X-ray examinations of the feet, knees, and hands were performed on 20 diabetics with severe neuropathy and 20 diabetics with no evidence of neuropathy but with a similar mean age and duration of diabetes. All were under 53 years old with no clinical evidence of peripheral vascular disease. Medial arterial calcification was much more common and extensive in the patients with neuropathy, occurring in the feet in 15 and in the hands in eight compared with in four (p less than 0.001) and none (p less than 0.001) of the controls respectively. Although there was some correlation between calcification and both proteinuria (p less than 0.05) and proliferative retinopathy (p less than 0.02), the association between calcification and neuropathy (p less than 0.001) was much stronger. Neuropathy, with sympathetic denervation of the smooth muscle of the tunica media, may be important in the aetiology of medial arterial calcification.
The prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) can approach 50% in subjects with longer-duration diabetes. The most common neuropathies are generalized symmetrical chronic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and autonomic neuropathy. It is important to recognize that 50% of subjects with DPN may have no symptoms and only careful clinical examination may reveal the diagnosis. DPN, especially painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, is associated with poor quality of life. Although there is a better understanding of the pathophysiology of DPN and the mechanisms of pain, treatment remains challenging and is limited by variable efficacy and side effects of therapies. Intensification of glycemic control remains the cornerstone for the prevention or delay of DPN but optimization of other traditional cardiovascular risk factors may also be of benefit. The management of DPN relies on its early recognition and needs to be individually based on comorbidities and tolerability to medications. To date, most pharmacological strategies focus upon symptom control. In the management of pain, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and anticonvulsants alone or in combination are current first-line therapies followed by use of opiates. Topical agents may offer symptomatic relief in some patients. Disease-modifying agents are still in development and to date, antioxidant α-lipoic acid has shown the most promising effect. Further development and testing of therapies based upon improved understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this common and disabling complication is urgently required.
diabetes; neuropathic pain; microvascular; glucose
We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass-Angioplasty-Revascularization-Investigation-2-Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing versus insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. 2368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD were evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression, adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, HbA1c, diabetes duration. 51% BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR1.57, 1.15, 2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea or combination of sulfonylurea/metformin/TZD had marginally higher rates of DPN than the metformin/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN.
diabetic peripheral neuropathy; type 2 diabetes; coronary artery disease; Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument; glycemic control therapy
The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling pathway (RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling) is implicated in the osteolysis associated with diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN); however, the links with medial arterial calcification (MAC) seen in people with CN are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of RANKL/OPG in MAC in patients with CN.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Bio-plex multiarray technology were used to quantify a range of cytokines, including RANKL and OPG in sera from 10 patients with diabetes, 12 patients with CN, and 5 healthy volunteers. Human tibial artery segments were immunohistochemically stained with Alizarin red and human RANKL antibody. Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were also explanted from arterial segments for in vitro studies.
We demonstrate colocalization and upregulation of RANKL expression in areas displaying MAC. Systemic levels of RANKL, OPG, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-8, granulocyte colony–stimulating factor) were elevated in those with CN compared with diabetic patients and healthy control subjects. Human VSMCs cultured in CN serum showed accelerated osteoblastic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) and mineralization (alizarin red staining) compared with cells treated with diabetic or control serum (P < 0.05). Coincubation with OPG, the decoy receptor for RANKL, attenuated osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs and was independent of a high calcium-phosphate milieu. The accelerated mineralization induced by RANKL and CN serum correlated with nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, a process abrogated by OPG.
Our data provide direct evidence that RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling is modulated in patients with CN and plays a role in vascular calcification. This study highlights this pathway as a potential target for intervention.
Medial arterial calcification (MAC) is common in diabetes, has characteristic x-ray appearance and has been linked with peripheral arterial stiffness and CVD. However few studies have measured x-ray MAC. It has been suggested that an ankle brachial index (ABI) > 1.30 or ankle brachial difference (ABD) > 75mmHg may identify x-ray MAC, but test characteristics are unknown. We hypothesized that an ABI > 1.30 and ABD > 75mmHg would have high specificity but low sensitivity for MAC on x-ray.
