). The presence of both anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with female sex (boys: 4/75 (5.3%), girls: 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, P = 0.04). Subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (SAIT) was present in 55.5% of the patients with thyroid antibody-positivity and was positively associated with age (16.6 versus 12.0 years, P = 0.001) and diabetes duration (7.6 versus 4.2 years, P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the development of anti-thyroid antibodies was predicted by: 1) the presence of anti-GAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.92), 2) the presence of a second anti-thyroid antibody (OR 134.4, 95% CI 7.7–2350.3), and 3) older age (OR 22.9, 95% CI 1.13–463.2).
Thyroid autoimmunity was associated with female gender, increasing age, long diabetes duration, the persistence of anti-GAD, and with TSH elevation, indicating subclinical hypothyroidism.
PMCID: PMC2852777  PMID: 19824863
Childhood; subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis; thyroid autoantibodies; type 1 diabetes
3.  Thyroid abnormalities in Egyptian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A single center study from Upper Egypt 
The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Upper Egypt and its relationship with disease-related variables.
Cross-sectional controlled study.
Patients and Methods:
The study included 94 children and adolescents with T1DM (Group 1) attending for regular follow-up in the diabetes clinic of Assiut Children University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt were enrolled in the study and 60 healthy subjects matching in age and sex were taken as a control (Group 2). History taking, clinical examination, measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine, anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies levels as well as HbA1c were measured
Mean TSH levels were significantly higher in (Group 1) when compared to control (P < 0.01). Six children (6.3%) were found to have subclinical hypothyroidism in Group 1 compared with two children (2.1%) in the control group (P < 0.001) two children (2.1%) were found to have clinical hypothyroidism in Group 1 compared with non in the control group. Positive levels of anti-TPOAb and anti-TgAb were found in 9 (9.5%) and 6 (6.3%) in Group 1 compared with 2 (3.3)% and 1 (1.6%) of controls respectively (P < 0.01). Cases with hypothyroidism were significantly older, had longer duration of DM, higher body mass index and higher HbA1c compared with those without hypothyroidism. TSH had significant positive correlations to age (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), diabetes duration (r = 0.770, P < 0.001), Anti-TPO level (r = 0.678, P < 0.01), HbAIc level (r = −0.644, P < 0.01) and significant negative correlation with FT4 (r = −0.576, P = 0.01).
The present study reported high prevalence of thyroid abnormalities in children and in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Upper Egypt. The study recommended yearly evaluation thyroid function tests and thyroid antibodies in all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes commencing from the onset of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4171885  PMID: 25285279
Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and anti-thyroglobulin antibody; hypothyroidism; thyroid stimulating hormone; type I diabetes mellitus
4.  L-thyroxine Stabilizes Autoimmune Inflammatory Process in Euthyroid Nongoitrous Children with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 
Objective: To investigate if L-thyroxine (T4) treatment may influence the clinical course of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) or prevent progression to subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in euthyroid nongoitrous pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and AIT.
Methods: The study was performed in four Polish pediatric diabetes centers. Of 330 children with T1DM and AIT followed between 2008 and 2012, 101 received L-T4 and 160 underwent clinical observation for 24 months. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4), anti thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO), anti thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and lipid profile were assessed in all patients. Ultrasonographic evaluation was also performed in all children at each examination.
Results: Patients treated with thyroid hormones had higher TSH levels (3.99; interquantile 3.5 to 4.52 vs. 2.09 mIU/L; interquantile 1.55 to 3.06; p<0.0001). A fall in TSH level (0.87 mIU/L 95% CI 0.43-1.30; p<0.0001) was documented after the first year of treatment. FT4 level did not differ between the groups at baseline (p=0.7434), but rose in the treatment group and fell in the control group [mean difference 0.78 95% CI
-0.22-1.53 pmol/L (p=0.02) after 12 months and 0.98 95% CI 0.04-1.76 (p=0.005) after 24 months]. Higher levels of anti-TPO were initially found in the treated patients (p<0.0001) and significantly decreased over the 24-month period (p<0.0001). Children in the treatment group had higher anti-TG levels (p<0.0001), which showed a borderline decrease (p=0.08) in time. In the control group, anti-TG levels rose marginally (p=0.06) during the study.
Conclusions: The data demonstrate that treatment with L-T4 in euthyroid pediatric patients with T1DM and AIT stabilizes autoimmune inflammation in the thyroid gland and is to be recommended as soon as the diagnosis is established.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
PMCID: PMC3890223  PMID: 24379033
autoimmune thyroiditis; type 1 diabetes mellitus; L-thyroxine treatment; lipid profile; glycemic control; thyroid volume SDS
5.  Natural course of autoimmune thyroiditis in type 1 diabetes: association with gender, age, diabetes duration, and puberty 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2005;90(4):411-414.
Aims: To investigate the natural history and incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Methods: Since 1990, annual screening for thyroid disease has been performed in children and adolescents with T1D. Antibodies against thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-TG) as well as TSH were measured in 659 patients (54.3% boys). In 126 patients, anti-TPO and anti-TG levels were followed at yearly intervals from onset up to five years of T1D. Anti-TPO above 30 U/ml and anti-TG above 20 U/ml were considered positive, values above 100 U/ml as significantly raised and indicative of AIT. L-thyroxine treatment was started if TSH was higher than 4.5 µU/ml and/or thyroid gland enlargement on thyroid ultrasound was present.
