Exercise is beneficial to health, but during exercise the body generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are known to result in oxidative stress. The present study analysed the effects of vitamin E (Tri E®) on antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (Cat) activity and DNA damage in rats undergoing eight weeks exercise.
Twenty four Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 320-370 gm) were divided into four groups; a control group of sedentary rats which were given a normal diet, second group of sedentary rats with oral supplementation of 30 mg/kg/d of Tri E®, third group comprised of exercised rats on a normal diet, and the fourth group of exercised rats with oral supplementation of 30 mg/kg/d of Tri E®. The exercising rats were trained on a treadmill for 30 minutes per day for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before and after 8 weeks of the study to determine SOD, GPx, Cat activities and DNA damage.
SOD activity decreased significantly in all the groups compared to baseline, however both exercised groups showed significant reduction in SOD activity as compared to the sedentary groups. Sedentary control groups showed significantly higher GPx and Cat activity compared to baseline and exercised groups. The supplemented groups, both exercised and non exercised groups, showed significant decrease in Cat activity as compared to their control groups with normal diet. DNA damage was significantly higher in exercising rats as compared to sedentary control. However in exercising groups, the DNA damage in supplemented group is significantly lower as compared to the non-supplemented group.
In conclusion, antioxidant enzymes activity were generally reduced in rats supplemented with Tri E® probably due to its synergistic anti-oxidative defence, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in Tri E® supplemented exercise group.
The importance of oxidative stress in both the formation and the course of glaucoma has been known. Among the antioxidants, vitamin E possesses the specific effects and regulatory mechanisms of a neurohormone. The serum oxidant/antioxidant profile is reportedly altered in ocular pathologies. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the clinical parameters of glaucoma and biochemical data on antioxidants and serum oxidative stress markers as oxidation degradation products.
In this multicenter case control study, control and patient groups consisted of 31 healthy individuals and 160 glaucoma patients with no known additional abnormalities, respectively. We analyzed the oxidation degradation products malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), antioxidants, vitamins E and A, Serine (Ser), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), transferrine (TF), and total antioxidant capacity (TADA). All of these parameters and their relationships with serum cholesterol, glucose, protein, albumin, triglyceride levels, age, gender, visual acuities, intraocular pressure (IOP), c/d ratio, gonioscopic findings, medications, presence of pseudoexfoliation (px), central visual field and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) data, pachymetry, and Laplace values, were evaluated individually. Statistical comparisons were performed among them, and with the control group as well.
TADA, AOPP, SOD, and Gpx were found to be decreased, and MDA, Ser, TF, vitamins A and E increased in the patient group. All data, excluding AOPP, varied significantly. Vitamin E was the most consistent parameter.
In this study, the association between glaucoma and lipid oxidation was shown on a systematic basis, and the significance of vitamin E as a neuroprotective agent has been revealed once more.
There are some reports in which a condition of zinc deficiency and its associated outcomes with a change in concentration of serum copper among the thalassemic patients has been highlighted. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the serum zinc and copper levels in children with beta-thalassemia major.
In this cross sectional study all children under 12 years affected by beta thalassemia major (40 patients) were evaluated for serum zinc and copper levels in Qazvin thalassemia center (Qazvin, Iran) in 2007. Serum measurements for zinc and copper were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
The mean concentrations of serum zinc and copper levels were 67.35±20.38 and 152.42±24.17 µg/dl respectively. Twenty-six (65%) of thalassemic patients had zinc concentration under 70 µg/dl (hypozincemia). None of the thalassemic children had copper deficiency. No significant correlation between serum zinc level with age, weight, height, body mass index, duration of blood transfusion, desferrioxamine dose and ferritin level was observed in thalassemic patients (P=0.3).
This study revealed that hypozincemia is common in thalassemic patients, but in contrast, there is no copper deficiency. Further evaluation in this regard is recommended.
Beta-thalassemia; Zinc; Copper; Children
To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken.
Materials and Methods:
Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days). The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR) supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally) during cold stress was also studied.
There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and serum reduced glutathione (GSH) in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT) and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls.
Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress.