185 community-living individuals with type 1 diabetes.
The ABI and the ABD.
Linear “tram-track” calcifications in the lower limbs characteristic of MAC
Mean age was 32±6 and mean diabetes duration was 23±7 years. Ninety seven individuals (57%) had x-ray MAC, 15 (8%) had ABI > 1.30, and 14 (8%) had ABD > 75 mmHg. Using the ABI, the area under the ROC for MAC was modest (0.65) and was slightly higher for the ABD (0.75). An ABI > 1.30 had high specificity (99%) and PPV (93%), but poor sensitivity (14%), and an overall accuracy of 55% for MAC. In turn, an ABD > 50mmHg remained highly specific (98%), but had higher sensitivity (30%) and overall accuracy (62%).
Individuals with type 1 diabetes and an ABI > 1.30 or ABD > 50mmHg are very likely to have MAC on x-ray, yet many with MAC will not have ABI or ABD above these thresholds. Given high specificity, evaluating high ABI or ABD may be useful to understand correlates of MAC, but may underestimate MAC prevalence.
diabetes; cardiovascular disease; risk factor; calcium; test characteristics
Skin biopsies have primarily been used to study the non-myelinated nerve fibers of the epidermis in a variety of neuropathies. In the present study, we have expanded the skin biopsy technique to glabrous, non-hairy skin to evaluate myelinated nerve fibers in the most highly prevalent peripheral nerve disease, diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Twenty patients with DPN (Type I, n=9; Type II, n=11) and sixteen age-matched healthy controls (ages 29–73) underwent skin biopsy of the index finger, nerve conduction studies, and composite neuropathy scoring. In patients with DPN, we found a statistically significant reduction of both mechanoreceptive Meissner corpuscles (MC) and their afferent myelinated nerve fibers (p=0.01). This myelinated nerve fiber loss was correlated with the decreased amplitudes of sensory/motor responses in nerve conduction studies. This study supports the utilization of skin biopsy to quantitatively evaluate axonal loss of myelinated nerve fibers in patients with DPN.
Skin biopsy; diabetic polyneuropathy; glabrous skin; myelinated fibers; Meissner corpuscles
To evaluate the impact of former intensive versus conventional insulin treatment on neuropathy in Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) intensive and conventional treatment subjects with type 1 diabetes 13–14 years after DCCT closeout, during which time the two groups had achieved similar A1C levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Clinical and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) performed during the DCCT were repeated during the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study by examiners masked to treatment status on 603 former intensive and 583 former conventional treatment subjects. Clinical neuropathy was defined by symptoms, sensory signs, or reflex changes consistent with distal polyneuropathy and confirmed with NCS abnormalities involving two or more nerves among the median, peroneal, and sural nerves.
The prevalence of neuropathy increased 13–14 years after DCCT closeout from 9 to 25% in former intensive and from 17 to 35% in former conventional treatment groups, but the difference between groups remained significant (P < 0.001), and the incidence of neuropathy remained lower among former intensive (22%) than former conventional (28%) treatment subjects (P = 0.0125). Analytic models of incident neuropathy that adjusted for differences in NCS results at DCCT closeout showed no significant risk reduction associated with former intensive treatment during follow-up (odds ratio 1.17 [95% CI 0.84–1.63]). However, a significant persistent treatment group effect was observed for several NCS measures. Longitudinal analyses of overall glycemic control showed a significant association between mean A1C and measures of incident and prevalent neuropathy.
The benefits of former intensive insulin treatment persisted for 13–14 years after DCCT closeout and provide evidence of a durable effect of prior intensive treatment on neuropathy.
Objective and design
Low grade inflammation is of pathogenic importance in atherosclerosis and in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Matrix GLA protein (MGP), an inhibitor of medial calcification of arteries, is increased in patients with atherosclerosis. In the present study levels of markers of calcification (MGP) and inflammation (YKL-40, hsCRP) were evaluated in patients with T2 D and/or ischemic heart disease (IHD).