Results: At initial screening, 15.4% of patients had raised anti-TPO and 14.4% anti-TG. Girls had more frequently raised antibodies than boys. Sixty two patients (9.4%, 61% girls) required treatment with L-thyroxine. The cumulative incidence (SE) of AIT after 10 years of diabetes was 0.14 (0.02), being significantly higher in females (0.18 (0.03)), particularly after the age of 12 years. At T1D onset, positive anti-TPO and anti-TG were present in 21 of 126 patients (16.7%), each. All patients with significantly increased values of anti-TPO (n = 17, 148–5340 U/ml) and anti-TG (n = 11, 140–2000 U/ml) at T1D onset remained positive during the following five years.
Conclusions: For early detection of autoimmune thyroiditis in children with T1D, measurement of anti-TPO and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 years is recommended.
PMCID: PMC1720371  PMID: 15781936
6.  Thyroid autoimmunity and function among Ugandan children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes mellitus 
Up to 30% of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients have co-existent thyroid autoimmunity with up to 50% of them having associated thyroid dysfunction. Routine screening for thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction is recommended in all T1DM patients. However, this was not currently practiced in Ugandan paediatric diabetes clinics. There was also paucity of data regarding thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in African children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitude of thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in Ugandan children with TIDM.
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to determine the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and describe thyroid function among children and adolescents aged 1-19 years with diabetes mellitus attending the paediatric diabetes clinic at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Following enrollment, we obtained details of clinical history and performed physical examination. Blood (plasma) was assayed to determine levels of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (antiTPO), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH).
The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity was 7.3% (5/69). All antiTPO positive subjects were post pubertal, aged between 13-17 years with females comprising 3/5 of the antiTPO positive subjects. All study subjects were clinically euthyroid; however, 7.3% (5/69) of the study subjects had subclinical hypothyroidism.
These data strengthen the argument for routine screening of all diabetic children and adolescents for thyroid autoimmunity (particularly anti-TPO) as recommended by international guidelines. We also recommend evaluation of thyroid function in diabetic children and adolescents to minimize the risk of undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC4345212  PMID: 25767657
Thyroid; autoimmunity; type 1 diabetes mellitus; children
7.  Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects: A tertiary hospital based cross-sectional study from Eastern India 
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy of women in the reproductive age group seems to be adversely affected by associated thyroid dysfunction. Both pose independent risks of ovarian failure and pregnancy related complications.
The present study from Eastern India is, therefore, aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of different thyroid disorders in PCOS subjects.
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional hospital based survey-single centre observational case-control study.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective single-center study recruited 106 female patients with hypertrichosis and menstrual abnormality among which 80 patients were defined as having PCOS according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria and comprised the study population. Another 80 age-matched female subjects were studied as the control population. Thyroid function and morphology were evaluated by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine levels (free T3 and free T4), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab), clinical examination and ultrasound (USG) of thyroid gland.
Statistical Analysis Used:
It was done by Student's t-test and Chi-square test using appropriate software (SPSS version 19).
This case-control study revealed statistically significant higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis, detected in 18 patients (22.5% vs. 1.25% of control) as evidenced by raised anti-TPO antibody levels (means 28.037 ± 9.138 and 25.72 ± 8.27 respectively; P = 0.035). PCOS patients were found to have higher mean TSH level than that of the control group (4.547 ± 2.66 and 2.67 ± 3.11 respectively; P value < 0.05). There was high prevalence of goiter among PCOS patients (27.5% vs. 7.5% of control, P value > 0.001). On thyroid USG a significantly higher percentage of PCOS patients (12.5%; controls 2.5%) had hypoechoic USG pattern also compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis.
High prevalence of thyroid disorders in PCOS patients thus points towards the importance of early correction of hypothyroidism in the management of infertility associated with PCOS.
PMCID: PMC3683210  PMID: 23776908
Anti-thyroperoxidase antibody; autoimmune thyroiditis; hypothyroidism; polycystic ovarian syndrome
8.  Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and vitiligo: a controlled study 
BMC Dermatology  2006;6:3.
Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder due to destruction of melanocytes. Although many theories have been suggested for its pathogenesis, the role of autoimmunity is the most popular one. The association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid diseases and the increased prevalence of autoantibodies including thyroid autoantibodies in vitiligo favor this role. Our objective was to compare the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) in vitiligo patients with healthy subjects in Iran.
Ninety-four cases of vitiligo (46 female and 48 male) and 96 control subjects (49 female and 47 male) were enrolled in this controlled study. Patients with known thyroid disease, history of thyroid surgery and those receiving thyroid medications were not included. The two groups were matched regarding gender and age. The demographic data, symptoms related to thyroid diseases and results of skin and thyroid examinations were recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. Thyroid function tests including free T3, free T4 and TSH-IRMA were performed. Anti-TPO levels were assessed as well. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version-11 in vitiligo patients and subgroups according to gender, age, extent, and duration of the disease compared with the control group.
Anti-TPO was detected in 17 (18.1%) of patients affected by vitiligo, while this figure was 7 (7.3%) in the control group; the difference was significant with p-value < 0.025 (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.162). When analyzing subgroups, the difference in the frequency of anti-TPO remained significant only in females (p-value < 0.044) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.207) and in patients in the age ranges of 18–25 (p-value < 0.05) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.28) and 26–35 year-old (p-value < 0.042) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.304).
