Lysogenic mode of life cycle of a temperate bacteriophage is generally maintained by a protein called 'repressor'. Repressor proteins of temperate lambdoid phages bind to a few symmetric operator DNAs in order to regulate their gene expression. In contrast, repressor molecules of temperate mycobacteriophages and some other phages bind to multiple asymmetric operator DNAs. Very little is known at present about the structure-function relationship of any mycobacteriophage repressor.
Using highly purified repressor (CI) of temperate mycobacteriophage L1, we have demonstrated here that L1 CI harbors an N-terminal domain (NTD) and a C-terminal domain (CTD) which are separated by a small hinge region. Interestingly, CTD is more compact than NTD at 25°C. Both CTD and CI contain significant amount of α-helix at 30°C but unfold partly at 42°C. At nearly 200 nM concentration, both proteins form appreciable amount of dimers in solution. Additional studies reveal that CI binds to O64 and OL types of asymmetric operators of L1 with variable affinity at 25°C. Interestingly, repressor – operator interaction is affected drastically at 42°C. The conformational change of CI is most possibly responsible for its reduced operator binding affinity at 42°C.
Repressors encoded by mycobacteriophages differ significantly from the repressor proteins of λ and related phages at functional level but at structural level they are nearly similar.
Phage Mu's c gene product is a cooperative regulatory protein that binds to a large, complex, tripartite 184-bp operator. To probe the mechanism of repressor action, we isolated and characterized 13 phage mutants that cause Mu to undergo lytic development when cells are shifted from 30 to 42 degrees C. This collection contained only four mutations in the repressor gene, and all were clustered near the N terminus. The cts62 substitution of R47----Q caused weakened specific DNA recognition and altered cooperativity in vitro. A functional repressor with only 63 amino acids of Mu repressor fused to a C-terminal fragment of beta-galactosidase was constructed. This chimeric protein was an efficient repressor, as it bound specifically to Mu operator DNA in vitro and its expression conferred Mu immunity in vivo. A DNA looping model is proposed to explain regulation of the tripartite operator site and the highly cooperative nature of repressor binding.
The c1 repressor gene of bacteriophage P1 and the temperature-sensitive mutants P1c1.100 and P1c1.162 was cloned into an expression vector and the repressor proteins were overproduced. A rapid purification procedure was required for the isolation of the thermolabile repressor proteins. Identification of the highly purified protein of an apparent molecular weight of 33,000 as the product of the c1 gene was verified by (i) the coincidence of partial amino acid sequences determined experimentally to that deduced from the c1 DNA sequence, and (ii) the temperature-sensitive binding to the operator DNA of the thermolabile repressor proteins. Analysis of the products of c1-c1.100 recombinant DNAs relates the thermolability to an unknown alteration in the C-terminal half of the c1.100 repressor. Binding to the operator DNA of c1 repressor is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. Since the only three cysteine residues are located in the C-terminal half of the repressor it is suggested that this part of the molecule is important for the binding to the operator DNA. This assumption is supported by the findings that a 14-kDa C-terminal repressor fragment obtained by cyanogen bromide cleavage retains DNA binding properties.
The penicillinase repressor (PENI) negatively regulates expression of the penicillinase gene (penP) in Bacillus licheniformis by binding to its operators located within the promoter region of penP.penI codes for a protein with 128 amino acids. Filter-binding analyses suggest that the active form of the repressor is a dimer. Genetic analyses of PENI derivatives showed that the repressor carrying either a 6-amino-acid deletion near the N terminus or a 14-amino-acid deletion at the C terminus was functionally inactive in vivo. A repressor derivative carrying a 6-amino-acid deletion within its N-terminal region was extensively purified and used in DNA footprinting and subunit cross-linking analyses. The results of these studies showed that the repressor derivative had lost its ability to bind operator specifically even though it could dimerize effectively. In similar studies, we demonstrated that an N-terminal portion of PENI with a molecular mass of 10 kDa derived by digestion with papain was able to bind operator specifically but with reduced affinity and had completely lost its ability to dimerize. These data suggest that the repressor has two functional and separable domains. The amino-terminal domain of the repressor is responsible for operator recognition, and the carboxyl-terminal domain is involved in subunit dimerization.