Materials and methods
The study population consisted of 1) patients with T2D (n = 45); 2) patients with IHD (n = 37); patients with both T2D and IHD (n = 20) and 4) healthy controls (n = 20). Biochemical parameters were measured in venous blood samples.
Levels of MGP, YKL-40 and hsCRP were increased in patients with IHD and/or T2D (p < 0.0001) and patients with T2D and IHD had higher MGP levels (p < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analyses MGP was associated with patient category (r = 0.36, p < 0.001), and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.29, p < 0.001) adjusting for the significant covariates.
In patients with T2D and/or IHD we found increased levels of plasma MGP indicative of a progressing calcification process. This process is paralleled by increased levels of YKL-40 and hsCRP, which most likely reflect the concomitant low grade inflammatory state in these patients
On the basis of the Framingham risk algorithm, overestimation of clinical events has been reported in some European populations. Electron-beam computed tomography-derived quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC) allows for noninvasive assessment of coronary atherosclerosis in the general population and may thus add important in vivo information on the path from risk factor exposure to formation of clinical events. The current study was undertaken to compare the relationship between risk factors and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis between non-Hispanic white cohorts in Germany and US-America, the hypothesis being that subclinical coronary atherosclerosis might be less prevalent in Europe at the same level of classical risk factor exposure.
The Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) study, conducted in the German Ruhr area and the Epidemiology of Coronary Calcification (ECAC) study, conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, both recruited large unselected cohorts, men and women aged 45 – 74 years, from the general population. All subjects with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or stroke were included (n = 3,120 in HNR, n = 703 in ECAC). Coronary risk factors were assessed by personal and computer-assisted interviews and direct laboratory measurements. Cardiovascular medication use (antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and anti-diabetic) was noted. CAC scores were determined using the Agatston method in an identical fashion in both studies.
Adverse levels of risk factors were more prevalent, and the Framingham risk score was higher (10.6 ± 7.6 vs. 9.3 ± 7.1, p < 0.001) in HNR than ECAC, respectively. There was no difference in body mass index (BMI). CAC scores were greater in HNR than in ECAC (mean values, 155.7 ± 423.0 versus 107.2 ± 280.0; median values, 11.9 versus 2.4; p < 0.001, respectively). When subjects were matched on CAD risk factors, presence and quantity of CAC were similar in the 2 cohorts. Risk factors significantly associated with CAC score in both studies included: age, male sex, current and former smoking, systolic blood pressure, and non HDL-cholesterol. Inferences were similar after excluding subjects using lipid- or blood pressure-lowering medications. Using the same risk factor variables for modelling, the predicted CAC scores were comparable in both cohorts.
In the higher-risk German cohort, presence and quantity of CAC were greater than in the lower-risk US-American cohort. Risk factor associations, however, with CAC were very similar in both unselected populations. As opposed to studies concerning clinical endpoints, we could not demonstrate a relative increase in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the US-American cohort.
To estimate the accuracy of Neuropad for the diagnosis and staging of distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DPN) across different stages of neuropathy, using multiple-level likelihood ratios (LRs) to interpret the time necessary to complete the color change of the test.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We conducted a cross-sectional, cohort-type diagnostic accuracy study in 251 consecutive adult type 2 diabetic patients with no peripheral arterial disease or other potential causes of neuropathy, who were recruited between January 2005 and December 2008 from the diabetes outpatient clinics in Alexandroupolis Hospital, Greece. Patients were tested for DPN by means of the neuropathy disability score (NDS) and Neuropad. Multiple-level LRs for time to complete color change were calculated across different stages of neuropathy.
The areas under the curve for the diagnosis of any (NDS of ≥3), at least moderate (NDS of ≥6), or severe (NDS of ≥9) DPN were 0.91, 0.96, and 0.97, respectively. The calculation of multiple-level LRs showed that time to complete color change <360 s suggested the absence of neuropathy. Values between 360 and 1,000 s were indicative of mild neuropathy. Finally, values between 1,000 and 1,200 or >1,200 s were strongly suggestive of moderate or severe DPN, respectively.
Neuropad could be used as a triage test for the diagnosis and staging of DPN in patients with type 2 diabetes, prompting referral to specialized care setting.
