Mastectomy probably represents over-treatment for the majority of women with screen detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and breast-conserving surgery is now widely advocated. In this study, biopsy cavity shavings were used to ensure complete excision in 129 women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for screen detected DCIS. A margin was considered clear if DCIS was > 1 mm from any margin of excision and shavings were clear. Patients with involved margins (DCIS at resection margin) underwent re-excision, irrespective of shaving status. After re-excision, 101 women (78%) had clear margins and 28 (22%) close margins (DCIS < or = 1 mm from resection margin). Cavity shavings were histologically clear of DCIS in all cases. Ipsilateral DCIS recurrence occurred in 12 (9.3%) patients. Two recurrences also contained invasive carcinoma. The median time to diagnosis was 14 months and all recurrences occurred at the site of the previous biopsy. Seven recurrences were detected at the first annual mammogram, four at the second and one at the third. Ipsilateral recurrence was related to margin status; only 2 out of 101 (2%) patients with clear margins recurred, compared with 10 out of 28 (36%) patients with close margins. Local recurrence and close margin status both correlated with a high modified Van Nuys prognostic index score. Our results indicate that local relapse represents residual DCIS rather than true recurrence in the majority of cases. Cavity shavings have proved ineffective in ensuring complete excision. We now ensure a minimum 10 mm margin of excision around all screen-detected DCIS lesions.
Negative margins in breast conservation therapy (BCT) decrease local recurrence risk. Excision may be performed via two techniques: either as a single lumpectomy specimen or as a central segment with simultaneously resected peripheral segments (PSs). There is little data directly comparing these methods for their effect on margin status.
A retrospective review of all patients undergoing BCT for invasive breast cancer was conducted to evaluate and compare the two techniques. Presentation, pathologic characteristics, surgical technique, specimen volume, and final margin status were recorded.
Among 259 cancers in 257 women, 33 had positive margins. A single segment was removed in 69 patients, while 190 patients had 1-6 PSs simultaneously removed. By univariate analysis, smaller tumor size (p=0.017) and greater numbers of segments removed (p=0.01) lowered the risk of positive margins. In a multivariate model, smaller tumor size (p=0.0024), lack of EIC (p=0.049), and greater numbers of segments removed (p=0.0061) lowered the risk of margin positivity. Despite this last predictor, the total resected specimen volume did not increase with the number of PSs removed (p=0.4). There was no residual tumor in 49.2% of PSs despite a compromised primary segment margin.
Smaller tumor size, lack of EIC and greater numbers of simultaneous PSs excised decrease the likelihood of positive margins, despite a lack of correlation between segment numbers and excised volume. These findings suggest that excision of simultaneous PSs may assist in achieving negative margins, in part, due to avoidance of pathologic artifact.
Inadequate surgical margins represent a high risk for adverse clinical outcome in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for early-stage breast cancer. The majority of studies report positive resection margins in 20% to 40% of the patients who underwent BCT. This may result in an increased local recurrence (LR) rate or additional surgery and, consequently, adverse affects on cosmesis, psychological distress, and health costs. In the literature, various risk factors are reported to be associated with positive margin status after lumpectomy, which may allow the surgeon to distinguish those patients with a higher a priori risk for re-excision. However, most risk factors are related to tumor biology and patient characteristics, which cannot be modified as such. Therefore, efforts to reduce the number of positive margins should focus on optimizing the surgical procedure itself, because the surgeon lacks real-time intraoperative information on the presence of positive resection margins during breast-conserving surgery. This review presents the status of pre- and intraoperative modalities currently used in BCT. Furthermore, innovative intraoperative approaches, such as positron emission tomography, radioguided occult lesion localization, and near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging, are addressed, which have to prove their potential value in improving surgical outcome and reducing the need for re-excision in BCT.
Margin status is the main factor determining local recurrence (LR) after wide excision and radiotherapy for breast cancer. The aim of the study is to evaluate if positive margins are as great a risk factor for LR in node-positive as in node-negative patients, since the major risk in the former group is dissemination and whether there is a correlation between nodal status and margins in relation to prognosis.
773 patients underwent WLE and radiotherapy between 1988 and 1992 and were followed-up (> 10 years) to determine LR rates according to margin and nodal status. Margins were assessed by cavity-shave biopsies and the axilla was staged by sampling or clearance.
