Tumor progression and metastasis are complex processes involving intricate interplay among multiple gene products. Astrocyte Elevated Gene (AEG)-1 was cloned as an HIV-1- and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-inducible transcript in primary human fetal astrocytes by a rapid subtraction hybridization approach. AEG-1 downregulates the expression of the glutamate transporter EAAT2, thus it is implicated in glutamate-induced excitotoxic damage to neurons as evident in HIV-associated neurodegeneration. Interestingly, AEG-1 expression is elevated in subsets of breast cancer, glioblastoma multiforme and melanoma cells and AEG-1 cooperates with Ha-ras to augment the transformed phenotype of normal immortal cells. Moreover, AEG-1 is overexpressed in >95% of human malignant glioma samples when compared with normal human brain. Overexpression of AEG-1 increases and siRNA inhibition of AEG-1 decreases migration and invasion of human glioma cells, respectively. AEG-1 contains a lung-homing domain facilitating breast tumor metastasis to lungs. These findings indicate that AEG-1 might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis, progression and metastasis of diverse cancers. Our recent observations indicate that AEG-1 exerts its effects by activating the NF-κB pathway and AEG-1 is a downstream target of Ha-ras and plays an important role in Ha-ras-mediated tumorigenesis. These provocative findings are intensifying interest in AEG-1 as a crucial regulator of tumor progression and metastasis and as a potential mediator of neurodegeneration. In this review, we discuss the cloning, structure and function(s) of AEG-1 and provide recent insights into the diverse actions and intriguing properties of this molecule.
AEG-1; Progression; Metastasis; Ha-ras oncogene; Glutamate excitotoxicity; AEG-1 promoter
Malignant gliomas including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite multimodal treatment including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, median survival for patients with GBMs is only 12–15 months. Identifying molecules critical for glioma progression is crucial for devising effective targeted therapy. In the present study, we investigated the potential contribution of Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) in gliomagenesis and explored the possibility of AEG-1 as a therapeutic target for malignant glioma. We analyzed the expression levels of AEG-1 in 9 normal brain tissues and 98 brain tumor patient samples by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. AEG-1 expression was significantly elevated in > 90% of diverse human brain tumor samples including GBMs and astrocytic tumors, and also in human glioma cell lines as compared to normal brain tissues and normal astrocytes. Knockdown of AEG-1 by siRNA inhibited cell viability, cloning efficiency, invasive ability of U87 human glioma cells and 9L rat gliosarcoma cells. We also found that matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) are involved in AEG-1-mediated invasion of glioma cells. In an orthotopic nude mouse brain tumor model using primary human GBM12 tumor cells, AEG-1 siRNA significantly suppressed glioma cell growth in vivo. Taken together these provocative results indicate that AEG-1 may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of glioma and that AEG-1 could represent a viable potential target for malignant glioma therapy.
AEG-1; brain tumor; glioma; invasion; angiogenesis
Reactive astrogliosis is a ubiquitous but poorly understood hallmark of central nervous system pathologies such as trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies have identified proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as mediators of astrogliosis during injury and disease; however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we identify astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), a human immunodeficiency virus 1 or tumor necrosis factor α-inducible oncogene, as a novel modulator of reactive astrogliosis. AEG-1 has engendered tremendous interest in the field of cancer research as a therapeutic target for aggressive tumors. However, little is known of its role in astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated diseases. Based on its oncogenic role in several cancers, here we investigate the AEG-1-mediated regulation of astrocyte migration and proliferation during reactive astrogliosis.
An in vivo brain injury mouse model was utilized to show AEG-1 induction following reactive astrogliosis. In vitro wound healing and cell migration assays following AEG-1 knockdown were performed to analyze the role of AEG-1 in astrocyte migration. AEG-1-mediated regulation of astrocyte proliferation was assayed by quantifying the levels of cell proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferation cell nuclear antigen, using immunocytochemistry. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate nucleolar localization of AEG-1 in cultured astrocytes following injury.
