Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder due to destruction of melanocytes. Although many theories have been suggested for its pathogenesis, the role of autoimmunity is the most popular one. The association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid diseases and the increased prevalence of autoantibodies including thyroid autoantibodies in vitiligo favor this role. Our objective was to compare the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) in vitiligo patients with healthy subjects in Iran.
Ninety-four cases of vitiligo (46 female and 48 male) and 96 control subjects (49 female and 47 male) were enrolled in this controlled study. Patients with known thyroid disease, history of thyroid surgery and those receiving thyroid medications were not included. The two groups were matched regarding gender and age. The demographic data, symptoms related to thyroid diseases and results of skin and thyroid examinations were recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. Thyroid function tests including free T3, free T4 and TSH-IRMA were performed. Anti-TPO levels were assessed as well. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version-11 in vitiligo patients and subgroups according to gender, age, extent, and duration of the disease compared with the control group.
Anti-TPO was detected in 17 (18.1%) of patients affected by vitiligo, while this figure was 7 (7.3%) in the control group; the difference was significant with p-value < 0.025 (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.162). When analyzing subgroups, the difference in the frequency of anti-TPO remained significant only in females (p-value < 0.044) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.207) and in patients in the age ranges of 18–25 (p-value < 0.05) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.28) and 26–35 year-old (p-value < 0.042) (Phi & Cramer's V = 0.304).
The difference of the frequency of anti-TPO was not significant regarding the duration and extent of vitiligo. In addition, there was no significant difference in the levels of free T3, free T4, and TSH in vitiligo patients compared with the control group.
According to our study, anti-TPO was shown to be significantly more common in vitiligo patients especially in young women, compared with control group. As this antibody is a relatively sensitive and specific marker of autoimmune thyroid disorders including Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and considering the fact that vitiligo usually precedes the onset of thyroid dysfunction, periodic follow-up of vitiligo patients for detecting thyroid diseases is further emphasized especially in young women with increased level of anti-TPO.
Background & objectives:
Several autoimmune disorders have been reported to be associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and may coexist with other organ-specific autoantibodies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of tissue transglutaminase (anti-TTG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies in patients suffering from autoimmune thyroiditis as diagnosed by anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, which may indicate high risk for developing celiac disease or type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Five thousand children and 2800 adults were screening as part of a general health examination done on a voluntary basis in four different parts of Delhi. A total of 577 subjects positive for anti-TPO antibody constituted the cases. Equal number of age and sex matched anti-TPO antibody negative controls were randomly selected from the same cohort to form paired case control study. The cases and controls were further divided into two groups as follows: group-1 (children and adolescent <18 yr), group-2 (adults >18 yr). Serum samples of cases and controls were analysed for thyroid function test (FT3, FT4, and TSH), anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies.
A total of 1154 subjects (577 cases and 577 controls) were included in this study. Hypothyroidism was present in 40.2 per cent (232) cases compared to only 4.7 per cent (27) in controls (P<0.001). Anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies were present in 6.9 and 12.5 per cent subjects among cases compared to 3.5 per cent (P=0.015) and 4.3 per cent (P=0.001) in controls, respectively. Only anti-GAD antibody were significantly positive in cases among children and adolescents (P =0.0044) and adult (P=0.001) compared to controls. Levels of anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies increased with increasing titre of anti-TPO antibody.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Our findings showed high positivity of anti-GAD and anti-TTG antibodies among subjects with thyroid autoimmunity. It is, therefore, important to have high clinical index of suspicion for celiac disease or type 1 diabetes mellitus in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.
Anti-GAD antibody; anti-TPO antibody; anti-TTG antibody; thyroid autoimmunity
Considering that thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer occur more frequently in people chronically exposed to radiation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in a population occupationally exposed to radiation in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran.
Materials and Methods:
In this case-control study, the prevalence of thyroid nodules in staff members occupationally exposed to radiation was determined by ultrasonography. The results were compared with the results of another study among the adult population of Isfahan which selected by cluster random sampling method. The 2 studied groups were matched according to sex and age.