461 patients were node negative and 312 node positive. In the node-negative group 415 patients had negative margins and 46 positive: LR after > 10 years was 12 % and 28 % respectively. Among the 312 patients in the node positive group, 267 were margin negative and 45 positive; the LR rate was 12 % and 18 % respectively. In the node negative-group there was a statistically significant difference between the positive and the negative margins with higher relapse rate and lower overall survival (p < 0.001), whereas in the node-positive group the equivalent comparison didn't show any statistical difference.
Although re-excision should be always recommended, in node-negative patients positive margins are associated with a statistically higher LR rate and lower overall survival while in node-positive disease margins might be of less importance in determining prognosis as dissemination is more likely to occur.
Oncoplastic surgery has revolutionized the field of breast conserving surgery (BCS). The final aims of this technique are to obtain an adequate resection margin that will reduce the rate of local recurrence while simultaneously improving cosmetic outcomes. To obtain successful results after oncoplastic surgery, it is imperative that patients be risk-stratified based on risk factors associated with positive margins, that relevant imaging studies be reviewed, and that the confirmation of negative margins be confirmed during the initial operation. Patients who had small- to moderate-sized breasts are the most likely to be dissatisfied with the cosmetic outcome of surgery, even if the defect is small; therefore, oncoplastic surgery in this population is warranted. Reconstruction of the remaining breast tissue is divided into volume displacement and volume replacement techniques. The use of the various oncoplastic surgeries is based on tumor location and excised breast volume. If the excised volume is less than 100 g, the tumor location is used to determine which technique should be used, with the most commonly used technique being volume displacement. However, if the excised volume is greater than 100 g, the volume replacement method is generally used, and in cases where more than 150 g is excised, the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap may be used to obtain a pleasing cosmetic result. The local recurrence rate after oncoplastic surgery was lower than that of conventional BCS, as oncoplastic surgery reduced the rate of positive resection margins by resecting a wider section of glandular tissue. If the surgeon understands the advantages and disadvantages of oncoplastic surgery, and the multidisciplinary breast team is able to successfully collaborate, then the success rate of BCS with partial breast reconstruction can be increased while also yielding a cosmetically appealing outcome.
Defect; Oncoplastic surgery; Personalized medicine; Personalized; Repairing
Breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer was developed as a method to preserve healthy breast tissue, thereby improving cosmetic outcomes. Thus far, the primary aim of breast-conserving surgery has been the achievement of tumour-free resection margins and prevention of local recurrence, whereas the cosmetic outcome has been considered less important. Large studies have reported poor cosmetic outcomes in 20-40% of patients after breast-conserving surgery, with the volume of the resected breast tissue being the major determinant. There is clear evidence for the efficacy of ultrasonography in the resection of nonpalpable tumours. Surgical resection of palpable breast cancer is performed with guidance by intra-operative palpation. These palpation-guided excisions often result in an unnecessarily wide resection of adjacent healthy breast tissue, while the rate of tumour-involved resection margins is still high. It is hypothesised that the use of intra-operative ultrasonography in the excision of palpable breast cancer will improve the ability to spare healthy breast tissue while maintaining or even improving the oncological margin status. The aim of this study is to compare ultrasound-guided surgery for palpable tumours with the standard palpation-guided surgery in terms of the extent of healthy breast tissue resection, the percentage of tumour-free margins, cosmetic outcomes and quality of life.
In this prospective multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial, 120 women who have been diagnosed with palpable early-stage (T1-2N0-1) primary invasive breast cancer and deemed suitable for breast-conserving surgery will be randomised between ultrasound-guided surgery and palpation-guided surgery. With this sample size, an expected 20% reduction of resected breast tissue and an 18% difference in tumour-free margins can be detected with a power of 80%. Secondary endpoints include cosmetic outcomes and quality of life. The rationale, study design and planned analyses are described.
The COBALT trial is a prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled study to assess the efficacy of ultrasound-guided breast-conserving surgery in patients with palpable early-stage primary invasive breast cancer in terms of the sparing of breast tissue, oncological margin status, cosmetic outcomes and quality of life.
