Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions.
We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb.
Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens.
Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal.
We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb.
Anaphylaxis; urticaria; food allergy; galactose-α-1; 3-galactose; cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant
Purpose of review
The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens.
Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity.
Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma.
asthma; cats; inhalant allergens; Fel d 1; long-term tolerance
In 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat, which is related to serum IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. The implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these IgE antibodies.
To investigate possible causes of this IgE antibody response, focusing on evidence related to tick bites, which are common in the region where these reactions occur.
Serum assays were carried out using biotinylated proteins and extracts bound to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP.
Prospective studies on IgE antibodies in three subjects following tick bites showed an increase in IgE to alpha-gal of twenty-fold or greater. Other evidence included i) a strong correlation between histories of tick bites and IgE to alpha-gal (χ2=26.8, p<0.001), ii) evidence that these IgE antibodies are common in areas where the tick Amblyomma americanum is common, and iii) a significant correlation between IgE antibodies to alpha-gal and IgE antibodies to proteins derived from A. americanum (rs=0.75, p<0.001).
The results presented here provide evidence that tick bites are a cause, or possibly the only cause, of IgE specific for alpha-gal in this area of the United States. Both the number of subjects becoming sensitized and the titer of IgE antibodies to alpha-gal are striking. Here we report the first example of a response to an ectoparasite giving rise to an important form of food allergy.
ticks; anaphylaxis; oligosaccharide; alpha-gal; IgE antibody to CCD
The IgE response to pollen allergens often includes IgE antibodies specific for glycosylation motifs on the pollen proteins. These oligosaccharides are present on many different species and are known as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. However, IgE antibodies to plant-derived cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants seem to have only minor clinical significance and have not been related to anaphylaxis. Recently, two novel forms of anaphylaxis have become apparent in the southeastern United States: 1) reactions during the first infusion of the monoclonal antibody cetuximab and 2) adult-onset delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. Detailed investigation of serum antibodies established that in both cases, the patients had IgE antibodies specific for the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose alpha-1, 3-galactose. Identification of these cases is helpful in avoiding infusion reactions to cetuximab or recommending specific avoidance of meat derived from mammals. However, the current evidence does not fully resolve why these IgE antibodies are so common in the Southeast or why the anaphylactic or urticarial reactions to red meat are delayed.
Anaphylaxis; Oligosaccharides; Cross-reactive Carbohydrate Determinants; Red Meat; IgE to Alpha-Gal
While most allergic responses to food are directed against protein epitopes and occur within 30 minutes of ingesting the allergen, recent studies suggest that delayed reactions may occur, sometimes mediated by IgE antibodies directed against carbohydrate moieties. The objective of this review is to summarize the clinical features and management of delayed hypersensitivity reactions to mammalian meat mediated by IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha 1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), an oligosaccharide.
A PubMed search was conducted with MeSH terms: galactosyl-(1,3) galactose, oligosaccharides, cetuximab, allergy/hypersensitivity, and anaphylaxis. Reported cases with alpha-gal-mediated reactions were reviewed. This research study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of East Tennessee State University.
Thirty-two cases of adults presenting with red-meat induced allergy thought to be related to oligosaccharides have been reported in the literature so far, making this a rare and evolving syndrome. Most of these patients demonstrated delayed reactions to beef, as was seen in the case reported by us in this manuscript. IgE specific to alpha-gal was identified in most patients with variable response to skin testing with beef and pork. Inhibition studies in some cases showed that the IgE antibodies to beef were directed towards alpha-gal in the meat rather than the protein. The patients often reported history of tick bites, the significance of which is unclear at present. Reactions to cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody, are mediated by a similar mechanism, with IgE antibodies directed against an alpha-gal moiety incorporated in the drug structure.
Alpha-gal is an oligosaccharide recently incriminated in delayed anaphylactic reactions to mammalian meats such as to beef, pork, and lamb. It appears that anaphylactic reactions to the anti-cancer biological agent, cetuximab, may be linked mechanistically to the same process. More studies are required to understand the underlying molecular basis for these delayed reactions in specific, and their broader implications for host defense in general.