The difference of the frequency of anti-TPO was not significant regarding the duration and extent of vitiligo. In addition, there was no significant difference in the levels of free T3, free T4, and TSH in vitiligo patients compared with the control group.
According to our study, anti-TPO was shown to be significantly more common in vitiligo patients especially in young women, compared with control group. As this antibody is a relatively sensitive and specific marker of autoimmune thyroid disorders including Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and considering the fact that vitiligo usually precedes the onset of thyroid dysfunction, periodic follow-up of vitiligo patients for detecting thyroid diseases is further emphasized especially in young women with increased level of anti-TPO.
PMCID: PMC1431557  PMID: 16526964
9.  The Evaluation of Thyroid Diseases in Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:146897.
Background. Thyroid disorders may affect all of the organ systems of the body and they are also highly associated with a wide variety of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and to determine the association between thyroid disorders and clinical involvement and systemic corticosteroid treatment in patients with PV. Methods. The study consisted of eighty patients with PV and eighty healthy individuals. Thyroid functions (fT3, fT4, and TSH) and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies) were investigated in both groups. Primary thyroid disease (PTD) was diagnosed with one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i) positive antithyroid antibodies, (ii) primary thyroid function abnormalities. Results. Significant changes in the serum thyroid profile were found in 16% (13/80) of the PV group and 5% (4/80) of the control group. Positive titers of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-Tg) were observed in 7 patients (9%) with PV and one in the control group (1,2%). Hashimoto thyroiditis was diagnosed in 9% of PV patients and it was found to be more prevalent in the mucosal form of PV. PTD was found in 13 of (%16) PV patients which was significantly high compared to controls. PTD was not found to be associated with systemic corticosteroid use. Free T3 levels were significantly lower in PV group compared to the control group and free T4 levels were significantly higher in PV group compared to the controls. Conclusions. PV may exist together with autoimmune thyroid diseases especially Hashimoto thyroiditis and primer thyroid diseases. Laboratory work-up for thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be performed to determine underlying thyroid diseases in patients with PV.
PMCID: PMC3478722  PMID: 23118611
10.  Helicobacter pylori infection might be responsible for the interconnection between type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis 
Higher serological prevalence rates of helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been reported in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Patients with T1DM are at increased risk for developing other autoimmune diseases, most commonly AT. It is unknown whether H. pylori infection could explain the high prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and AT in T1DM. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) autoantibodies in correlation with anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA in young patients with T1DM.
Anti-H. Pylori IgG, IgA, anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies titers were measured in 162 euthyroid patients with T1DM and 80 healthy controls matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status.
Seroprevalence of H. pylori was significantly higher in patients with T1DM than in healthy controls; 79% vs. 51.2%, p < 0.001. Anti H. pylori IgG was positive in 61.1% of patients with T1DM and 30% of controls, p < 0.001, anti H. pylori IgA was positive in 74% of patients with T1DM and 32.5% of controls, p < 0.001. Thyroid autoimmunity was also significantly higher in patients with T1DM than in controls; 56.7% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001. Anti-TPO was positive in 25.3% of patients with T1DM and 3.7% of controls, p < 0.001, anti-Tg was positive in 47.5% of patients with T1DM and 6.2% of controls, p < 0.001. With simple and multiple regression analysis anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA titers were positively and significantly correlated with Anti-TPO and anti-Tg titers in patients with T1DM.
our results support the idea of a connection between H. pylori infection and the occurrence of anti-TPO, anti-Tg autoantibodies and AT in young patients with T1DM. So, H. pylori infection could be considered as an environmental trigger for development of AT in T1DM. Young patients with T1DM should be screened for H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC3221615  PMID: 22029731
Helicobacter pylori; type1 diabetes mellitus; autoimmune thyroiditis
11.  Vitamin D deficiency is related to thyroid antibodies in autoimmune thyroiditis 
It has been known that vitamin D has some immunomodulatory effects and in autoimmune thyroid diseases, vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent. In this study, our aim was to investigate the relationship between thyroid autoantibodies and vitamin D.
Material and methods
Group 1 and 2 consisted of 254 and 27 newly diagnosed Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD) cases, respectively; age-matched 124 healthy subjects were enrolled as controls (group 3). All subjects (n = 405) were evaluated for 25OHD and thyroid autoantibody [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-tg)] levels.
Group 2 and group 1 patients had lower 25OHD levels than group 3 subjects 14.9 ±8.6 ng/ml, 19.4 ±10.1 ng/ml and 22.5 ±15.4 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.001). Serum 25OHD levels inversely correlated with anti-tg (r = –0.136, p = 0.025), anti-TPO (r = –0.176, p = 0.003) and parathormone (PTH) (r = –0.240, p < 0.001). Group 2 patients had higher anti-tg and anti-TPO levels than group 1 and 3 (p < 0.001).
In this study, we found that patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) present with lower vitamin D levels and GD patients have higher prevalence. Since we found an inverse correlation between vitamin D levels and thyroid antibody levels, we may suggest that vitamin D deficiency is one of the potential factors in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders.
PMCID: PMC4439962  PMID: 26155169
vitamin D; thyroid; autoimmunity
12.  Prevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of subclinical hypothyroidism in normal population in Mumbai 
Subclinical Hypothyroidism (ScHt) affects 3–15% of the adult population. It's clinical and biochemical profile is not well defined, especially in Indian scenario. Our study aimed at screening normal population to define normative ranges of thyroid hormones and Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S.TSH) and prevalence of ScHt and thyroid autoimmunity.