The case and control groups included 124 and 471 persons, respectively. The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the case and control groups was 22.6% and 24.6%, respectively (p > 0.05). Although thyroid nodules were significantly more prevalent in females in the control group, no such difference was observed between females and males of the case group (p > 0.05). The number of thyroid nodules (single or multiple) and calcification were not different between the two groups (p > 0.05). In addition, hypoechogenicity of thyroid nodules was not different between the two groups for (p > 0.05).
In our study, there was not any correlation between chronic occupational exposure to low dose of radiation and the risk of developing thyroid nodules. Further studies with larger sample sizes, at different doses of radiation, and considering iodine status and thyroid function are thus required.
Thyroid Nodule; Radiation; Occupational Exposure; Ultrasonography
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with an autoimmune reaction to thyroid antigens including thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg).
We determined in children with T1DM the relationship of positive anti-thyroid antibodies to potential risk factors, including, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD).
Materials and methods
We studied 144 children and adolescents with T1DM. Their age was 12.3 ± 4.6 (mean ± SD) years, and duration of diabetes was 4.6 ± 3.8 years. Anti-thyroid antibodies were determined using a luminescence method and anti-GAD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The prevalence rates of anti-thyroid antibodies among the children with T1DM in our study were: anti-TPO (17.4%), anti-Tg (11.1%), and of both anti-thyroid antibodies (10.4%). The presence of serum anti-thyroid antibodies was positively associated with age (16.6 years in those with positive tests versus 12.0 years in those with negative tests, P = 0.027), duration of diabetes (7.4 versus 4.3 years, P = 0.031), and serum TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels (4.8 versus 2.3 μIU/mL, P = 0.002). The presence of both anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with female sex (boys: 4/75 (5.3%), girls: 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, P = 0.04). Subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (SAIT) was present in 55.5% of the patients with thyroid antibody-positivity and was positively associated with age (16.6 versus 12.0 years, P = 0.001) and diabetes duration (7.6 versus 4.2 years, P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the development of anti-thyroid antibodies was predicted by: 1) the presence of anti-GAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.92), 2) the presence of a second anti-thyroid antibody (OR 134.4, 95% CI 7.7–2350.3), and 3) older age (OR 22.9, 95% CI 1.13–463.2).
Thyroid autoimmunity was associated with female gender, increasing age, long diabetes duration, the persistence of anti-GAD, and with TSH elevation, indicating subclinical hypothyroidism.
Childhood; subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis; thyroid autoantibodies; type 1 diabetes
Aims: To investigate the natural history and incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Methods: Since 1990, annual screening for thyroid disease has been performed in children and adolescents with T1D. Antibodies against thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-TG) as well as TSH were measured in 659 patients (54.3% boys). In 126 patients, anti-TPO and anti-TG levels were followed at yearly intervals from onset up to five years of T1D. Anti-TPO above 30 U/ml and anti-TG above 20 U/ml were considered positive, values above 100 U/ml as significantly raised and indicative of AIT. L-thyroxine treatment was started if TSH was higher than 4.5 µU/ml and/or thyroid gland enlargement on thyroid ultrasound was present.
Results: At initial screening, 15.4% of patients had raised anti-TPO and 14.4% anti-TG. Girls had more frequently raised antibodies than boys. Sixty two patients (9.4%, 61% girls) required treatment with L-thyroxine. The cumulative incidence (SE) of AIT after 10 years of diabetes was 0.14 (0.02), being significantly higher in females (0.18 (0.03)), particularly after the age of 12 years. At T1D onset, positive anti-TPO and anti-TG were present in 21 of 126 patients (16.7%), each. All patients with significantly increased values of anti-TPO (n = 17, 148–5340 U/ml) and anti-TG (n = 11, 140–2000 U/ml) at T1D onset remained positive during the following five years.
Conclusions: For early detection of autoimmune thyroiditis in children with T1D, measurement of anti-TPO and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 years is recommended.
Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, and the pathogenesis is unknown. An increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases has been described in these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and hypoparathyroidism in patients with vitiligo.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and nine patients (38 males and 71 females with vitiligo were enrolled. Thyroid physical examination was carried out. Thyroid function tests, thyroid antibodies, calcium and phosphorus were assessed. The collected data were analysed by SPSS version 11.