Galactosyl-(1,3) galactose; Oligosaccharides; Cetuximab; Anaphylaxis; Food allergy; Delayed hypersensitivity
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and occasionally fatal. In instances where the triggering allergen is not obvious, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term management. Assigning etiology is limited, however, by the number of known exposures associated with anaphylaxis. Therefore, identification of novel causative agents can provide an important step forward in facilitating new, allergen specific approaches to management. In contrast to the view that carbohydrate-directed IgE has minimal, if any, clinical significance, recent data suggests that IgE antibodies to carbohydrate epitopes can be an important factor in anaphylaxis that may otherwise appear to be idiopathic. Specifically, IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) were found to be capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions to the monoclonal antibody (ab) cetuximab.1 Moreover, alpha-gal has recently been identified as a novel food allergen.2 Patients who have IgE to alpha-gal report delayed anaphylaxis or urticaria occurring 3-6 hours after eating beef, pork or lamb. Here, we review the evidence relating to carbohydrates in food allergy and anaphylaxis and discuss the implications of a new mammalian cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD).
anaphylaxis; cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD); alpha-gal; glycosylation
An immunoglobulin M antibody reactive with galactosyl(alpha 1-3)mannose [Gal(alpha 1-3)Man] residues present on phospholipids extracted from Leishmania mexicana and L. braziliensis was found to be present in high titer in the serum of every normal individual studied. Periodate oxidation, acid hydrolysis, or acetylation suppressed immunoreactivity, suggesting that an oligosaccharide chain was responsible for antibody binding. Interaction occurs only with alpha-Gal terminal residues, since treatment of purified glycophospholipids with alpha-galactosidase but not with beta-galactosidase abolished it. Antibody bound to galactosyl(alpha 1-3)galactose-linked synthetic antigens but did not bind to the same residues present in rabbit, rat, and guinea pig erythrocytes or in murine laminin. Antigen-antibody binding was strongly blocked with Gal(alpha 1-3)Man and Gal(beta 1-4)Man. These results plus inhibition studies with several oligosaccharides suggest that they are indeed different from antibodies against the galactosyl(alpha 1-3)galactose residue. Anti-Gal(alpha 1-3)Man antibody values were significantly elevated in 89% of patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, 84% of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, 69% of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 44 and 62% of patients with Trypanosoma cruzi or T. rangeli infection, respectively, but not in patients with 15 other different infectious and inflammatory diseases. Anti-Gal(alpha 1-3)Man antibody readily absorbed to American Leishmania and Trypanosoma culture forms, suggesting a surface membrane localization of reactive epitope. Gal(alpha 1-3)Man-bearing glycophospholipid was easily extracted from American Leishmania promastigotes and T. cruzi trypomastigotes as well as from American Trypanosoma culture forms. The possibility that this antibody arises against parasitic glycophospholipid-linked Gal(alpha 1-3)Man terminal residues is proposed.
Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age.
A 22 -month-old child was admitted to our Pediatric Department for anaphylaxis and urticaria. At the age of 9 months she presented a first episode of angioedema and laryngeal obstruction, due to a second assumption of lentils in her diet. At admission we performed routine analyses that were all in the normal range, except for the dosage of specific IgE, that revealed a positive result for lentils. Prick tests too were positive for lentils, while they were all negative for other main food allergens. The child also performed a prick by prick that gave the same positive result (with a wheal of 8 mm of diameter). The child had not previously eaten lentils and other legumes, but her pathological anamnesis highlighted that the allergic reaction appeared soon after the inhalation of cooking lentil vapours when the child entered the kitchen Therefore a diagnosis of lentils vapours allergy was made.
Our case shows the peculiarity of a very early onset. In literature there are no data on episodes of anaphylaxis in so young children, considering that our child was already on lentils exclusion diet. Therefore a diet of exclusion does not absolutely preserve patients from allergic reactions, that can develop also after their cooking steams inhalation.