Materials and Methods:
Two-hundred thirty-seven normal subjects without family history of thyroid disease were evaluated for symptoms and laboratory tests for thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity.
The thyroid function tests were as follows:
Euthyroid Group:
Mean values were: T3: 1.79 ± 0.42 ng/mL, T4: 10.23 ± 2.25 μg/dL, FT3: 1.88 ± 0.19 pg/mL, FT4: 1.12 ± 0.21 ng/dL, S.TSH: 2.22 ± 1.06 μlu/mL. 10.2% of euthyroid subjects had antimicrosomal antibodies (AMA) +ve (mean titer 1:918) and 23.6% were anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (anti-TPO) +ve (mean titer 15.06 Au/mL). The euthyroid outlier range for S.TSH was 0.3–4.6 μlu/mL. The values were comparable in both the sexes. Those with S.TSH ≥ 5 μlu/mL were defined to have ScHt.
ScHt Group:
Prevalence of ScHt was 11.3% (M:F ratio 1:3.7). 74% belonged to 35–54 years age group and prevalence increased with age (post-menopausal females: prevalence 20%). S.TSH was 9.8 ± 7.22 μlu/mL, mean S.AMA was 1:5079 (40.7% positivity) and mean S.anti-TPO was 260 Au/mL (47.6% positivity). Majority were agoitrous (74%), and stage I goiter was seen in 26% of this population. Symptom score of 5–8 was seen in 55% ScHt subjects versus 35% normal subjects.
Mean S.TSH in our population was 2.22 μlu/mL (euthyroid outliers: 0.3–4.6 μlu/mL); hence, S.TSH above 4.6 μlu/mL should be considered as abnormal. The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity increases after age of 35 years. ScHt presents mainly in agoitrous form and with positive antibodies, suggesting autoimmunity as the cause.
PMCID: PMC3712376  PMID: 23869302
Autoimmunity; normative ranges; prevalence; subclinical hypothyroidism
13.  Protein-energy Malnutrition in Goitrous Schoolchildren of Isfahan, Iran 
Some studies have shown the possible role of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in persistence of endemic goiter in iodine replenished areas. The present study was conducted to assess the association between PEM and goiter in schoolchildren of Isfahan, Iran.
In a cross-sectional study using multistage cluster random-sampling, 2331 schoolchildren with age ranged from 6-13 years old with a female to male ratio of 1.60 were enrolled. Thyroid size was examined by two endocrinologists for goiter detection. Children were considered goitrous if they had palpable or visible goiters according to World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency criteria. Weight and standing height were measured using the standard tools and anthropometric indices were calculated using the WHO AnthroPlus software developed by the World Health Organization. Height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) and body mass index (BMI) for age were calculated for each child. Children with a HAZ, WAZ or BMI-for-age of Z-score < –2.0 were classified as stunted, underweight or thin, respectively. Blood samples were drowned to measure serum thyroid hormones.
Overall, 32.9% of subjects were classified as goitrous. Weight, height, BMI, WAZ and BMI-for-age Z-score were significantly lower in children with goiter than in children who did not have goiter (P < 0.05). The prevalence of goiter in thin children was higher than that in non-thin ones (48.4 vs. 31.6%, odds ratio [OR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-2.69, P < 0.001). Although 33.4% of non-stunted children were goitrous, 31% of stunted ones had goiter (P = 0.5). According to the logistic regression model taking sex and age as covariates, the only significant parameter affecting palpable goiter detection was thinness (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.22-3.69, P < 0.001).
In the present study, we found a high prevalence of goiter in children who were malnourished. It seems that PEM may play a role in the still high prevalence of goiter in this region.
PMCID: PMC4050673  PMID: 24932384
Body mass index-for-age Z-score; goiter; height-for-age Z-score; Iran; protein-energy malnutrition; weight-for-age Z-score
14.  Evaluation of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women with gestational and pre-gestational diabetes 
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid function tests in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and pre-gestational DM and control group.
Methodology : There were 61 pregnant diabetic women in study group and 35 pregnant women in control group. Serum T4, T3, T3RU, FTI, TSH and Anti TPO Ab were assessed in each person.
Results : About 36% of patients had GDM and 64% pre-gestational DM. Thyroid dysfunction was detected in 18% of study group compared with 8.6% of control group (P = 0.2). There was Thyroid dysfunction in 4.5% of GDM and 25.6% of pregestational DM (P = 0.045). There was no statistically significant difference between thyroid dysfunction in GDM group and control group (P=0.99).27% of GDM and 36% of pregestational DM and 23% of control group had positive titer of Anti TPO Ab without statistically significant differences among the three groups.
Conclusion : Thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in women with pre-gestational DM so, thyroid function should be evaluated in these patients during pregnancy. Rate of thyroid dysfunction in GDM patients is similar to normal pregnant control women. High prevalence of positive titer of TPO Ab was seen in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women.