The in vivo mouse model for brain injury showed reactive astrocytes with increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and AEG-1 colocalization at the wound site. AEG-1 knockdown in cultured human astrocytes significantly reduced astrocyte migration into the wound site and cell proliferation. Confocal analysis showed colocalization of AEG-1 to the nucleolus of injured cultured human astrocytes.
The present findings report for the first time the novel role of AEG-1 in mediating reactive astrogliosis and in regulating astrocyte responses to injury. We also report the nucleolar localization of AEG-1 in human astrocytes in response to injury. Future studies may be directed towards elucidating the molecular mechanism of AEG-1 action in astrocytes during reactive astrogliosis.
AEG-1; Astrocyte; HIV-1; Reactive astrogliosis
Expression of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is elevated in multiple human cancers including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, melanomas, breast cancers, non-small cell lung cancers, liver cancers, prostate cancers, and esophageal cancers. This gene plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis and progression to metastasis. In addition, over-expression of AEG-1 protects primary and transformed cells from apoptosis-inducing signals by activating PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. These results suggest that AEG-1 is intimately involved in tumorigenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for various human cancers. However, the normal physiological functions of AEG-1 require clarification. We presently analyzed the expression pattern of AEG-1 during mouse development. AEG-1 was expressed in mid-to-hindbrain, fronto-nasal processes, limbs, and pharyngeal arches in the early developmental period from E8.5 to E9.5. In addition, at stages of E12.5-E18.5 AEG-1 was localized in the brain, and olfactory and skeletal systems suggesting a role in neurogenesis, as well as in skin, including hair follicles, and in the liver, which are organ sites in which AEG-1 has been implicated in tumor development and progression. AEG-1 co-localized with Ki-67, indicating a role in cell proliferation, as previously revealed in tumorigenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that AEG-1 may play a prominent role during normal mouse development in the context of cell proliferation as well as differentiation, and that temporal regulation of AEG-1 expression may be required during specific stages and in specific tissues during development.
AEG-1; development; mouse embryo; cell proliferation; cancer
Metastasis contributes to the poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Anoikis resistance and orientation chemotaxis are two important and sequential events in tumor cell metastasis. The process of tumor metastasis is known to be regulated by AEG-1, an important oncogene that plays a critical role in tumor metastasis, though the effects of this oncogene on anoikis resistance and orientation chemotaxis in HCC cells are currently unknown. To directly assess the role of AEG-1 in these processes, we up-regulated AEG-1 expression via exogenous transfection in SMMC-7721 cells, which express low endogenous levels of AEG-1; and down-regulated AEG-1 expression via siRNA-mediated knockdown in MHCC-97H and HCC-LM3 cells, which express high endogenous levels of AEG-1. Our data directly demonstrate that AEG-1 promotes cell growth as assessed by cell proliferation/viability and cell cycle analysis. Furthermore, the prevention of anoikis by AEG-1 correlates with decreased activation of caspase-3. AEG-1-dependent anoikis resistance is activated via the PI3K/Akt pathway and is characterized by the regulation of Bcl-2 and Bad. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reverses the AEG-1 dependent effects on Akt phosphorylation, Bcl-2 expression and anoikis resistance. AEG-1 also promotes orientation chemotaxis of suspension-cultured cells towards supernatant from Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HPMECs). Our results show that AEG-1 activates the expression of the metastasis-associated chemokine receptor CXCR4, and that its ligand, CXCL12, is secreted by HPMECs. Furthermore, the CXCR4 antoagonist AMD3100 decreases AEG-1-induced orientation chemotaxis. These results define a pathway by which AEG-1 regulates anoikis resistance and orientation chemotaxis during HCC cell metastasis.