Thyromegaly was found in 30.1% of patients. Hypothyroidism was found in 16 (15.7%) out of 109 cases. Two of them had clinical and 14 had subclinical hypothyroidism. One patient had Grave's disease. Antibody positivity was the most common disorder (anti-TPO and anti-tg were positive in 36.7 and 32.1%, respectively). No patient had hypoparathyroidism.
According to our study, thyroid dysfunction, particulary hypothyroidism and thyroid antibodies increase in patients with vitiligo. We recommend thyroid antibodies assessment and thyroid function evaluation in these patients.
Thyroid antibodies; thyroid dysfunction; vitiligo
Background. Thyroid disorders may affect all of the organ systems of the body and they are also highly associated with a wide variety of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and to determine the association between thyroid disorders and clinical involvement and systemic corticosteroid treatment in patients with PV. Methods. The study consisted of eighty patients with PV and eighty healthy individuals. Thyroid functions (fT3, fT4, and TSH) and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies) were investigated in both groups. Primary thyroid disease (PTD) was diagnosed with one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i) positive antithyroid antibodies, (ii) primary thyroid function abnormalities. Results. Significant changes in the serum thyroid profile were found in 16% (13/80) of the PV group and 5% (4/80) of the control group. Positive titers of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-Tg) were observed in 7 patients (9%) with PV and one in the control group (1,2%). Hashimoto thyroiditis was diagnosed in 9% of PV patients and it was found to be more prevalent in the mucosal form of PV. PTD was found in 13 of (%16) PV patients which was significantly high compared to controls. PTD was not found to be associated with systemic corticosteroid use. Free T3 levels were significantly lower in PV group compared to the control group and free T4 levels were significantly higher in PV group compared to the controls. Conclusions. PV may exist together with autoimmune thyroid diseases especially Hashimoto thyroiditis and primer thyroid diseases. Laboratory work-up for thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be performed to determine underlying thyroid diseases in patients with PV.
AIMS: To compare the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in 25 children with autoimmune thyroid disorders and in 41 children and young adults with type 1 diabetes, and to test the prevalence of thyrotropin receptor antibodies. METHODS: Two commercially available radioimmunoassays for antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, a commercially available agglutination test of particles coated with thyroid microsomal antigens, and a radioimmunoassay for thyrotropin receptor antibodies were used. Patients and controls were studied. RESULTS: One of the radioimmunoassays detected thyroid peroxidase antibodies not only in all children with autoimmune thyroid disorders and children and young adults with type 1 diabetes and thyroid microsomal antibodies, but also in 20% of healthy control children without microsomal antibodies. With this thyroid peroxidase assay and with microsomal agglutination, 94% of the children with autoimmune thyroiditis, 71% of those with Graves' disease, and over 90% of those with type 1 diabetes and thyroid dysfunction tested positive. In the other radioimmunoassay for thyroid peroxidase antibodies thyroid peroxidase antibody titres in half or more of the children with microsomal antibodies failed to reach the level of positivity given by the producers. Eighty five percent of children with Graves' disease and 71% of those with autoimmune thyroiditis had thyrotropin receptor antibodies but so did 35% of children studied for other endocrinological disorders such as delayed growth or puberty. CONCLUSIONS: Testing patients with well characterised disorders of thyroid function and with other endocrine disorders is important in evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic tests for thyroid autoantibodies.
Background. Thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO) mutations are one of the most common causes of thyroid dyshormonogenesis in patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). In this study, the prevalence of TPO gene mutations in patients with thyroid dyshormonogenesis in Isfahan was investigated. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, genomic DNA of 41 patients with permanent CH due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis was extracted using the salting out method. The 17 exonic regions of the TPO gene were amplified. SSCP technique was performed for scanning of the exonic regions of the TPO gene, except exon 8. DNA sequencing was performed for those with different migration patterns in SSCP by chain termination method. Exon 8 was sequenced directly in all patients. In 4 patients, all fragments were also sequenced. Results. One missense mutation c.2669G > A (NM_000547.5) at exon 15 (14th coding exon) in one patient in homozygous form and seven different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exons 1, 7, 8, 11, and 15 of TPO gene. Conclusion. The TPO gene mutations among CH patients with dyshormonogenesis in Isfahan were less frequent in comparison with other similar studies. It may be due to the presence of other unknown gene mutations which could not be detected by SSCP and sequencing methods.