PMCID: PMC3809223  PMID: 24353594
Thyroid dysfunction; GDM; Pregestational DM; Anti TPO Ab; Anti TgAb
15.  The relationship between thyroiditis and polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis 
Background: The link between AIT and PCOS has been reported on several studies, but it’s true pathogenesis is far from being elucidated. In an attempt to provide evidence of the relationship between PCOS and AIT, relevant literature of AIT markers in women with PCOS was reviewed and analyzed. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Medline, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane trial register were searched with English language restriction for only human beings. Data were collected and analyzed by Revman. Results: A total of 6 studies, involving 726 PCOS patients and 879 controls, were eligible for our meta-analysis. Conculsion: The prevalence of AIT, serum TSH, anti-TPO and anti-Tg positive rate in PCOS patients are all significantly higher than those in control groups, which suggests PCOS may be a kind of autoimmune disease and has close association with AIT. So, It will be helpful to assess thyroid function routinely in patients with PCOS and offer thyroid hormone replacement therapy if necessary.
PMCID: PMC3832324  PMID: 24260593
Polycystic ovary syndrome; thyroiditis; atuoimmune diseases; meta-analysis
16.  Identification of Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Clinical Thyroid Disease 
Medici, Marco | Porcu, Eleonora | Pistis, Giorgio | Teumer, Alexander | Brown, Suzanne J. | Jensen, Richard A. | Rawal, Rajesh | Roef, Greet L. | Plantinga, Theo S. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Lahti, Jari | Simmonds, Matthew J. | Husemoen, Lise Lotte N. | Freathy, Rachel M. | Shields, Beverley M. | Pietzner, Diana | Nagy, Rebecca | Broer, Linda | Chaker, Layal | Korevaar, Tim I. M. | Plia, Maria Grazia | Sala, Cinzia | Völker, Uwe | Richards, J. Brent | Sweep, Fred C. | Gieger, Christian | Corre, Tanguy | Kajantie, Eero | Thuesen, Betina | Taes, Youri E. | Visser, W. Edward | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Kratzsch, Jürgen | Hamilton, Alexander | Li, Wei | Homuth, Georg | Lobina, Monia | Mariotti, Stefano | Soranzo, Nicole | Cocca, Massimiliano | Nauck, Matthias | Spielhagen, Christin | Ross, Alec | Arnold, Alice | van de Bunt, Martijn | Liyanarachchi, Sandya | Heier, Margit | Grabe, Hans Jörgen | Masciullo, Corrado | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Lim, Ee M. | Reischl, Eva | Leedman, Peter J. | Lai, Sandra | Delitala, Alessandro | Bremner, Alexandra P. | Philips, David I. W. | Beilby, John P. | Mulas, Antonella | Vocale, Matteo | Abecasis, Goncalo | Forsen, Tom | James, Alan | Widen, Elisabeth | Hui, Jennie | Prokisch, Holger | Rietzschel, Ernst E. | Palotie, Aarno | Feddema, Peter | Fletcher, Stephen J. | Schramm, Katharina | Rotter, Jerome I. | Kluttig, Alexander | Radke, Dörte | Traglia, Michela | Surdulescu, Gabriela L. | He, Huiling | Franklyn, Jayne A. | Tiller, Daniel | Vaidya, Bijay | de Meyer, Tim | Jørgensen, Torben | Eriksson, Johan G. | O'Leary, Peter C. | Wichmann, Eric | Hermus, Ad R. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Ittermann, Till | Hofman, Albert | Bosi, Emanuele | Schlessinger, David | Wallaschofski, Henri | Pirastu, Nicola | Aulchenko, Yurii S. | de la Chapelle, Albert | Netea-Maier, Romana T. | Gough, Stephen C. L. | Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette | Frayling, Timothy M. | Kaufman, Jean-Marc | Linneberg, Allan | Räikkönen, Katri | Smit, Johannes W. A. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Uitterlinden, André G. | Walsh, John P. | Meisinger, Christa | den Heijer, Martin | Visser, Theo J. | Spector, Timothy D. | Wilson, Scott G. | Völzke, Henry | Cappola, Anne | Toniolo, Daniela | Sanna, Serena | Naitza, Silvia | Peeters, Robin P.
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(2):e1004123.
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the possible causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed GWAS meta-analyses in 18,297 individuals for TPOAb-positivity (1769 TPOAb-positives and 16,528 TPOAb-negatives) and in 12,353 individuals for TPOAb serum levels, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations (P<5×10−8) were detected at TPO-rs11675434, ATXN2-rs653178, and BACH2-rs10944479 for TPOAb-positivity, and at TPO-rs11675434, MAGI3-rs1230666, and KALRN-rs2010099 for TPOAb levels. Individual and combined effects (genetic risk scores) of these variants on (subclinical) hypo- and hyperthyroidism, goiter and thyroid cancer were studied. Individuals with a high genetic risk score had, besides an increased risk of TPOAb-positivity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.68–2.81, P = 8.1×10−8), a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.26–1.82, P = 2.9×10−6), as well as a decreased risk of goiter (OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.89, P = 6.5×10−4). The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, which was replicated in an independent cohort of patients with Graves' disease (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.22–1.54, P = 1.2×10−7 and OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.12–1.39, P = 6.2×10−5). The MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.18–2.10, P = 1.9×10−3). This first GWAS meta-analysis for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. The results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which TPOAb-positives are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
Author Summary
Individuals with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), which are common in the general population and associated with increased cardiovascular, metabolic and psychiatric morbidity and mortality. As the causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed a genome-wide scan for TPOAbs in 18,297 individuals, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations were detected with variants at TPO, ATXN2, BACH2, MAGI3, and KALRN. Individuals carrying multiple risk variants also had a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (including subclinical and overt hypothyroidism), and a decreased risk of goiter. The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, and the MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism. This first genome-wide scan for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. These results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which individuals are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3937134  PMID: 24586183
17.  Measures of Thyroid Function among Belarusian Children and Adolescents Exposed to Iodine-131 from the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2013;121(7):865-871.