Papillonacae family; Lentils; Food; Allergy; Inhalation; Vapours; Child; Anaphylaxis; Urticaria; Asthma
Galactose α1-3 galactose (Gal) trisaccharides are present on the surface of wild-type pig cells, as well as on viruses particles produced from such cells. The recognition of Gal sugars by natural anti-Gal antibodies (NAb) in human and Old World primate serum can cause the lysis of the particles via complement-dependent mechanisms and has therefore been proposed as an important antiviral mechanism. Recently, pigs have been generated that possess disrupted galactosyl-transferase (GGTA1) genes. The cells of these pigs do not express Gal sugars on their surface, i.e., are Gal null. Concerns have been raised that the risk of virus transmission from such pigs may be increased due to the absence of the Gal sugars. We investigated the sensitivity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) produced from Gal-null and Gal-positive pig cells to inactivation by purified NAb and human serum. PERV produced in Gal-null pig cells was resistant to inactivation by either NAb or human serum. In contrast, although Gal-positive PERV particles were sensitive to inactivation by NAb and human serum, they required markedly higher concentrations of NAb for inactivation compared to the Gal-positive cells from which they were produced. Complete inactivation of Gal-positive PERV particles was not achievable despite the use of high levels of NAb, indicating that NAb-mediated inactivation of cell-free PERV particles is an inefficient process.
Chronic urticaria is a common skin disease without a clear etiology in the vast majority of cases. The similarity of symptoms and lesion pathology to allergen-induced skin reactions supports the idea that skin mast cell and blood basophil IgE receptor activation is involved, however, no exogenous allergen trigger has been identified. The presence of serum IgG autoantibodies targeting IgE or the IgE receptor in ∼40 % of CIU cases supports the theory of an autoimmune basis for the disease. However, issues remain with the assays to detect autoantibodies amongst other serum factors, the relationship of autoantibodies to CIU disease activity, and the occurrence of autoantibodies in healthy subjects. Other studies have identified altered IgE receptor degranulation that reverts in disease remission and is accompanied by changes in signaling molecule expression and function in mast cells and basophils in active CIU subjects. The arrival of therapies targeting IgE and the IgE receptor pathway elements has potential use in CIU.
Urticaria is a skin disease characterized by rapid emergence of hives, accompanied or not with angioedema. Usually lasts less than 24 hours. Approximately 12 to 24 per cent of the population will have hives or angioedema at least once in their life. Some patients with chronic urticaria has been classified as autoimmune. The autologous serum skin test (ASST) has been used to show pro-inflammatory circulating endogenous factors and it is regarded as a test for autorreactividad. The autorreactividad does not define an autoimmune urticaria, but may be an indicator of the presence of auto- reactive antibodies with the capacity of to activate the mast cells however functional antibodies need to be confirmed through of release of basophils histamine test from basophils (BHRA) and its specificity immunoassay (Western Blot or ELISA)-confirmed. Objective: to evaluate the auto-reactivity by autologous serum skin test in patients with chronic urticaria idiopathic in a study of 8 years. Material and methods: we made 216 ASST and autologous plasma skin test (APST) in patients with chronic urticaria without specific cause identified, of any age, during the period of 2003 to 2011.
Thirty five thousand patients were evaluated only 261 patients not identified the cause (0.6%) and we realized ASST, of these 190 (88%) were negative, and 26 (12%) were positive, 20 (76.9 %) were female and 6 (23.1%) male, the median of age for women was 30 years ago with medium of 28 and men average 29 years and median 20. Of the 26 patients one was positive for anti-thyroglobulin senior titles (1: 170) .dos with positive anti unclears and one with pANCA and cANCA positive of a total of 216 patients, 156 (72.2) had APST and 60 (27.8%) were positive, 46 (76.6%) women and 14 (23.3 %) men. Mc Neman concordance between tests P < 0.0001 and Kappa index gives us a highly significant concordance P < 0.0001. The correlation between ASST and APST by Sperman was high significance value of P < 0.001. The correlation of both tests was moderately high (76.8%).
Cat ownership is inversely associated with atopy and asthma in some areas of the world, but the relevance of cat ownership to allergic disease in the inner city is less known.
We sought to evaluate the relationship between cat ownership and the development of early sensitization and wheeze.