Depression is associated with poor glycemic control and complications in people with type 1 diabetes. We assessed the prevalence of depression and antidepressant medication use among adults with and without type 1 diabetes and the association between depression and diabetes complications.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In 2006–2008, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study applied the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) to 458 participants with type 1 diabetes (47% male, aged 44 ± 9 years, type 1 diabetes duration 29 ± 9 years) and 546 participants without diabetes (nondiabetic group) (51% male, aged 47 ± 9 years). Use of antidepressant medication was self-reported. Depression was defined as a BDI-II score >14 and/or use of antidepressant medication. Occurrence of diabetes complications (retinopathy, blindness, neuropathy, diabetes-related amputation, and kidney or pancreas transplantation) was self-reported.
Mean BDI-II score, adjusted for age and sex, was significantly higher in participants with type 1 diabetes than in nondiabetic participants (least-squares mean ± SE: 7.4 ± 0.3 vs. 5.0 ± 0.3; P < 0.0001). Type 1 diabetic participants reported using more antidepressant medications (20.7 vs. 12.1%, P = 0.0003). More type 1 diabetic than nondiabetic participants were classified as depressed by BDI-II cut score (17.5 vs. 5.7%, P < 0.0001) or by either BDI-II cut score or antidepressant use (32.1 vs. 16.0%, P < 0.0001). Participants reporting diabetes complications (n = 209) had higher mean BDI-II scores than those without complications (10.7 ± 9.3 vs. 6.4 ± 6.3, P < 0.0001).
Compared with nondiabetic participants, adults with type 1 diabetes report more symptoms of depression and more antidepressant medication usage. Depression is highly prevalent in type 1 diabetes and requires further study on assessment and treatment.
The significance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among patients with diabetes is unknown. We sought to determine whether a diagnosis of NAFLD influenced mortality among a community-based cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
337 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota with diabetes mellitus diagnosed between 1980–2000 were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo Laboratory Information System and followed for 10.9 ± 5.2 years (range 0.1–25). Survival was analysed using Cox proportional hazards modelling with NAFLD treated as a time-dependent covariate.
Among the 337 residents, 116 were diagnosed with NAFLD 0.9 ±4.6 years after diabetes diagnosis. Patients with NAFLD were younger, and more likely to be female, and obese. Overall 99/337 (29%) patients died. In multivariate analysis to adjust for confounders, overall mortality was significantly associated with a diagnosis of NAFLD (hazard ratio [HR] 2.2; 95% confidence Interval [CI] 1.1, 4.2; p = 0.03), presence of ischemic heart disease (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2, 4.4), and duration of diabetes (HR per 1 year, 1.1; 95% CI 1.03, 1.2). The most common causes of death in the NAFLD cohort were malignancy (33% of deaths), liver-related complications (19% of deaths), and ischemic heart disease (19% of deaths). In adjusted multivariate models, NAFLD was borderline associated with an increased risk of dying from malignancy (HR 2.3; 95% CI 0.9, 5.9; p = 0.09), and not from cardiovascular disease (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.3, 2.4; p = 0.81)
The diagnosis of NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of overall death among patients with diabetes mellitus.
To assess insulin action on peripheral glucose utilization and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression as a predictor of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 1 diabetes and nondiabetic controls.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Insulin action was measured by a three-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (4, 8, and 40 mU/m2/min) in 87 subjects from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes cohort (40 diabetic, 47 nondiabetic; mean age 45 ± 8 years; 55% female).
Peripheral glucose utilization was lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic controls: glucose infusion rate (mg/kg FFM/min) = 6.19 ± 0.72 vs. 12.71 ± 0.66, mean ± SE, P < 0.0001, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, and final clamp glucose and insulin. Insulin-induced NEFA suppression was also lower in type 1 diabetic compared with nondiabetic subjects: NEFA levels (μM) during 8 mU/m2/min insulin infusion = 370 ± 27 vs. 185 ± 25, P < 0.0001, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, and time point insulin. Lower glucose utilization and higher NEFA levels, correlated with CAC volume (r = −0.42, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.41, P < 0.0001, respectively) and predicted the presence of CAC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.22–0.93, P = 0.03; OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.08–5.32, P = 0.032, respectively). Insulin resistance did not correlate with GHb or continuous glucose monitoring parameters.