Trial Registration Number
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2579
Adequate surgical margins in breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer have traditionally been viewed as a predictor of local recurrence rates. There is still no consensus on what constitutes an adequate surgical margin, however it is clear that there is a trade-off between widely clear margins and acceptable cosmesis. Preoperative approaches to plan extent of resection with appropriate margins (in the setting of surgery first as well as after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,) include mammography, US, and MRI. Improvements have been made in preoperative lesion localization strategies for surgery, as well as intraoperative specimen assessment, in order to ensure complete removal of imaging findings and facilitate margin clearance. Intraoperative strategies to accurately assess tumor and cavity margins include cavity shave techniques, as well as novel technologies for margin probes. Ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation as well as intraoperative radiation, may be used to extend tumor-free margins without resecting additional tissue. Oncoplastic techniques allow for wider resections while maintaining cosmesis and have acceptable local recurrence rates, however often involve surgery on the contralateral breast. As systemic therapy for breast cancer continues to improve, it is unclear what the importance of surgical margins on local control rates will be in the future.
The treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) involves adequate surgical excision with adjuvant radiotherapy where appropriate. An inadequate excision margin and young age are independent risk factors for local recurrence. Routine surgery to axillary lymph nodes is not recommended in pure DCIS. In localised DCIS, adjuvant radiotherapy is recommended on the basis of tumour size, margin width and pathological subtypes. The role of adjuvant tamoxifen as systemic therapy is controversial. The treatment of atypical ductal/lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ involves surgical excision to exclude coexisting DCIS or invasive disease.
breast; management; pre-invasive disease
We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 cases of desmoid tumours (aggressive fibromatoses) that underwent treatment at our institutions between 1987 and 2002. The purpose was to evaluate the rate of local recurrence of desmoid tumours treated with surgical excision, to assess the impact of surgical margins on local recurrence and to define the role of radiotherapy in the treatment. Nine patients experienced a recurrence at an average of 16 months after initial treatment. Seven of the 15 patients with a less-than-wide margin had a local recurrence. Comparatively, only two of the 20 patients with a wide margin had a local recurrence. Thirty-three of the 35 patients were disease free at the last follow-up. We recommend wide excision with clear margins whenever possible. Marginal resections are appropriate when wide excision would severely compromise the function of the limb. Surgical resections and selective supplementation of adjuvant radiotherapy give excellent control rates.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is an aggressive spindle cell cancer of soft-tissue sarcoma type in the elderly, mostly affecting the extremities. Lesions > 5 cm, positive margins, and local recurrence are significant poor prognostic indicators. The strongest predictor for distant metastasis was tumor size (> 5 cm), and for overall survival, presence of local recurrence. Limb-sparing extensive tumor resection is preferred to achieve negative surgical margins. However, in some circumstances, amputation is inevitable. Recent studies demonstrated that adjuvant radiotherapy for microscopically positive surgical margins significantly improved local control and disease-free survival rates. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies against locally relapsed high grade MFH are required to prevent distant metastasis and to achieve long-term disease-free survival. Here, we report local relapse of high grade MFH treated by successive application of autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccination (AFTV) with limb-sparing surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well, disease-free and with no functional impairment, more than five years after treatment.
Malignant tumors of the thumb can be treated surgically with either wide local excision with reconstruction or amputation. Local excision of tumors in the thumb and hand often requires closer resection margin than at other sites, and there is also a need for tissue transfer from a donor site for reconstruction. Primary thumb amputation allows local tumor control while avoiding donor-site morbidity, but comes at great functional cost. We conducted this retrospective case review to assess the outcomes of thumb-sparing wide excisions and primary thumb amputations for malignant thumb tumors.
We performed a retrospective review of 23 patients who were surgically treated for malignant tumors of the thumb at our center from 1996 to 2005. We reviewed patient demographics, tumor pathology, extent of resection, postoperative margin status, adjuvant therapy, recurrence, and survival. Functional outcomes were scored using the Muscular Skeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) rating system.
Twenty-three patients underwent definitive surgery: 14 thumb-sparing wide excisions and 9 amputations (five at the interphalangeal joint, three at the metacarpophalangeal joint, and one at the forearm). Median follow-up was 58 months (range, 5–156 months). All patients had negative margins. One patient developed a local tumor recurrence (following below-elbow amputation for a soft tissue sarcoma) while three patients developed distant metastases and died from their disease (two patients had melanomas and one had a soft tissue sarcoma). The median MSTS functional score was 28 (IQR, 27–29) for the entire cohort. Two patients that underwent amputation at the metcarpophalangeal joint without reconstruction had the lowest scores of 11 and 17.