By using a prospective birth cohort study, Dominican and African American mothers living in New York City underwent repeated questionnaires about their child from birth to age 5 years. Sera collected from children at ages 2 (n = 323), 3 (n = 336), and 5 (n = 242) years were assayed for anti-cat IgE and anti–Fel d 1 IgG antibodies.
Cat ownership was a significant risk factor for the development of anti-cat IgE by age 2 years (risk ratio [RR], 6.4; 95% CI, 1.9-22) but not for anti-cat IgE development between the ages of 2 and 5 years (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.24-2.3). Current wheeze was significantly more common among those children with anti-cat IgE at ages 3 (RR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.1-6.0) and 5 (RR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.3-4.9) years. Cat ownership was inversely associated with current wheeze at age 5 years among children without anti-cat IgE (RR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.083-0.81). Among children with anti-cat IgE, a similar trend was observed (RR, 0.57; P = .044, Fisher exact test), although one with borderline statistical significance.
Despite a positive association with sensitization, cat ownership in this inner-city cohort was inversely associated with wheeze, potentially suggesting an IgE-independent protective mechanism in this community.
Cat; asthma; allergy; wheeze; inner-city; rhinitis; IgE; IgG; Fel d 1
alpha 1,3-Galactosyl antibodies (anti-Gal) are ubiquitous natural human serum and secretory polyclonal antibodies that bind to terminal galactose-alpha 1,3-galactose (alpha-galactosyl) residues. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Gal can block alternative complement pathway-mediated lysis of representative gram-negative enteric bacteria that bind it to lipopolysaccharide alpha-galactosyl structures, thereby promoting survival of such bacteria in the nonimmune host. We wanted to know whether anti-Gal also could bind to the lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Neisseria meningitidis. To our surprise, we found that serum and secretory anti-Gal bound to pili but not to LOS of certain strains. This suggested the presence of an immunogenic pilus carbohydrate epitope. Mild periodate oxidation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated outer membrane preparations from strains that bound anti-Gal followed by labeling of the neoaldehyde groups resulted in the labeling of bands that corresponded to pilin and LOS, confirming that pilin contains carbohydrate structures. A Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin that also binds terminal alpha 1,3-galactosyl residues also bound to pilin. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM anti-Gal as well as colostral secretory IgA anti-Gal bound to pilin, as judged by immunoblotting, and to the pili of intact piliated organisms, as judged by immunoelectron microscopy. Total serum anti-Gal (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and purified serum IgA1 anti-Gal, but not its purified IgG isotype, blocked complement-mediated lysis of a piliated meningococcal strain that bound anti-Gal to its pili. Colostral anti-Gal secretory IgA blocked killing of the same strain. Thus, anti-Gal IgA may promote disease when it binds to the pili of N. meningitidis strains.
Omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody has the potential to alter allergen processing. Recently, it has been postulated the assessment of PHA-stimulated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity as maker of CD4+ T cells activity in peripheral blood cells. We present the case report of a 35-year-old woman with a history of chronic idiopathic urticaria and angioedema of 8 years of development with poor response to treatment. The patient was partially controlled with cyclosporine at doses of 100 mg/12 h. However, she was still developing hives daily. Finally treatment with omalizumab was started at dose of 300 mg every 2 weeks. The patient experienced a decrease in urticarial lesions 2 days after starting therapy. We also evaluated the effects of omalizumab therapy on the activity of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from the patient, in order to determine the potential modification of anti-IgE therapy on the process of antigen presentation-recognition. Activity of CD4+ cells by ATP release was clearly increased demonstrating an enlarged CD4 activity. Omalizumab may be useful in the treatment of severe chronic urticaria. ATP activity of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells might be a non-subjective method to assess Omalizumab activity.
Microarray technique is promising in allergy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare SPT with specific-IgE by microarray in a group of patients with rhinitis.
Cross-sectional study, 101 participants with rhinitis diagnosed according to ARIA (89.1% with asthma); age range 6 to 15 years. SPT was done with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Blattella germanica (Bg), cat and dog allergenic extracts (IPI ASAC Brasil); a mean wheal diameter of ≥2 mm greater than the negative control was considered positive. Sera were analysed for allergen specific IgE antibodies to Dp (Der p 1, Der p 2), Bg (Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5), cat (Fel d 1, Fel d 2) and dog (Can f 1, Can f 2) allergens using a microarray system (ImmunoCAP ISAC, PMD, Austria), considered positive ≥0.3 ISU (ISAC standardized units). Categorical variables were shown as percentage and differences between the 2 methods verified by chi-square test; P < 0.05 was considered significant.