Background. Vitiligo is a common skin disorder characterized by macular depigmentation of the skin. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear,
but there is evidence that autoimmunity and endocrine disfunction may be involved. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine whether vitiligo is statistically associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Method. In a prospective case-control study, we compared the frequency of thyroid autoantibodies (thyroglobulin antibody, anti-Tg and thyroid peroxidase antibody, and anti-TPO) in 33 patients with vitiligo and in 33 healthy volunteers. Thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid hormones (thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in all subjects. Results. Thyroid functional abnormalities were found in 6 (18.18%) patients. Anti-Tg and anti-TPO were positive in 9 (27.27%) and 8 (24.24%) patients, respectively. In control group, only one subject (3.03%) had abnormalities in thyroid hormonal status, and two subjects had positive thyroid autoantibodies. Compared with the control group, the frequency of both anti-Tg and anti-TPO was significantly higher in those with vitiligo (P < .05). Conclusion. This study shows a significant association between vitiligo and thyroid autoimmunity, and that tests to detect thyroid autoantibodies are relevant in patients with vitiligo.
Iodine deficiency produces the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) including endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism and congenital anomalies. Other factors, including goitrogens and micronutrient deficiencies may influence the prevalence and severity of IDDs and response to iodine supplementation. An association between zinc and goiter has previously been reported.
A cross sectional study investigating an association between goiter and serum zinc status was performed in 2003 in a mountainous region of Iran. One thousand eight hundred twenty-eight children were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Goiter staging was performed by inspection and palpation. Serum zinc, total thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone and urinary iodine concentration were measured in a group of these children.
Thirty six and seven tenth percent of subjects were classified as goitrous. Serum zinc level in goitrous and nongoitrous children was 82.80 ± 17.85 and 83.38 ± 16.25 μg/dl, respectively (p = 0.81). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (serum zinc ≤65 μg/dl) in goitrous and nongoitrous children did not differ significantly (9.3 % vs. 10.8%, p = 0.70).
Goiter is still a public health problem in Semirom. According to the present study zinc status may not play a role in the etiology of goiter in Semirom school children. However, the role of other goitrogens or micronutrient deficiencies should be investigated in this region.
Goiter; Iodine Deficiency; Zinc Deficiency; Child
To evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in elderly cardiac patients in an outpatient setting.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
A total of 399 consecutive patients (268 women, age range 60–92 years) who were followed at Heart Institute were evaluated for thyroid dysfunction with serum free T4, TSH, anti-Peroxidase antibodies, urinary iodine excretion measurements and thyroid ultrasound.
Hyperthyroidism (overt and subclinical) was present in 29 patients (6.5%), whereas hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical) was found in 32 individuals (8.1%). Cysts were detected in 11 patients (2.8%), single nodules were detected in 102 (25.6%), and multinodular goiters were detected in 34 (8.5%). Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was present in 16.8% patients, most of whom were women (83.6%). The serum TSH increased with age and was significantly higher (p= <0.01) in patients, compared to the normal control group. No significant differences in serum TSH and free T4 values were observed when patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) where compared with those without arrhythmia. The median urinary iodine levels were 210 μg/L (40–856 μg/L), and iodine levels were higher in men than in women (p<0.01). Excessive iodine intake (urinary iodine >300 μg/L) was observed in one-third of patients (30.8%).
Elderly patients have a higher prevalence of both hypo- and hyperthyroidism as well as thyroid nodules when compared with the general population. About one-third of the older patients had elevated urinary secretion of iodine and a higher prevalence of chronic Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. It is recommended that ultrasonographic studies, tests for thyroid function and autoimmunity should be evaluated in elderly patients.
Iodine intake; Thyroid dysfunction; Cardiologic patients; Elderly patients; Urinary iodine
Limited data are available on the association between vitiligo and autoimmune thyroid disease in pediatric patients. In addition, reported studies of pediatric patients have been based on a population known to have vitiligo and subsequently evaluated for the presence of thyroid function abnormalities.