Previous studies have demonstrated that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is overexpressed in several cancer types and that its upregulation may promote cell proliferation, cell transformation and tumor progression. The present study investigated the expression and prognostic value of AEG-1 in primary gastric cancer (GC) as well as its role in angiogenesis. The results obtained from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting revealed the upregulation of AEG-1 mRNA (P=0.007) and protein expression (P<0.001) in the majority of cancerous tissues compared with matched adjacent non-cancerous gastric tissues. To further investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of AEG-1, immunohistochemical analysis of 216 GC tissue blocks was performed. The results showed that high AEG-1 expression closely correlated with differentiation degree (P<0.001 ), T stage (P<0.001), N stage (P=0.003) and M stage (P=0.013). Consistent with the abovementioned results, AEG-1 upregulation was also found to significantly correlate with poor survival in GC patients (P<0.001). Furthermore, carcinomas with elevated AEG-1 expression demonstrated high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density, which was labeled by cluster of differentiation 34. In addition, an AEG-1 siRNA assay in MGC-803 cells showed that the AEG-1 gene may promote VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein and mRNA expression. The results of the current study indicated that AEG-1 may serve as a valuable prognostic marker for GC and may be involved in regulating tumor angiogenesis.
astrocyte elevated gene-1; gastric cancer; angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
Since its initial identification and cloning in 2002, Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1), also known as metadherin (MTDH), 3D3 and LYsine-RIch CEACAM1 co-isolated (LYRIC), has emerged as an important oncogene that is overexpressed in all cancers analyzed so far. Examination of a large cohort of patient samples representing diverse cancer indications has revealed progressive increase in AEG-1 expression with stages and grades of the disease and an inverse relationship between AEG-1 expression level and patient prognosis. AEG-1 functions as a bona fide oncogene by promoting transformation. In addition, it plays a significant role in invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and chemoresistance, all important hallmarks of an aggressive cancer. AEG-1 is also implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, migraine and Huntington disease. AEG-1 is a highly basic protein with a transmembrane domain and multiple nuclear localization signals and it is present in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus and endoplasmic reticulum. In each location, AEG-1 interacts with specific proteins thereby modulating diverse intracellular processes the combination of which contributes to its pleiotrophic properties. The present review provides a snapshot of the current literature along with future perspectives on this unique molecule.
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1); Oncogene; Metastasis; Chemoresistance; Angiogenesis; Neurodegeneration
Glioblastomas continue to carry poor prognoses for patients despite advances in surgical, chemotherapeutic and radiation regimens. One feature of glioblastoma associated with poor prognosis is the degree of hypoxia and expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). HIF-1α expression allows metabolic adaptation to low oxygen availability, partly through upregulation of VEGF and increased tumor angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate an induced level of astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) by hypoxia in glioblastoma cells. AEG-1 has the capacity to promote anchorage-independent growth and cooperates with Ha-ras in malignant transformation. In addition, AEG-1 was recently demonstrated to serve as an oncogene and can induce angiogenesis in glioblastoma. Results from in vitro studies show that hypoxic induction of AEG-1 is dependent on HIF-1α stabilization during hypoxia and that PI3K inhibition abrogates AEG-1 induction during hypoxia through loss of HIF-1α stability. Furthermore, we show that AEG-1 is induced by glucose deprivation and that prevention of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production prevents this induction. Additionally, AEG-1 knockdown results in increased ROS production and increased glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, AEG-1 overexpression prevents ROS production and decreases glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that AEG-1 induction is necessary for cells to survive this type of cell stress. These observations link AEG-1 overexpression in glioblastoma with hypoxia and glucose deprivation and targeting these physiological pathways may lead to therapeutic advances in the treatment of glioblastoma in the future.
AEG-1; glioblastoma; hypoxia; glucose deprivation; necrosis
Cancer is the result of the progressive acquisition of multiple malignant traits through the accumulation of genetic or epigenetic alterations. Recent studies have established a functional role of MTDH (Metadherin)/AEG-1 (Astrocyte Elevated Gene 1) in several crucial aspects of tumor progression, including transformation, evasion of apoptosis, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. Overexpression of MTDH/AEG-1 is frequently observed in melanoma, glioma, neuroblastoma, and carcinomas of breast, prostate, liver and esophagus and is correlated with poor clinical outcomes. MTDH/AEG-1 functions as a downstream mediator of the transforming activity of oncogenic Ha-Ras and c-Myc. Furthermore, MTDH/AEG-1 overexpression activates the PI3K/Akt, NFκB, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways to stimulate proliferation, invasion, cell survival and chemoresistance. The lung-homing domain of MTDH/AEG-1 also mediates the adhesion of tumor cells to the vasculature of distant organs and promotes metastasis. These findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of MTDH/AEG-1 may simultaneously suppress tumor growth, block metastasis and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments.
Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) has been proposed as a biomarker for a variety of cancers. This study aimed to investigate the expression of AEG-1 in human astrocytomas and the correlation between AEG-1 expression and clinicopathologic variables of astrocytomas. AEG-1 expression in four pairs of matched astrocytomas tissues and 5 cell lines was detected by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. In addition, AEG-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining in 204 cases, including 32 normal brain tissues, 80 Low-malignant astrocytomas (LMAs) and 92 High-Malignant astrocytomas (HMAs). AEG-1 expression in 31 LMAs and 29 HMAs samples was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We detected AEG-1 expression in normal neurons and glioma cell lines U87, U251 and M059K, but not in normal glial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 128 of 172 (74.4%) paraffin-embedded archival astrocytomas samples exhibited positive AEG-1 expression. Statistical analysis suggested that higher AEG-1 level was significantly correlated with histological grade of astrocytomas. In addition, AEG-1 mRNA and protein expression was higher in HMAs than in LMAs. AEG-1 expression had no correlation with the gender or age of astrocytoma patients. In summary, our data suggest that AEG-1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for astrocytomas.
Astrocytoma; AEG-1; prognosis
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is associated with tumor genesis and progression in a variety of human cancers. This study aimed to explore the significance of AEG-1 in glioma and investigate whether it correlated with radioresistance of glioma cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the intensity of AEG-1, CD133 and PPP6c protein expression in glioma tissues increased significantly, mainly in the cytoplasm. The expression rate of AEG-1, CD133 and PPP6c were 85.9% (67/78), 60.3% (47/78) and 65.8% (51/78), respectively. AEG-1 expression was correlated with age (r = 0.227, P = 0.045), clinical stage (r = 0.491, P<0.001) and clinical grade (r = 0.450, P<0.001). No correlation was found between AEG-1 expression and other clinicopathologic parameters (P>0.05). The expression of AEG-1 was positively correlated with the expression of CD133 (r = 0.240, P = 0.035) and PPP6c (r = 0.250, P = 0.027). In addition, retrieved data on TCGA implied co-occurrence of genomic alterations of AEG-1 and PPP6c in glioblastoma. Our findings indicate that AEG-1 is positively correlated with CD133 and AEG-1 expression. It may play an important role in the progression of glioma and may serve as potential novel marker of chemoresistance and radioresistance.
glioma; AEG-1; immunohistochemistry; radioresistance
Tumor development is initiated by an accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations that promote tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 [AEG-1; also known as Metadherin (MTDH) and Lysine-rich CEACAM1 co-isolated (LYRIC)] has emerged in recent years as a potentially crucial mediator of tumor malignancy, and a key converging point of a complex network of oncogenic signaling pathways. AEG-1/MTDH has a multifunctional role in tumor development that has been found to be involved in the following signaling cascades: i) The Ha-Ras and PI3K/Akt pathways; ii) the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway; iii) the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase and Wnt/β-catenin pathways; and iv) the Aurora-A kinase signaling pathway. Studies have established that AEG-1/MTDH is crucial in tumor progression, including transformation, the evasion of apoptosis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. In addition, recent clinical studies have convincingly associated AEG-1/MTDH with tumor progression and poor prognosis in a number of cancer types, including hepatocellular, esophageal squamous cell, gallbladder and renal cell carcinomas, breast, non-small cell lung, prostate, gastric and colorectal cancers, and glioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. AEG-1/MTDH may be used as a biomarker to identify subgroups of patients who require more intensive treatments and who are likely to benefit from AEG-1/MTDH-targeted therapies. The therapeutic targeting of AEG-1/MTDH may simultaneously block metastasis, suppress tumor growth and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments.