Antioxidants; brahma rasayana; chicken
Repeated blood transfusion in beta thalassemia major patients may lead to peroxidative tissue injury by secondary iron overload. In the present study, 72 children with beta thalassemia major were included. Serum levels of total lipid peroxides, Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, Copper, Zinc, Vitamin E, plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity, activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase, were measured. The findings were compared with 72 age matched healthy controls irrespective of sex. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide and Iron (p<0.001), whereas, significant decrease in the levels of vitamin-E, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Iron Binding Capacity (p<0.001) was observed. Serum Zinc was significantly increased (p<0.001) with significant decrease in the levels of copper (p<0.001). Non Significant increase in the activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase (p>0.05) was found in the patients when compared with controls. This suggest that oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense mechanism play an important role in pathogenesis of beta thalassemia major.
Beta thalassemia major; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants
To determine the effects of zinc supplementation on plasma thiol metabolites and their redox status in a cohort of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Randomized clinical trial that evaluated the effects of high doses of zinc and antioxidants on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress.
This was an ancillary study of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Subjects with AMD were randomized to one of four treatment groups: 1) antioxidants (vitamin C, 500 mg; vitamin E, 400 IU; and beta carotene, 15 mg); 2) zinc (80 mg zinc oxide, 2 mg cupric oxide); 3) antioxidants plus zinc; or 4) placebo. At 20 and 80 months after randomization, blood specimens were collected and analyzed for glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), cysteine (Cys), and cystine (CySS).
Although zinc supplementation had no apparent effect on plasma thiol/disulfide redox status at the first blood draw, the group of patients receiving zinc supplementation at the second blood draw had significantly less CySS compared to those not receiving zinc (54.9 vs. 64.1 μM; p = 0.01). There was a time-dependent oxidation of the plasma GHS pool and was not affected by zinc supplementation.
Because increased CySS level is associated with aging, oxidative stress, and age-related diseases, the apparent prevention of increased CySS by zinc supplementation warrants additional investigation.
This study aims to investigate the possible effects of computer monitor-emitted radiation on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in corneal and lens tissues and to observe any protective effects of vitamin C (vit C).
Four groups (PC monitor, PC monitor plus vitamin C, vitamin C, and control) each consisting of ten Wistar rats were studied. The study lasted for three weeks. Vitamin C was administered in oral doses of 250 mg/kg/day. The computer and computer plus vitamin C groups were exposed to computer monitors while the other groups were not. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in corneal and lens tissues of the rats.
In corneal tissue, MDA levels and CAT activity were found to increase in the computer group compared with the control group. In the computer plus vitamin C group, MDA level, SOD, and GSH-Px activities were higher and CAT activity lower than those in the computer and control groups. Regarding lens tissue, in the computer group, MDA levels and GSH-Px activity were found to increase, as compared to the control and computer plus vitamin C groups, and SOD activity was higher than that of the control group. In the computer plus vitamin C group, SOD activity was found to be higher and CAT activity to be lower than those in the control group.
The results of this study suggest that computer-monitor radiation leads to oxidative stress in the corneal and lens tissues, and that vitamin C may prevent oxidative effects in the lens.
Osteoporosis encompasses a wide spectrum of conditions associated with imbalance of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities. The increased activity of osteoclasts leads to increased free radical formation and hence lipid peroxidation. Present study probes into the role of antioxidants as a palliative treatment for osteoporosis. It involved 50 healthy controls and 75 clinically diagnosed osteoporosis patients. Both the groups underwent baseline assessment of biochemical markers viz. osteoblastic markers: serum Alkaline phosphatase. Free or ionic calcium and Inorganic phosphorus, osteoclastic markers: serum Tartarate resistant acid phosphatase and Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant status: serum Superoxide dismutase and Erythrocyte reduced glutathione. The osteoporotic group was then divided into groups A (Vitamin E-Evinal 400 mg), B (Vitamin C-Celin 500 mg), C (Vitamin E+C-Evinal+Celin) for antioxidant supplementation for a period of 90 days. The results reveal that there is significant fall in concentration of serum MDA (p<0.001), TrACP (p<0.01). Improvement in antioxidant status is reflected by significant rise in concentration of serum SOD (p<0.001) and erythrocyte GSH (p<0.001) after 90 days of antioxidant supplementation in osteoporosis. The findings indicate that on the whole bone status improved with prolonged antioxidant vitamin supplementation, which can be used as a palliative treatment for osteoporosis. The efficacy is not affected whether the vitamins are administered singly or conjointly.