SPT was positive to Dp in 88.1% whereas ISAC was positive to Der p 1 in 74.2% (P < 0.001) and Der p 2 in 73.3% (P < 0.01) respectively. Sensitivity of SPT was 97% and specificity was 38%. The remaining allergens caused less SPT reactions (cockroach 25.7%, cat 22.8%, dog 27.7%) and these were associated with lower detection of specific-IgE by ISAC respectively Bla g 1 (0.9%, P = 0.09), Bla g 2 (0%), Bla g 4 (0%), Bla g 5 (0.9%, P = 0.55); Fel d 1 (16.8%, P < 0.01), Fel d 2 (0.9%, P = 0.06); Can f 1 (4.9%, P = 0.53), Can f 2 (2.9%, P < 0.001).
SPT remains the favored method to detect IgE-mediated sensitivity to aeroallergens. SPT was highly sensitive for Dp though less specific in comparison with the IgE microarray to Der p 1 and Der p 2 allergens.
Studies on airway inflammation, measured as fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), have focused on its relation to control of asthma, but the contribution of allergen exposure to elevation of FENO is unknown.
We evaluated (1) whether FENO was elevated in children with allergic sensitization or asthma; (2) whether specific allergen exposure increased FENO levels in sensitized, but not in unsensitized children; and (3) whether sedentary behavior increased FENO, independent of allergen exposures.
At age 12, in a birth cohort of children with parental history of allergy or asthma, we measured bed dust allergen (dust mite, cat, cockroach) by ELISA; specific allergic sensitization primarily by specific IgE ; and respiratory disease (current asthma, rhinitis, and wheeze) and hours of TV viewing/video game playing by questionnaire. Children performed spirometry maneuvers before and after bronchodilator responses, and had FENO measured using electrochemical detection methods (NIOX MINO).
FENO was elevated in children with current asthma (32.2 ppb), wheeze (27.0 ppb), or rhinitis (23.2ppb) as compared to individuals without these respective symptoms/diagnoses (16.4 ppb to 16.6 ppb, p< 0.005 for all comparisons). Allergic sensitization to indoor allergens (cat, dog, dust mite) predicted higher levels of FENO, and explained one third of the variability of FENO. FENO levels were highest in children both sensitized and exposed to dust mite. Greater than 10 hours of weekday TV viewing was associated with a 0.64 log increase in FENO, after controlling indoor allergen exposure, BMI and allergic sensitization.
Allergen exposures and sedentary behavior (TV viewing/ video game playing), may increase airway inflammation, measured as FENO.
Asthma; dust mite; cat; allergens; exhaled NO; allergic sensitization; home environment
Allergy and asthma to cat (Felis domesticus) affects about 10% of the population in affluent countries. Immediate allergic symptoms are primarily mediated via IgE antibodies binding to B cell epitopes, whereas late phase inflammatory reactions are mediated via activated T cell recognition of allergen-specific T cell epitopes. Allergen-specific immunotherapy relieves symptoms and is the only treatment inducing a long-lasting protection by induction of protective immune responses. The aim of this study was to produce an allergy vaccine designed with the combined features of attenuated T cell activation, reduced anaphylactic properties, retained molecular integrity and induction of efficient IgE blocking IgG antibodies for safer and efficacious treatment of patients with allergy and asthma to cat. The template gene coding for rFel d 1 was used to introduce random mutations, which was subsequently expressed in large phage libraries. Despite accumulated mutations by up to 7 rounds of iterative error-prone PCR and biopanning, surface topology and structure was essentially maintained using IgE-antibodies from cat allergic patients for phage enrichment. Four candidates were isolated, displaying similar or lower IgE binding, reduced anaphylactic activity as measured by their capacity to induce basophil degranulation and, importantly, a significantly lower T cell reactivity in lymphoproliferative assays compared to the original rFel d 1. In addition, all mutants showed ability to induce blocking antibodies in immunized mice.The approach presented here provides a straightforward procedure to generate a novel type of allergy vaccines for safer and efficacious treatment of allergic patients.