A protease-hypersensitive hinge sequence in Escherichia coli purine repressor (PurR) connects an N-terminal DNA-binding domain with a contiguous corepressor-binding domain. Binding of one molecule of dimeric repressor to operator DNA protects the hinge against proteolytic cleavage. Mutations in the hinge region impair repressor function in vivo. Several nonfunctional hinge mutants were defective in low-affinity binding to operator DNA in the absence of corepressor as well as in high-affinity corepressor-dependent binding to operator DNA, although binding of corepressor was similar to binding of the wild-type repressor. These results establish a role for the hinge region in operator binding and lead to a proposal for two routes to form the holoPurR-operator complex.
Repression of papillomavirus E2-dependent gene expression was studied by using transient transfections into mouse embryo fibroblast cells. Cotransfection of a gene corresponding to the naturally occurring repressor E2-TR along with the full-length E2 gene resulted in up to 98% repression of E2-dependent reporter gene expression. A series of E2 DNA-binding domain mutants were transferred into the E2-TR form and characterized for their ability to repress E2-dependent transactivation. All mutants which were defective for DNA binding but were dimerization competent repressed E2 transactivation as well or nearly as well as the wild-type repressor. E2 mutants which lacked dimerization activity repressed transactivation poorly or not at all. These results indicate that the E2 repressor can inhibit transcription, in the absence of DNA binding, by forming heterodimers with full-length E2.
The coat protein of the RNA bacteriophage MS2 is a translational repressor and interacts with a specific RNA stem-loop to inhibit translation of the viral replicase gene. As part of an effort to dissect genetically its RNA binding function, mutations were identified in the coat protein sequence that suppress mutational defects in the translational operator. Each of the mutants displayed a super-repressor phenotype, repressing translation from the wild-type and a variety of mutant operators better than did the wild-type coat protein. At least one mutant probably binds RNA more tightly than wild-type. The other mutants, however, were defective for assembly of virus-like particles, and self-associated predominantly as dimers. It is proposed that this assembly defect accounts for their super-repressor characteristics, since failure to assemble into virus-like particles elevates the effective concentration of repressor dimers. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that deletion of thirteen amino acids known to be important for assembly of dimers into capsids also resulted in the same assembly defect and in super-repressor activity. A second class of assembly defects is also described. Deletion of two amino acids from the C-terminus of coat protein resulted in failure to form capsids, most of the coat protein having the apparent molecular weight expected of trimers. This mutant (dl-8) was completely defective for repressor activity, probably because of an inability to form dimers. These results point out the inter-dependence of the structural and regulatory functions of coat protein.
Previous studies implicated cysteine residues in the translational repressor (i.e. RNA binding) activity of the coat protein of bacteriophage MS2. It has been proposed that a protein sulfhydryl forms a transient covalent bond with an essential pyrimidine in the translational operator by a Michael addition reaction. We have utilized codon-directed mutagenesis methods to determine the importance of each of the two coat protein cysteines for repressor function in vivo. The results indicate that cys46 can be replaced by a variety of amino acids without loss of repressor function. Cys101, on the other hand, is more sensitive to substitution. Most position 101 substitutions inactivate the repressor, but one (arginine) results in normal repressor activity. Although the possibility of a transient covalent contact between cys101 and RNA is not categorically ruled out, construction of double mutants demonstrates that cysteines are not absolutely required for translational repression by coat protein.
The functional significance of a lac operator constitutive mutation has been determined. The transition adenine-thymine to guanine-cytosine was shown to be a constitutive mutation simply because thymine contains the functionally important 5-methyl group whereas cytosine does not. The remainder of the base pair is of no consequence. The experimental approach was to synthesize various modified operators containing cytosine, 5-methyl-cytosine, and 5-bromocytosine. The synthetic operator containing a guanine-cytosine base pair displays an eightfold reduction in stability with lac repressor whereas the operator containing 5-methylcytosine binds repressor at least as tightly as does the wild type sequence. Results published previously have shown that a similar decrease in stability of the repressor-operator complex can be obtained simply by substituting uracil for thymine or by inverting the base pair to thymine-adenine. All these results taken together implicate the thymine 5-methyl as the only important functional group recognized by the lac repressor at this base pair. Further confirmation of this conclusion was obtained by substitution of 5-bromocytosine and 5-bromouracil at this base pair. Both altered the stability of the repressor-operator complex by about the same percent suggesting that the bromine atom was the important determinant of complex stability for 5-bromopyrimidine analogs.