A retrospective chart review was performed on 333 children who had been followed for thyroid disorders by endocrinologists at the Yale Pediatric Thyroid Center over the last 5 years for autoimmune thyroid disease. Demographical and clinical features of patients found to have thyroid disease and vitiligo were recorded. These studies were approved by the Yale Human Investigation Committee.
Of the total 333 children and adolescents, 9 (2.7%) were noted to have vitiligo. Four patients (44%) had Graves' disease and 5 patients (66%) had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. For patients with Graves' disease and vitiligo, the average age of onset of thyroid disease was young at 4 ± 0.7 years, and the diagnosis of vitiligo usually preceded that of thyroid disease. For children with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and vitiligo, thyroid disease was diagnosed at an average age of 13.25 ± 2.8 years.
In our population, 4.6% of children with Graves' disease and 2.0% of children with Hashimoto's thyroiditis had vitiligo. Interestingly, when vitiligo presents with Graves' disease, it occurs in younger rather than older children.
Urticaria is one of the most frequent dermatosis, being its prevalence in general population estimated about 20%. This prospective case-control study was aimed at determining the prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders in a cohort of patients with chronic urticaria (CU), all living within an area with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Fifty four consecutive patients affected by CU were recruited and compared to 108 healthy controls. Assessment of the thyroid function included measurement of serum concentrations of TSH, FT3, FT4, anti-thyreoglobulin (anti-TG) and anti-peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies. Ultrasound scan of the thyroid gland was performed in all subjects using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. All subjects were followed up for 6 months. The prevalence of thyroid antibodies was significantly higher in our cohort of patients with CU than in controls (22% vs. 6.5 %). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also more frequent in patients than controls (18.5% vs. 1.8%). These frequencies do not differ from those previously reported by some other authors and confirm the association between CU and thyroid autoimmunity also in the area of iodine deficiency. However, presence of antibodies or thyroiditis does not seem to influence clinical course of CU. These results suggest that screening for thyroid function may be useful in all the patients with CU.
urticaria; Hashimoto's thyroiditis; iodine deficiency
The aim of this study is to delineate laboratory diagnostic strategies for subclinical hypothyroidism in patients who are clinically symptomatic but may have a normal thyroid profile. Tri — iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and anti thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) were estimated on fasting blood samples from 99 patients using electrochemiluminescence methods on ELECSYS 1010 (Roche). 74% of study subjects had elevated anti-TPO levels.61% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. 45 of the 61 subclinical hypothyroid patients had elevated anti-TPO levels (73%). This is an important finding suggesting an autoimmune etiology for subclinical thyroid dysfunction with a higher risk of developing overt hypothyroidism.
Hypothyroidism; Thyroid Profile; T3; T4; TSH; Anti TPO
The prevalence of thyroid disease in 134 children, adolescents, and young adults with diabetes mellitus beginning in childhood is described. Clustering of a family history of thyroid disease and the presence of thyrogastric antibodies in some patients supports the concept of familial autoimmunity. In 4 children a diagnosis of hypothyroidism had already been made, one of whom had shown marked faltering of growth. In a further 3 there was evidence of previously unrecognised subclinical hypothyroidism but the growth of 2 of them had been good. The findings of this study indicate that while subclinical hypothyroidism should be considered in a diabetic whose growth is faltering, it is rarely a cause of such growth failure.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism and is characterized by gradual autoimmune mediated thyroid failure with occasional goiter development. Hashimoto's (HT) is seven times more likely to occur in women than in men. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the most prevalent form of cancer in the thyroid, is 2.5 times more likely to develop in women than men. Given the relatively high prevalence of these diseases and the increased occurrence in women, we analyzed data from our institution to determine if there is a correlation between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and PTC in women.
From May 1994 to January 2007, 1198 patients underwent thyroid surgery at our institution. Of these, 217 patients were diagnosed with HT (196 women, 21 men). The data from these patients were statistically analyzed using SPSS.