There was a low incidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis in this study, and these events appeared to be related to the underlying disease rather than the surgery performed. Thumb-sparing wide excision and amputation at the interphalangeal joint both give acceptable functional outcomes, though reconstruction should be strongly considered for patients undergoing amputation at the metacarpophalangeal joint.
Thumb; Sarcoma; Melanoma; Wide Excision; Amputation
To tailor local treatment in breast cancer patients there is a need for predicting ipsilateral recurrences after breast-conserving therapy. After adequate treatment (excision with free margins and radiotherapy), young age and incompletely excised extensive intraductal component are predictors for local recurrence, but many local recurrences can still not be predicted. Here we have used gene expression profiling by microarray analysis to identify gene expression profiles that can help to predict local recurrence in individual patients.
By using previously established gene expression profiles with proven value in predicting metastasis-free and overall survival (wound-response signature, 70-gene prognosis profile and hypoxia-induced profile) and training towards an optimal prediction of local recurrences in a training series, we establish a classifier for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy.
Validation of the different gene lists shows that the wound-response signature is able to separate patients with a high (29%) or low (5%) risk of a local recurrence at 10 years (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 75%). In multivariable analysis the classifier is an independent predictor for local recurrence.
Our findings indicate that gene expression profiling can identify subgroups of patients at increased risk of developing a local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy.
Breast conserving surgery has been accepted as the optimal local therapy for women with early breast cancer, emphasizing the necessity to balance oncologic goals with patient satisfaction and cosmetic outcomes. In the move to enhance a surgeon's ability to achieve histologically clear margins intraoperatively at the initial surgery, the MarginProbe (Dune Medical Devices, Caesarea, Israel) has emerged as an effective tool to accomplish that task. Based on previously reported success using the device, we assessed cosmesis and tissue resection volumes among participants in a randomized-controlled trial comparing the standard of care lumpectomy performed with and without the MarginProbe. The use of the MarginProbe device resulted in a 57% reduction in reexcision rates compared to the control group with a small increase in tissue volume removed at the primary lumpectomy. When total tissue volumes removed were analyzed, the device and control groups were still very similar after normalization to bra cup size. We concluded that the MarginProbe is an effective device to assist surgeons in determining margin status intraoperatively while allowing for better patient cosmetic outcomes due to the smaller volumes of tissue resected and the reduction in patient referrals for second surgeries due to positive margins.
Surgical margin status is an important predictor of risk of relapse among patients with rectal cancer.
Patients referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for consideration of adjuvant therapy for rectal adenocarcinoma were included. Predictors of margin positivity were determined from uni- and multivariate analysis.
Among 340 patients, 83% had negative resection margins. In 268 patients with resectable tumours, a significantly higher rate of margin positivity was observed in low rectal tumours (32.2%) as compared with mid-rectal (3.9%) and high rectal (14.3%) tumours. Among 59 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiation (with or without chemotherapy), 32% with low tumours had margin positivity. Of patients with T4 tumours, 50% (11/22) had a positive resection margin.
In a population cohort, distal-third rectal location, locally advanced presentation, and T4 cancer represent subgroups for whom further improvement in therapy is required.
Rectal cancer; predictors of surgical margin status
Merkel cell carcinoma is a skin cancer with 30% mortality and an incidence that has tripled in the past 15 years. There is agreement that surgical excision with negative margins is an appropriate therapeutic first step and that sentinel lymph node biopsy is a powerful prognostic indicator. Following excision of detectable cancer, optimal adjuvant therapy is not well established. A role for adjuvant radiotherapy is increasingly supported by retrospective data suggesting a nearly four-fold decrease in local recurrences if radiation is added to surgery. In contrast, a role for adjuvant chemotherapy is not well supported. The rationale for chemotherapy in this disease is based on small-cell lung cancer, a more common neuroendocrine tumor for which chemotherapy is the primary treatment modality. Several issues call into question the routine use of adjuvant chemotherapy in Merkel cell carcinoma: lack of evidence for improved survival; the associated morbidity and mortality; important differences between small-cell lung cancer and Merkel cell carcinoma; and rapid development of resistance to chemotherapy. Importantly, chemotherapy suppresses immune function that plays an unusually large role in defending the host from the development and progression of Merkel cell carcinoma. Taken together, these arguments suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma patients should largely be restricted to clinical trials.