Inactivation of the lambdoid phage repressor protein is necessary to induce lytic growth of a lambdoid prophage. Activated RecA, the mediator of the host SOS response to DNA damage, causes inactivation of the repressor by stimulating the repressor's nascent autocleavage activity. The repressor of bacteriophage lambda and its homolog, LexA, preferentially undergo RecA-stimulated autocleavage as free monomers, which requires that each monomer mediates its own (intramolecular) cleavage. The cI repressor of bacteriophage 434 preferentially undergoes autocleavage as a dimer specifically bound to DNA, opening the possibility that one 434 repressor subunit may catalyze proteolysis of its partner subunit (intermolecular cleavage) in the DNA-bound dimer. Here, we first identified and mutagenized the residues at the cleavage and active sites of 434 repressor. We utilized the mutant repressors to show that the DNA-bound 434 repressor dimer overwhelmingly prefers to use an intramolecular mechanism of autocleavage. Our data suggest that the 434 repressor cannot be forced to use an intermolecular cleavage mechanism. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the cleavage-competent conformation of the repressor is stabilized by operator binding.
A filter binding assay was developed that allows measurement of specific binding of trp repressor to operator DNA. The most important feature of this procedure is the concentration and type of salt present in the binding buffer. Using this assay the dissociation constant of the repressor-operator complex was determined to be 2.6 X 10(-9) M, and 1.34 repressor dimers were found to be bound to each operator-containing DNA molecule. These values agree with those obtained by more complex methods. The dissociation constant of the repressor for the corepressor L-tryptophan in the presence of operator DNA was shown to be 2.5 X 10(-5) M. A synthetic 48 bp operator fragment was used to determine the repressor-operator dissociation constant in the presence of tryptophan or tryptophan analogs which have higher or lower affinities for aporepressor. The rate of dissociation of repressor from operator DNA also was determined. Our findings indicate that dissociation is influenced by the concentration of tryptophan or tryptophan analogs and suggest that release of the corepressor may be the first step in dissociation of the repressor-operator complex.
In this paper, we report on the isolation and sequence analysis of mutations that confer an induction-deficient phenotype to lambda repressor. A total of 16 different mutations, which occur at 13 different sites in the repressor gene, have been characterized. For most of the mutant lysogens, frequencies of spontaneous induction in a recA+ strain were reduced dramatically in comparison with those for a wild-type phage, and these mutant lysogens showed little or no prophage induction after UV irradiation. The immunity properties of cells containing the mutant repressors show that all of the mutants but one exhibit operator-binding properties indistinguishable from wild-type repressor.
We report for the first time the in vitro characterization of a reverse tetracycline repressor (revTetR). The dimeric wild-type repressor (TetR) binds to tet operator tetO in the absence of the inducer anhydrotetracycline (atc) to confer tight repression. We have isolated the revTetR G96E L205S mutant, which, contrary to TetR, binds tetO only in the presence of atc. This reverse acting mutant was overproduced and purified. Effector and DNA binding properties were analyzed by EMSA and quantified by fluorescence titration and surface plasmon resonance. The association constant KA of revTetR for binding of [atcMg]+ is ∼108 M–1, four orders of magnitude lower than that of TetR. The affinity of TetR for tetO is 5.6 ± 2 × 109 M–1 and that for revTetR in the presence of atc is 1 ± 0.2 × 108 M–1. Both induced forms, the atc-bound TetR and the free revTetR, have the same low affinity of 4 ± 1 × 105 M–1 for DNA. Therefore, atc does not act as a dimerization agent for revTetR. We discuss the structural differences between TetR and revTetR potentially underlying this reversal of activity.
The genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx), the major virulence factor of Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, are carried on lambdoid prophages resident in all known STEC strains. The stx genes are expressed only during lytic growth of these temperate bacteriophages. We cloned the gene encoding the repressor of the Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage 933W and examined the DNA binding and transcriptional regulatory activities of the overexpressed, purified protein. Typical of nearly all lambdoid phage repressors, 933W repressor binds to three sites in 933W right operator (OR). Also typical, when bound at OR, 933W repressor functions as an activator at the PRM promoter and a repressor at the PR promoter. In contrast to other lambdoid bacteriophages, 933W left operator (OL) contains only two repressor binding sites, but the OL-bound repressor still efficiently represses PL transcription. Lambdoid prophage induction requires inactivation of the repressor's DNA binding activity. In all phages examined thus far, this inactivation requires a RecA-stimulated repressor autoproteolysis event, with cleavage occurring precisely in an Ala-Gly dipeptide sequence that is found within a “linker ” region that joins the two domains of these proteins. However, 933W repressor protein contains neither an Ala-Gly nor an alternative Cys-Gly dipeptide cleavage site anywhere in its linker sequence. We show here that the autocleavage occurs at a Leu-Gly dipeptide. Thus, the specificity of the repressor autocleavage site is more variable than thought previously.
Interaction of the Tn10 encoded TET repressor with the tet operator is studied by thermal denaturation of the specific complexes employing operator containing purified DNA restriction fragments varying in length from 187 bp to 501 bp. Comparison of the melting curves obtained with the free DNA and DNA.repressor complexes revealed a specific stabilisation of the operator containing cooperatively melting segment in multiphasic denaturation curves. Under limiting concentrations of TET repressor the denaturation of the free DNA is observed next to the denaturation of the repressor.DNA complex. Quantitative analysis yields a binding curve with a stoichiometry of four TET repressors per tet operator containing fragment. The denaturation temperature of the complex is almost independent of the ionic strength indicating that the protein component denatures at this temperature. The half life time of the TET repressor.tet operator complex is greater than 100 min under these conditions. The tet operator on the 187 bp fragment is determined to be located between a Xba I and a Sau 3a site by removing base pairs from either end of the fragment and subsequent comparison of the melting curves. It is concluded that the TET repressor recognizes the double stranded rather than a possible cruciform structure of the tet operator. The influence of a regulatory protein on the thermal stability of a genetic control region is discussed with respect to its possible influence on the initiation of transcription.
In Salmonella typhimurium the genes coding for the enzymes of histidine utilization (hut) are clustered in two adjacent operons, hutMIGC and hut(P,R,Q)UH. A single repressor, the product of the C gene, regulates both operons by binding at two operator sites, one near M and one in (P,R,Q). The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding activity of the repressor was measured using DNA's containing separate operators. The repressor had greater activity when assayed using DNA containing the operator of the (P,R,Q)UH operon than when assayed using DNA containing the operator of the MIGC operon. The binding to either operator was absent in the presence of the inducer, urocanate. The DNA-binding activities were also determined for two super-repressors. The super-repressors had altered DNA-binding properties, although the self-regulated nature of the repressors complicated the analysis of the results. A purfication procedure for the wild-type repressor is presented. The purified repressor was somewhat unstable, and additional experiments using it were not performed.
The PutA flavoprotein from Escherichia coli is a transcriptional repressor and a bifunctional enzyme that regulates and catalyzes proline oxidation. PutA represses transcription of genes putA and putP by binding to the control DNA region of the put regulon. The objective of this study is to define and characterize the DNA binding domain of PutA. Previously, the DNA binding activity of PutA, a 1320 amino acid polypeptide, was localized to N-terminal residues 1-261. After exploring a potential DNA-binding region and an N-terminal deletion mutant of PutA, residues 1-90 (PutA90) were determined to contain DNA binding activity and stabilize the dimeric structure of PutA. Cell-based transcriptional assays demonstrate that PutA90 functions as a transcriptional repressor in vivo. The dissociation constant of PutA90 with the put control DNA was estimated to be 110 nM, which is slightly higher than that of the PutA-DNA complex (Kd ∼ 45 nM). Primary and secondary structure analysis of PutA90 suggested the presence of a ribbon-helix-helix DNA binding motif in residues 1-47. To test this prediction, we purified and characterized PutA47. PutA47 is shown to purify as an apparent dimer, exhibit in vivo transcriptional activity and bind specifically to the put control DNA. In gel-mobility shift assays, PutA47 was observed to bind cooperatively to the put control DNA with an overall dissociation constant of 15 nM for the PutA47-DNA complex. Thus, N-terminal residues 1-47 are critical for DNA-binding and the dimeric structure of PutA. These results are consistent with the ribbon-helix-helix family of transcription factors which are comprised of a two-stranded antiparallel β-sheet that recognizes DNA and a dimeric core of four α-helices.