Osteoporosis; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
This present trial investigated the efficacy of supplementation with Chlorella vulgaris, a bioactive microalga rich in macro- and micronutrients, in the improvement of biochemical and clinical symptoms in patients with obstructive pulmonary disorders. Ninety-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma who were under conventional treatment regimens were randomly assigned to C. vulgaris extract (CVE) (n=48; 2700 mg/day) or no adjunctive therapy (n=49) for eight weeks. Serum levels of antioxidants along with spirometric parameters and clinical symptoms were evaluated pre- and post-trial. The magnitude of increases in the concentrations of glutathione, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes were all significantly greater in the CVE vs. control group (p<0.05). In spite of increases, none of the assessed spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25–75%) did significantly differ by the end of the trial in the study groups, apart from a significant elevation of FEV1 in the control group (p=0.03). The frequency of coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, and sputum brought up were all significantly reduced in both CVE and control groups (p<0.05). The rate of improvement for sputum brought up and wheezing were significantly greater in the CVE group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Although CVE was found to ameliorate serum antioxidant status, its supplementation was not associated with any bronchodilatory activity. The results of the present trial do not support any clinical efficacy for CVE in patients with obstructive pulmonary disorders.
Chlorella vulgaris; Lung; Bronchospasm; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Spirometry
Increased levels of oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions. Protective antioxidant action imparted by many plant extracts and plant products make them promising therapeutic drugs for free radical induced pathologies. In this study we assessed the antioxidant potential of Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae).
Materials and Methods:
Experimental rats were divided into two groups: Control and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) treated. Treated rats received P. amarus aqueous extract (PAAEt) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt/day for 8 weeks. After the treatment period of 8 weeks lipid peroxidation (LPO), vitamin C, uric acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in plasma and antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also assayed. Genotoxicity of PAAEt was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) of lymphocytes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The protective role of PAAEt against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), streptozotocin (STZ) and nitric oxide generating system induced lymphocyte DNA damage was also assessed by SCGE.
PAAEt treated rats showed a significant decrease in plasma LPO and a significant increase in plasma vitamin C, uric acid, GSH levels and GPx, CAT and SOD activities. SCGE experiment reveals that PAAEt was devoid of genotoxicity and had a significant protective effect against H2O2, STZ and nitric oxide (NO) induced lymphocyte DNA damage.
The results suggest the non-toxic nature of PAAEt and consumption of PAAEt can be linked to improved antioxidant status and reduction in the risk of oxidative stress.
Antioxidants; lymphocytes; Phyllanthus amarus; single cell gel electrophoresis SCGE
Hemodialysis represents a chronic stress status for its recipients. Many hypotheses state that this may be associated with oxidative stress. Thus, there may be deficiency of antioxidants like erythrocytic superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin E or increased generation of free radicals like superoxide anions. A study was carried out to investigate oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis and effect of vitamin E supplementation on these two status. Blood samples were collected from patients before and after hemodialysis and from controls. The samples were analyzed for quantitation of MDA as index of lipid peroxide, nitric oxide, vitamin E, vitamin C and enzymatic antioxidants namely erythrocyte SOD and catalase. As compared to controls, the levels of serum MDA were significantly increased and activities of erythrocyte SOD and catalase, levels of serum nitric oxide, serum vitamin E and plasma vitamin C were significantly decreased both before and after hemodialysis. The efficiency of vitamin E therapy in hemodialysis patients was assessed by re-evaluating oxidant and antioxidant status of same patients after supplementation of vitamin E. Vitamin E supplementation caused decrease in serum MDA and increase in levels of serum nitric oxide, vitamin E, vitamin C and activities of erythrocytic SOD and catalase. Our results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and the possible preventive role of vitamin E therapy in hemodialysis patients.
Hemodialysis; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; Vitamin E; MDA; Erythrocytic SOD
Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.
Oxidative damage; Antioxidant enzymes; Semen quality; Male infertility; Sperm abnormalities; lipid per-oxidation.