astrocyte elevated gene-1; metadherin; neoplasms; metastasis; chemoresistance
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key contributor to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. To enhance our understanding of the role of AEG-1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, a transgenic mouse with hepatocyte-specific expression of AEG-1 (Alb/AEG1) was developed. Treating Alb/AEG-1, but not Wild type (WT) mice, with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), resulted in multinodular HCC with steatotic features and associated modulation of expression of genes regulating invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Hepatocytes isolated from Alb/AEG-1 mice displayed profound resistance to chemotherapeutics and growth factor deprivation with activation of pro-survival signaling pathways. Alb/AEG-1 hepatocytes also exhibited marked resistance towards senescence, which correlated with abrogation of activation of a DNA damage response. Conditioned media (CM) from Alb/AEG-1 hepatocytes induced marked angiogenesis with elevation in several coagulation factors. Among these factors, AEG-1 facilitated association of Factor XII (FXII) mRNA with polysomes resulting in increased translation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of FXII resulted in profound inhibition of AEG-1-induced angiogenesis.
We uncover novel aspects of AEG-1 functions, including induction of steatosis, inhibition of senescence and activation of coagulation pathway to augment aggressive hepatocarcinogenesis. The Alb/AEG-1 mouse provides an appropriate model to scrutinize the molecular mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis and to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies targeting HCC.
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1); transgenic; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); senescence; angiogenesis
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was originally characterized as a HIV-1-inducible gene in primary human fetal astrocyte. Recent studies highlight a potential role of AEG-1 in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate if AEG-1 serves as a potential therapeutic target of human neuroblastoma.
We employed RNA interference to reduce AEG-1 expression in human neuroblastoma cell lines and analyzed their phenotypic changes.
We found that the knockdown of AEG-1 expression in human neuroblastoma cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. The specific downregulation induced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we also observed a significant enhancement of chemo-sensitivity to cisplatin and doxorubicin by knockdown of AEG-1.
Our study suggests that overexpressed AEG-1 enhance the tumorogenic properties of neuroblastoma cells. The inhibition of AEG-1 expression could be a new adjuvant therapy for neuroblastoma.
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin A receptor (ETAR) signaling have been demonstrated to be important in osteosarcoma (OS) progression. In the present study, we explored the interaction between AEG-1 and ET-1/ETAR signaling in OS cells, and investigated the mechanism(s) through which the functional interaction may impact OS cell invasion and chemoresistance. Overexpression and knockdown of AEG-1 were performed in Saos-2 and MG-63 OS cells, respectively. Overexpression of AEG-1 in Saos-2 cells significantly increased ET-1 expression (at both the mRNA and protein levels), cell invasion, MMP-2 expression and cell survival against cisplatin. These effects were eradicated using a selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, or a selective ETAR inhibitor, BQ123. Knockdown of AEG-1 in MG-63 cells significantly decreased ET-1 expression (at both the mRNA and protein levels), cell invasion, MMP-2 expression and cell survival against cisplatin. Exogenous ET-1 restored cell invasion and MMP-2 expression levels in MG-63 cells, in which AEG-1 had been knocked down, in the presence of LY294002, but not in the presence of BQ123. However, exogenous ET-1 only partially rescued cell survival against cisplatin-induced apoptosis in the presence of LY294002, in cells in which AEG-1 had been knocked down. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that AEG-1 regulates ET-1 expression at the transcriptional level in a PI3K-dependent manner in OS cells. Downstream of PI3K, ET-1/ETAR signaling primarily mediates the promoting effect of AEG-1 on OS cell invasion, likely through the upregulation of MMP-2 expression, thus, ET-1/ETAR signaling partially, but significantly, mediates the AEG-1-induced chemoresistance in OS cells. To the best of our knowledge, this study has provided the first evidence of a functional association between AEG-1 and ET-1/ETAR signaling in OS cells, which adds novel insights into the molecular mechanism of OS metastasis and chemoresistance.