Type 1 diabetic patients are insulin resistant compared with nondiabetic subjects, and the degree of resistance is not related to current glycemic control. Insulin resistance predicts the extent of coronary artery calcification and may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes as well as subjects without diabetes.
Patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) are often confronted with ulceration of foot soles. Increased plantar pressure under the forefoot has been identified as a major risk factor for ulceration. This study sets out to test the hypothesis that changes in gait characteristics induced by DPN related muscle weakness are the origin of the elevated plantar pressures.
Three groups of subjects participated: people diagnosed with diabetes without polyneuropathy (DC), people diagnosed with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and healthy, age-matched controls (HC). In all subjects isometric strength of plantar and dorsal flexors was assessed. Moreover, joint moments at ankle, knee and hip joints were determined while walking barefoot at a velocity of 1.4 m/s. Simultaneously plantar pressure patterns were measured.
Compared to HC-subjects, DPN-participants walked with a significantly increased internal plantar flexor moment at the first half of the stance phase. Also in DPN-subjects the maximal braking and propelling force applied to the floor was decreased. Moreover, in DPN-subjects the ratio of forefoot-to-rear foot plantar pressures was increased. Body-mass normalized strength of dorsal flexors showed a trend to be reduced in people with diabetes, both DC and DPN, compared to HC-subjects. Plantar flexors tended to be less weak in DC compared to HC and in DPN relative to DC.
The results of this study suggest that adverse plantar pressure patterns are associated with redistribution of joint moments, and a consequent reduced capacity to control forward velocity at heel strike.
Cardiovascular mortality is associated with vascular calcification (VC) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to find factors related with medial artery calcification on the plain radiography of feet by comparing C-reactive protein (CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and lipid profile including oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and to elucidate associations among these factors in HD patients. Forty-eight HD patients were recruited for this study. VC in the feet was detected in 18 patients (37.5%) among total patients and 12 patients (85.7%) among diabetic patients. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), pulse pressure, ox-LDL/LDL were higher and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was lower in patients with VC than in patients without VC. Negative associations were found between HDL and CRP, PAI-1. PAI-1 had positive association with ox-LDL/LDL. History of CVD was the only determinant of vascular calcification on the plain radiography of feet. Ox-LDL/LDL, HDL, CRP, and PAI-1 were closely related with one another in HD patients. History of CVD is the most important factor associated with the presence of VC and low HDL and relatively high oxidized LDL/LDL ratio may affect VC formation on the plain radiography in the feet of HD patients.
Vascular Calcification; Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein; High Density Lipoproteins; Hemodialysis
Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of pruritus in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects and the relevance of symptoms, signs, and nerve functions of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) of pruritus.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A large-scale survey of 2,656 diabetic outpatients and 499 nondiabetic subjects was performed. In diabetic subjects, the relationship between pruritus and age, sex, diabetic duration, A1C, Achilles tendon reflex (ATR), and abnormal sensation in legs was evaluated. In 105 diabetic subjects, nerve conduction studies, quantitative vibratory threshold (QVT), heart rate variability, and a fall of systolic blood pressure at a head-up tilt test (ΔBP) were performed, and the relationships between pruritus and nerve functions were evaluated.
Although the prevalence of truncal pruritus of unknown origin (TPUO) in diabetic subjects was significantly higher than that in age-matched nondiabetic subjects (11.3 vs. 2.9%, P = 0.0001), the prevalence of other pruritus was not different between the two groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that abnormal sensation and ATR areflexia were independent risk factors for TPUO in age, sex, duration of diabetes, and A1C. ΔBP in diabetic subjects with TPUO was significantly impaired compared with that in those without TPUO. Larger ΔBP was identified as a significant risk factor of TPUO independent of other nerve dysfunctions by multiple logistic regression analysis.