It is shown by melting profile analysis of lac repressor-DNA complexes that repressor binds tightly and preferentially (relative to single-stranded DNA) to double-stranded non-operator DNA. This binding stabilizes the DNA against melting and the repressor against thermal denaturation. Analysis of the extent of stabilization and the rate of dissociation of repressor from non-operator DNA as a function of sodium ion concentration shows, in confirmation of other studies,3,4 that the binding constant (KRD) is very ionic strength dependent; KRD increases from ∼ 106 M−1 at ∼ 0.1 M Na+ to values in excess of 1010 M−1 at 0.002 M Na+. Repressor bound to non-operator DNA is not further stabilized against thermal denaturation by inducer binding, indicating that the inducer and DNA binding sites probably represent separately stabilized local conformations. Transfer melting experiments are used to measure the rate of dissociation of repressor from operator DNA. These experiments show that most of the ionic strength dependence of the binding constant is in the dissociation process; the estimated dissociation rate constant decreases from greater than 10−1 sec−1 at [Na+] ≥ 0.02 M to less than 10−4 sec−1 at [Na+] ≤ 0.002 M. Competition melting experiments are used to show that at 0.02 to 0.002 M Na+ the affinity of lac repressor for various natural DNAs and synthetic double-stranded polynucleotides (including poly[d(m6A-T)], which carries a methyl group in the large groove) are approximately independent of base composition, except that the affinity of repressor for poly[d(A-T)] is ∼ 2- to 3-fold greater than for the other DNAs tested. The affinity for single-stranded polynucleotides is atleast 50-fold less than for the doublehelical forms.
Escherichia coli K-12 wild type and a uvrA mutant derivative were used to construct isogenic strains bearing one, two, three, or more phage lambda cI genomes and containing increasing concentration of lambda repressor as measured by in vitro operator DNA-binding assays. The survival and phage induction in response to UV irradiation were determined. In both strains, dose-response relationships were obtained as a function of the cellular repressor concentration. The uvrA lysogens required one-tenth the UV fluence of the wild-type counterparts for induction. Lysogenic strains containing plasmids that overproduce the lambdaind+ repressor and the same lysogens with plasmids overproducing the lambdaind- repressor displayed the same survival curves as the nonlysogenic parental strain; however, only the former produced infectious centers (at a frequency of 2 x 10(-3) to 5 x 10(-4) in response to radiation.
We reported previously that 933W repressor apparently does not cooperatively bind to adjacent sites on DNA and that the relative affinities of 933W repressor for its operators differ significantly from that of any other lambdoid bacteriophage. These findings indicate that the operational details of the lysis-lysogeny switch of bacteriophage 933W are unique among lambdoid bacteriophages. Since the functioning of the lysis-lysogeny switch in 933W bacteriophage uniquely and solely depends on the order of preference of 933W repressor for its operators, we examined the details of how 933W repressor recognizes its DNA sites. To identify the specificity determinants, we first created a molecular model of the 933W repressor-DNA complex and tested the predicted protein-DNA interactions. These results of these studies provide a picture of how 933W repressor recognizes its DNA sites. We also show that, opposite of what is normally observed for lambdoid phages, 933W operator sequences have evolved in such a way that the presence of the most commonly found base sequences at particular operator positions serves to decrease, rather than increase, the affinity of the protein for the site. This finding cautions against assuming that a consensus sequence derived from sequence analysis defines the optimal, highest affinity DNA binding site for a protein.
The C repressor protein of phage 16-3, which is required for establishing and maintaining lysogeny, recognizes structurally different operators which differ by 2 bp in the length of the spacer between the conserved palindromic sequences. A “rotationally flexible protein homodimers” model has been proposed in order to explain the conformational adaptivity of the 16-3 repressor. In this paper, we report on the isolation of a repressor mutant with altered binding specificity which was used to identify a residue-base pair contact and to monitor the spatial relationship of the recognition helix of C repressor to the contacting major groove of DNA within the two kinds of repressor-operator complexes. Our results indicate spatial differences at the interface which may reflect different docking arrangements in recognition of the structurally different operators by the 16-3 repressor.