astrocyte elevated gene-1; endothelin-1; endothelin A cell invasion; chemoresistance; osteosarcoma; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; receptor
Since its discovery, nearly one decade of research on astrocyte elevated gene 1 (AEG-1) has witnessed expanding knowledge of this molecule, ranging from its role in cancer biology to molecular mechanisms underlying the biological functions. As a multifunctional oncoprotein, AEG-1 has been shown to overexpress in multiple types of human cancer, and the elevation of AEG-1 in tumor cells leads to enhanced phenotypes characteristic of malignant aggressiveness, including increased abilities to proliferate robustly, to invade surrounding tissues, to migrate, to induce neovascularization, and to enhance chemoresistance. The multifunctional role of AEG-1 in tumor development and progression has been found to be associated with several signaling cascades, namely, 1) activation of NF-kappa B, partially through direct interaction with p65; 2) PI3K/AKT signaling triggered by AEG-1 indirectly; 3) enhancement of the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin by indirect activation of MAPK and induction of LEF1; 4) regulation of mi/siRNA-mediated gene silencing by interacting with SND1; and 5) promotion of protective autophagy; in addition to possibly unknown mechanisms. Elevated AEG-1 expression is seen in nearly all tumor types, and in most cases AEG-1 positively correlates with tumor progression and poorer patient survival. Taken together, AEG-1 might represent a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.
AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to promote cancer progression and development. Overexpression of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC correlates with angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance to various chemotherapy agents in cancer cells originating from a variety of tissues. In this review article, we focus on the role of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in drug resistance. Mechanistic studies have shown that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC is involved in classical oncogenic pathways including Ha-Ras, myc, NFκB and PI3K/Akt. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC also promotes protective autophagy by activating AMP kinase and autophagy-related gene 5. Another reported mechanism by which AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC regulates drug resistance is by increasing loading of multidrug resistance gene (MDR) 1 mRNA to the polysome, thereby facilitating MDR1 protein translation. More recently, a novel function for AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an RNA binding protein was elucidated, which has the potential to impact expression of drug sensitivity or resistance genes. Finally, AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC acts in microRNA-directed gene silencing via an interaction with staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1), a component of the RNA-induced silencing complex. Altered microRNA expression and activity induced by AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC represents an additional way that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC may cause drug resistance in cancer. The multiple functions of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in drug resistance highlight that it is a viable target as an anti-cancer agent for a wide variety of cancers.
AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC; SND1; NFκB; miR-375; chemoresistance
Glutamate is an essential excitatory neurotransmitter regulating brain functions. Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)-2 is one of the major glutamate transporters expressed predominantly in astroglial cells and is responsible for 90% of total glutamate uptake. Glutamate transporters tightly regulate glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft. Dysfunction of EAAT2 and accumulation of excessive extracellular glutamate has been implicated in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis of the 2.5-kb human EAAT2 promoter showed that NF-κB is an important regulator of EAAT2 expression in astrocytes. Screening of approximately 1,040 FDA-approved compounds and nutritionals led to the discovery that many β-lactam antibiotics are transcriptional activators of EAAT2 resulting in increased EAAT2 protein levels. Treatment of animals with ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, led to an increase of EAAT2 expression and glutamate transport activity in the brain. CEF has neuroprotective effects in both in vitro and in vivo models based on its ability to inhibit neuronal cell death by preventing glutamate excitotoxicity. CEF increases EAAT2 transcription in primary human fetal astrocytes (PHFA) through the NF-κB signaling pathway. The NF-κB binding site at −272 position was critical in CEF-mediated EAAT2 protein induction. These studies emphasize the importance of transcriptional regulation in controlling glutamate levels in the brain. They also emphasize the potential utility of the EAAT2 promoter for developing both low and high throughput screening assays to identify novel small molecule regulators of glutamate transport with potential to ameliorate pathological changes occurring during and causing neurodegeneration.
Astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC) is a potent oncogene that regulates key cellular processes underlying disease of the central nervous system (CNS). From its involvement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection to its role in neurodegenerative disease and malignant brain tumors, AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC facilitates cellular survival and proliferation through the control of a multitude of molecular signaling cascades. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC induction by HIV-1 and TNF highlights its importance in viral infection, and its incorporation into viral vesicles supports its potential role in active viral replication. Overexpression of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients suggests its function in neurodegenerative disease, and its association with genetic polymorphisms in large genome-wide association studies of migraine patients suggests a possible role in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches. In the field of cancer, AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC promotes angiogenesis, migration, invasion, and enhanced tumor metabolism through key oncogenic signaling cascades. In response to external stress cues and cellular mechanisms to inhibit further growth, AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC activates pathways that bypass cell checkpoints and potentiates signals to enhance survival and tumorigenesis. As an oncogene that promotes aberrant cellular processes within the CNS, AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC represents an important therapeutic target for the treatment of neurological disease.
AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC; CNS; HIV; Cancer; Glioblastoma
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is associated with tumorigenesis and progression in diverse human cancers. The present study was aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of AEG-1 in salivary gland carcinomas (SGC).
Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were employed to examine AEG-1 expression in two normal salivary gland tissues, eight SGC tissues of various clinical stages, and five pairs of primary SGC and adjacent salivary gland tissues from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine AEG-1 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 141 SGC patients. Statistical analyses was applies to evaluate the diagnostic value and associations of AEG-1 expression with clinical parameters.
AEG-1 expression was evidently up-regulated in SGC tissues compared with that in the normal salivary gland tissues and in matched adjacent salivary gland tissues. AEG-1 protein level was positively correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001), T classification (P = 0.008), N classification (P = 0.008) and M classifications (P = 0.006). Patients with higher AEG-1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas those with lower tumor AEG-1 expression had longer survival time.
Our results suggest that AEG-1 expression is associated with SGC progression and may represent a novel and valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of SGC patients.
AEG-1; Biomarker; Prognosis; Salivary gland carcinomas
Malignant tumors are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The search for new biomarkers for the early diagnosis of the onset of cancer to reduce high mortality is crucial. The potential of minimal invasive testing using serum from patients renders auto-antibodies promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, a 181 amino acid peptide of extracellular astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was expressed and purified, and the peptide was used in an ELISA assay to detect anti-AEG-1 auto-antibodies (AEG-1-Abs) in 483 serum samples from different cancer patients and 230 serum samples from normal blood donors. The results showed that AEG-1-Abs at titers ≥1:50 were detected in 238 of 483 (49%) cancer patients, and the positive antibody responses in different cancer patients were as follows: 44 of 98 (45%) in breast cancer patients, 48 of 96 (50%) in hepatic carcinoma patients, 43 of 88 (49%) in rectal cancer patients, 51 of 113 (45%) in lung cancer patients, and 52 of 88 (59%) in gastric cancer patients. These results were compared with 0 of 230 (0%) in normal individuals. Moreover, AEG-1-Abs at titers ≥1:50 were also detected in 24 of 94 (26%) cancer patients in TNM stages I and II, and the positive rates of AEG-1-Abs decreased with age. These results suggest that the AEG-1-Ab response acts as a diagnostic biomarker for cancer patients with AEG-1-positive expression, and may also prove to be a possible inducer, with substantial immunity against AEG-1 by immunization boosting with AEG-1 vaccines.
astrocyte elevated gene-1; anti-AEG-1 auto-antibody; serum; tumor biomarker; cancer
Since its original cloning by subtraction hybridization in 2002, it is now evident that Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key contributor to the carcinogenic process in diverse organs. AEG-1 protein expression is elevated in advanced stages of many cancers, which correlates with poor survival. In specific cancers, such as breast and liver cancer, the AEG-1 gene itself is amplified further supporting a seminal role in tumorigenesis. Overexpression and inhibition studies both in in vitro and in in vivo models reveal the importance of AEG-1 in regulating multiple physiologically and pathologically relevant processes including proliferation, invasion, metastasis and gene expression. AEG-1 is a single-pass transmembrane protein with multiple nuclear localization signals and no known domains or motifs. Although pertinent roles of AEG-1 in the carcinogenic process are established, its potential function (promotion of metastasis only versus functioning as a bona fide oncogene) as well as localization (cell surface versus nucleus) remain areas requiring further clarification. The present review critically evaluates what is currently known about AEG-1 and provides new perspectives relative to this intriguing molecule that may provide a rational target for intervening in the cancer phenotype.