TPUO is significantly more frequent in diabetic than in nondiabetic individuals. TPUO is significantly associated with symptoms and signs of DPN, including impaired blood pressure response in a head-up tilt test. TPUO, therefore, might be a newly recognized symptom of DPN.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) alters circulating progenitor cells relevant for the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD). While endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced, there is no data on procalcific polarization of circulating progenitors, which may contribute to vascular calcification in these patients. In a cohort of 107 subjects with and without DM and CAD, we analyzed the pro-calcific versus endothelial differentiation status of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells. Endothelial commitment was determined by expression of VEGFR-2 (KDR) and pro-calcific polarization by expression of osteocalcin (OC) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP). We found that DM patients had significantly higher expression of OC and BAP on circulating CD34+ cells than control subjects, especially in the presence of CAD. In patients with DM and CAD, the ratio of OC/KDR, BAP/KDR, and OC+BAP/KDR was about 3-fold increased than in other groups. EPCs cultured from DM patients with CAD occasionally formed structures highly suggestive of calcified nodules, and the expression of osteogenic markers by EPCs from control subjects was significantly increased in response to the toll-like receptor agonist LPS. In conclusion, circulating progenitor cells of diabetic patients show a phenotypic drift toward a pro-calcific phenotype that may be driven by inflammatory signals.
We aim to evaluate the relationship between percent of predicted left ventricular mass (%PredLVM) and valve calcification in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Cardiac valve calcification has been associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which portends cardiovascular events. However, this relationship and its mediators are poorly understood.
MESA is a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease in whom serial cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging were performed. The relationships between baseline %PredLVM and the prevalence, severity, and incidence of aortic valve (AVC) and mitral annulus calcification (MAC) were determined by regression modeling.
Prevalent AVC was observed in 630 and MAC in 442 of 5,042 subjects (median 55.9 and 71.1 Agatston units, respectively). After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, physical activity, diabetes, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, smoking, kidney function, serum lipids, and antihypertensive and statin medications, %PredLVM was associated with prevalent AVC (OR=1.18 per SD increase in %PredLVM [95%CI 1.08 – 1.30]; p=0.0004) and MAC (OR=1.18 [95%CI 1.06 – 1.32]; p=0.002). Similarly, %PredLVM was associated with increased severity of prevalent AVC (risk difference = 0.26 [95%CI 0.15 – 0.38]; p<0.0001) and MAC (risk difference = 0.20 [95%CI 0.03 – 0.37]; p=0.02). During follow-up (mean 2.4±0.9 years), 153 subjects (4%) developed AVC and 198 (5%) MAC. %PredLVM was associated with incident AVC (OR=1.24 [95%CI 1.04 – 1.47]; p=0.02) and MAC (OR=1.18 [1.01-1.40]; p=0.04). Further adjustment for inflammatory markers and coronary artery calcification did not attenuate these associations. Specifically, concentric LVH most strongly predicted incident valve calcification.
Within the MESA cohort, LVH was associated with prevalence, severity, and incidence of valve calcification independent of hypertension and other identified confounders.
aortic valve; calcification; left ventricular mass; mitral valve annulus
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a growing health problem globally, has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently, Fas-mediated apoptosis has been proposed as a causative factor responsible for neuronal degeneration in diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), but there are very few studies to show association of serum soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) level with severity of neuropathy.
Aim and Objective:
The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum sFasL, a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in apoptosis, has any association with severity of peripheral neuropathy in Type 2 DM.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted in Department of Physiology in collaboration with Department of Endocrinology, IPGME&R. sFasL levels in serum were assessed using ELISA method in healthy individuals (n = 16), newly diagnosed diabetic controls (n = 16) without any complications, and in DPN cases (n = 33) with predominant neuropathy only. All subjects underwent both electrodiagnostic procedures and vibration perception threshold (VPT) for quantitative assessment of the severity of neuropathy. Using nerve conduction studies, amplitudes, velocities, and latencies of both sensory and motor nerves were recorded.
In DPN patients, concentration of sFasL levels (87.53 ± 3.49) was significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) not only when compared with normal controls (225.30 ± 2.97) but also when compared with diabetic patients without any complication (161 ± 3.63). Moreover, the concentration of sFasL is significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with the severity of neuropathy both by VPT and nerve conduction velocity (NCV).