IgE antibodies to gal-α-1,3-gal-β-1,4-GlcNAc (α-gal) can mediate a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. Although IgG antibodies to α-gal (anti-α-gal or anti-Gal) are widely expressed in humans, IgE anti-α-gal is not. We explored the relationship between the IgG and IgE responses to both α-gal and the related blood group B antigen. Contradicting previous reports, antibodies to α-gal were found to be significantly less abundant in individuals with blood group B or AB. Importantly, we established a connection between IgE and IgG responses to α-gal: elevated titers of IgG anti-α-gal were found in IgE-positive subjects. In particular, proportionally more IgG1 anti-α-gal was found in IgE-positive subjects against a background of IgG2 production specific for α-gal. Thus, two types of immune response to α-gal epitopes can be distinguished: a ‘typical’ IgG2 response, presumably in response to gut bacteria, and an ‘atypical’, Th2-like response leading to IgG1 and IgE in addition to IgG2. These results suggest that IgE to a carbohydrate antigen can be formed (probably as part of a glycoprotein or glycolipid) even against a background of bacterial immune stimulation with essentially the same antigen.
Chronic urticaria (CU) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of urticaria pruritic erythematous lesions, associated with angioedema1. It affects 0.1% of the population, it is estimated that approximately 15 to 25% of the population will have hives at some point in their lives.2 About 80% of UC patients are diagnosed as idiopathic chronic urticaria and that no cause is identified, 3 experiencing deterioration in their quality of life affecting your work, social relationships, schemes requiring multiple medications and doses higher than usual. This study proposes Omalizumab (anti-IgE humanized antibody) as a treatment for Refractory Chronic Urticaria (RCU)
Demonstrate Omalizumab's effectiveness in the treatment of Refractory Chronic Urticaria.
A clinical study, was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the Omalizumab's treatment on RCU diagnosed patient, including male and female patients ages 12 to 50 diagnosed with RCU, with Scorad higher tan 30 points. We made a questionnaire to know about the patient's family background, skin symptoms beginning, administration of drugs such sistemic steroids, inmunosupresors, calceurine inhibitors, presence of inmunotherapy and age of start. Omalizumab was administered on doses according patient's weight and IgE levels, bimonthly or monthly according to treatment guides. Severeness level was calculated with scorad every 1 month, with IgE seric level measurement and life quality questionnaire.
5 patients diagnosed with RCU were included in the group of Omalizumab and 5 patients in the control group (placebo). All patients were female. A gradual decrease on the life quality score and in Score, with a significant P under 0.05 was observed on all patients treated with omalizumab compared with patient in the group with placebo.
Treatment with Omalizumab progressively decreases the severeness level on RCU, with a significant improvement on the patient's life quality.
A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of α1-4 linked galactose and α1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates.
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases including allergic reactions and local or systemic infections such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis that has emerged in the recent years as a leading cause of infection related mortality among immunocompromised patients. Polysaccharides from the fungal cell wall play essential biological functions in the fungal cell biology and in host-pathogen interactions. Indeed, it has been shown that polysaccharides can modulate the human immune response; some of them (β-glucan and α-glucans) having a protective effect against Aspergillus infection. We report here the purification and chemical characterization of a new antigenic polysaccharide (galactosaminogalactan) produced by A. fumigatus. This polymer is secreted during infection. In murine models of aspergillosis, this galactosaminogalactan is not protective but it is immunosuppressive and favors A. fumigatus infection. Particularly it induces the apoptotic death of neutrophils that are the phagocytes playing an essential role in the killing of fungal pathogens.
Background: The effect of exposure to allergens not causing sensitisation in atopic asthmatic subjects has not previously been studied. A study was undertaken to assess the degree of asthma severity (measured by spirometry, airway reactivity and exhaled nitric oxide) in atopic asthmatic patients not sensitised to the domestic allergen to which they were exposed.