Merkel cell carcinoma is a neuroendocrine cancer that typically presents as a rapidly growing non-specific nodule on sun exposed skin in people over 65 years of age. The recent increase in incidence to over 1000 cases a year in the United States has led Merkel cell carcinoma to become the second most common cause of non-melanoma skin cancer death.1,2 Optimal management for Merkel cell carcinoma beyond surgical excision is not agreed on, and no randomized trials have been carried out. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been shown to be powerful in predicting subsequent recurrences as well as in determining if further nodal treatment is indicated.3,4
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical and pathological variables which impact rate of re-excision following breast conserving therapy (BCS) with or without concurrent additional margin excision (AM). Methods. The pathology database was queried for all patients with DCIS from January 2004 to September 2008. Pathologic assessment included volume of excision, subtype, size, distance from margin, grade, necrosis, multifocality, calcifications, and ER/PR status. Results. 405 cases were identified and 201 underwent BCS, 151-BCS-AM, and 53-mastectomy. Among the 201 BCS patients, 190 underwent re-excision for close or involved margins. 129 of these were treated with BCS and 61 with BCS-AM (P < .0001). The incidence of residual DCIS in the re-excision specimens was 32% (n = 65) for BCS and 22% (n = 33) for BCS-AM (P < .05). For both the BCS and the BCS-AM cohorts, volume of tissue excised is inversely correlated to the rate of re-excision (P = .0284). Multifocality (P = .0002) and ER status (P = .0382) were also significant predictors for rate of re-excision and variation in surgical technique was insignificant. Conclusions. The rate of positive margins, re-excision, and residual disease was significantly higher in patients with lower volume of excision. The performance of concurrent additional margin excision increases the efficacy of BCS for DCIS.
To develop an intraoperative method for margin status evaluation during breast conservation therapy (BCT) using an automated analysis of imprint cytology specimens.
Imprint cytology samples were prospectively taken from 47 patients undergoing either BCT or breast reduction surgery. Touch preparations from BCT patients were taken on cut sections through the tumor to generate positive margin controls. For breast reduction patients, slide imprints were taken at cuts through the center of excised tissue. Analysis results from the presented technique were compared against standard pathologic diagnosis. Slides were stained with cytokeratin and Hoechst, imaged with an automated fluorescent microscope, and analyzed with a fast algorithm to automate discrimination between epithelial cells and noncellular debris.
The accuracy of the automated analysis was 95% for identifying invasive cancers compared against final pathologic diagnosis. The overall sensitivity was 87% while specificity was 100% (no false positives). This is comparable to the best reported results from manual examination of intraoperative imprint cytology slides while reducing the need for direct input from a cytopathologist.
This work demonstrates a proof of concept for developing a highly accurate and automated system for the intraoperative evaluation of margin status to guide surgical decisions and lower positive margin rates.
Imprint cytology; Breast conservation therapy; Computer-aided diagnosis; Fluorescent microscopy
Local recurrence rates in operable rectal cancer are improved by radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) and surgical techniques such as total mesorectal excision. However, the contributions of surgery and radiotherapy to outcomes are unclear. We assessed the effect of the involvement of the circumferential resection margin and the plane of surgery achieved.
In this prospective study, the plane of surgery achieved and the involvement of the circumferential resection margin were assessed by local pathologists, using a standard pathological protocol in 1156 patients with operable rectal cancer from the CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 trial, which compared short-course (5 days) preoperative radiotherapy and selective postoperative chemoradiotherapy, between March, 1998, and August, 2005. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN 28785842.