Many proteins of the Rel family can act as both transcriptional activators and repressors. However, mechanism that discerns the ‘activator/repressor’ functions of Rel-proteins such as Dorsal (Drosophila homologue of mammalian NFκB) is not understood. Using genomic, biophysical and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that the underlying principle of this functional specificity lies in the ‘sequence-encoded structure’ of the κB-DNA. We show that Dorsal-binding motifs exist in distinct activator and repressor conformations. Molecular dynamics of DNA-Dorsal complexes revealed that repressor κB-motifs typically have A-tract and flexible conformation that facilitates interaction with co-repressors. Deformable structure of repressor motifs, is due to changes in the hydrogen bonding in A:T pair in the ‘A-tract’ core. The sixth nucleotide in the nonameric κB-motif, ‘A’ (A6) in the repressor motifs and ‘T’ (T6) in the activator motifs, is critical to confer this functional specificity as A6 → T6 mutation transformed flexible repressor conformation into a rigid activator conformation. These results highlight that ‘sequence encoded κB DNA-geometry’ regulates gene expression by exerting allosteric effect on binding of Rel proteins which in turn regulates interaction with co-regulators. Further, we identified and characterized putative repressor motifs in Dl-target genes, which can potentially aid in functional annotation of Dorsal gene regulatory network.
Virulent mutations in the bacteriophage Mu repressor gene were isolated and characterized. Recombination and DNA sequence analysis have revealed that virulence is due to unusual frameshift mutations which change several C-terminal amino acids. The vir mutations are in the same repressor region as the sts amber mutations which, by eliminating several C-terminal amino acids, suppress thermosensitivity of repressor binding to the operators by its N-terminal domain (J. L. Vogel, N. P. Higgins, L. Desmet, V. Geuskens, and A. Toussaint, unpublished data). Vir repressors bind Mu operators very poorly. Thus the Mu repressor C terminus, either by itself or in conjunction with other phage or host proteins, tunes the DNA-binding properties at the repressor N terminus.
A novel single-chain (sc) protein framework containing covalently dimerized DNA-binding domains (DBD) of the phage 434 repressor was used to construct combinatorial mutant libraries in order to isolate mutant DBDs with altered specificities. The library members contain one wild-type DBD and one mutant domain with randomized amino acids in the DNA-contacting region. Based on previous studies, the mutant sc derivatives are expected to recognize a general ACAA-6 bp-NNNN sequence, where ACAA is contacted by the wild-type and NNNN by the mutant domain. In principle, any sequence can stand for NNNN and serve as a selection target. Here an in vivo library screening method was used to isolate mutant sc repressors that interact with an asymmetric operator containing the TTAA target. Several mutants showed high affinity in vitro binding to operators containing the target and strong (up to 80-fold) preference for the TTAA target over the wild-type TTGT. Specificity studies revealed that certain mutants bound with substantially higher affinities (K(d) approximately 10(-11)M) to operators containing the TTAC sequence, a close homolog of the TTAA target. Thus, we have fortuitously isolated mutant sc repressors that show up to a several hundred-fold preference for TTAC over TTGT.
Bacillus subtilis PerR is a Fur family repressor that senses hydrogen peroxide by metal-catalyzed oxidation. PerR contains a structural Zn(II) ion (Site 1) and a regulatory metal binding site (Site 2) that, upon association with either Mn(II) or Fe(II), allosterically activates DNA binding. In addition, a third less conserved metal binding site (Site 3) is present near the dimer interface in several crystal structures of homologous Fur family proteins. Here, we show that PerR proteins with substitutions of putative Site 3 residues (Y92A, E114A and H128A) are functional as repressors, but are unexpectedly compromised in their ability to sense H2O2. Consistently, these mutants utilize Mn(II) but not Fe(II) as a co-repressor in vivo. Metal titrations failed to identify a third binding site in PerR, and inspection of the PerR structure suggests that these residues instead constitute a hydrogen binding network that modulates the architecture, and consequently the metal selectivity, of Site 2. PerR H128A binds DNA with high affinity, but has a significantly reduced affinity for Fe(II), and to a lesser extent for Mn(II). The ability of PerR H128A to bind Fe(II) in vivo and to thereby respond efficiently to H2O2 was restored in a fur mutant strain with elevated cytosolic iron concentration.