Beta-thalassemia major is an autosomal recessive disease causing severe and hemolytic anemia, which begins about 2-6 months after birth. Iron overload, which arises from recurrent transfusion and ineffective erythropoiesis, can enhance oxidative stress in thalassemic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum total antioxidant capacity of patients with ß-Thalassemia major.
Sixty six Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major and 66 age-gender matched controls were evaluated for serum total antioxidant status (TAS), uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin. In addition, serum ferritin and transaminases were recorded in these subjects.
Significant increases of TAS, UA, and bilirubin were observed in the patient group, compared with the control group (P<0.01). Mean TAS and bilirubin in male patients was higher than in females (P=0.005 and P=0.008, respectively). There was also direct correlation between TAS and albumin (P<0.001), bilirubin (P<0.001) and UA (P=0.002).
Endogenous antioxidants such as ferritin, UA and bilirubin can result in increased level of TAS in the patients with Beta-thalassemia major. Compensatory excess of TAS to oxidative stress could also be the reason for difference between our findings and previous studies.
β-Thalassemia Major; Oxidative Stress; Antioxidants; Ferritin; Uric Acid
Antioxidant depletion is common in critically ill patients. This study was designed to determine the effects of PN, with or without glutamine (Gln) supplementation, on systemic antioxidant status in adult patients after major surgery who required parenteral nutrition (PN) in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) setting.
Fifty-nine SICU patients who required PN following pancreatic surgery or cardiac, vascular or colonic (non-pancreatic) surgery were randomized in a double-blind study to receive standard PN (Gln-free) or Gln-supplemented PN (Gln-PN) in which Gln was provided as alanyl-Gln dipeptide. Conventional PN vitamin and mineral doses were administered to all subjects. Plasma concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the anti-oxidant nutrients α-tocopherol, vitamin C and zinc were determined at baseline (initiation of study PN) and again after 7 days of study PN. Data were analyzed for the total study cohort and within the pancreatic surgery and non-pancreatic (cardiac, vascular and colonic) surgery patient subgroups.
Mean plasma antioxidant concentrations were within or slightly below the normal ranges at baseline. However, a high percentage of patients demonstrated below normal baseline plasma concentrations of GSH (59%), vitamin C (59%) and zinc (68%), respectively. A lower percentage of patients exhibited below normal plasma α-tocopherol levels (21%). Study PN significantly improved plasma zinc levels in the entire study group and each surgical subgroup. Gln-PN significantly improved the change in plasma reduced GSH from baseline to day 7 in the non-pancreatic surgery patients (PN: −0.27 µM vs Gln-PN: +0.26 µM; p<0.03).
Low plasma levels of key antioxidants were common in this group of SICU patients despite administration of PN containing conventional micronutrients. Compared to standard PN, Gln-supplemented PN improved plasma GSH levels in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular or colonic operations.
α-tocopherol; critical illness; glutathione; parenteral nutrition; vitamin C; zinc
Studies have demonstrated that selenium supplementation reduces the incidence of cancer, particularly prostate cancer. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that apoptosis is a key event in cancer chemoprevention by selenium and reactive oxygen species play a role in induction of apoptosis by selenium compounds. The current study was designed to investigate the role of superoxide and mitochondria in selenite-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.
LNCaP cells were transduced with adenoviral constructs to overexpress four primary antioxidant enzymes: manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT), or glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Cell viability, apoptosis, and superoxide production induced by sodium selenite were analyzed by the MTT assay, chemiluminescence, flow cytometry, western blot analysis, and Hoechst 33342 staining following overexpression of these antioxidant enzymes.
Our study shows the following results: (1) selenite induced cancer cell death and apoptosis by producing superoxide radicals; (2) selenite-induced superoxide production, cell death, and apoptosis were inhibited by overexpression of MnSOD, but not by CuZnSOD, CAT, or GPx1; and (3) selenite treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and activation of caspases 9 and 3, events that were suppressed by overexpression of MnSOD.