PTC occurred in 63 of 217 (29%) HT patients and 230 of 981 (23%) patients without HT (p=0.051). Of these groups, 41 (65%) and 158 (69%) patients, respectively, had tumor sizes of ≥1.0cm. 56/196 women (29%) with HT had coexistent PTC compared to 160/730 women (22%) without HT (p=0.03). Among women with any type of thyroid malignancy, 56/59 cases (95%) with HT had PTC compared to 159/196 cases (81%) in women without HT (p=0.006). Additionally, female HT patients with goiters had a significantly lower rate of PTC (9% vs. 36%, p<0.001) when compared to women without goiters. These differences were not observed in men with HT.
These data demonstrate that HT is associated with an increased risk of developing PTC. Female patients with HT undergoing thyroidectomy are 30% more likely to have PTC. Thus, more aggressive surveillance for PTC may be indicated in patients with HT, especially in women.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; papillary thyroid carcinoma
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with multinodular goiter (MNG) is uncommonly seen in children. However, CH associated with goiter is often caused by defective Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene. In this study, we screened for mutation(s) in the TPO gene in two siblings with CH and MNG and their healthy family members. The two sisters, born to consanguineous parents, were diagnosed with CH during infancy and received treatment since then. They developed MNG during childhood despite adequate L-thyroxine replacement and negative thyroid antibody screening. PCR-amplification of all exons using flanking primers followed by DNA sequencing revealed that the two sisters were homozygous for a novel c.1502T>G mutation. The mutation is predicted to substitute valine for glycine at a highly conserved amino acid residue 501 (p.Val501Gly). Other healthy family members were either heterozygotes or mutation-free. The mutation was not detected in 50 healthy unrelated individuals. In silico analyses using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT predicted that the p.Val501Gly mutation is functionally “damaging.” Tertiary modeling showed structural alterations in the active site of the mutant TPO. In conclusion, a novel mutation, p.Val501Gly, in the TPO gene was detected expanding the mutation spectrum of TPO associated with CH and MNG.
Often patients in whom there is little to suggest myxedema or cretinism have subclinical hypothyroidism. Once the condition is suspected, it can be diagnosed by determination of protein-bound iodine and, if the PBI is low, by response to therapy with thyroid hormone.
Patients in the following categories should have protein-bound iodine determination: Those having (1) a history of previous treatment for hypothyroidism; (2) suboptimal development in children; (3) ovarian dysfunction, infertility, habitual abortion or unusual menopausal disorders; (4) symptoms of malaise and debility, such as undue fatigue, somnolence, mental asthenia and anxiety; (5) unexplained anemia; (6) colloid goiter, adenomatous goiter and cancer of the thyroid gland.
If hypothyroidism is diagnosed, administration of thyroid hormone in increasing amounts, as determined by serial serum PBI tests, should be carried out indefinitely. Instruction of the patient is essential.
About 30% of children with elevated TSH levels during neonatal screening have a transient form of disorder.
On the other hand, it has been reported that subclinical hypothyroidism persists in late childhood in about
30% of children found to be false-positive during neonatal screening. The aim of this study was to determine
whether transient thyroid dysfunction and subclinical hypothyroidism detected during neonatal screening are
influenced by genetic background. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2)
genes, for which it has been reported that heterozygous defects cause neonatal transient thyroid dysfunction,
were analyzed. Nine children with transient thyroid dysfunction or subclinical hypothyroidism detected during
neonatal screening were studied. One child was heterozygous for a TSHR gene mutation (R450H), and another
child was heterozygous for a TPO gene mutation (P883S). No children with mutation of the DUOX2 gene were
identified. Genetic background may contribute to development of transient thyroid dysfunction and subclinical
hypothyroidism detected during neonatal screening.
neonatal screening; transient hyperthyrotropinemia; subclinical hypothyroidism; TSH receptor; thyroid peroxidase
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated.
Aims and Objectives:
To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India.
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile.
Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8%) are euthyroid, 33 (16.3%) have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females), 23 (11.4%) have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females), 4 (2%) have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5%) are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016).
Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25.