Background: Thyroid dysfunction after exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning 131I-related risk of these common diseases.
Objective: Our goal was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with 131I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based 131I dose estimates in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases.
Results: Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated 131I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range, 0.001–26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of 131I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO.
Conclusions: The association between 131I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental 131I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3701991  PMID: 23651658
antithyroid antibodies; autoimmune thyroiditis; Chernobyl; Chornobyl; dose response; hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism; radioiodine; thyroid gland
18.  Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus 
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are the two most common endocrine disorders in clinical practice. The unrecognized TD may adversely affect the metabolic control and add more risk to an already predisposing scenario for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of TD in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM).
This is an observational cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighty-six (386) patients with T1DM or T2DM that regularly attended the outpatient clinic of the Diabetes unit, Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, participated in the study. All patients underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation. Thyroid dysfunction was classified as clinical hypothyroidism (C-Hypo) if TSH > 4.20 μUI/mL and FT4 < 0.93 ng/dL; Subclinical hypothyroidism (SC-Hypo) if TSH > 4.20 μUI/ml and FT4 ranged from 0.93 to 1.7 ng/dL; Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SC-Hyper) if TSH < 0.27 μUI/ml and FT4 in the normal range (0.93 and 1.7 ng/dL) and Clinical hyperthyroidism (C-Hyper) if TSH < 0.27 μUI/ml and FT4 > 1.7 μUI/mL. Autoimmunity were diagnosed when anti-TPO levels were greater than 34 IU/mL. The positive autoimmunity was not considered as a criterion of thyroid dysfunction.
The prevalence of TD in all diabetic patients was 14,7%. In patients who had not or denied prior TD the frequency of TD was 13%. The most frequently TD was subclinical hypothyroidism, in 13% of patients with T1DM and in 12% of patients with T2DM. The prevalence of anti-TPO antibodies was 10.8%. Forty-four (11.2%) new cases of TD were diagnosed during the clinical evaluation. The forty-nine patients with prior TD, 50% with T1DM and 76% with T2DM were with normal TSH levels.
We conclude that screening for thyroid disease among patients with diabetes mellitus should be routinely performed considering the prevalence of new cases diagnosed and the possible aggravation the classical risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, arising from an undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3852595  PMID: 24499529
Thyroid dysfunction; Prevalence; Diabetes mellitus
19.  Cytometric evaluation of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in thyroid follicular cells from patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases 
Thyroid Research  2011;4:13.
In recent few years is underlined that altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of AITD.
The aim of this study was to estimate intracellular INF-γ and IL-4 levels in thyroid-infiltrating lymphocytes and thyrocytes isolated from thyroid tissues in 54 adolescent patients aged 8-21 years, with Graves' disease (GD; n = 18), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT; n = 18) and non-toxic multinodular goiter (NTMG; n = 18).
Fresh thyroid tissues were taken on culture medium RPMI -1640, it was mechanically prepared. In next step were added cell activators -12- myristate 13- the acetate (PMA) and Ionomycin as well as the inhibitor of transportation of proteins - Breferdin A. They were cultured 24 hours in 50 ml flasks at 37°C in a 5-95% CO2-air water-saturated atmosphere. After that, thyrocytes were identified by mouse mAb directed against human TPO epitope 64 conjugated with rabbit anti-mouse antibodies IgG (Fab')2 labeled by FITC. After incubation at room temperature to each of samples added reagent A fixative the cellular membrane. In next step into the cell suspensions were added reagent B to permeabilization of cellular membrane and specific anti-IL-4-PE or anti-IFN-γ-PE mAbs. Identification of intracellular cytokines in T lymphocytes was performed in the same procedure with application of anti-CD4-PerCP and anti-CD8-PerCP mAbs specific for T lymphocytes. The cells were analyzed in a flow cytometry (Coulter EPICS XL).
In examined group of patients with GD we observed statistically significant higher mean percentage of cells with phenotype CD4+IL-4 (p < 0.05; p < 0.025), CD8+IL-4 (p < 0.033; p < 0.01) and TFCs-IL-4+ (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) in comparison to patients with HT and NTMG. The analysis of mean percentages of positive TILs and TFCs with intracellular INF-g levels in patients with HT revealed statistically significant increase percentage of CD4+INF-γ (p < 0.04; p < 0.001), CD8+ INF-γ (NS; p < 0.025), TFCs+INF-γ (p < 0.03; p < 0.001) cells in comparison to the percentage of positive cells from patients with GD and NTMG.
We conclude that human thyrocytes in autoimmune thyroid disorders could be a source of cytokine production and that their activation influences local interaction with T lymphocytes inflowing to the thyroid gland.
PMCID: PMC3189885  PMID: 21943174
thyrocytes; cytokines; Graves; disease; Hashimoto's thyroiditis
20.  Low Levels of Serum Vitamin D3 Are Associated with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Pre-Menopausal Women 
Thyroid  2014;24(4):655-661.