This study demonstrates that selenite induces cell death and apoptosis by production of superoxide in mitochondria and activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and MnSOD plays an important role in protection against prooxidant effects of superoxide from selenite. The data suggest that superoxide production in mitochondria is, at least in part, a key event in selenium-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
antioxidant enzymes; apoptosis; mitochondria; selenium; superoxide
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpASet” at a dose of 600mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that “TpASet” has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from “TpASet”.
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
The changes in the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation products (MDA), levels of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (non enzymatic antioxidant parameters) and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione - S - transferase (GST) activity were estimated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This work was undertaken to assess oxidative stress and anti oxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It was observed that there was a significant increase in erythrocyte MDA levels, activities of SOD, GPX, plasma GST and a significant decrease in erythrocyte GSH, ascorbic acid, plasma vitamin E levels and catalse activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis when compared to controls. The results of our study suggests higher oxygen free radical production, evidenced by increased MDA and decreased GSH, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and Catalase activity, support to the oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes may be a compensatory regulation in response to increased oxidative stress.
Malondialdehyde; Glutathione; Ascorbic acid; Vitamin E; Superoxide dismutase; Catalase; Glutathione peroxidase; Glutathione -S - transferase; Rheumatoid arthritis
The effects of lipoic acid (LA) on the antioxidant status of broilers were investigated. Birds (1 day old) were randomly assigned to four groups and fed corn-soybean diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200, 300 mg/kg LA, respectively. The feeding program included a starter diet from 1 to 21 days of age and a grower diet from 22 to 42 days of age. Serum, liver and muscle samples were collected at 42 days of age. For antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum, liver and breast muscle significantly increased in chickens fed with LA. The concentration of malondiadehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in serum, liver and leg muscle in birds that received LA than in the control group. Treatments with LA significantly increased glutathione (GSH) content in liver and increased α-tocopherol content in leg muscle as compared to the control. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 300 mg/kg LA may enhance antioxidant capability and depress oxidative stress in broilers.
lipoic acid; broiler; antioxidant capability
Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP) oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), day 7 (r = 0.37, P < 0.05), and on changes (Δ (day 7 − day 1)) (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients.
Blood specimens from 100 thalassemic patients were screened in vitro for inhibitory effects on growth and multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum. The culture medium mixture designated REM consisted of 9 volumes of minimum essential medium (GIBCO Laboratories, Grand Island, N.Y.) and 1 volume of RPMI 1640 (GIBCO) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated human serum. Parasite multiplication in erythrocytes containing normal hemoglobin cultured in RPMI or REM was similar. Significant reduction in parasite multiplication rates was observed in erythrocytes containing abnormal hemoglobin when these were cultured in REM. The degree of reduction in five types of thalassemic erythrocytes was in the following descending order: hemoglobin H disease with Hb Constant Spring, classical hemoglobin H disease, beta(0)-thalassemia-hemoglobin E in which blood harbored a high percentage of hemoglobin F-containing cells, beta (0)-thalassemia-hemoglobin E in which blood harbored few hemoglobin F-containing cells, and beta-thalassemia heterozygous variant.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on bone mineral density (BMD) and oxidative state in rats, and the alterations in these effects that vitamin C supplementation may produce.
Materials and methods
Twenty female Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (C, n=6); ovariectomy (O, n=7); and ovariectomy+vitamin C supplement (OV, n=7). Oxidative stress (OS) was assessed 100 days postovariectomy by measuring the activity of several enzymes, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and total sulfhydryl groups in plasma and bone homogenates.
A significant decrease in BMD was observed in O group compared with C group (p=0.015), and a significant increase was observed in OV compared with O group (p=0.003). When groups were compared with respect to parameters of OS, MDA and NO levels in bone tissue were significantly higher in O than in C (p=0.032, p=0.022) and were significantly lower in OV than in O (p=0.025, p=0.018). SOD activity was significantly higher in O than in C (p=0.032). In plasma, MDA activity was significantly higher in O than in C (p=0.022) and NO level was significantly higher in O than in C and OV (p=0.017, p=0.018).