Fas-mediated apoptosis is involved in Type 2 DM and might be associated with the severity of polyneuropathy.
Diabetic polyneuropathy; nerve conduction velocity; soluble Fas ligand
Vascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Arterial calcification of the aorta, coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries becomes more prevalent with age. Genomewide association studies have identified regions of the genome linked to vascular calcification, and these same regions are linked to myocardial infarction risk. The 9p21 region linked to vascular disease and inflammation also associates with vascular calcification. In addition to these common variants, rare genetic defects can serve as primary triggers of accelerated and premature calcification. Infancy-associated calcific disorders are caused by loss of function mutations in ENPP1 an enzyme that produces extracellular pyrophosphate. Adult onset vascular calcification is linked to mutations NTE5, another enzyme that regulates extracellular phosphate metabolism. Common conditions that secondarily enhance vascular calcification include atherosclerosis, metabolic dysfunction, diabetes, and impaired renal clearance. Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation, along with biophysical properties, converge with these predisposing factors to promote soft tissue mineralization. Vascular calcification is accompanied by an osteogenic profile, and this osteogenic conversion is seen within the vascular smooth muscle itself as well as the matrix. Herein we will review the genetic causes of medial calcification in the smooth muscle layer, focusing on recent discoveries of gene mutations that regulate extracellular matrix phosphate production and the role of S100 proteins as promoters of vascular calcification.
vascular smooth muscle; calcification; S100/calgranulin
Impairment of skin quality may contribute to diabetic foot ulceration (DFU). Our goal was to determine whether high-risk patients exhibited specific skin structural and metabolic deficits that could predispose to foot complications.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 46 patients comprising 9 diabetic control subjects, 16 with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) alone, and 21 with recurrent DFUs (including 9 with Charcot neuroarthropathy [CNA]) were recruited and compared with 14 nondiabetic control (NDC) subjects. DPN was assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Skin punch biopsies (3 mm) were performed on upper and lower leg skin for measurements of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), structural analysis, type 1 procollagen abundance, tissue degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) immunoreactivity.
MNSI scores were comparable across DPN groups. IENFD was decreased by diabetes and DPN but did not differ between neuropathic groups. Skin structural deficit scores were elevated in all neuropathic subjects, particularly in the DFU group. Type 1 procollagen abundance was reduced in DFU subjects 387 ± 256 units (mean ± 1 SD) compared with NDC subjects (715 ± 100, P < 0.001). MMP-1 and MMP-2 were activated by diabetes. PAR immunoreactivity was increased in DFU (particularly in the CNA group; P < 0.01) compared with other DPN subjects.
Increased PAR, reduced type 1 procollagen abundance, and impaired skin structure are associated with foot complications in diabetes. The potential of therapies that improve skin quality to reduce DFU needs to be investigated.
Arterial media calcification (AMC) is highly prevalent and is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, stroke and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Previous research suggests that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are responsible for vascular calcification in diabetic patients. The potential link between oxidative stress and AGEs-induced vascular calcification, however, has not been examined.
Male Wistar rats received a high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a single dose of streptozotocin to induce DM (DM). Calcification was induced with Vitamin D3 and nicotine (VDN). We started VDN treatment at 1 week after the initial streptozotocin injection (DM+VDN). Age-matched rats were used as controls (CON). Metabolic parameters, aortic calcium content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, aorta receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and aorta AGEs levels were measured. In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured with AGEs in DMEM containing 10 mmol·L-1 ß -glycerophosphate (ß-GP). Calcium content and ALP activity were used to identify osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization. Western blots were used to examine protein expression of Cu/Zn SOD, NADPH oxidase Nox1 and RAGE. In addition, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was evaluated using fluorescent techniques with dihydroethidine (DHE) method.