Background: Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, but their association with thyroid autoimmunity is unclear. We evaluated the association of serum vitamin D levels with the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD).
Methods: Our cross-sectional study included subjects who underwent routine health checkups, which included assays of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and anti–thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab), as well as thyroid ultrasonography (US) between 2008 and 2012 at the Asan Medical Center. We defined AITD according to the levels of TPO-Ab and US findings.
Results: A total of 6685 subjects (58% male; 42% female) were enrolled for this study. Overall prevalence of TPO-Ab positivity and both TPO-Ab/US positivity were 10.1% (6.3% male; 15.3% female) and 5.4% (2.3% male; 9.7% female) respectively. In female subjects, mean serum 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly lower in the TPO-Ab(+) (22.0 vs. 23.5 ng/mL, p=0.030) and TPO-Ab(+)/US(+) groups (21.6 vs. 23.4 ng/mL, p=0.027) compared with the control group, respectively. According to the levels of serum 25(OH)D3, the prevalence of TPO-Ab positivity (21.2%, 15.5%, and 12.6% in deficient, insufficient, and sufficient group, respectively; p=0.001) and both TPO-Ab and US positivity (14.7%, 9.9%, and 7.1% in deficient, insufficient, and sufficient group, respectively; p<0.001) decreased in female subjects. Interestingly, this pattern was significant only in pre-menopausal women (p=0.003 and p<0.001; respectively), but not in postmenopausal women. Multivariate analysis indicated that the adjusted odds ratios (OR) for AITD among those in the 25(OH)D3-deficient [TPO-Ab(+): OR 1.95, p=0.001; TPO-Ab(+)/US(+): OR 2.36, p<0.001] and -insufficient groups [TPO-Ab(+): OR 1.31, p=0.043; TPO-Ab(+)/US(+): OR 1.50, p=0.017] were significantly increased when compared with the sufficient group.
Conclusions: The levels of serum vitamin D were significantly lower in pre-menopausal women with AITD. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were significantly associated with AITD in pre-menopausal women.
PMCID: PMC3993051  PMID: 24320141
21.  Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among women during the first trimester of pregnancy at a tertiary care hospital in Haryana 
Undetected and untreated thyroid disorders are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. There are limited data on the prevalence of newly diagnosed thyroid disease during pregnancy from India. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction, especially hypothyroidism during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Materials and Methods:
The present cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of endocrinology and antenatal clinic in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak over a period of 1-year. The total sample population comprised of 461 pregnant women with uncomplicated intrauterine singleton pregnancies in the first trimester of gestation without any history of thyroid disease or intake of any thyroid medication. Morning blood samples from the participants were analyzed for thyroid function tests, which included FT3, FT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO).
A total of 461 women were enrolled for this study. Mean maternal age was 23.79 ± 3.47 years. Median gestational age was 8 weeks 5 days. The median FT3, FT4 and TSH were 3.3 pg/mL, 1.25 ng/dL, and 1.40 mIU/L, respectively. Anti-TPO was elevated in 128 (27.8%) pregnant women. 99 (21.5%) women had sub-clinical hypothyroidism and 39 (39.4%) among them were positive for anti-TPO (P ≤ 0.001). 2 (0.4%) of women had overt hyperthyroidism, whereas 15 (3.3%) of the women had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism.
Considering the immense impact that maternal thyroid dysfunction has on maternal and fetal outcomes, prompt identification of thyroid dysfunction and its timely treatment is essential. Thus, universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction should be considered especially in a country like India due to the high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC4366784  PMID: 25932401
First trimester; pregnancy; thyroid dysfunction
22.  Persistence of goitre in the post-iodization phase: micronutrient deficiency or thyroid autoimmunity? 
Background & objectives:
Despite years of salt iodization, goitre continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. We examined the prevalence of goitre in the post-iodization phase and the relationship of goitre with micronutrient status and thyroid autoimmunity in school children of Chandigarh, north India.
Two phase study; in the first phase, 2148 children of 6 to 16 yr were screened for goitre by two independent observers as per the WHO grading system. In the second phase, a case-control study, 191 children with goitre and 165 children without goitre were compared with respect to urinary iodine, iodine content of salt, serum levels of T3, T4, TSH, anti-TPO (thyroid peroxidase) antibody, haemoglobin, ferritin and selenium.
Prevalence of goitre in the studied subjects was 15.1 per cent (13.9% in 6 to 12 yr and 17.7% in 13 to 16 yr age group, P= 0.03). Median urinary iodine excretion in both the groups was sufficient and comparable (137 and 130 µg/l). 3.2 per cent children with goitre and 2.4 per cent without goitre had hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) and only one child with goitre had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine (4.9%) children in the goitre group and 3 (1.9%) in control group had anti-TPO antibody positivity. The median serum selenium levels were not different in both the groups (181.9 and 193.5 µg/l). Seventy one (37.4%) of the goitrous children had anaemia (haemoglobin <12 g/dl) as compared to 41 (24.8%) of the control group (P <0.01). More number of goitrous children (39, 20.6%) were depleted of tissue iron stores (serum ferritin <12 µg/l) as compared to controls (11, 6.4%; P<0.001). Serum ferritin level negatively correlated with the presence of goitre (r = - 0.22, P =0.008) and had an OR of 2.8 (CI 1.20 - 6.37, P =0.017).