Our results suggest that ovariectomy may produce osteoporosis and OS in females, and vitamin C supplementation may provide alterations regarding improvement in OS and BMD values. We assume that studies including more subjects are needed to make a decisive conclusion about OS–BMD relation.
rat; ovariectomy; osteoporosis; oxidative stress; vitamin C; ascorbic
Oxidative stress contributes to the cascade, leading to dopamine cell degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. However, oxidative stress is intimately linked to other components of the degenerative process, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, nitric oxide toxicity and inflammation. It is therefore difficult to determine whether oxidative stress leads to or is a consequence of, these events. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation product in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitric oxide in the form of nitrite & nitrate. Enzymatic antioxidants in the form of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin and non enzymatic antioxidant vitamins e.g. vitamin E and C in either serum or plasma or erythrocyte in 40 patients of Parkinson’s disease in the age group 40–80 years. Trace elements e.g. copper, zinc and selenium were also estimated. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide levels were Significantly high but superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, copper, zinc and selenium levels were significantly low in Parkinson’s disease when compared with control subjects. Present study showed that elevated oxidative stress may be playing a role in dopaminergic neuronal loss in substentia nigra pars compacta and involved in pathogenesis of the Parkinson’s disease.
Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Pathogenesis; Parkinson’s disease
Knockout of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and (or) cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) has been reported to have dual impacts on coping with free radical-induced oxidative injury. Because bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers inflammatory responses involving the release of cytokines, nitric oxide and superoxide in targeted organs such as liver, in this study we used SOD1 knockout (SOD1-/-), GPX1 knockout (GPX1-/-), GPX1 and SOD1 double-knockout (DKO) and their wild-type (WT) mice to investigate the role of these two antioxidant enzymes in LPS-induced oxidative injury in liver. Mice of the four genotypes (2-month old) were killed at 0, 3, 6 or 12 h after an ip injection of saline or 5 mg LPS/kg body weight. The LPS injection caused similar increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase among the four genotypes. Hepatic total glutathione (GSH) was decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the initial values by the LPS injection at all time points in the WT mice, but only at 6 and 12 h in the other three genotypes. The GSH level in the DKO mice was higher (P < 0.05) than in the WT at 6 h. Although the LPS injection resulted in substantial increases in plasma NO in a time-dependent manner in all genotypes, the NO level in the DKO mice was lower (P < 0.05) at 3, 6, and 12 h than in the WT. The level in the GPX1-/- and SOD1-/- mice was also lower (P < 0.05) than in the WT at 3 h. The LPS-mediated hepatic protein nitration was detected in the WT and GPX1-/- mice at 3, 6 or 12 h, but not in the SOD1-/-. In conclusion, knockout of SOD1 and (or) GPX1 did not potentiate the LPS-induced liver injury, but delayed the induced hepatic GSH depletion and plasma NO production.
Lipopolysaccharide; oxidative injury; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase
Methanol extract of the aerial parts of Phlomis persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae) (PPE) was studied to evaluate the effects of antidiabetic potential, by measuring fasting blood glucose, insulin, total antioxidant power (TAP), using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid peroxidation (using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Oral administration of PPE at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once a day for 10 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase in serum insulin levels, in comparison with diabetic control group. It also prevented diabetes-induced loss in body weight. Hepatic TAP increased and TBARS decreased following PPE treatments. The extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the activity of hepatic SOD, CAT, and GPx in diabetic rats. It is concluded that PPE has antidiabetic potential that is comparable with glibenclamide. In conclusion, the results of the present study show positive effects of P. persica on experimental diabetes and thus the antidiabetic effect of PPE is related to its potential to inhibit hepatocellular oxidative stress.
Antidiabetic; diabetes rats; oxidative stress; Phlomis persica; streptozotocin
Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play as a pathogenesis in the development of diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Casearia esculenta root extract on oxidative stress-related parameters in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Antidiabetic treatment with C. esculenta root extract (45 days) significantly (p < .05) decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and remarkably improved tissue antioxidants status such as glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in liver and kidney of STZ-diabetic rats. In diabetics rats, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 18.104.22.168) catalase (CAT, EC 22.214.171.124) were decreased significantly while the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 126.96.36.199) decreased in the liver and increased in the kidney. The treatment of diabetic rats with C. esculenta root extract over a 45-day period returned these levels close to normal. These results suggest that C. esculenta root extracts exhibit antiperoxidative as well as antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.