128 patients (11%) had involvement of the circumferential resection margin, and the plane of surgery achieved was classified as good (mesorectal) in 604 (52%), intermediate (intramesorectal) in 398 (34%), and poor (muscularis propria plane) in 154 (13%). We found that both a negative circumferential resection margin and a superior plane of surgery achieved were associated with low local recurrence rates. Hazard ratio (HR) was 0·32 (95% CI 0·16–0·63, p=0·0011) with 3-year local recurrence rates of 6% (5–8%) and 17% (10–26%) for patients who were negative and positive for circumferential resection margin, respectively. For plane of surgery achieved, HRs for mesorectal and intramesorectal groups compared with the muscularis propria group were 0·32 (0·16–0·64) and 0·48 (0·25–0·93), respectively. At 3 years, the estimated local recurrence rates were 4% (3–6%) for mesorectal, 7% (5–11%) for intramesorectal, and 13% (8–21%) for muscularis propria groups. The benefit of short-course preoperative radiotherapy did not differ in the three plane of surgery groups (p=0·30 for trend). Patients in the short-course preoperative radiotherapy group who had a resection in the mesorectal plane had a 3-year local recurrence rate of only 1%.
In rectal cancer, the plane of surgery achieved is an important prognostic factor for local recurrence. Short-course preoperative radiotherapy reduced the rate of local recurrence for all three plane of surgery groups, almost abolishing local recurrence in short-course preoperative radiotherapy patients who had a resection in the mesorectal plane. The plane of surgery achieved should therefore be assessed and reported routinely.
Medical Research Council (UK) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada.
Tumor surgical resection margin status is important for any malignant lesion. When this occurs in conjunction with efforts to preserve or conserve the afflicted organ, these margins become extremely important. With the demonstration of no difference in overall survival between mastectomy versus lumpectomy and radiation for breast carcinoma, there is a definite trend toward smaller resections combined with radiation, constituting “breast-conserving therapy.” Tumor-free margins are therefore key to the success of this treatment protocol. We discuss the various aspects of margin status in this setting, from a pathology perspective, incorporating the past and current practices with a brief glimpse of emerging future techniques.
Unplanned resection of musculoskeletal sarcoma involves tumor excision without any suspicion of malignancy or regard for the necessity of defining adequate margins. For orthopaedic oncologists, many opportunities arise for management of unplanned resections initially performed by non-specialist surgeons. The puropose of this study is to assess the clinical outcomes and the problems of the patients with unplanned resection of high-grade soft tissue sarcoma.
77 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. Oncological outcomes together with validity and problems of additional treatments were analyzed.
Five-year local recurrence-free survival, metastasis-free survival, event-free survival and total survival were 71.55%, 73.2%, 57.5% and 85.9%, respectively. Among adjuvant therapy including additional wide resection, radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, only additional wide resection significantly improved oncological outcomes.
Additional wide resection appears to be effective in the treatment of high-grade soft tissue sarcomas following primary resection with compromised margins of resection.
Chest wall tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions that provide an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for surgeons. They make up less than 5% of thoracic malignancies and vary widely in pathology as they arise from all anatomic structures of the chest wall. In general, treatment is wide local excision, the margins for malignant disease are necessarily wider, and adjuvant radiation is typically given for those with positive margins. Chemotherapy is rarely effective. Local control is the most important prognostic factor. Disease-free survival for malignant disease is limited by positive margins; therefore full oncologic resection with 4-cm margins should be attempted. For small lesions, the resection and reconstruction is usually straightforward. For more advanced disease or those lesions that require significant functional loss, preoperative planning using a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating thoracic surgery, plastic surgery, neurosurgery, radiation medicine, oncology, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, may be essential.