Methods: Dust samples were collected from the living room carpet and mattress in the homes of 248 subjects and dust mite, cat and dog allergen concentrations were measured. Spirometry, non-specific bronchial reactivity (BR), and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were ascertained. Patients' sensitisation status was assessed by skin prick testing.
Results: Adult atopic asthmatics not sensitised to mite but exposed to high levels of mite allergen had significantly more severe BR than subjects not exposed to high levels of mite (PD20, geometric mean (GM) 0.21 mg (95% CI 0.09 to 0.47) v 0.86 mg (95% CI 0.44 to 1.67), mean ratio difference 4.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 11.4), p = 0.008). Subjects not sensitised but exposed to high levels of dog allergen also had significantly more severe BR than subjects not exposed (PD20 GM 0.16 v 0.52 mg, mean ratio difference 3.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 9.2), p = 0.01). The differences in BR between these groups were still significant after adjusting for confounding factors. This effect of greater airway reactivity was not seen in subjects exposed but not sensitised to cat allergens.
Conclusion: Atopic asthmatic subjects who are exposed to high levels of dust mite or dog allergens but not sensitised to these allergens have evidence of increased airway reactivity.
The relationship between chromatin structure and gene expression is a subject of intense study. The universal transcriptional activator Gal4 removes promoter nucleosomes as it triggers transcription, but how it does so has remained obscure. The reverse process, repression of transcription, has often been correlated with the presence of nucleosomes. But it is not known whether nucleosomes are required for that effect. A new quantitative assay describes, for any given location, the fraction of DNA molecules in the population that bears a nucleosome at any given instant. This allows us to follow the time courses of nucleosome removal and reformation, in wild-type and mutant cells, upon activation (by galactose) and repression (by glucose) of the GAL genes of yeast. We show that upon being freed of its inhibitor Gal80 by the action of galactose, Gal4 quickly recruits SWI/SNF to the genes, and that nucleosome “remodeler” rapidly removes promoter nucleosomes. In the absence of SWI/SNF, Gal4′s action also results in nucleosome removal and the activation of transcription, but both processes are significantly delayed. Addition of glucose to cells growing in galactose represses transcription. But if galactose remains present, Gal4 continues to work, recruiting SWI/SNF and maintaining the promoter nucleosome-free despite it being repressed. This requirement for galactose is obviated in a mutant in which Gal4 works constitutively. These results show how an activator's recruiting function can control chromatin structure both during gene activation and repression. Thus, both under activating and repressing conditions, the activator can recruit an enzymatic machine that removes promoter nucleosomes. Our results show that whereas promoter nucleosome removal invariably accompanies activation, reformation of nucleosomes is not required for repression. The finding that there are two routes to nucleosome removal and activation of transcription—one that requires the action of SWI/SNF recruited by the activator, and a slower one that does not—clarifies our understanding of the early events of gene activation, and in particular corrects earlier reports that SWI/SNF plays no role in GAL gene induction. Our finding that chromatin structure is irrelevant for repression as studied here—that is, repression sets in as efficiently whether or not promoter nucleosomes are allowed to reform—contradicts the widely held, but little tested, idea that nucleosomes are required for repression. These findings were made possible by our nucleosome occupancy assay. The assay, we believe, will prove useful in studying other outstanding issues in the field.
In this paper, we examine activation and repression of transcription of a gene in yeast. This gene, like the typical human gene, is wrapped in DNA-protein packets called nucleosomes. It is widely believed that these condensed packets are unwrapped, in a process called nucleosome removal, as transcription begins. Here, we describe a new quantitative nucleosome assay that allows us to measure the time course of nucleosome removal and replacement as the gene is activated and repressed. The yeast activator Gal4, bound to DNA, effects activation of gene transcription in two separate steps. First, it recruits to the gene an enzyme that strips off nucleosomes; and second (as we had shown previously), it recruits the transcriptional machinery. We also show that transcription of the gene can be turned off well before nucleosomes have been returned to the gene. In this case, the activator continues to recruit the nucleosome-remover, but either the transcriptional machinery is not recruited, or if it is, it is soon destroyed
A new nucleosome-occupancy technique reveals how the transcriptional activator Gal4 determines chromatin structure as genes are activated and repressed.