Interpretation & conclusions:
There was a high prevalence of goitre in young children despite iodine repletion and low thyroid autoimmunity. The concurrent iron deficiency correlated with the presence of goiter. However, the cause and effect relationship between iron deficiency state and goitre requires further elucidation.
PMCID: PMC3100137  PMID: 21321427
Goitre; iodine deficiency; iron deficiency; selenium; thyroid autoimmunity
23.  Thyroid heterogeneity, as indicated by the CV of ultrasonographic intensities, correlates with anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 
Thyroid Research  2013;6:5.
To prospectively evaluate the heterogeneous appearance of the thyroid gland, reflecting inflammation and destruction in euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), we investigated the clinical utilities of the heterogeneity index (HI) [the coefficient of variance (CV) of the ultrasonographic (US) intensities], focusing on anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), which represent not only disease activity but also subsequent thyroid destruction of HT.
Forty-four consecutive patients with euthyroid HT [60.5 ± 2.7 years old (mean ± SE)] and 30 age-matched normal controls were studied. HI was calculated as the CV (SD/mean) of US intensities of either four points per lobe of the thyroid gland along a horizontal line at the depth of the right common carotid artery. Evaluation included serum levels of free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab), thyroglobulin and thyroid volume.
While no differences were observed for TSH, FT4 and FT3, thyroglobulin and thyroid volume between the two groups, HI exhibited a tendency towards a significant difference (3.59 ± 0.20% in HT patients vs 3.23 ± 0.19% in normal group, p = 0.089). In HT patients, there was a significant and positive correlation of HI with TPO-Ab (r = 0.396, p = 0.034), whereas such a correlation was absent in normal controls. In both groups, there were no significant correlations of HI with Tg-Ab, FT3, FT4 or TSH.
This is the first report of the close relation between heterogeneity of US of the thyroid gland and TPO-Ab in euthyroid HT patients before the heterogeneity becomes distinguishable from normal thyroid glands. Furthermore, at this stage, subsequent thyroid destruction in HT might be already be predicted through the heterogeniety of the thyroid tissue.
PMCID: PMC3610302  PMID: 23522401
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; Heterogeneity; Ultrasonography; Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies
24.  IgE Mediated Autoallergy against Thyroid Peroxidase – A Novel Pathomechanism of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria? 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e14794.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (csU), which is characterized by recurrent episodes of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions, is often associated with elevated total IgE levels and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that some csU patients express IgE autoantibodies against thyroid antigens such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO), which could bind to skin mast cells and induce their activation.
We developed and used a site-directed human IgE capture ELISA to quantify IgE-anti-TPO. We used this assay and investigated csU patients (n = 478) and healthy control subjects (n = 127) for IgE-anti-TPO and then assessed IgE-anti-TPO-positive and -negative csU patients for clinical and serological differences.
Principal Findings
CsU patients were found to express more than 2fold higher IgE-anti-TPO serum levels as compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.001). 54% of csU patients had serum levels higher than the cut off ( = 5 IU/ml). By distribution analyses we identified two distinct subpopulations of csU patients: 1) IgE-anti-TPOlow ( = 39%, IgE-anti-TPO: median 2.17 interquartile range 0.86–5.44,  =  comparable to healthy controls) and 2) IgE-anti-TPOhigh ( = 61%, IgE-anti-TPO: median 6.67, interquartile range 5.39–8.24). IgE-anti-TPO-positive and -negative csU patients had very similar distributions of age and gender as well as disease activity and duration. IgE-anti-TPO-positive csU patients exhibited significantly higher IgG-anti-TPO levels and lymphocyte counts as well as decreased C4 complement levels.
Our findings show that a sizeable subgroup of csU patients expresses IgE antibodies against thyroid peroxidase. These autoantibodies could cause “autoallergic” mast cell activation, a novel pathomechanism of chronic spontaneous urticaria.
PMCID: PMC3075251  PMID: 21532759
25.  Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Childhood 
Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the most common thyroid disorder in the pediatric age range. The disease results from an as yet poorly characterized defect or defects in immunoregulation and a cascade of events progressing from lymphocyte infiltration of the thyroid, to T-cell- and cytokine-mediated thyroid follicular cell injury, and apoptotic cell death. Approximately 70% of disease risk has been attributed to genetic background with environmental factors being important in triggering disease in susceptible individuals. The contribution of individual genes is small and probably polymorphisms in multiple genes play a role. Some immunosusceptibility genes affect immune recognition or response in general, while others are thyroid-specific. Environmental agents may act through an epigenetic mechanism. Antibodies (Abs) to a variety of thyroid-specific antigens are detectable in a majority of patients, but the role of Abs in mediating cell injury and death is unclear and only thyrotropin (TSH) receptor Abs significantly affect thyroid function by interfering with (or stimulating) the action of TSH. Nonetheless, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) Abs and thyroglobulin (Tg) Abs, present in a majority of patients, are valuable diagnostically as markers of underlying autoimmune thyroid destruction. TSH receptor blocking Abs are found in ˜18% of children and adolescents with severe hypothyroidism and, when persistent, may identify an adolescent likely to have a baby with TSH receptor blocking Ab-induced congenital hypothyroidism. AIT may coexist with other organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Although the most common age at presentation is adolescence, the disease may occur rarely in children <1 year of life.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
PMCID: PMC3608006  PMID: 23154164
Thyroiditis; hypothyroidism; children; Autoimmunity

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