Chest wall tumor; primary chest wall tumor; chest wall resection
Field cancerization effects as well as isolated tumor cell foci extending well beyond the invasive tumor margin have been described previously to account for local recurrence rates following breast conserving surgery despite adequate surgical margins and breast radiotherapy. To look for evidence of possible tumor cell contamination or field cancerization by genetic effects, a pilot study (Study 1: 12 sample pairs) followed by a verification study (Study 2: 20 sample pairs) were performed on DNA extracted from HER2-positive breast tumors and matching normal adjacent mammary tissue samples excised 1–3 cm beyond the invasive tumor margin. High-resolution molecular inversion probe (MIP) arrays were used to compare genomic copy number variations, including increased HER2 gene copies, between the paired samples; as well, a detailed histologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) re-evaluation of all Study 2 samples was performed blinded to the genomic results to characterize the adjacent normal tissue composition bracketing the DNA-extracted samples. Overall, 14/32 (44 %) sample pairs from both studies produced genome-wide evidence of genetic aberrations including HER2 copy number gains within the adjacent normal tissue samples. The observed single-parental origin of monoallelic HER2 amplicon haplotypes shared by informative tumor–normal pairs, as well as commonly gained loci elsewhere on 17q, suggested the presence of contaminating tumor cells in the genomically aberrant normal samples. Histologic and IHC analyses identified occult 25–200 μm tumor cell clusters overexpressing HER2 scattered in more than half, but not all, of the genomically aberrant normal samples re-evaluated, but in none of the genomically normal samples. These genomic and microscopic findings support the conclusion that tumor cell contamination rather than genetic field cancerization represents the likeliest cause of local clinical recurrence rates following breast conserving surgery, and mandate caution in assuming the genomic normalcy of histologically benign appearing peritumor breast tissue.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10549-012-2290-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
HER2/ERBB2-amplified breast tumors; Normal adjacent tissue
Brachytherapy as adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer has become widely available and offers patients an expedited treatment schedule. Given this, many women are electing to undergo brachytherapy in lieu of standard fractionation radiotherapy. We compare outcomes between patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) via multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy versus patients who were also eligible for and offered APBI but who chose whole breast radiation (WBI).
Patients treated from December 2002 through May 2007 were reviewed. Selection criteria included patients with pTis-T2N0 disease, ≤ 3 cm unifocal tumors, and negative margins who underwent breast conservation surgery. Local control (LC), cause-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.
202 patients were identified in the APBI cohort and 94 patients in the WBI cohort. Median follow-up for both groups exceeded 60 months. LC was 97.0% for the APBI cohort and 96.2% for the WBI cohort at 5 years (ns). Classification by 2010 ASTRO APBI consensus statement categories did not predict worse outcomes.
APBI via multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy provides similar local failure rates compared to WBI at 5 years for properly selected patients. Excellent results were seen despite the high fraction of younger patients (< 60 years old) and patients with DCIS.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of operative experience in obtaining tumor-free margins in breast-conserving therapy. In the case of palpable breast cancers, lumpectomies can safely be performed by any surgical resident. For nonpalpable breast cancers, lumpectomies should be treated only by senior residents or attending surgeons, even if supervision during the operation is given by an attending surgeon for junior residents. Radicality of breast carcinoma excision, defined by the tumor-free margin of the removed specimen has been determined to be the major prognostic factor for local recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of operative experience in obtaining tumor-free margins in breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Can lumpectomy for breast carcinoma be performed by surgical residents safely?
All lumpectomies for breast carcinoma between 1999 and 2003 were included out of a prospective database of a single institution. Radicality of resection and patient and histopathologic tumor characteristics were analyzed for 660 lumpectomies. Operative experience of the surgeon performing the lumpectomy was staged as junior residents (JR, years 1–3 in residency), senior residents (SR; years 4–6 in residency), and attending surgeon (AS).
A significant difference in obtaining tumor-free margins for palpable tumors was found between ASs (81%) vs. SRs assisted by another resident (92%). For nonpalpable tumors, a significant difference was found in two groups: (1) SRs assisted by another surgical resident (86%) vs. JRs assisted by another surgical resident (61%) and (2) ASs (83%) vs. JRs assisted by another resident (61%) or assisted by an AS (73%).
Surgical residents can safely perform BCT in patients with palpable breast cancer. The level of experience has no statistical significance for palpable tumors in a high-volume center. Nonpalpable lesions should be treated only by SRs or ASs.
Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast is associated with low mortality rates, but local relapse is a matter of concern in this disease. Risk factors for local relapse include young age, close or positive margins, and tumor necrosis. Whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ significantly reduces the risk of local relapse as compared to breast-conserving surgery alone. Studies point to similar outcomes between breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy and mastectomy, in the absence of extensive disease. A complementary boost to the surgical bed improves outcomes for patients with invasive breast cancer. However, the effect of this strategy has never been prospectively reported for ductal carcinoma in situ. Two randomized controlled trials assessing this issue are ongoing. This paper represents an update on available literature about radiotherapy for DCIS with a special focus on the role of a radiotherapy boost to the tumor bed.