Since its initial identification as a HIV-1-inducible gene in 2002, astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), subsequently cloned as metadherin (MTDH) and lysine-rich CEACAM1 coisolated (LYRIC), has emerged over the past 10 years as an important oncogene providing a valuable prognostic marker in patients with various cancers. Recent studies demonstrate that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC is a pleiotropic protein that can localize in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), nucleus, and nucleolus, and contributes to diverse signaling pathways such as PI3K–AKT, NF-κB, MAPK, and Wnt. In addition to tumorigenesis, this multifunctional protein is implicated in various physiological and pathological processes including development, neurodegeneration, and inflammation. The present review focuses on the discovery of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC and conceptualizes areas of future direction for this intriguing gene. We begin by describing how AEG-1, MTDH, and LYRIC were initially identified by different research groups and then discuss AEG-1 structure, functions, localization, and evolution. We conclude with a discussion of the expression profile of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in the context of cancer, neurological disorders, inflammation, and embryogenesis, and discuss how AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC is regulated. This introductory discussion of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC will serve as the basis for the detailed discussions in other chapters of the unique properties of this intriguing molecule.
Astrocyte elevated gene 1 (AEG-1), an important oncogene, has been shown to be overexpressed in several types of cancers. In colorectal cancer (CRC), the protein level of AEG-1 is up-regulated in tumour tissue compared to normal mucosa, showing prognostic significance. Since little is known about the transcriptional level of AEG-1 expression and its biological pathway in CRC the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of AEG-1 mRNA expression, the protein level and clinicopathological variables as well as its biology pathway in CRC.
Material and methods
The mRNA expression of AEG-1 was analysed by qPCR in fresh frozen patient samples including 156 primary tumours, along with the corresponding normal mucosa, and in five colon cancer cell lines, SW480, SW620, KM12C, KM12SM and KM12L4a. AEG-1 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded materials from 74 distant normal mucosa, 107 adjacent mucosa, 158 primary tumour, 35 lymph node metastasis and 9 liver metastasis samples. In addition, the AEG-1 protein expression was elucidated in the cell lines by Western blot.
The lymph node metastatic cell line SW620 had a significantly higher AEG-1 mRNA (0.27 ± 0.02) expression compared to the primary tumour cell line SW480 (0.17 ± 0.04, p = 0.026). AEG-1 expression at the mRNA level and/or the protein level was significantly up-regulated gradually from normal mucosa to primary CRC, and then to lymph node metastasis and finally to liver metastasis (p < 0.05). There were significant associations of AEG-1 mRNA expression with tumour location (p = 0.047), as well as mRNA and protein expression with the tumour stage (p < 0.03). Furthermore AEG-1 protein expression was positively related to biological variables including NF-κB, p73, Rad50 and apoptosis (p < 0.05).
AEG-1 is up-regulated, at the mRNA and the protein level, during CRC development and aggressiveness, and is related to tumour location and stage. It may play its role in CRC through the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used to downstage rectal tumours, but the rate of recurrence varies significantly. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed for better treatment and prognosis. It has been shown that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key mediator of migration, invasion, and treatment resistance. Our aim was to analyse the AEG-1 expression in relation to RT in rectal cancer patients and to test its radiosensitising properties.
The AEG-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 158 patients from the Swedish clinical trial of RT. Furthermore, we inhibited the AEG-1 expression by siRNA in five colon cancer cell lines and measured the survival after irradiation by colony-forming assay.
The AEG-1 expression was increased in the primary tumours compared with the normal mucosa independently of the RT (P<0.01). High AEG-1 expression in the primary tumour of the patients treated with RT correlated independently with higher risk of distant recurrence (P=0.009) and worse disease-free survival (P=0.007). Downregulation of AEG-1 revealed a decreased survival after radiation in radioresistant colon cancer cell lines.
The AEG-1 expression was independently related to distant recurrence and disease-free survival in rectal cancer patients with RT and could therefore be a marker to discriminate patients for distant relapse.
MTDH; astrocyte elevated gene-1; distant recurrence; disease-free survival