The DM+VDN group showed a significant increase in aortic calcium content, levels of aorta AGEs, MDA content, ALP protein levels and RAGE expression, although Cu/Zn SOD activity decreased significantly. In vitro, enhanced Nox1, RAGE expression as well as the production of intracellular superoxide anions, and reduced expression of Cu/Zn SOD induced by AGEs were attenuated by the anti-RAGE antibody or a ROS inhibitor. Furthermore, the AGEs-stimulated ROS increase was also significantly inhibited by a SOD mimetic. Increased ALP activity and calcium deposition were also inhibited markedly by the ROS inhibitor and the anti-RAGE antibody.
These results suggest that AGEs enhance vascular calcification partly through a RAGE/oxidative stress pathway.
Diabetes mellitus; Advanced glycation end products; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Calcification; Oxidative stress
The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, an observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) type 1 diabetes cohort, measured coronary artery calcification (CAC), an index of atherosclerosis, with computed tomography (CT) in 1,205 EDIC patients at ~7–9 years after the end of the DCCT. We examined the influence of the 6.5 years of prior conventional versus intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT, as well as the effects of cardiovascular disease risk factors, on CAC. The prevalences of CAC >0 and >200 Agatston units were 31.0 and 8.5%, respectively. Compared with the conventional treatment group, the intensive group had significantly lower geometric mean CAC scores and a lower prevalence of CAC >0 in the primary retinopathy prevention cohort, but not in the secondary intervention cohort, and a lower prevalence of CAC >200 in the combined cohorts. Waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, before or at the time of CT, were significantly associated with CAC in univariate and multivariate analyses. CAC was associated with mean HbA1c (A1C) levels before enrollment, during the DCCT, and during the EDIC study. Prior intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT was associated with less atherosclerosis, largely because of reduced levels of A1C during the DCCT.
Objectives. There are limited clinical data revealing the relationship between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and systemic inflammation. The goal of the present study was to compare high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with and without MAC and investigate the relationship between MAC and hs-CRP. Methods. One hundred patients with MAC who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 100 age-matched controls without MAC who underwent TTE were included in our study. Hs-CRP levels were compared between groups. Results. Prevalence of female gender, hypertension, and coronary artery disease were significantly higher in the MAC group than in the control group (64% versus 45%, P = 0.007, 42% versus 28%, P = 0.03 and 37% versus 18%, P = 0.003, resp.). On multivariate analysis, age, gender, and coronary artery disease were the only independent predictors of MAC. The levels of hs-CRP were higher in the MAC group than in the control group (2.02 ± 0.35 versus 1.43 ± 0.47 mg/dl, P < 0.001). This increase in hs-CRP levels in the MAC group persisted in patients without hypertension, coronary artery disease, and in male patients when compared to the control group. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that hs-CRP, which is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation, increased in patients with MAC.
Process of accelerated atherosclerosis specific for uremia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may be influenced by the different structure of arteries. The study assesses the influence of traditional and novel risk factors on calcification of coronary arteries (CAC) and abdominal aorta (AAC) in hemodialysis patients (HD).
CAC and AAC were assessed by CT in 104 prevalent adult HD and 14 apparently healthy subjects with normal kidney function (control group). Mineral metabolism parameters, plasma levels of FGF-23, MGP, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, fetuin-A, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured.
CAC and AAC (calcification score ≥ 1) were found in 76 (73.1%) and 83 (79.8%) HD respectively, more frequent than in the control group. In 7 HD with AAC no CAC were detected. The frequency and severity of calcifications increased with age. Both CAC and AAC were more frequently detected in diabetics (OR = 17.37 and 13.00, respectively). CAC score was significantly greater in males. CAC and AAC scores were correlated significantly with pack-years of smoking and plasma osteoprotegrin levels. However the independent contribution of plasma osteoprotegerin levels was not confirmed in multiple regression analysis. Age (OR = 1.13) and hemodialysis vintage (OR = 1.14) were the independent risk factor favoring the occurrence of CAC; while age (OR = 1.20) was the only predictor of AAC occurrence in HD.
1. AAC precedes the occurrence of CAC in HD patients. 2. The exposition to uremic milieu and systemic chronic microinflammation has more deteriorative effect on the CAC than the AAC.
Atherosclerosis; Risk factors; Hemodialysis