TSH; thyroid dysfunction; type 2 DM
Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that usually presents as a diffuse, nontender goiter, whereas subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is an uncommon disease that is characterized by tender thyroid enlargement, transient thyrotoxicosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Very rarely, patients with HT can present with painful, tender goiter or fever, a mimic of SAT. We report a case of painful HT in a 68-year-old woman who presented with pain and tenderness in a chronic goiter. Her ESR was definitely elevated and her thyroid laboratory tests suggested subclinical hypothyroidism of autoimmune origin. 99mTc pertechnetate uptake was markedly decreased. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed reactive and polymorphous lymphoid cells and occasional epithelial cells with Hürthle cell changes. Her clinical symptoms showed a dramatic response to glucocorticoid treatment. She became hypothyroid finally and is now on levothyroxine therapy.
Hashimoto thyroiditis; Subacute thyroiditis
To document the initial management of hypothyroidism in France with respect to diagnostic setting, investigations, and therapeutic approach.
Observational study of the management by primary care practitioners (PCPs) and endocrinologists of patients diagnosed with, and treated for, hypothyroidism during the enrollment period or the previous 6 months.
A representative sample of PCPs and endocrinologists enrolled up to five consecutive patients and reported sociodemographic, clinical, therapeutic, and laboratory data. Data were submitted at baseline and at the first measurement of TSH after starting the treatment.
The analysis population comprised 1255 patients (mean (s.d.) age 52.8 (16.3) years; 84% female). Hypothyroidism was suspected on clinical grounds in 77% of patients, with goiter in 16%. Autoimmune thyroiditis, supported by positive anti-thyroid antibodies, was the most frequent diagnosis (59%), followed by iatrogenic causes (28%), of which thyroidectomy was the most common. The median baseline TSH was 8.6 mIU/l, suggesting a high incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism. Imaging studies were requested in over 75% of patients, with ultrasound performed in 98% and scintigraphy performed in 19% of these patients. Both groups of physicians treated their patients almost exclusively with levothyroxine. Endocrinologists were more likely than PCPs to provide counseling on how to take medication correctly.
This observational study of a large cohort of patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism in France illustrates current practice and indicates some areas where physician education may be required to optimize adherence to guidelines and cost-effectiveness.
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, and the TPO defects are believed to be the most prevalent causes of the inborn errors of thyroid metabolism. We investigated an adopted boy with iodide organification defect, who presented with florid hypothyroidism at the age of 4 mo, poorly complied with thyroxine treatment, and developed a compressive goiter necessitating partial resection at the age of 12 yr. Biochemical studies revealed the absence of TPO activity in the resected tissue. Genomic DNA studies identified a 4 base-pair insertion in the eighth exon of the TPO gene, and showed that the patient was homozygous for this frameshift mutation. The direct genetic diagnosis of this mutation can be made by digestion of polymerase chain reaction products with NaeI restriction enzyme. This will help assessing its prevalence among the heterogenous genetic group of TPO defects.
Higher serological prevalence rates of helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been reported in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Patients with T1DM are at increased risk for developing other autoimmune diseases, most commonly AT. It is unknown whether H. pylori infection could explain the high prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and AT in T1DM. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) autoantibodies in correlation with anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA in young patients with T1DM.
Anti-H. Pylori IgG, IgA, anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies titers were measured in 162 euthyroid patients with T1DM and 80 healthy controls matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status.
Seroprevalence of H. pylori was significantly higher in patients with T1DM than in healthy controls; 79% vs. 51.2%, p < 0.001. Anti H. pylori IgG was positive in 61.1% of patients with T1DM and 30% of controls, p < 0.001, anti H. pylori IgA was positive in 74% of patients with T1DM and 32.5% of controls, p < 0.001. Thyroid autoimmunity was also significantly higher in patients with T1DM than in controls; 56.7% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001. Anti-TPO was positive in 25.3% of patients with T1DM and 3.7% of controls, p < 0.001, anti-Tg was positive in 47.5% of patients with T1DM and 6.2% of controls, p < 0.001. With simple and multiple regression analysis anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA titers were positively and significantly correlated with Anti-TPO and anti-Tg titers in patients with T1DM.
our results support the idea of a connection between H. pylori infection and the occurrence of anti-TPO, anti-Tg autoantibodies and AT in young patients with T1DM. So, H. pylori infection could be considered as an environmental trigger for development of AT in T1DM. Young patients with T1DM should be screened for H. pylori infection.
Helicobacter pylori; type1 diabetes mellitus; autoimmune thyroiditis