Streptococcus gordonii is an early colonizer of the human oral cavity and an abundant constituent of oral biofilms. Two tandemly arranged gene clusters, designated lac and gal, were identified in the S. gordonii DL1 genome, which encode genes of the tagatose pathway (lacABCD) and sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzyme II permeases. Genes encoding a predicted phospho-β-galactosidase (LacG), a DeoR family transcriptional regulator (LacR), and a transcriptional antiterminator (LacT) were also present in the clusters. Growth and PTS assays supported that the permease designated EIILac transports lactose and galactose, whereas EIIGal transports galactose. The expression of the gene for EIIGal was markedly upregulated in cells growing on galactose. Using promoter-cat fusions, a role for LacR in the regulation of the expressions of both gene clusters was demonstrated, and the gal cluster was also shown to be sensitive to repression by CcpA. The deletion of lacT caused an inability to grow on lactose, apparently because of its role in the regulation of the expression of the genes for EIILac, but had little effect on galactose utilization. S. gordonii maintained a selective advantage over Streptococcus mutans in a mixed-species competition assay, associated with its possession of a high-affinity galactose PTS, although S. mutans could persist better at low pHs. Collectively, these results support the concept that the galactose and lactose systems of S. gordonii are subject to complex regulation and that a high-affinity galactose PTS may be advantageous when S. gordonii is competing against the caries pathogen S. mutans in oral biofilms.
Galactose metabolism in Lactobacillus casei 64H was analyzed by genetic and biochemical methods. Mutants with defects in ptsH, galK, or the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway were isolated either by positive selection using 2-deoxyglucose or 2-deoxygalactose or by an enrichment procedure with streptozotocin. ptsH mutations abolish growth on lactose, cellobiose, N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, fructose, mannitol, glucitol, and ribitol, while growth on galactose continues at a reduced rate. Growth on galactose is also reduced, but not abolished, in galK mutants. A mutation in galK in combination with a mutation in the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway results in sensitivity to galactose and lactose, while a galK mutation in combination with a mutation in ptsH completely abolishes galactose metabolism. Transport assays, in vitro phosphorylation assays, and thin-layer chromatography of intermediates of galactose metabolism also indicate the functioning of a permease/Leloir pathway and a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS)/tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. The galactose-PTS is induced by growth on either galactose or lactose, but the induction kinetics for the two substrates are different.
Galactose is metabolized in humans and other species by the three-enzyme Leloir pathway comprised of galactokinase (GALK), galactose 1-P uridylyltransferase (GALT), and UDP galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE). Impairment of GALT or GALE in humans results in the potentially lethal disorder galactosemia, and loss of either enzyme in yeast results in galactose-dependent growth arrest of cultures despite the availability of an alternate carbon source. In contrast, loss of GALK in humans is not life-threatening, and in yeast has no impact on the growth of cultures challenged with galactose. Further, the growth of both GALT-null and GALE-null yeast challenged with galactose is rescued by loss of GALK, thereby implicating the GALK reaction product, gal-1P, for a role in the galactose-sensitivity of both strains. However, the nature of that relationship has remained unclear. Here we have developed and applied a doxycycline-repressible allele of galactokinase to define the quantitative relationship between galactokinase activity, gal-1P accumulation, and growth arrest of galactose-challenged GALT or GALE-deficient yeast. Our results demonstrate a clear threshold relationship between gal-1P accumulation and galactose-mediated growth arrest in both GALT-null and GALE-null yeast, however, the threshold for the two strains is distinct. Further, we tested the galactose-sensitivity of yeast double-null for GALT and GALE, and found that although loss of GALT barely changed accumulation of gal-1P, it significantly lowered the accumulation of UDP-gal, and also dramatically rescued growth of the GALE-null cells. Together, these data suggest that while gal-1P alone may account for the galactose-sensitivity of GALT-null cells, other factors, likely to include UDP-gal accumulation, must contribute to the galactose-sensitivity of GALE-null cells.
galactose; galactosemia; yeast; gal-1P; GALT; GALE; GALK